cranial ontogeny and sexual dimorphism in two new world monkeys: alouatta caraya (atelidae) and cebus apella (cebidae).pattern of skull development and sexual dimorphism was studied in cebus apella and alouatta caraya using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. in both species, sexual dimorphism develops because the common growth trajectory in males extends and because of differences in growth rates between sexes. the expectation that the ontogenetic bases of adult dimorphism vary interspecifically is well substantiated by this study. a. caraya exhibits transitional dimorphism in its subadult stage ...201121484855
attention allocation modulates the processing of hierarchical visual patterns: a comparative analysis of capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) and humans.humans show a global advantage when processing hierarchical visual patterns, and they detect the global level of stimulus structure more accurately and faster than the local level in several stimulus contexts. by contrast, capuchins (cebus apella) and other monkey species show a strong local advantage. a key factor which, if manipulated, could cause an inversion of this effect in monkeys is still to be found. in this study, we examined whether it was possible to induce attention allocation to gl ...201121500930
can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. we investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. we tested eight capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (macaca fascicularis, macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. one, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the am ...201121423777
information seeking by rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella).animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. in roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. they basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. roberts et al. concluded that pigeons' lack of an information-seeking capacity reflected their broader lack of metacognition. we report a striking species contrast to ...201121459372
sample stimulus control shaping and restricted stimulus control in capuchin monkeys: a methodological note.this paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (cebus apella). the procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. during shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. the objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison ...201121547073
the impact of moving to a novel environment on social networks, activity and wellbeing in two new world primates.among the stressors that can affect animal welfare in zoos, the immediate effect of relocation to a novel environment is one that has received little attention in the literature. here, we compare the social network, daily activity and the expression of stress-related behavior in capuchins (cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) before and just after they were relocated to a new enriched enclosure. results showed similar immediate responses to the move in the two species. both show ...201121381071
i acknowledge your help: capuchin monkeys' sensitivity to others' labor.our society is sustained by wide-ranging cooperation. if individuals are sensitive to others' gains and losses as well as the amount of labor, they can ensure future beneficial cooperative interaction. however, it is still an open question whether nonhuman primates are sensitive to others' labor. we asked this question in tufted capuchin monkeys in an experimental food-sharing situation by comparing conditions with labor by two participants equalized (equal labor condition) or unequalized (unequ ...201121519900
capuchin monkeys are not prosocial in an instrumental helping task.comparative research can shed light on the evolutionary roots and cognitive underpinnings of prosocial behavior by revealing not only positive instances of prosocial motivations in other species, but also the boundary conditions of these motivations. to explore factors that may constrain prosocial behavior, we examined whether brown capuchins (cebus apella), which demonstrate regard for the welfare of conspecifics in other contexts, would behave prosocially in a minimal-cost instrumental helping ...201121505736
observer choices during experimental foraging tasks in brown capuchin monkeys (cebus apella).we investigated whether capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) would choose to observe a high- or low-status adult female from their group during experimental foraging tests. the subject was located in the center of a test chamber, with a low- and high-ranking demonstrator on either side of two partitions. a peephole allowed the subject to observe the models by looking through either respective partition. each model was trained on one of the two different methods, lift or pull, for retrieving food from ...201121557285
how tufted capuchin monkeys (cebus apella spp) and common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) align objects to surfaces: insights into spatial reasoning and implications for tool use.this report addresses phylogenetic variation in a spatial skill that underlies tool use: aligning objects to a feature of a surface. fragaszy and cummins-sebree's [behavioral and cognitive neuroscience reviews 4:282-306, 2005] model of relational spatial reasoning and skill development and perception-action theories guided the design of the study. we examined how capuchins and chimpanzees place stick objects of varying shapes into matching grooves on a flat surface. although most individuals ali ...201121608008
an inversion effect modified by expertise in capuchin monkeys.the face inversion effect may be defined as the general impairment in recognition that occurs when faces are rotated 180°. this phenomenon seems particularly strong for faces as opposed to other objects and is often used as a marker of a specialized face-processing mechanism. four brown capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) were tested on their ability to discriminate several classes of facial and non-facial stimuli presented in both their upright and inverted orientations in an oddity task. results r ...201121573949
synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (primates, platyrrhini).in order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. the dna libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of alouatta guariba clamitans, a. caraya, a. sara, ateles paniscus chamek, lagothrix lagothricha, brachyteles arachnoides, saguinus midas midas, leontopithecus chrysomelas, callimico goeldii, callithrix sp., cebus apella, aotus nig ...200921637455
flexible and conservative features of social systems in tufted capuchin monkeys: comparing the socioecology of sapajus libidinosus and sapajus nigritus.socioecological models assume that primates adapt their social behavior to ecological conditions, and predict that food availability and distribution, predation risk and risk of infanticide by males affect patterns of social organization, social structure and mating system of primates. however, adaptability and variation of social behavior may be constrained by conservative adaptations and by phylogenetic inertia. the comparative study of closely related species can help to identify the relative ...201121656840
anointing variation across wild capuchin populations: a review of material preferences, bout frequency and anointing sociality in cebus and sapajus.the frequency of anointing bouts and the materials used for self- and social anointing vary across capuchin species in captivity, but there is little published data on capuchin anointing in the wild. here we present previously unpublished data on anointing behaviors from capuchin monkey populations at ten different field sites and incorporate these data into a review of the anointing literature for captive and wild capuchins. using a comparative phylogenetic framework, we test four hypotheses de ...201121769906
polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (saimiri) and capuchins (cebus). the present study focused on association patterns in two saimiri sciureus groups in eastern brazilian amazonia, between march and october, 2009. the associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. the study involved two s. sciureus groups (b4 and gi) on the righ ...201121809365
capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) use positive, but not negative, auditory cues to infer food location.nonhuman primates appear to capitalize more effectively on visual cues than corresponding auditory versions. for example, studies of inferential reasoning have shown that monkeys and apes readily respond to seeing that food is present ("positive" cuing) or absent ("negative" cuing). performance is markedly less effective with auditory cues, with many subjects failing to use this input. extending recent work, we tested eight captive tufted capuchins (cebus apella) in locating food using positive ...201121681475
social relationships between adult females and the alpha male in wild tufted capuchin monkeys.primates are notable for the widespread presence of long-term female-male associations which go beyond the mating context. however, little attention has been given to the factors that affect within-species variation in female-male relationships, especially among new world primates. although detailed accounts of heterosexual relationships in cebus species are scarce, a few studies have suggested the occurrence of strong associations between adult females and high-ranking males. this study explore ...201121698660
Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved ...201122030409
effects of pattern redundancy and hierarchical grouping on global-local visual processing in monkeys (cebus apella) and humans (homo sapiens).using a matching-to-sample (mts) procedure we assessed the effects of stimulus redundancy, defined on the basis of the information-theory approach to shape goodness proposed by garner (1974) [20], and grouping on the processing of hierarchical visual patterns in capuchin monkeys and humans. in a first experiment, the mts performance of both capuchin monkeys and humans benefitted from stimulus redundancy. moreover, a local advantage in capuchins was observed with visual patterns that required gro ...201222001616
Local and remote cellular responses following a surgical lesion in the Cebus apella cerebral cortex.Distribution of bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive (BrdU-IR) cell nuclei was analyzed at proximal and remote cortical sites in adult Cebus apella monkeys after a programmed surgical lesion placed either in the prefrontal or in the striate cerebral cortex. Increased GFAP-IR and vimentin-IR astrocytes, as well as IsolectinB4 labeled microglial cells, were observed both at lesional and perilesional areas. After injury at either location, the BrdU nuclear incorporation spread to supragranular layers i ...201122037680
monkeys (macaca mulatta and cebus apella) and human adults and children (homo sapiens) compare subsets of moving stimuli based on numerosity.two monkey species (macaca mulatta and cebus apella) and human children and adults judged the numerousness of two subsets of moving stimuli on a computer screen. two sets of colored dots that varied in number and size were intermixed in an array in which all dots moved in random directions and speeds. participants had to indicate which dot color was more numerous within the array. all species performed at high and comparable levels, including on trials in which the subset with the larger number ...201121716575
gaba inactivation of visual area mt modifies the responsiveness and direction selectivity of v2 neurons in cebus monkeys.we investigated the contribution of the projections from area mt to the receptive field properties of cells in visual area v2 in anesthetized and paralyzed cebus apella monkeys. we recorded extracellular single-unit activity using tungsten microelectrodes in three monkeys before and after pressure injection of a 0.25-mol/l gaba solution. the visual stimulus consisted of a single bar moving in one of eight directions. in total, 72 v2 neurons were studied in 18 sessions of gaba injection into area ...201122192507
short-term vs long-term calcium hydroxide therapy after immediate tooth replantation: a histomorphometric study in monkey's teeth.abstract -  endodontic treatment is an important step of tooth replantation protocols, but the ideal moment for definitive obturation of replanted teeth has not yet been established. in this study, a histomorphometric analysis was undertaken to evaluate the repair process on immediate replantation of monkey's teeth after calcium hydroxide (ch) therapy for 1 and 6 months followed by root canal filling with a ch-based sealer (sealapex(®) ). the maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors of five fem ...201122051142
Implicit and explicit category learning by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).Current theories of human categorization differentiate an explicit, rule-based system of category learning from an implicit system that slowly associates regions of perceptual space with response outputs. The researchers extended this theoretical differentiation to the category learning of New World primates. Four capuchins (Cebus apella) learned categories of circular sine-wave gratings that varied in bar spatial frequency and orientation. The rule-based and information-integration tasks, respe ...201122023264
tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (cebus albifrons and c. apella).physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. in this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sampl ...201121953012
variations in sexual behavior among capuchin monkeys function for conspecific mate recognition: a phylogenetic analysis and a new hypothesis for female proceptivity in tufted capuchins.researchers of capuchin monkeys have noted stereotyped body postures, facial expressions, and vocalizations that accompany copulations in this genus. notable variations in these sexual behaviors are observed across capuchin species. although several hypotheses exist to explain variation in the duration and vigor of sexual behaviors across species, there is no proposed explanation for variation in the forms of these behaviors. i hypothesized that the forms of sexual behaviors function as recognit ...201122038882
Age-related differences in corpus callosum area of capuchin monkeys.Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are New World primates with relatively large brains for their body size. The developmental trajectories of several brain regions-including cortical white matter, frontal lobe white matter, and basal ganglia nuclei-are similar to humans. Additionally, capuchins have independently evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics in common with humans and chimpanzees-including complex manipulative abilities, use of tools, and the use of precision grips-makin ...201122173013
same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.the ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. this study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. we evaluated (i) the ab ...201121858225
bone defect repair on the alveolar wall of the maxillary sinus using collagen membranes and temporal fascia: an experimental study in monkeys.few studies has been done using guided bone regeneration in maxillary sinus defects.201121860969
the hybrid delay task: can capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) sustain a delay after an initial choice to do so?choosing to wait for a better outcome (delay choice) and sustaining the delay prior to that outcome (delay maintenance) are both prerequisites for successful self-control in intertemporal choices. however, most existing experimental methods test these skills in isolation from each other, and no significant correlation has been observed in performance across these tasks. in this study we introduce a new paradigm, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial delay choice with a subsequent dela ...201223274585
electrocardiographic parameters of captive tufted capuchins (cebus apella) under chemical immobilization.this study presents the electrocardiogram findings from 97 captive tufted capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) at the são paulo zoo (são paulo, brazil) while under ketamine anesthesia. the results did not differ greatly from data of domestic carnivores or other studied primate species. the most common rhythm recorded was normal sinus rhythm, followed by normal sinus rhythm with wandering pacemaker. electrical axis varied from 0 degrees to -150 degrees but was most commonly between +60 degrees and +90 ...201223272335
anatomical aspects of the masticatory muscles of the tufted capuchin (cebus apella). 1999112520
maxillary bone defect reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.the aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair process in the maxillary sinus in monkeys treated with high-density porous polyethylene (medpor)201122134271
mutual medication in capuchin monkeys - social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. however, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. the function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. by manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two group ...201526456539
capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) use conspecifics' emotional expressions to evaluate emotional valence of objects.emotional expressions provide important clues to other individuals' emotional states, as well as the environmental situations leading to such states. although monkeys often modify their behavior in response to others' expressions, it is unclear whether this reflects understanding of emotional meanings of expressions, or simpler, non-cognitive processes. the present study investigated whether a new world monkey species, tufted capuchin monkeys, recognize objects as elicitors of others' expression ...201121927846
a modular mind? a test using individual data from seven primate has long been debated whether the mind consists of specialized and independently evolving modules, or whether and to what extent a general factor accounts for the variance in performance across different cognitive domains. in this study, we used a hierarchical bayesian model to re-analyse individual level data collected on seven primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, spider monkeys, brown capuchin monkeys and long-tailed macaques) across 17 tasks within four domains (inh ...201223284816
the suprahyoid muscles of the tufted capuchin (cebus apella). 2000116332
dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (saimiri boliviensis) social learning.although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (cebus apella) or marmosets (callithrix jacchus). to gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. to determine wh ...201323638347
molecular cloning, characterization and predicted structure of a putative copper-zinc sod from the camel, camelus dromedarius.superoxide dismutase (sod) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of sod gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. arabian camel (one humped camel, camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert clima ...201222312292
subgingival microbiota from cebus apella (capuchin monkey) with different periodontal conditions.this present study evaluated the subgingival microbiota of the cebus apella with different periodontal conditions kept by the tufted capuchin monkey procreation center (são paulo state university - unesp) or free-ranging monkeys. for this purpose, clinical specimens of subgingival biofilm were collected from 52 monkeys, of both genders, 40 kept in captivity and 12 free-ranging monkeys. the primates were submitted to periodontal evaluation and biofilm samples were transferred to vmga iii transpor ...201222710412
isolation and characterization of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolated from dogs and primates.although bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been suggested beneficial for the host and are components of many probiotics and competitive exclusion mixtures, the knowledge on abundance, metabolic and probiotic characteristics in isolates from dogs and monkeys is still limited. the present study was aimed to isolate bifidobacterium and lactobacillus strains (faeces of 22 dogs and of 5 primates: cebus apella, eulemur fulvus, erythrocebus patas, macaca fascicularis, papio hamadryas) with the maldi ...201424239978
isolation of a phylogenetically distinct rabies virus from a tufted capuchin monkey (cebus apella) in brazil.a rabies virus isolate (brmk1358 strain) was discovered from a rabid tufted capuchin monkey in brazil. the present study determined the nucleotide sequence of the brmk1358 strain and compared with the rabies viruses isolated from marmosets and other animals in the americas. phylogenetic analyses showed that the brmk1358 strain formed a lineage distant from that of marmoset rabies virus within the chiroptera-related rabies virus cluster. this result suggests that the source of rabies infection in ...201324055656
prevalence of salmonella enterica and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in zoo animals from chile.salmonella (s.) enterica and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) are foodborne pathogens. here, we report the prevalence of s. enterica and stec in feces of 316 zoo animals belonging to 61 species from chile. s. enterica and stec strains were detected in 7.5% and 4.4% of animals, respectively. all salmonella isolates corresponded to the serotype enteritidis. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of s. enteritidis in the culpeo fox (lycalopex culpaeus), black-capped cap ...201627030195
exposure to rabies virus in a population of free-ranging capuchin monkeys (cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected area in southeastern brazil.the aim of this study is to assess the frequency of rabies antibodies in free-ranging capuchin monkeys (cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected, rural area of southeastern brazil. thirty-six free-ranging monkeys were tested by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for detection of antibodies against rabies virus. four individuals (11.11 %) had neutralizing antibody titers ≥ 0.25 iu/ml, demonstrating rabies virus exposure.201222430558
genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from zoo wildlife and pet birds in fujian, china.toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is caused by toxoplasma gondii. the distribution of genetic diversity of t. gondii in wild animals is of great importance to understand the transmission of the parasite in the environment. however, little is known about t. gondii prevalence in wild animals and birds in china.201726811736
streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.a gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (cebus apella). comparative 16s rrna gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus streptococcus. strain m8t was related most closely to streptococcus oralis atcc 35037t (96.17 % similarity) followed by streptococcus massiliensis ccug 49690t (95.90 %) based on the 16s rrna gene. strain m8t was related most closely to s. massiliensis ccug 49690t ...201626651833
risk factors associated with toxoplasma gondii infection in captive sapajus spp.the aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with prevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in captive capuchin monkeys at a facility in the northeastern brazil. serum samples from 116 bearded capuchin (sapajus libidinosus), nine blonde capuchin (sapajus flavius), five black-capped capuchin (sapajus apella), and four capuchin monkeys (sapajus spp.) were tested for t. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (mat, cut-off ≥25); antibodies were found in 85.3% (99/11 ...201525676671
scaling the primate lateral geniculate nucleus: niche and neurodevelopment in the regulation of magnocellular and parvocellular cell number and nucleus stereological assessments of lateral geniculate nucleus (lgn) neuron numbers and volumes in five new world primates (cebus apella, saguinus midas niger, alouatta caraya, aotus azarae, and callicebus moloch) and compiled lgn volumes for an additional 26 mammals were analyzed for a better understanding of visual system evolution. both the magnocellular (m)- and the parvocellular (p)-cell populations scale allometrically with brain volume in primates, p cells with a significantly higher slope s ...201424222647
primate diversity, habitat preferences, and population density estimates in noel kempff mercado national park, santa cruz department, bolivia.this report documents primate communities at two sites within noel kempff mercado national park in northeastern santa cruz department, bolivia. diurnal line transects and incidental observations were employed to survey two field sites, lago caiman and las gamas, providing information on primate diversity, habitat preferences, relative abundance, and population density. primate diversity at both sites was not particularly high, with six observed species: callithrix argentata melanura, aotus azara ...19989802511
enamel microwear texture properties of igf 11778 (oreopithecus bambolii) from the late miocene of baccinello, italy.late miocene oreopithecus bambolii has been posited as a folivore from its pronounced molar shearing crests. however, scanning electron microscopy yields conflicting results with one study of oreopithecus showing folivory and another indicating a coarser diet was consumed. to address this debate, the dietary proclivities of the well-known igf 11778 oreopithecus bambolii specimen are reconstructed by comparing the enamel texture properties of this specimen to extant alouatta palliata (n = 11), ce ...201323833018
technical note: dental microwear textures of "phase i" and "phase ii" facets.the power stroke of mastication has been traditionally divided into two parts, one which precedes centric occlusion, and the other which follows it-"phase i" and "phase ii," respectively. recent studies of primate mastication have called into question the role of phase ii in food processing, as they have found little muscle activity or accompanying bone strain following centric occlusion. that said, many researchers today look to phase ii facets to relate diet to patterns of dental microwear. th ...200818785631
individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. however, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. we examine the influence of numerical superior ...201526503680
the primate community of cachoeira (brazilian amazonia): a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from south america. this analysis focuses on the primate community of cachoeira porteira (para, brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: alouatta seniculus, ateles paniscus, cebus apella, chiropotes satanas, pithecia pithecia, saguinus midas, and saimiri sciureus. shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. dental microwear results indicate significant differences between ta ...201122076156
fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.during a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, manilkara bidentata and m. huberi (sapotaceae) at nouragues natural reserve, french guiana. we addressed the question of how manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. we thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrast ...201121910838
primate abundance and habitat preferences on the lower urubamba and tambo rivers, central-eastern peruvian amazonia.we report information on population density, group size, and habitat preferences of primates along the lower río urubamba and in the río urubamba-río tambo interfluvium, in central-eastern peruvian amazonia, an area that has been little explored with regard to its primate fauna. during 425 km of transect walks in october-november 2008 and april-may 2009 totally 174 groups of nine primate species were encountered, the most common being callicebus brunneus (45 groups), saguinus imperator (41 group ...201323661029
systematic, cross-cortex variation in neuron numbers in rodents and primates.uniformity, local variability, and systematic variation in neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area across species and cortical areas have been claimed to characterize the isocortex. resolving these claims has been difficult, because species, techniques, and cortical areas vary across studies. we present a stereological assessment of neuron numbers in layers ii-iv and v-vi per unit of cortical surface area across the isocortex in rodents (hamster, mesocricetus auratus; agouti, dasyprocta ...201523960207
identification of bacterial infection in neotropical primates.emerging infectious diseases usually arise from wild animal populations. in the present work, we performed a screening for bacterial infection in natural populations of new world primates. the blood cell bulk dnas from 181 individuals of four platyrrhini genera were pcr screened for eubacterial 16s rrna genes. bacteria were detected and identified in 13 distinct individuals of alouatta belzebul, alouatta caraya, and cebus apella monkeys from geographically distant regions in the states of mato g ...201323797292
environmental perturbations can be detected through microwear texture analysis in two platyrrhine species from brazilian amazonia.recent dental microwear studies have shown that fossil species differ from one another in texture attributes-both in terms of central tendency and dispersion. most comparative studies used to interpret these results have relied on poorly provenienced museum samples that are not well-suited to consideration of within species variation in diet. here we present a study of two species of platyrrhine monkeys, alouatta belzebul (n = 60) and sapajus apella (n = 28) from pará state in the brazilian amaz ...201526348252
comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four new world monkey karyotypes compared to chlorocebus aethiops and homo sapiens.comparative cytogenetic analysis in new world monkeys (nwms) using human multicolor banding (mcb) probe sets were not previously done. here we report on an mcb based fish-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four nwms and one old world monkey (owm) species, i.e. in alouatta caraya (aca), callithrix jacchus (cja), cebus apella (cap), saimiri sciureus (ssc), and chlorocebus aethiops (cae), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved ...201527441227
motivation and manipulation capacities of the blue and yellow macaw and the tufted capuchin: a comparative approach.this study compared the motivation of the blue and yellow macaw (n=8) and the tufted capuchin (n=3) to manipulate objects that presented different features, their manipulative repertoires, and their ability to solve complex manipulation tasks. results show that both species seem to be more motivated to manipulate objects that look like food items and that manipulative behavior may be considered as play behavior in the blue and yellow macaws, and would improve foraging motor skills. the tufted ca ...201425043567
the callimico goeldii (primates, platyrrhini) genome: karyology and middle repetitive (line-1) dna sequences.callimico goeldii (goeldi's marmoset) is a neotropical primate with 2n = 47,x1x2y in the male, and 2n = 48,x1x1x2x2 in the female, due to a y-autosome translocation. karyological comparisons of callimico, callithrix jacchus and cebus apella suggest that callimico is a member of the callitrichidae. isozyme data and restriction mapping of line-1 repetitive elements in these species and in a variety of other neotropical primates confirm these findings and supply strong evidence for including callim ...19892560695
monomorphic region of the serotonin transporter promoter gene in new world monkeys.genetic variation in the human serotonin system has long been studied because of its functional consequences and links to various neuropsychiatric and behavior-related disorders. among non-human primates, the common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins monkeys (cebus apella) are becoming increasingly used as models to study the effects of genes, environments, and their interaction on physiology and complex behavior. in order to investigate the independent functions of and potentia ...201222833283
group service in macaques (macaca fuscata), capuchins (cebus apella) and marmosets (callithrix jacchus): a comparative approach to identifying proactive prosocial motivations.proactive, that is, spontaneous, prosociality reflects a psychological interest in the welfare of others and has been reported in callitrichid monkeys, capuchin monkeys (cebus apella), and humans, but not in chimpanzees. one explanation for the co-occurrence of proactive prosociality in these species is that it is linked to shared infant care (cooperative breeding); alternatively, it might merely reflect unusually high social tolerance or be mediated by advanced cognitive abilities. to date, dis ...201322250970
[toxoplasmosis in nonhuman primates. ii. attempts at experimental infection in macacca mulata, cebus apella and callithrix jacchus; and search for antibodies in several species of platyrrhinus]. 19715002530
ultrasonographic examination in non-human primates with acute abdomen signs.the acute abdomen is any abdominal disorder resulting in pain, shock, or sepsis. although it has a multifactorial etiology, the primary cause is gastrointestinal tract pathology. the aim of this study was to assess the contribution of abdominal ultrasound as a complementary diagnostic tool in non-human primates with an acute abdomen.201323931624
grasping primate development: ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (cebus albifrons and sapajus apella).young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. we test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (cebus albifrons and sapajus apella). if selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes woul ...201627324663
the effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order primates, genus cebus).a fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. in this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through th ...201223110039
tooth-root form and function in platyrrhine seed-eaters.research into the functional and adaptive basis of tooth crown form has provided a useful framework for the inference of diet in extinct primates. however, our understanding of variation in tooth-root form is limited. studies within the clinical literature emphasize the influence of tooth-root surface area on stress resistance, but it is not known if root form has diversified during primate evolution in relation to dietary specialization. this hypothesis was tested by quantifying maxillary canin ...200314614754
assessing habitat utilization by neotropical primates: a new approach.this study aims to ascertain habitat utilization, in relation to forest structural variation, by a multi-species group of primates in tropical lowland rainforest in southeast peru during dry season. a new approach to assessing habitat utilization was used. habitat variation was described by structural and indicator variables collected in quadrats along transects through a study area within terra firme and floodplain forest. variables were grouped into 'factors' accounting for most of the variati ...200212091748
genus cebus q- and g-band karyotypes and natural hybrids.the q- and g-band analyses of cebus capucinus, cebus albifrons and cebus apella are presented. the study is based on the results obtained from 18 specimens of the genus. for almost all of them, their exact locality is known. the data presented include the statement of two natural hybrids from c. capucinus and c. albifrons. on an evolutionary basis our results agree with the taxonomic concepts which postulate more similarity between c. capucinus and c. albifrons than between c. capucinus and c. a ...1976827485
banding patterns of the chromosomes of cebus albifrons. comparative study with cebur apella.quinacrine- and giemsa-banding studies of the chromosomes of cebus albifrons permitted to obtain a pattern that characterizes the species. the topography of the bands has been compared with that of cebus apella. each chromosome pair of c. albifrons has a homologue in c. apella. the differences between the two karyotypes are the result of five pericentric inversions.1976819340
divergent personality structures of brown (sapajus apella) and white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).one way to gain insights into personality evolution is by comparing the personality structures of related species. we compared the personality structure of 240 wild white-faced capuchin monkeys to the personality structure of 100 captive brown capuchin monkeys. an ancillary goal was to test the degree to which different personality questionnaires yielded similar personality dimensions. both species were rated on a common set of 26 antonym pairs. the brown capuchin monkeys were also rated on the ...201627841454
how different are robust and gracile capuchin monkeys? an argument for the use of sapajus and cebus.capuchin monkey behavior has been the focus of increasing numbers of captive and field studies in recent years, clarifying behavioral and ecological differences between the two morphological types: the gracile and the robust capuchins (also referred to as untufted and tufted). studies have tended to focus on the gracile species cebus capucinus (fewer data are available for c. albifrons, c. olivaceus, and c. kaapori) and on cebus apella, a name that has encompassed all of the robust capuchins sin ...201222328205
molar microwear and diet in the genus cebus.recent analyses have documented differences in dental microwear between primate species with different diets, especially between primate hard-object feeders and primate leaf-eaters. thus far, these microwear differences have only been documented for primates with vastly different foraging strategies and geographic distributions. to see if similar differences could be documented for closely related species, dental replicas from cebus apella, cebus nigrivittatus, and cebus capucinus were examined ...19853993762
skin mycoflora of cebus primates kept in captivity and semicaptivity.this study was performed to determine the fungal mycoflora in healthy tufted capuchins primates (cebus sp) kept in captivity and semicaptivity to allow a more realistic interpretation on the basis of fungi isolated from their skin. furthermore, we aimed at evaluating the potential risk of infection to humans by fungi perpetuated in the tegument of monkeys of this genus.201323822839
transport of functionally appropriate tools by capuchin monkeys (cebus apella).capuchin monkeys (cebus sp.) are notable among new world monkeys for their widespread use of tools. like chimpanzees, they use both hammer tools and insertion tools in the wild to acquire food that would be unobtainable otherwise. recent evidence indicates that capuchins transport stones to anvil sites and use the most functionally efficient stones to crack nuts. we further investigated capuchins' assessment of functionality by testing their ability to select a tool that was appropriate for two ...201224006538
edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of forest fragments project, amazonas, brazil.while much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. in this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. given ...201425130367
concept learning set-size functions for clark's nutcrackers.same/different abstract-concept learning by clark's nutcrackers (nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). the resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (cebus apella), and pigeons (columba livia). nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (magnotti, katz, ...201626615450
enamel thickness and microstructure in pitheciin primates, with comments on dietary adaptations of the middle miocene hominoid kenyapithecus.many living primates that feed on hard food have been observed to have thick-enameled molars. among platyrrhine primates, members of the tribe pitheciini (cacajao, chiropotes, and pithecia) are the most specialized seed and nut predators, and cebus apella also includes exceptionally hard foods in its diet. to examine the hypothesized relationship between thick enamel and hard-object feeding, we sectioned small samples of molars from the platyrrhine primates aotus trivergatus, ateles paniscus, ca ...200314624746
age-related variation in the mechanical properties of foods processed by sapajus libidinosus.the diet of tufted capuchins (sapajus) is characterized by annual or seasonal incorporation of mechanically protected foods. reliance on these foods raises questions about the dietary strategies of young individuals that lack strength and experience to access these resources. previous research has demonstrated differences between the feeding competencies of adult and juvenile tufted capuchins. here we test the hypothesis that, compared to adults, juveniles will process foods with lower toughness ...201626381730
[wildlife damage mitigation in agricultural crops in a bolivian montane forest].wildlife is often blamed for causing damage to human activities, including agricultural practices and the result may be a conflict between human interests and species conservation. a formal assessment of the magnitude of damage is necessary to adequately conduct management practices and an assessment of the efficiency of different management practices is necessary to enable managers to mitigate the conflict with rural people. this study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultur ...201425720183
the instantaneous center of rotation of the mandible in nonhuman primates.kinematic analyses of mandibular movement in humans demonstrate that the mandibular instantaneous center of rotation (icor) is commonly located near the level of the occlusal plane and varies in its position during a chewing sequence. few data are available regarding the location of the icor in nonhuman primates and it remains unclear how the position of the icor varies in association with mastication and/or gape behaviors. icor was quantified throughout the gape cycle in five species of nonhuma ...201121622946
day/night expression of mt1 and mt2 receptors in hypothalamic nuclei of the primate sapajus apella.melatonin is involved in the temporal organization of several physiological and behavioral events, controlled by hypothalamic nuclei, like sleep, feeding, reproduction and metabolic modulation and acts through two types of high-affinity g protein-coupled membrane receptors: mt1 and mt2. this study aimed to investigate the expression of mt1 and mt2 receptors proteins in four hypothalamic nuclei, i.e., scn, supraoptic (son), paraventricular (pvn) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (avpv), of ...201728159659
temporal changes in calcium-binding proteins in the medial geniculate nucleus of the monkey sapajus apella.the subdivisions of the medial geniculate complex can be distinguished based on the immunostaining of calcium-binding proteins and by the properties of the neurons within each subdivision. the possibility of changes in neurochemistry in this and other central auditory areas are important aspects to understand the basis that contributing to functional variations determined by environmental cycles or the animal's cycles of activity and rest. this study investigated, for the first time, day/night d ...201526222835
sequential organization and optimization of the nut-cracking behavior of semi-free tufted capuchin monkeys (sapajus sp.).stone-aided nut-cracking requires the coordination of three elements: the agent must assemble nuts, a "hammer" stone and an "anvil." under naturalistic settings, nut-cracking sites, constituted of anvil-like surfaces and already containing a hammer stone, can be fairly stable, lasting as long as the "hammer" stays in place. in an experiment with a semi-free-ranging group of tufted capuchin monkeys (sapajus sp.) we observed the behavioral sequences leading to nut-cracking. we positioned nuts, ham ...201626411435
mixed-species associations in cuxiús (genus chiropotes).polyspecific or mixed-species associations, where two or more species come together to forage and travel as a unit, have been reported in many primate species. these associations appear to offer a number of benefits to the species involved including increased foraging efficiency and decreased risk of predation. while several researchers have suggested that cuxiús (genus chiropotes) form mixed-species associations, previous studies have not identified the circumstances under which cuxiús form ass ...201626031994
social learning strategies for nut-cracking by tufted capuchin monkeys (sapajus spp.).the spontaneous use of stone tools for cracking nuts by tufted capuchin monkeys, now known to be habitual among wild populations in savanna environments, was first described in a semifree group living in the tietê ecological park (sp, brazil). nut-cracking at tep was first observed by our team in 1995 (ottoni and mannu in int j primatol 22(3):347-358, 2001), and its ontogeny and associated social dynamics, with inexperienced observers highly interested in the activities of proficient individuals ...201525800169
histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (cebus apella, linnaeus, 1758).a general analysis of the behaviour of "cebus" shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. this information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. considering the above, i ...201425627383
the primate seahorse rhythm.the main zeitgeber, the day-night cycle, synchronizes the central oscillator which determines behaviors rhythms as sleep-wake behavior, body temperature, the regulation of hormone secretion, and the acquisition and processing of memory. thus, actions such as acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval performed in the hippocampus are modulated by the circadian system and show a varied dependence on light and dark. to investigate changes in the hippocampus' cellular mechanism invoked by the day and ...201525862571
morphological tools for describing the male external genitalia of sapajus apella.sapajus apella is a wild monkey of south america distributed across almost all of brazil. this species adapts to domesticated life and reproduces easily. the present study describes the macro- and microscopic morphology of male genital organs (penis, penis bone, glans penis, prepuce, bulb of penis, and urethra) of sapajus apella. four male monkeys were used in this study. for macroscopic description, the genitals were dissected, examined and photographed. for microscopic analysis, samples were s ...201525660702
transferability of microsatellites for studies on the social behavior of the tufted capuchin monkey (genus sapajus).because of relevant results that indicated that molecular techniques can provide increased knowledge of animal social systems, they usually complement observational field studies. despite the great utility of microsatellites, they are not available for all species. gathering genetic information using microsatellites that were originally designed for other species is a time-saving procedure. the aim of this study was to test the transferability of microsatellites and their usefulness in studies o ...201425501201
dynamic of the cellular immune response at the dermal site of leishmania (l.) amazonensis and leishmania (v.) braziliensis infection in sapajus apella primate.the purpose of this study was to characterize the immunopathological response in the skin of s. apella infected with leishmania (l.) amazonensis and l. (v.) braziliensis parasites, the main causative agents of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in south america. in infected animals, amastigote forms of l. (l.) amazonensis could be detected till 120 days postinfection (pi), while, in l. (v.) braziliensis infection, parasites could be detected until 180 days pi in the skin sections. cd20(+) cells w ...201425309902
tufted capuchin monkeys (sapajus sp) learning how to crack nuts: does variability decline throughout development?we investigated the process of nut-cracking acquisition in a semi-free population of tufted capuchin monkeys (sapajus sp) in são paulo, brazil. we analyzed the cracking episodes from monkeys of different ages and found that variability of actions related to cracking declined. inept movements were more frequent in juveniles, which also showed an improvement on efficient striking. the most effective behavioral sequence for cracking was more frequently used by the most experienced monkeys, which al ...201425256161
morphological and morphometric description of female reproductive tract of sapajus apella (capuchin monkey).forest destruction has progressively hampered the survival of many species, and this is why it is so important to study of the lives of primates in captivity. this study aimed to describe the morphological aspects of the female reproductive tract of sapajus apella. we used five animals obtained from the national primate center, ananindeua - pa. the ovaries were paired, compact and symmetrical and had a smooth surface. the uterine tubes were bilateral and convoluted in adult animals and straight ...201525091087
goniometric evaluation of both forelimbs and hind limbs in two species of neotropical monkeys.the aim of this study was to evaluate the goniometric measurements of the forelimb and hind limb joints in two species of neotropical primates maintained in captivity.201425041440
efferent projections of the suprachiasmatic nucleus based on the distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) and arginine vasopressin (avp) immunoreactive fibers in the hypothalamus of sapajus apella.the suprachiasmatic nucleus (scn), which is considered to be the master circadian clock in mammals, establishes biological rhythms of approximately 24 h that several organs exhibit. one aspect relevant to the study of the neurofunctional features of biological rhythmicity is the identification of communication pathways between the scn and other brain areas. as a result, scn efferent projections have been investigated in several species, including rodents and a few primates. the fibers originatin ...201424727411
the protective effect of canova homeopathic medicine in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates.canova activates macrophages and indirectly induces lymphocyte proliferation. here we evaluated the effects of canova in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates.201222982473
mycoplasma sp. infection in captive marcgrave's capuchin monkeys (sapajus flavius).three species of hemoplasmas are known to infect monkeys, 'candidatus mycoplasma kahanei', 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomacaque' and 'candidatus mycoplasma aoti'. marcgrave's capuchin monkey (sapajus flavius) is a critically endangered neotropical primate species of the brazilian atlantic forest, and thus, sustained efforts are needed to protect the health and well-being of these animals. this study has aimed to screen 12 captive s. flavius from the state of paraíba, northeastern brazil, for hemo ...201728504092
molineus torulosus (nematoda, trichostrongylina, molineoidea) a parasite of neotropical primates: new morphological and histological data.molineus torulosus (molin, 1861) parasite of cebus spp. from south america is redescribed in cebus apella and c. olivecaeus (new host) from french guyana with emphasis on the synlophe. during the maturation process, the larvae dwelt in the cysts carved alongside the external part of the small intestine. the turn-out of the mature worms and the laid eggs depended on the tissular organisation of cyst walls as the inflammatory process waned and fibrosis progressed to seal the cystic lumen. adult wo ...200111304951
morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular characterization of intestinal tetratrichomonads isolated from non-human primates in southeastern brazil.non-human primates are our closest relatives and represent an interesting model for comparative parasitological studies. however, research on this topic particularly in relation to intestinal parasites has been fragmentary and limited mainly to animals held in captivity. thus, our knowledge of host-parasite relationships in this species-rich group of mammals could be considered rudimentary. the current study combined morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses to characterize isolates ...201728702802
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