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the disposition of a novel tetrahydroquinoline, tiquinamide, in rats and patas monkeys.the absorption of tiquinamide occurred rapidly and extensively in both rats and patas monkeys. the major site of localization of radioactivity was in the stomach in both species. tiquinamide was 50-60% bound to rat plasma and 50-75% to monkey plasma. the elimination of unchanged drug from plasma took place rapidly, with half lives of 1.6 h in rats and 0.7 h in monkeys. elimination of total radioactivity in the rat was very slow and monoexponential, with a half-life of 90 h. however, in the monke ...19827173271
social organization in a group of free-ranging patas monkeys.a free-ranging group of patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) was studied at the caribbean primate research center through parts of a complete seasonal cycle. analysis of the data revealed that dispersal was the major strategy utilized by individuals in the performance of intragroup social behavior. dominance phenomena were not found to be of major importance in the organization of intragroup social behavior despite the presence of a linear, stable dominance hierarchy among the adult females. the d ...19807216002
the prostate of the nonhuman primate: normal anatomy and pathology.the caudal and cranial prostate of different species of nonhuman primates were examined for histologic characteristics and pathological abnormalities. one hundred specimens from 12 species were represented. among the pathologies found were: 1) cystic hyperplasia; 2) fibromuscular hyperplasia; 3) squamous metaplasia; 4) chronic and acute bacterial prostatitis; 5) prostate adenocarcinoma; and 6) other miscellaneous pathologic changes. a historical review of histological characteristics and patholo ...19817279812
acyclovir treatment of experimental simian varicella infection of monkeys.replication of simian varicella virus (svv) in vero cell cultures was inhibited by acyclovir, 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acv), at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml in culture medium. intravenous administration of acv at 10 mg/kg twice a day for 10 days or 15 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days to patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) beginning 48 h after svv inoculation blocked the appearance of rash and other clinical symptoms but did not affect viremia. acv treatment of african green monk ...19817305319
domestic breeding of patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas).two reproductive strategies were used in the management of a patas monkey (erythrocebus patas) breeding colony. the first strategy involved placement of all animals into one-male harem units for breeding, parturition, and infant rearing. the second strategy involved a reduction in the number of males, movement of pregnant females to individual cages, and formation of new groups with females and neonates. the second strategy resulted in an increased percentage of females having successful births ...19817311469
studies on the biotransformation of indoramin in the patas monkey.1. studies on absorption, excretion and biotransformation of the antihypertensive agent indoramin (3-[2-(4-benzamidopiperidino)ethyl]indole hydrochloride) have been carried out in patas monkeys. 2. absorption of the drug was extensive, as indicated by less than 8% of the dose appearing in faeces as the unchanged compound. 3. approx. 35% of an orally administered dose of the 3h-labelled drug was recovered in urine while a similar amount was found in faeces. urinary excretion of total 3h was mono- ...19817336756
dopamine and temperature regulation in the primate: effects of apomorphine and pimozide.the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a specific dopamine-receptor agonist (apomorphine) and antagonist (pimozide) on temperature regulation in the primate. using 4 rhesus monkeys and 2 patas monkeys as subjects, increasing doses of apomorphine (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg) injected subcutaneously produced a dose-dependent hypothermia associated with sharp elevations in tail-skin and ear pinna temperatures. apomorphine also produced dose-related behavioral responses includ ...19807407631
in vitro study of immunological events in human and experimental schistosomiasis: relationships between cytotoxic antibodies and circulating schistosoma antigens.complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies were found in 54% of schistosoma mansoni infected patients from burundi and in 69 to 78% of schistosoma mansoni ninfected brazilian patients. the levels of cytotoxic ab were not statistically different in sera from infected mothers and from their newborn children, suggesting a transfer through the placenta. a sandwich radioimmunoassay (sria) and the radioimmunoprecipitaion-peg assay (ripega) technique were used in order to detect respectively total schis ...19807413247
the myoglobin of primates x.the amino acid sequences of skeletal muscle myoglobins from two old-world monkeys, presbytis entellus and erythrocebus patas, as well as one new-world monkey, cebus apella wer inferred by homology of the tryptic and peptic peptides with the known sequence of human myoglobin and by selective dansyl-edman degradation. these new sequences were examined phylogentically in conjunction with the 15 primate sequences already reported. it is clear that myoglobin evolution has been extremely conservative ...19807417495
cost of locomotion and heat balance during rest and running from 0 to 55 degrees c in a patas monkey.a young patas monkey was run on a treadmill for 15-20 min at speeds in excess of 15 km times h-1 over a range of laboratory air temperatures from 0 to 55 degrees c. cost of locomotion for the monkey was 83% that predicted for a running mammal of similar weight, 4 kg. at the highest steady-state running of speeds, the patas monkey's energy expenditure was 11 times the resting rate. heat storage and respiratory evaporation during running each accounted for less than 16% of the heat production. cut ...19807429901
phylogeny of african monkeys based upon mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences.the suborder anthropoidea of the primates has traditionally been divided in three superfamilies: the hominoidea (apes and humans) and the cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys), together comprising the infraorder catarrhini, and the ceboidea (new world monkeys) belonging to the infraorder platyrrhini. we have sequenced an approximately 390-base-pair part of the mitochondrial 12s rrna gene for 26 species of the major groups of african monkeys and apes and constructed an extensive phylogeny based up ...19957535363
cytochromes p450 in cynomolgus monkeys mutagenically activate 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (iq) but not 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (meiqx).the promutagenic and procarcinogenic heterocyclic amines (has) found in cooked meats are n-hydroxylated by microsomal cytochrome p450 enzymes as the first step in their metabolic activation. in cynomolgus monkeys, one of the has, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (iq), has been shown to be a potent hepatocarcinogen. however, the structurally similar ha 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (meiqx) lacks this potency to induce hepatocellular carcinoma in monkeys. liver microsomes fr ...19957614688
7-chloro-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2h-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine s,s-dioxide (idra 21), a congener of aniracetam, potently abates pharmacologically induced cognitive impairments in patas monkeys.we report here on the ability of idra 21 and aniracetam, two negative allosteric modulators of glutamate-induced dl-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (ampa) receptor desensitization, to attenuate alprazolam-induced learning deficit in patas monkeys working in a complex behavioral task. in one component of a multiple schedule (repeated acquisition or "learning"), patas monkeys acquired a different four-response chain each session by responding sequentially on three keys in ...19957644474
a case of infant kidnapping and allomothering by members of a neighbouring group in patas monkeys.in patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas), all group members except the adult male, regardless of their age or sex and of whether they have their own infants or not, frequently display allomothering. the mothers sometimes refuse allomothering. however, when an allomother succeeds in taking and carrying an infant (i.e. infant kidnapping) in spite of maternal resistance, the mother follows the allomother to retrieve her infant. such kidnapping rarely results in serious injury or death (i.e. 'aunting-t ...19957665123
imidazenil, a new anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug, attenuates a benzodiazepine-induced cognition deficit in monkeys.imidazenil is a highly potent partial allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid action at a great variety of gamma-aminobutyric acid(a) receptors, whereas alprazolam is a full allosteric modulator at these receptors. data in rats indicate that imidazenil, like alprazolam, has pharmacological effects in animals indicative of anxiolytic, antipanic and anticonvulsant activity in humans, but unlike alprazolam, in animals imidazenil does not produce ataxia, sedation, tolerance or dependence nor ...19957791102
social organisation and siv sero-epidemiology of a patas monkey population in senegal. 19947797170
isolation of simian immunodeficiency viruses from two sooty mangabeys in côte d'ivoire: virological and genetic characterization and relationship to other hiv type 2 and sivsm/mac strains.to search for the presence of siv in sooty mangabeys and other monkey species in côte d'ivoire, west africa, and to compare viral isolates with hiv-2 strains from the same region.19947848684
uptake and metabolism of carcinogenic levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines by sudanese snuff dippers.it was recently reported that toombak, a type of snuff used in the sudan, contained unusually high levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. to estimate the internal dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk) received by individuals who use this type of tobacco, urine from a group of users was analyzed for 2 metabolites of nnk, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (nnal) and its o-glucuronide, nnal-gluc. nnk is a strong lung carcinogen believed to contribute to human lu ...19947920210
terrestrial adaptations in the postcranial skeletons of guenons.arboreal and semiterrestrial guenons show similar osteological features of the limbs across a wide range of species, environments, and geography, while the more terrestrially committed guenons exhibit greater morphological divergence. an ecomorphological comparison of two sympatric guenons living in kibale forest, uganda, reveals an array of anatomical adaptations for terrestriality in the limbs of cercopithecus lhoesti similar to those found in erythrocebus patas. in contrast, cercopithecus aet ...19948042696
dna adducts in human and patas monkey maternal and fetal tissues induced by platinum drug chemotherapy.platinum-dna adducts in placenta and blood from a woman exposed to 200 mg/m2 of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii) (cisplatin) and 300 mg/m2 diamminecyclobutanedicarboxylatoplatinum(ii) (carboplatin) for ovarian cancer have been documented by cisplatin-dna enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and atomic absorbance spectrometry (aas). a patas monkey model was used to investigate transplacentally induced cisplatin-dna damage in fetal tissues. during the last trimester of gestation, 5 patas monk ...19948075509
suppression of in vivo clearance of n-nitrosodimethylamine in mice by cotreatment with ethanol.oral cotreatment of mice with ethanol results in increased tumors in extrahepatic organs caused by some nitrosamines. this action, attributed in part to inhibition of hepatic first-pass carcinogen metabolism by ethanol, has possible relevance to the enhancing effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on human cancer risk. in this study, the effects of ethanol on clearance of n-nitrosodimethylamine (ndma) were quantified in swiss female and strain a male mice. in swiss mice, a 1.6 g/kg ig ethanol ...19948149888
seroepidemiologic, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of simian t-cell leukemia viruses (stlv-i) from various naturally infected monkey species from central and western africa.a study of simian t-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus infection, conducted on 747 nonhuman primates belonging to 14 different species in central and western africa, indicated that 4 species (cercopithecus aethiops, erythrocebus patas, papio doguera, and cercopithecus mona pogonias) had a high prevalence of seropositivity to simian t-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type i (stlv-i). the other nonhuman primate species, however, had negative or low levels of anti-htlv-i antibodies. stlv-i pol and env dna wa ...19948259665
infiltrating angiolipoma of skeletal muscle. transplacental induction in nonhuman primates by n-nitrosoethylurea.in humans, relatively little is known on the association of prenatal exposure to cancer-causing agents and the development of specific tumors later in life as a consequence. therefore, the effects on the offspring of carcinogen exposure during gestation and the development of tumors later in life were studied in nonhuman primates.19938331894
characterization of a cloned human dihydrotestosterone/androstanediol udp-glucuronosyltransferase and its comparison to other steroid isoforms.a human cdna, udpgth-3, encoding a dihydrotestosterone/5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol udp- glucuronosyltransferase (transferase) has been isolated and characterized. the nucleotide sequence of udpgth-3 encodes a 530 amino acid protein with a typical membrane insertion-signal peptide, a membrane-anchoring domain, and three potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites. alignment shows that this encoded isozyme is 96% identical to an apparent estriol-metabolizing isoform, hlug4 [coffman ...19938399210
persistence, gestation stage-dependent formation and interrelationship of benzo[a]pyrene-induced dna adducts in mothers, placentae and fetuses of erythrocebus patas monkeys.since dna adducts have been detected in the placentae of pregnant women who smoke cigarettes, the importance of these adducts as biomarkers of fetal exposure and risk has been evaluated using a non-human primate as a model. pregnant erythrocebus patas monkeys on days 50, 100 or 150 of gestation (term = 160 +/- 5 days) were treated once with 5-50 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (b[a]p), p.o. fetuses were removed by cesarean section 1-50 days after treatment and analyzed for dna adducts by the nuclease p1 ve ...19938403203
metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in the patas monkey: pharmacokinetics and characterization of glucuronide metabolites.the metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk) was examined in the patas monkey, in order to provide further information about nnk metabolic pathways in primates. female patas monkeys were given i.v. injections of [5-3h]nnk, and metabolites in serum and urine were analyzed by hplc. metabolism by alpha-hydroxylation of nnk was rapid and extensive, and the products of this pathway, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl) ...19938435864
mansonella ozzardi: the course of patency in experimentally-infected patas monkeys.twenty-five of 30 patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) inoculated with varying numbers (35 to 135) of third-stage larvae of mansonella ozzardi developed patent infections in an average of 163 days. there was no correlation between the size of the inoculum and the length of the prepatent period. ten of the monkeys were monitored thereafter by regular blood examination for extended periods of time in order to characterize the onset, course and duration of patency. typically, with the onset of patenc ...19938516634
o6-methylguanine dna adduct formation and modulation by ethanol in placenta and fetal tissues after exposure of pregnant patas monkeys to n-nitrosodimethylamine.perinatal nitrosamine exposures may contribute to childhood cancer risk. to test primate fetal susceptibility to formation of cancer initiation-related dna adducts from nitrosamines, pregnant patas monkeys were given 1.0 or 0.1 mg/kg n-nitrosodimethylamine. appreciable levels of the promutagenic o6-methylguanine adduct occurred in placental and fetal liver dna after both doses and were lower but detectable in other fetal tissues after the higher dose. coadministered ethanol (1.6 g/kg) reduced ad ...19958521384
vaccination of patas monkeys experimentally infected with schistosoma haematobium using a recombinant glutathione s-transferase cloned from s. mansoni.the capacity of a recombinant glutathione s-transferase from schistosoma mansoni (rsm28gst) to vaccinate primates (erythrocebus patas) against a heterologous infection with schistosoma haematobium has been tested. two injections of the purified molecule with muramyl-di-peptide (mdp) as adjuvant resulted in a high level antibody response in the five immunized animals and in a significant reduction in worm fecundity compared to the controls which received adjuvant alone. mean levels of daily egg e ...19958552409
n-nitrosodimethylamine-derived o(6)-methylguanine in dna of monkey gastrointestinal and urogenital organs and enhancement by ethanol.n-nitrosodimethylamine (ndma) is a human cancer initiator suspect. ethanol, a cancer risk factor, may synergize with nitrosamines by suppressing hepatic clearance, to increase internal exposure. a limitation to these hypotheses is lack of activation of ndma by many rodent tissues. however, systemtic primate studies are lacking. patas monkeys were utilized to investigate ndma activation by primate tissues in vivo, generating the promutagenic dna lesion 0(6)-methylguanine (0(6)-meg). adult monkeys ...19968608956
simian immunodeficiency virus infection in a patas monkey (erythrocebus patas): evidence for cross-species transmission from african green monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) in the wild.socio-ethological studies on troops of african green monkeys (agms) (cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) and patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) in senegal have documented physical contacts between these two species. elevated simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) seroprevalence rates have been reported for the different agm subspecies. we report here the extent to which patas monkeys are infected and compare the relatedness of the viruses isolated from theses two different species. among the 85 agms an ...19968627266
nitrosamines, alcohol, and gastrointestinal tract cancer: recent epidemiology and experimentation.recent epidemiological and experimental data continues to implicate nitrosamines in causation of gastrointestinal cancers. the evidence is strong for pharynx, esophagus, and stomach, and more problematic for liver, pancreas, and colorectum. substantial levels of the promutagenic dna adduct, ob-methylguanine, in dna from these organs in patas monkeys after a low dose of n-nitrosodimethylamine confirms the capacity for activation of environmental nitrosamines in these primate tissues. alcohol is b ...19968797028
the evolutionary rate of nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (sivagm) is in agreement with a rapid and continuous replication in vivo.african green monkeys (agms) are divided into four species (cercopithecus aethiops, c. pygerythrus, c. sabaeus, c. tantalus), each harboring a species-specific simian immunodeficiency virus (sivagm). little is known about the host and/or viral factors that are responsible for the apathogenicity of sivagm infections in their natural hosts. in order to analyze the specific selective pressures exerted by the host on the virus in vivo, we compared the genetic evolution of sivagm.tan in its natural h ...19968806543
[arbovirus circulation in the republic of guinea].in 1978-1991 the ussr-guinea virological and microbiological laboratory functioned in kindia, the republic of guinea. arbovirus activity in this country was studied by a number of virologists and other specialists. their personal contribution and achievements in this collaboration are reflected in the present paper. about 74,000 mosquitoes, 100,000 ixodidae ticks, 1,500 wild birds, 2,700 bats, 106 monkeys, and 308 other mammals, 927 blood samples collected from febrile patients were examined in ...19968926934
organization of the epaxial muscles in terrestrial and arboreal primates.the erector spinae muscles of the patas monkey hamadryas baboon, and spider monkey were dissected and the origins and insertions were described in detail. in the two terrestrial monkeys, a well-developed thoracolumbar segment of the muscle was observed. this trait seems to correlate to the sagittal movement of this region required in the pronograde quadrupedal locomotion. on the other hand, the erector spinae muscle of the spider monkey is quantitatively not so well developed and the arrangement ...19968953747
immune responses following cocktails of inactivated measles vaccine and arachis hypogaea l. (groundnut) or cocos nucifera l. (coconut) oils adjuvant.haemagglutination inhibition (hai), geometric mean titre (gmt) and lymphocyte transformation test (ltt) were measured following inoculation of erythrocebus patas with inactivated measles vaccine (imv) and oils of arachis hypogaea l (go), cocos nucifera l (co), freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants (fca, fia). the gmt of hai were: go + imv = 8.50 +/- 4.15: co + imv = 8.08 +/- 4.03; fca + imv = 7.67 +/- 4.08. fia + imv = 7.08 +/- 4.08 compared with controls of live measles vaccine (lmv) = 7.3 ...19969032902
longitudinal study of dominance relations among captive patas monkeys.eight and a half years of dominace relations within a captive group of patas monkeys were analyzed. it was found that matrilineal kinship significantly influenced individuals' ranks. in contrast, with the exception of certain intramatiline changes, increasingage had no predictable effect on overall rank, at least for females (this was untestable for males). offspring typically challenged maternal dominance and in eight or twelve dyads, offspring either fully rose over their mothers (three cases ...19979108970
transplacental cisplatin exposure induces persistent fetal mitochondrial and genomic dna damage in patas monkeys.a previous attempt to model transplacental cisplatin exposure and genotoxicity employed several pregnant erythrocebus patas monkeys; most of the animals were exposed near the end of gestation and cisplatin-dna adduct analyses included only genomic dna. here, both genomic and mitochondrial dna adduct formation have been determined in fetuses from two pregnant monkeys exposed at the end of the second trimester of gestation. multiple fetal tissues were obtained after doses of 0.315 mg cisplatin/kg ...19979138639
enzymes involved in the bioactivation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in patas monkey lung and liver microsomes.4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk) is a potent tobacco-specific carcinogen in animals. our previous studies indicated that there are differences between rodents and humans for the enzymes involved in the activation of nnk. to determine if the patas monkey is a better animal model for the activation of nnk in humans, we investigated the metabolism of nnk in patas monkey lung and liver microsomes and characterized the enzymes involved in the activation. in lung microsomes, the fo ...19979276633
dna adducts and the mechanism of carcinogenesis and cytotoxicity of methylating agents of environmental and clinical significance.dna adducts are covalent complexes formed between genotoxic carcinogens and dna bases, and constitute a critical early intermediate on the pathway of chemical carcinogenesis. their accumulation in different tissues reflects the amount of activated carcinogen reaching dna, and can therefore serve as an index of the biologically relevant dose reaching the target tissues or cells. methylating agents are of interest in view of their occurrence in the environment and their use as cytotoxic drugs in c ...19979307842
absolute configuration of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol formed metabolically from 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (nnal) is an important metabolite of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk). using the chiral derivatizing agent, (r)-(+)-alpha-methylbenzyl isocyanate [(r)-(+)-mbic], previous work has shown that the enantiomeric ratio of metabolically formed nnal and its glucuronide derivative may be species dependent. however, the absolute configuration of such nnal has not been previously reported. synthetically prep ...19979328186
characterization of new simian foamy viruses from african nonhuman primates.simian foamy viruses (sfv) are exogenous retroviruses present in most if not all nonhuman primate species. baboons and other african monkey species are known to harbor sfvs, yet there is presently no data in regard to their genetic relationship. here we studied sfvs from baboons as compared to other sfvs isolated from a hamlyn's guenon, a patas monkey, and a vervet. by western blot analysis, the gag precursor proteins (p74/p70) were detected from all sfvs. in addition, the envelope glycoproteins ...19979356346
transplacental effects of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (azt): tumorigenicity in mice and genotoxicity in mice and monkeys.when given during pregnancy, the drug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (azt) substantially reduces maternal-fetal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). however, azt has been shown to be carcinogenic in adult mice after lifetime oral administration. in this study, we assessed the transplacental tumorigenic and genotoxic effects of azt in the offspring of cd-1 mice and erythrocebus patas monkeys given azt orally during pregnancy.19979362158
locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops): implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in homo.homo erectus is notable for its taller stature and longer lower limbs relative to earlier hominids, but the selective pressures favoring such long limbs are unclear. among anthropoid primates, patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and extant hominids share several extreme characteristics involved with foraging and movement, including the relatively longest lower limb proportions, longest daily travel distances and largest home ranges for their body or group size, occupancy of some of the driest hab ...19989511914
indiscriminate response to infant calls in wild patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas). 19989543732
the who collaborating centre for research and control of schistosomiasis at niamey, niger.the centre de recherche sur les méningites et les schistosomes (cermes) is a research institute depending on the organisation de coordination et de coopération pour la lutte contre les grandes endémies--a west african organization for public health--devoted to the studies on schistosomiasis and meningitis. the staff includes 32 persons with 11 scientists and one financial officer. the activities of the cermes involving schistosomiasis concern three research units: (a) ecology of human and animal ...19979566246
secnidazole vs. paromomycin: comparative antiprotozoan treatment in captive primates.the antiprotozoan activity of secnidazole was studied in cercocebus t. torquatus, cercopithecus campbelli, erythrocebus patas (cercopithecidae), and gorilla gorilla (pongidae) compared with that of paromomycin in cercocebus t. lunulatus (cercopithecidae), e. patas, and g. gorilla (pongidae) by coprological analysis. the antiprotozoan activity of both drugs depended on the parasite species and the host species. the drugs acted in a similar way on entamoeba coli parasitising c. t. torquatus, and e ...19989606042
the ecology of the introduced patas monkey (erythrocebus patas) population of southwestern puerto rico.this paper presents the results of a study on the introduced, free-ranging patas monkey population of southwestern puerto rico (swpr). it describes information on the population size, social group composition, diet, daily ranging patterns, and patas home range during a 3 year period. the patas monkey population in the study area consisted of approximately 120 individuals in four heterosexual groups and several all-male bands. within their home ranges (26.8 km2), the population density was 4.47 i ...19989702281
diet for a small primate: insectivory and gummivory in the (large) patas monkey (erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus).a 17 month field study of unprovisioned patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus) in laikipia, kenya, using both ad libitum and scan sampling techniques, revealed that the diet of patas monkeys consists primarily of gum of acacia drepanolobium, arthropods (both free-living and concentrated in the swollen thorns of a. drepanolobium), and other animals. this type of diet is normally found only in smaller-bodied primates. results from vegetational transects suggest that the larger-bodied patas ...19989702283
chromosome abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes from macaca fascicularis and erythrocebus patas (cercopithecidae, catarrhini) after x-ray irradiation.in this paper, we describe the results of a qualitative and quantitative study of chromosomal reorganizations in x-irradiated (1 gy and 2 gy) lymphocytes from macaca fascicularis (mfa) and erythrocebus patas (epa). a total of 515 breakpoints in m. fascicularis and 271 breakpoints in e. patas have been detected, identified and localized in the ideogram of the species. the chi square test indicates that the distribution of breakpoints along the chromosomes is not random in m. fascicularis, and is ...19989726019
vaccine potential of a recombinant glutathione s-transferase cloned from schistosoma haematobium in primates experimentally infected with an homologous challenge.patas monkeys were twice immunized with a schistosoma haematobium-derived recombinant glutathione s-transferase (sh28gst) then challenged with an homologous calibrated challenge. bcg and freund's complete adjuvant (fca) were used as adjuvants in two distinct protocols. specific igg and iga antibody responses were intense and homogeneous in the animals receiving sh28gst in the presence of fca, whereas bcg could only induce moderate and heterogeneous antibody titres. no significant effect on worm ...19999987169
metabolism and disposition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (nnk) in rhesus monkeys.metabolism and disposition of the tobacco-specific n-nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk), a potent rodent lung carcinogen, were studied in rhesus monkeys. in three males receiving a single i.v. dose of [5-3h]nnk (0.72 mci; 4.6-9.8 microg/kg), urine was collected for 10 days. within the first 24 h, 86.0 +/- 0.7% of the dose was excreted. nnk-derived radioactivity was still detectable in urine 10 days after dosing (total excretion, 92.7 +/- 0.7%). decay of urinary rad ...199910101142
phylogenetic analysis of primate mic (perb11) sequences suggests that the representation of the gene family differs in different primates: comparison of mic (perb11) and c4.duplication of segments within the mhc has led to numerous multicopy families such as class i, class ii, c4 and mic (perb11). different copy numbers between haplotypes and species may be explained by the extent of duplication and subsequent deletion. there are at least five copies of mic (perb11) in humans, but mica (perb11.1) appears to have been deleted from the chimpanzee. by comparing the sequences of primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, orang-utan, pygmy chimpanzee, patas monkey, aethiops ...199910331161
comparing measures of travel distances in primates: methodological considerations and socioecological implications.travel costs can influence numerous aspects of the lives of primates, including net energy balance (and therefore reproductive success of females) and maximum group size. despite their potential impact, there has been no systematic comparison of different measures of travel distance. we compared three measures of travel distance in 30 min (actual distance of individuals, straight-line distance of individuals, and straight-line distance of groups) and their ratios in a small group and a large gro ...199910333429
comparison of the polymorphic regions of the cytochrome p450 cyp2e1 gene of humans and patas and cynomolgus monkeys.cytochrome p450 2e1 (cyp2e1) metabolizes low molecular weight toxicants. cyp2e1 gene polymorphisms have been linked to risk of various cancers and liver disease in humans. since the patas monkey is a promising model for study of cancer-related alcohol/nitrosamine interactions, we examined cyp2e1 in this monkey for characteristics of two regions that are polymorphic in humans, an rsai site in the 5' promoter region and a drai site in intron 6. another monkey species often used in biomedical resea ...199910357784
mutations in ccr5-coding sequences are not associated with siv carrier status in african nonhuman primates.african monkeys can be naturally infected with siv but do not progress to aids. since mutations in the human ccr5 gene have been shown to influence susceptibility to hiv infection and disease progression, we have now investigated whether mutations in ccr5-coding sequences in african nonhuman primates can explain species-specific differences in susceptibility to lentiviral infection. the animals studied comprise chronically infected monkeys corresponding to four natural hosts of siv (cercopithecu ...199910408730
simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from sun-tailed monkeys (cercopithecus solatus): evidence for host-dependent evolution of siv within the c. lhoesti superspecies.recently we reported the characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus (sivlhoest) from a central african l'hoest monkey (cercopithecus lhoesti lhoesti) that revealed a distant relationship to siv isolated from a mandrill (sivmnd). the present report describes a novel siv (sivsun) isolated from a healthy, wild-caught sun-tailed monkey (cercopithecus lhoesti solatus), another member of the l'hoest superspecies. sivsun replicated in a variety of human t-cell lines and in peripheral blood monon ...199910438863
differential habitat utilization by patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) living sympatrically in northern cameroon.in order to obtain reliable evidence for differences in habitat preferences between two closely related savanna-dwelling primate species, namely, patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops tantalus), i collected data on vegetation and patterns of range use concurrently at a single study site, kala maloue, cameroon, in a similar manner for a group of each species. kala maloue consisted of 64% grassland mostly dominated by gramineae spp. and the rest was woodla ...199910512543
molecular phylogeny of old world monkeys (cercopithecidae) as inferred from gamma-globin dna sequences.dna sequence data of the nuclear-encoded gamma1-gamma2-globin duplication region were used to examine the phylogenetic relationships of 16 cercopithecid (old world monkey) species representing 12 extant genera. morphology- and molecular-based hypotheses of old world monkey branching patterns are generally congruent, except for generic relationships within the subtribe papionina. the cercopithecids divide into colobines (leaf-eating monkeys) and cercopithecines (cheek-pouched monkeys). the colobi ...199910603263
metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by cultured monkey lung explants.the metabolism of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nnk) was investigated in short-term cultures of monkey lung. explants from the lungs of two patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and one cynomolgus monkey (macaca fascicularis) were incubated with 10 microm [5-(3)h]nnk and aliquots were analyzed for nnk metabolites by hplc at various time points from 1 to 24 h. f344 rat lung tissue metabolism of nnk was assayed under the same conditions. substant ...200010611133
imidazenil prevention of alprazolam-induced acquisition deficit in patas monkeys is devoid of tolerance.the partial allosteric modulators (pams) of gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated cl(-) current intensities at gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptors have high affinity but low intrinsic efficacy on benzodiazepine recognition sites. unlike the full allosteric modulators (fam), like alprazolam, triazolam, and diazepam, pams are virtually devoid of unwanted side effects, including tolerance. imidazenil (imd) is a pam that elicits potent anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions in rodents and nonhuman prima ...200010696114
oxidative dna damage in fetal tissues after transplacental exposure to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (azt).the nucleoside analogue 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (azt) has been used successfully to reduce the incidence of transplacental and perinatal transmission of the hiv virus. however, prolonged treatment with high doses of azt is utilized in this therapy, and azt has been found to be a perinatal carcinogen in mice. any possible perinatal carcinogenic side effects in the human can best be managed if the mechanism is understood. azt targets mitochondria and might cause increased intracellular producti ...200010783333
fetal mitochondrial heart and skeletal muscle damage in erythrocebus patas monkeys exposed in utero to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (azt) is given to pregnant women positive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) to reduce maternal-fetal viral transmission. to explore fetal mitochondrial consequences of this exposure, pregnant erythrocebus patas monkeys were given daily doses of 1.5 mg (21% of the human daily dose) and 6.0 mg (86% of the human daily dose) of azt/kg body weight (bw), for the second half of gestation. at term, electron microscopy of fetal cardiac and skeletal muscle show ...200010791874
dna adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (iq) in fetal tissues of patas monkeys after transplacental exposure.transplacental genotoxicity of the heterocyclic amine food-derived mutagen/carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (iq) has been investigated by (32)p-postlabeling assay for iq-dna adducts in maternal liver, placenta, and several fetal tissues of patas monkeys, after exposure to 15, 35, or 50 mg/kg iq near the end of gestation or to the highest dose in the first or second trimester. dose-dependent adduct formation occurred in all tissues, with the highest levels occurring in maternal ...200010906279
conservation in decay accelerating factor (daf) structure among primates.the decay accelerating factor (daf, cd55) protects self cells from activation of autologous complement on their surfaces. it functions to disable the c3 convertases, the central amplification enzymes of the cascade. its active site(s) are contained within four approximately 60 amino acid long units, termed complement control protein repeats (ccps), which are suspended above the cell surface on a 68 amino acid long serine/threonine (s/t)-rich cushion that derives from three exons. we previously p ...200010906393
genotoxic and functional consequences of transplacental zidovudine exposure in fetal monkey brain mitochondria.mitochondrial toxicity was assessed in the brains of developing erythrocebus patas monkey fetuses exposed in utero to the nucleoside analogue drug zidovudine (3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine or azt). pregnant e. patas monkeys were given 0 (n = 5), 10 (n = 3), and 40 (n = 3) mg of azt/day, equivalent to 21 and 86% of the human daily dose, for the last half (about 10 weeks) of gestation. mitochondria were isolated from fetal cerebrum and cerebellum at birth and mitochondrial morphology was examined in t ...200010935684
fetal patas monkeys sustain mitochondrial toxicity as a result of in utero zidovudine exposure.mitochondrial toxicity was examined in near-term fetuses of pregnant erythrocebus patas monkeys given human equivalent doses of 3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine (azt) during the second half of gestation. pregnant monkeys were dosed daily with 10 or 40 mg azt, equivalent to about 21% and 86% of the daily azt dose (500 mg) given to hiv-1-positive pregnant women to prevent maternal-fetal virus transmission. the fetal tissues examined include heart and skeletal muscle, which have high energy requirements, ...200011131713
foraging energetics in patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops tantalus): implications for reproductive seasonality.the patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) in kala maloue, cameroon, have their birth season in the mid-dry season, whereas closely related, sympatric tantalus monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) have their birth season in the wet season. to evaluate the optimality of a species-specific birth season, i estimated the daily intake of available energy and gross protein, and energy expenditure for one individual of each sex of each species between respective birth and mating seasons. the monkeys o ...200011132111
morphological alterations in neurons forming corticocortical projections in the neocortex of aged patas monkeys.recent studies indicate that the cognitive processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex, such as working memory, are impaired during normal aging. these disturbances in cortical function may be a consequence of abnormalities in neocortical circuits, even though the numbers of cortical neurons are preserved in normal aging. we performed retrograde tract-tracing of cortical projections connecting the temporal cortex to the prefrontal cortex in combination with dye-filling and three-dimensional neur ...200211750991
age-related changes in glur2 and nmdar1 glutamate receptor subunit protein immunoreactivity in corticocortically projecting neurons in macaque and patas monkeys.a distinct subpopulation of neurons forming long corticocortical projections in the association neocortex is highly vulnerable to the degenerative process in alzheimer's disease. however, the degree to which age-related molecular and morphologic alterations of identifiable neuronal populations reflects early cellular degeneration leading to functional deficits has not yet been fully investigated in the aging brain. we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of neurons forming short and long co ...200211844485
transplacental genotoxicity of combined antiretroviral nucleoside analogue therapy in erythrocebus patas monkeys.antiretroviral nucleoside analogue drugs are a major constituent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart), the most advanced form of treatment for hiv-1 infection. currently, haart combinations that include zidovudine (zdv) and lamivudine (3tc) are highly effective in preventing hiv-1 vertical transmission; most children are born with no evident adverse clinical effects. however, zdv is a moderately strong transplacental carcinogen in mice, and potential long-term consequences of fetal ex ...200211917235
chronic stavudine exposure induces hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in adult erythrocebus patas monkeys.to understand the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying the lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis seen in some hiv-1-infected individuals after long-term stavudine (d4t) exposure, we have explored mitochondrial integrity in adult monkeys (erythrocebus patas) given a daily human equivalent dose of d4t for 78 days.200112082400
comparison of responses to alarm calls by patas (erythrocebus patas) and vervet (cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure.we studied responses to alarm calls of sympatric patas (erythrocebus patas) and vervet (cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure, with the intention of understanding the relationship between the environment and predator avoidance. patas and vervet monkeys are phylogenetically closely related and overlap in body size. however, while patas monkeys are restricted to nonriverine habitats at our study site, vervets use both nonriverine and riverine habitats, allowing us to "va ...200212209569
in patas monkey, glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 and reelin mrna coexpression varies in a manner dependent on layers and cortical areas.in nonhuman and human primates, reelin immunoreactivity is expressed consistently in gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba)-ergic interneurons of the three upper cortical layers (impagnatiello et al. [1998] proc. natl. acad. sci. u s a 95:15718-15723; rodriguez et al. [2000] proc. natl. acad. sci. u s a 97:3550-3555). to understand in detail the pattern of reelin synthesis in gabaergic interneurons of primate neocortex, a quantitative analysis of reelin and of glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (gad(67)) mr ...200212210139
metabolism and pharmacokinetics of n'-nitrosonornicotine in the patas monkey.n'-nitrosonornicotine (nnn) is present in significant quantities in tobacco and tobacco smoke and is believed to play an important role as a cause of cancer in people who use tobacco products. biomarkers of nnn uptake in humans such as urinary metabolites would be useful for assessing cancer risk. previous studies, carried out almost exclusively in rodents, have characterized urinary metabolites of nnn, but none of these would be suitable as a biomarkers of nnn uptake in humans. therefore, we st ...200212228188
preliminary lack of evidence for simian odour preferences of savanna populations of anopheles gambiae and other malaria vectors.the behavioural response to several culicine and anopheline mosquitoes to the odour of alternative hosts (human vs monkey) arranged in a choice set-up using odour-baited entry traps (obets) was assessed in a field experiment in south-eastern senegal. the experimental protocol followed procedures analogous to those adopted in olfactometer laboratory tests. two adult cercopithecus aethiops and a child of similar mass slept inside separate tents and their odours were drawn to each one of two paired ...200112402527
difference in food selection between patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) in kala maloue national park, cameroon, in relation to nutrient content.phytochemical or nutrient analyses of primate diets have revealed clues to their food selection in a single species. on the other hand, few interspecific comparisons of phytochemical or nutrient composition of primate diets have been made, although diets are considered to differ in phytochemical or nutrient content from primate species to species, since different species have different body weights and different morphological and physiological characteristics. i compared the nutrient content of ...200312548330
long-term study of the social dynamics of patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas): group male supplanting and changes to the multi-male situation.data on social changes in patas monkey (erythrocebus patas) groups were collected to clarify the general characteristics of male supplantation and to evaluate the overall role of supplanting in patas society. seven patas groups were observed in kala maloue national park, northern cameroon for 11 years. analysis of this data revealed that social change, such as male supplanting, was restricted to the mating season. male supplanting occurred in the course of outsider males seeking to gain access t ...200312687473
life-history parameters of a wild group of west african patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas patas).based on long-term, although intermittent, observations (2 years 4 months of 14 years), we present data on birth seasonality, age at first birth, interbirth intervals, mortality rates, age at first emigration, and population change of a wild population of west african patas monkeys ( etythrocebus patas patas) in northern cameroon. birth season was from the end of december until the middle of february, corresponding to the mid-dry season. in spite of large body size, the patas females had the ear ...200312721784
comparison of the cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine and medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam in patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas).the cardiorespiratory effects, effectiveness, and reversibility of two injectable anesthetic combinations were compared in captive patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas). seven patas monkeys were hand-injected with medetomidine (40 microg/kg, i.m.), butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg. i.m.), and ketamine (3.0 mg/kg. i.m.), and seven were injected with the same dosages of medetomidine and butorphanol plus midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, i.m.). heart rates decreased in monkeys in both treatment groups and were lower than t ...200312723799
cercopithecine y-chromosome data provide a test of competing morphological evolutionary hypotheses.we report here the results of the first molecular evolutionary analysis to include members of all 10 extant genera of cercopithecine monkeys. a total of 44 individuals were surveyed for approximately 2.2 kb of the testis-specific protein, y-chromosome (tspy). the tspy sequences were subjected to parsimony analyses in paup 4.0, followed by tree comparison tests designed to assess existing morphological hypotheses of cercopithecine evolution. the results of these tests show that the present y-chro ...200312742755
[use of cultures of renal tissue of the african monkey, erythrocebus patas, for study of poliomyelitis]. 195613395025
plaque assay of measles virus on erythrocebus patas monkey kidney monolayers. 195813554545
[anatomoclinical findings in spontaneous prolonged epilepsy in a patas monkey]. 195813619936
effect of kappa-irradiation on patas monkey kidney cell susceptibility to enteroviruses. 195913636061
some properties of a strain of sv 17 virus isolated from an epidemic of conjunctivitis and rhinorrhoea in monkeys (erythrocebus patas). 196013778899
the isolation of parainfluenza 3 virus from fatal cases of pneumonia in erythrocebus patas monkeys. 196314066130
[on the chromosomes of cercopithecidae papio-papio, macaca mulatta, cercopithecus aethiops, erythrocebus patas]. 196414210582
behaviour of patas monkeys, erythrocebus patas, in captivity, with notes on the natural habitat. 196514234672
[atheromatous lesions caused in a young erythocebus patas monkey by a semi-synthetic diet]. 196414276966
the vacuolating virus of monkeys. i. isolation, growth characteristics, and inclusion body formation.a vacuolating virus isolated from uninoculated patas monkey kidney cultures was found to be serologically identical with sv(40), a virus previously found in association with rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. detection of the patas virus was facilitated when patas cells were exposed to x-ray treatment. rhesus monkey and human cells were relatively insusceptible to the virus, although it persisted in these cells for a long period of time. distinct intranuclear inclusions were detected in infected pat ...196114449527
[jean-paul bovy, surgeon of third class, hussar, light cavalry man and cherub]. 195114865442
sex chromosome phylogenetics indicate a single transition to terrestriality in the guenons (tribe cercopithecini).this is the first molecular study to trace the evolutionary transition in substrate preference across a primate radiation. we surveyed 20 guenons (tribe cercopithecini) and 4 outgroup taxa for two y-chromosomal genes, tspy ( approximately 2240 bp) and sry ( approximately 780 bp), and one x-chromosomal intergenic region ( approximately 1600 bp) homologous to a fragment of human xq13.3. parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the sex chromosomal datasets consistently cluster the three terrest ...200414871564
mitochondrial toxicity in fetal erythrocebus patas monkeys exposed transplacentally to zidovudine plus lamivudine.this study was designed to investigate fetal mitochondrial toxicity in erythrocebus patas monkeys exposed in utero to zidovudine (azt) and lamivudine (3tc), and taken at term. pregnant patas monkeys were given a daily dose of 40 mg azt (86% of the human daily dose, based on body weight), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation, and a daily dose of 24 mg 3tc (84% of the human daily dose, based on body weight) for the last 4 weeks of gestation. at term, azt was found to be incorporated into fetal ...200415000702
microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure.habitat structure can be important in determining habitat preference of animals because it is often closely linked to factors that affect survival and reproduction, such as food availability and predation risk. here we examine the ways in which microhabitat structure and predation risk affect the habitat preference of wild patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas). patas monkeys in kenya are typically restricted to acacia drepanolobium habitat, but within our study group's home range, there are two dis ...200415010579
the introduced free-ranging rhesus and patas monkey populations of southwestern puerto rico.rhesus (macaca mulatta) and patas (erythrocebus patas) monkeys escaped to the mainland of southwestern puerto rico (swpr) from research colonies on small offshore islands during the 1960s and through 1982. a three year study (1990-1993) combined radio-telemetry with visual observations to collect information on population sizes, the composition of social groups, their daily movements, and their home ranges. two populations of rhesus monkeys were identified in swpr: one within the study area in s ...200415125218
genetic substructuring within oesophagostomum bifurcum (nematoda) from human and non-human primates from ghana based on random amplified polymorphic dna analysis.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) was used to study genetic variation within oesophagostomum bifurcum in ghana. four different decamer primers were used for the amplification of dna from individual o. bifurcum adults (n = 41) from humans and non-human primates (including the mona monkey, patas monkey and olive baboon) from different geographic regions. analysis of the amplicons from all 41 nematodes by high resolution, denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis defined a total of 326 in ...200415306716
reciprocal painting between humans, de brazza's and patas monkeys reveals a major bifurcation in the cercopithecini phylogenetic tree.we report on reciprocal painting between humans and two cercopithecini species, erythrocebus patas (patas monkey) and cercopithecus neglectus (de brazza's monkey). both human and monkeys chromosome-specific probes were made by degenerate oligonucleotide primed pcr (dop-pcr) from flow sorted chromosomes. metaphases of both monkey species were first hybridized with human chromosome-specific probes and then human metaphases were hybridized with chromosome paints from each monkey species. the human ...200515545727
inter- and intra-specific gene-density-correlated radial chromosome territory arrangements are conserved in old world monkeys.recently it has been shown that the gene-density correlated radial distribution of human 18 and 19 homologous chromosome territories (cts) is conserved in higher primates in spite of chromosomal rearrangements that occurred during evolution. however, these observations were limited to apes and new world monkey species. in order to provide further evidence for the evolutionary conservation of gene-density-correlated ct arrangements, we extended our previous study to old world monkeys. they compri ...200515545738
high resolution dna fingerprinting by aflp to study the genetic variation among oesophagostomum bifurcum (nematoda) from human and non-human primates from ghana.an aflp approach was established to investigate genetic diversity within oesophagostomum bifurcum (order strongylida) from human and non-human primates. evaluation of different combinations of restriction enzymes (n = 8) and primers (n = 29) demonstrated that the use of hindiii/bglii digested templates and primers with the selective nucleotides + ag/ +ac, respectively, was the most effective for the analysis of o. bifurcum dna. a total of 63 o. bifurcum adults from human, patas monkey, mona monk ...200515727072
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