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functional and adaptive significance of primate pads and claws: evidence from new world anthropoids.this study tests predicted morphoclines in fingertip morphology among four small-bodied (<1 kg) new world monkeys (saimiri sciureus, leontopithecus rosalia, callithrix jacchus, and saguinus oedipus) in order to test previous functional and adaptive explanations for the evolution of flattened nails, expanded apical pads, and grasping extremities within the order primates. small-bodied platyrrhines which frequently forage among small-diameter substrates are expected to possess 1) relatively expand ...19989637179
colitis and colon cancer in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) living wild in their natural habitat.the cotton-top tamarin is a nonhuman primate noted for susceptibility to juvenile onset colitis and subsequent colon cancer. about 80% develop colitis in captive environments outside the tropics. the aim was to determine the prevalence of colitis and colorectal cancer in tamarins living wild in their tropical habitat. endoscopic biopsy was used to compare severity of colitis, inflammatory/immune cell densities, mucosal dysplasia, and occurrence of cancer in wild tamarins in a tropical habitat wi ...19989690378
the cotton-top tamarin carries an extended semenogelin i gene but no semenogelin ii gene.previous studies have shown that the predominant proteins secreted by the seminal vesicles are transglutaminase substrates which have undergone major structural alterations during evolution. in man, they are known as semenogelin i and ii; recently it was shown that, similar to man, several new world and old world monkeys carry two semenogelin genes as well, the exception being the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) with a single gene. this gene has now been cloned and identified as a semenoge ...19989692899
chemical communication of reproductive status in female cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).among callitrichids, scent secretions have been identified as carrying information regarding species, subspecies, gender, social status, individuality, hormonal status, and timing of ovulation. we propose that information regarding familiarity and reproductive status is also communicated. seven male-female pairs of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) were presented with several drops of distilled water, a scent secretion from the female of that pair, scent secretions from unfamiliar, ...19989702280
description of a new kind of mhc dna sequence in saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin).the mhc class i genes of the new world primate the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) are an exception to the high polymorphism and variability usually displayed by this multigene family. in the present work, the cloning and sequencing of a new pseudogene, tentatively named saoe-mhc-n4, in this primate species are reported. this new sequence has two characteristic deletions at exon 2, making it very unlikely that any putative protein from this sequence was an antigen-presenting molecule. comp ...19989777328
novel intestinal helicobacter species isolated from cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) with chronic colitis.a disease similar to ulcerative colitis in humans has been identified in cotton-top tamarins (ctts) in captivity. the clinical signs include weight loss, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding with the pathological features and biochemical abnormalities of ulcerative colitis. approximately 25 to 40% of these animals develop colon cancer after 2 to 5 years of captivity. an infectious etiology has been proposed; however, no microbial agent to date has been identified. helicobacter spp. have been associated ...19999854080
mhc class i genes in a new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), have evolved by an active process of loci turnover.lymphocytes of a new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), express classical g-related major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i molecules with unusually limited polymorphism and variability. three g-related loci, an f locus, an e locus, and two pseudogenes (so-n1 and so-n3) have been identified by cdna library screening and extensive pcr analysis of both cdna and genomic dna from the cotton-top tamarin. furthermore, each genus of the subfamily callitrichinae (tamarins a ...19999914333
description of two mhc-c-related sequences in the new world monkey saguinus oedipus.two new mhc class i partial exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, intron 2 and partial exon 3 dna sequences from the new world monkey saguinus oedipus (saoe) are described. these two sequences show certain mhc-c sequence-specific changes. the only difference between these two new sequences is a productive substitution at position 152 [gcg (ala)-->gag (glu)]. this change occurs in a position which in mhc classical class i molecules affects the interaction between the peptide and the t-cell receptor. a dendro ...19989949946
problem solving and functional design features: experiments on cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus oedipus.in any problem-solving situation, there are features associated with the problem that are relevant from a functional perspective and other features that are irrelevant. to determine whether animals are sensitive to the distinction between functionally relevant and irrelvant features of a problem, we conducted two main experiments with a new world monkey, the cotton-top tamarin. in the first condition of both experiments, subjects were required to pull a piece of cloth to gain access to a piece o ...199910196046
three different mhc class i molecules bind the same ctl epitope of the influenza virus in a primate species with limited mhc class i diversity.one of the most remarkable features of the mhc class i loci of most outbred mammalian populations is their exceptional diversity, yet the functional importance of this diversity remains to be fully understood. the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) is unusual in having mhc class i loci that exhibit both limited polymorphism and sequence variation. to investigate the functional implications of limited mhc class i diversity in this outbred primate species, we infected five tamarins with influen ...199910201917
gastrointestinal tumors observed in nonhuman primates at the german primate center.twenty-six gastrointestinal tumors were observed in twenty-three nonhuman primates during routine necropsies at the german primate center, göttingen. the majority (15 cases) were colorectal mucoid adenocarcinomas in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus), which in two animals were associated with gastric adenomas. three cases of small intestinal mucoid adenocarcinomas occurred in common marmosets (callithrix jacchus). one colonic leiomyoma was observed in a dwarf galago (galagoides demidovii) an ...199810203013
herpesvirus ateles gene product tio interacts with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases.herpesvirus ateles is a gamma-2-herpesvirus which naturally infects spider monkeys (ateles spp.) and causes malignant lymphoproliferative disorders in various other new world primates. the genomic sequence of herpesvirus ateles strain 73 revealed a close relationship to herpesvirus saimiri, with a high degree of variability within the left terminus of the coding region. a spliced mrna transcribed from this region was detected in new world monkey t-cell lines transformed by herpesvirus ateles in ...199910233922
major histocompatibility complex class ii polymorphisms in primates.in the past decade, the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii region of several primate species has been investigated extensively. here we will discuss the similarities and differences found in the mhc class ii repertoires of primate species including humans, chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets. such types of comparisons shed light on the evolutionary stability of mhc class ii alleles, lineages and loci as well as on the evolutionary origin and biolog ...199910319272
perseveration, inhibition and the prefrontal cortex: a new look.perseverative actions are often the result of inhibitory problems; however, inhibitory problems do not always lead to perseverative actions. some problems of inhibition have been attributed to immaturity of, or severe damage to, the prefrontal cortex. research in this area has generally failed both to take into account species differences in prefrontal function that lead to different perseverative errors and to distinguish between perseverative errors that arise from a failure to inhibit salient ...199910322177
costs of infant-carrying in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).infant-carrying behavior among callitrichids seems to be a costly activity. costs have been related to the physical efforts of carrying the weight of very heavy infants and to the resulting reduction in foraging efficiency. however, the costs of carrying in terms of the physical consequences for carriers have not previously been assessed. in this study, we have regarded weight loss in infant carriers as a measure of costs. we studied five families of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) during ...199910333430
new world, but not old world, monkeys carry several genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein.it was shown by southern hybridization that cotton-top tamarin and common marmoset, new world monkeys, carry three or more genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein, also known as psp94. in contrast, the genomes of old world monkeys, as represented by rhesus macaque and sacred baboon, contain a single gene. clones containing three different genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein were isolated from a cotton-top tamarin genomic library. they carry two complete genes of four exons and a third gene lac ...199910491085
in vivo models for epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated b cell lymphoproliferative disease (blpd).ebv infects b lymphocytes in vivo and establishes a life-long persistent infection in the host. the latent infection is controlled by ebv-specific mhc class 1-restricted ctl. immunosuppression reduces ctl activity, and this facilitates outgrowth of ebv+ve b cell lymphoproliferative disease (blpd). blpd are aggressive lesions with high mortality. this review presents some key facets in the development of ebv-associated blpd and in vivo studies on its pathogenesis. the animal models used to date i ...199910578121
the effects of social status on food-associated calling behaviour in captive cotton-top tamarins.we examined the effects of social environment on food-asociated calling of cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus, in two experiments. in experiment 1, we compared the food-associated calling behaviour of six juvenile tamarins living in their natal groups with their calling behaviour 9 months after being removed from family groups and paired. in experiment 2, we studied food-associated calling behaviour of nine cotton-top tamarins immediately before and after removal from their natal groups and p ...199910600153
species-specific tt viruses and cross-species infection in nonhuman primates.viruses resembling human tt virus (ttv) were searched for in sera from nonhuman primates by pcr with primers deduced from well-conserved areas in the untranslated region. ttv dna was detected in 102 (98%) of 104 chimpanzees, 9 (90%) of 10 japanese macaques, 4 (100%) of 4 red-bellied tamarins, 5 (83%) of 6 cotton-top tamarins, and 5 (100%) of 5 douroucoulis tested. analysis of the amplification products of 90 to 106 nucleotides revealed ttv dna sequences specific for each species, with a decreasi ...200010627523
hormones associated with non-maternal infant care: a review of mammalian and avian studies.hormonal changes during non-maternal infant care have been demonstrated in many cooperatively breeding bird species, some monogamous rodents and two species of new world primates. coevolution of hormones and social traits may have provided for the different breeding systems that occur today. several hormones have been shown to covary with the breeding systems of vertebrates. elevated levels of the hormone prolactin with male parenting behaviours are common to many birds, rodents and the callitri ...200010686483
prolactin levels of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in common marmosets, callithrix jacchus.previous studies have suggested that prolactin may play a role in regulating allocare behaviour in cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus. in this study, we investigate the prolactin profile of 3 groups of captive common marmosets, callithrix jacchus. carrying behaviour in this species was observed after parturition. prolactin assays of blood samples of both fathers and helpers (sub-adult non-fathers) in 3 family groups were taken for 8 weeks before and after birth of the infants. the after-birth ...200610686484
evidence that colitis is initiated by environmental stress and sustained by fecal factors in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).parallel changes in spontaneously occurring inflammation in colonic thiry-vella loops and the in-line colon of cotton-top tamarins were studied in a colitis-inducing environment at 8 and 15 months following surgical preparation of the loops. gross disease severity and numbers of inflammatory/immune cells per unit area of lamina propria in histological sections from endoscopic biopsies were analyzed. cell counts and severity of colitis declined over time in the thiry-villa loops while the disease ...200010711456
an unusual insertion in intron 2 of apparently functional mhc class i alleles in rhesus macaques.here we describe a nucleotide insertion in intron 2 of two rhesus major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i alleles, mamu-a*05 and mamu-a*07. this resulted in an intron 2 that was nearly twice the length of any other intron 2 of primate mhc class i genes sequenced to date. this insertion was most similar (93% identity) to the beginning of intron 3 of hla-a alleles. it was also similar to intron 3 of several human mhc class i pseudogenes and mhc class i pseudogenes from cotton top tamarin an ...200010746787
adrenal gland tumours in two cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).two adrenal gland tumours in captive born cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) are described. one was a pheochromocytoma in a 14-year-old male, the other one a cortical adenoma in a 7.5-year-old female. both were associated with morphological signs of myocardial damage and circulatory problems. the findings are discussed and compared to adrenal gland tumours in man.200010759374
language discrimination by human newborns and by cotton-top tamarin monkeys.humans, but no other animal, make meaningful use of spoken language. what is unclear, however, is whether this capacity depends on a unique constellation of perceptual and neurobiological mechanisms or whether a subset of such mechanisms is shared with other organisms. to explore this problem, parallel experiments were conducted on human newborns and cotton-top tamarin monkeys to assess their ability to discriminate unfamiliar languages. a habituation-dishabituation procedure was used to show th ...200010764650
new world monkey pepsinogens a and c, and prochymosins. purification, characterization of enzymatic properties, cdna cloning, and molecular evolution.pepsinogens a and c, and prochymosin were purified from four species of adult new world monkeys, namely, common marmoset (callithrix jacchus), cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), and capuchin monkey (cebus apella). the occurrence of prochymosin was quite unique since this zymogen is known to be neonate-specific and, in primates, it has been thought that the prochymosin gene is not functional. no multiple form has been detected for any type of pepsinogen exc ...200010788784
binding of hepatitis c virus e2 glycoprotein to cd81 does not correlate with species permissiveness to infection.hepatitis c virus (hcv) glycoprotein e2 binds to human cells by interacting with the cd81 molecule, which has been proposed to be the viral receptor. a correlation between binding to cd81 and species permissiveness to hcv infection has also been reported. we have determined the sequence of cd81 from the tamarin, a primate species known to be refractory to hcv infection. tamarin cd81 (t-cd81) differs from the human molecule at 5 amino acid positions (155, 163, 169, 180, and 196) within the large ...200010846074
gonadal source of testosterone metabolites in urine of male cotton-top tamarin monkeys (saguinus oedipus).examining gonadal function in the small excitable cotton-top tamarin monkey (saguinus oedipus) requires noninvasive sampling techniques. two studies were performed to identify the quantifiable urinary metabolites of testosterone in cotton-top tamarins and which of the measurable metabolites would best reflect a gonadal source of testosterone secretion. in the first study, we injected unlabeled testosterone i.m. in males at either 500-ng or 1-microg levels. urine samples were analyzed for androge ...200010890572
carcinoembryonic antigen family of adhesion molecules in the cotton top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).humans and the cotton top tamarin, a model for colitis and colorectal cancer, share carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) moieties. we quantified cea in colonic washings and extracts in both, and cea bands were confirmed by western blot. we compared cea-family expression in tissues and serum in the tamarin with that of the common marmoset, which develops colitis but not cancer. cea levels are higher in tamarin washings compared with humans, and higher than in marmosets extracts (p<0.005). cea molecular ...200010893441
measurement of scrotum and testis size of unrestrained captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).reproduction is restricted to a small number of animals within both captive and wild groups of callitrichid monkeys (marmosets and tamarins). sexual development of nonbreeding group members might differ from that of active breeders. measurements of physical growth typically involve animal handling. however, capture and restraint of callitrichid monkeys can disrupt natural behaviors and physiology. this study introduces a method for estimating size of external genitalia by measuring frontal scrot ...200010902667
sequence and diversity of mhc dqa and dqb genes of the owl monkey aotus nancymaae.the new world primate aotus nancymaae has been recommended by the world health organization (who) as a model for evaluation of malaria vaccine candidates, given its susceptibility to experimental infection with the human malaria parasites plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax. we present here the nucleotide sequences of the complete cdna of mhc-dqa1 and of the polymorphic exon 2 segments of mhc-dqb1/dqb2. in a group of three nonrelated animals captured in the wild, five alleles of mhc-dqa1 ...200010912504
molecular and cytogenetic analysis of lymphoblastoid and colon cancer cell lines from cotton-top tamarin (sagiunus oedipus).the cotton-top tamarin (ctt) (sagiunus oedipus) has been used as an animal model to investigate the etiology and pathophysiology of several human diseases, including ulcerative colitis and its associated colorectal carcinoma (crc). little is known, however, about genetic synteny between ctt and humans, and about chromosome aberrations in ctt crc. to address these issues, we have analyzed ctt lymphoblastoid and crc cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (zoo-fish), and ...200010913670
prolactin levels during the periparturitional period in the biparental cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus): interactions with gender, androgen levels, and parenting.unlike biparental bird and rodent species, mating and parenting occur simultaneously in cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus, providing a unique model for examining endocrine interactions. this study was designed to determine the relationship of prolactin to testicular androgens during parenting and mating. specifically we examined (1) the patterns of postpartum prolactin excretion in male and female tamarins with and without infant survival; (2) the relationship between androgen and prolactin ...200010964525
the phonetic potential of nonhuman vocal tracts: comparative cineradiographic observations of vocalizing animals.for more than a century it has been noted that the adult human vocal tract differs from that of other mammals, in that the resting position of the larynx is much lower in humans. while animals habitually breathe with the larynx inserted into the nasal cavity, adult humans are unable to do this. this anatomical difference has been cited as an important factor limiting the vocal potential of nonhuman animals, because the low larynx of humans allows a wider range of vocal tract shapes and thus form ...200010992141
preparental hormone levels and parenting experience in male cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus.male cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus, display hormonal changes associated with parenting prior to the birth of their infants. here we examined the hormonal changes that occurred in experienced and inexperienced fathers during the postconception period, prior to the birth of infants. noninvasive techniques were used to collect urine from 10 male cotton-top tamarins (5 experienced and 5 inexperienced breeders) three times weekly during the 6-month gestation period. samples were analyzed for ...200011038290
segmentation of the speech stream in a non-human primate: statistical learning in cotton-top tamarins.previous work has shown that human adults, children, and infants can rapidly compute sequential statistics from a stream of speech and then use these statistics to determine which syllable sequences form potential words. in the present paper we ask whether this ability reflects a mechanism unique to humans, or might be used by other species as well, to acquire serially organized patterns. in a series of four experimental conditions, we exposed a new world monkey, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus ...200111124355
comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates.this study examines behavioral affective reactions elicited by tastes from eight newborn human infants, and from 27 other infant or adult primates. non-human primates belonged to 11 species: three great apes (chimpanzee, orangutan, gorilla), three old world monkeys (rhesus monkey, greater spot-nosed monkey, and red-capped mangabey), four new world monkeys (golden-handed tamarin, cotton-top tamarin, white tufted-ear marmoset, and humboldt's night monkey), and one lemur (mongoose lemur). the taste ...200111166078
reproductive biology of captive male cottontop tamarin monkeys as a function of social environment.the cottontop tamarin, saguinus oedipus oedipus, is a cooperatively breeding monkey in which mature male and female offspring serve as helpers to assist in rearing younger siblings. generally, only one female per social group reproduces; breeding restriction is mediated in postpubertal female offspring through low and acyclic levels of reproductive hormones. we investigated (1) reproductive activity of postpubertal male offspring, and (2) whether aggression towards male offspring and a cortisol- ...200111170697
glandular kallikreins of the cotton-top tamarin: molecular cloning of the gene encoding the tissue kallikrein.the glandular kallikrein family is composed of structurally related serine proteases. studies show that the mouse family encompasses at least 14 highly conserved functional genes, but of these only the tissue kallikarein has a human ortholog. in man, the tissue kallikrein display high sequence similarity with prostate specific antigen and human glandular kallikrein 2, suggesting that they evolved after the separation of primates and rodents. a phylogenetic study of the genes encoding glandular k ...200011177570
cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) fail to show mirror-guided self-exploration.to investigate the problem of inter- and intraspecific differences on the mirror test, we conducted two experiments on cotton-top tamarins. experiment 1 employed a technique similar to one used recently on chimpanzees, and provided no evidence of mirror-mediated touching of the marked area. in a control condition, involving colored dye applied to one arm, two subjects also failed to show self-directed touching, even though they clearly looked at their newly dyed arm. under these test conditions, ...200111253848
gastrointestinal tract antigenic profile of cotton-top tamarin, saguinus oedipus, is similar to that of humans with inflammatory bowel disease.as an animal model for human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, the cotton-top tamarin remains controversial. demonstration of antigenic similarity to the human would enhance its validity. using colonic extracts and washings, we compared binding of seven monoclonal antibodies reactive with bowel and cancer antigens in both tamarins and humans with inflammatory bowel disease. additionally, telomerase activity was tested for. expression of a mucin antigen specific to human cancer wa ...200011258547
the units of perception in the antiphonal calling behavior of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus): playback experiments with long calls.we investigated how the acoustic structure of the cotton-top tamarin monkey's (saguinus oedipus) combination long call relates to the antiphonal calling behavior of conspecifics. combination long calls can function as contact calls and are produced by socially isolated individuals. often conspecifics respond to these calls with their own long calls. structurally, these calls are always composed of one or more 'chirps' followed by two or more 'whistles'. we compared the antiphonal calling respons ...200111318375
cloning, sequencing, and functional characterization of the vitamin d receptor in vitamin d-resistant new world primates.new world primates (nwps) have high circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (1,25-(oh)2d) levels. comparable levels would be harmful to old world primates (owps) and humans. thus, nwps must have developed mechanisms of 1,25-(oh)2d resistance to survive. in humans, patients with hypocalcemic vitamin d-resistant rickets type ii have high circulating vitamin d levels and vitamin d resistance due to expression of a dysfunctional vitamin d receptor (vdr). to examine if this could wholly or in part explai ...200111376448
identification and treatment of moniliformis clarki (acanthocephala) in cotton-topped tamarins (saguinus oedipus).ten cotton-topped tamarins (saguinus oedipus) were infected with moniliformis clarki a parasitic acanthocephalan. one animal died of intestinal perforation and peritonitis before treatment was initiated. five of the remaining tamarins were treated successfully with oral albendazole at either 50 mg/kg b.i.d. for 16 days or 100 mg/kg b.i.d. for 3 days, then repeated biweekly for four treatments. a less-intensive treatment regime of 50 mg/kg albendazole orally s.i.d. for 3 days and monthly repeated ...200011428397
parental failure in captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).several new world monkey species experience high rates of infant mortality in captivity, and parental failure in the form of infant neglect and abuse is often regarded as one of the leading causes of this problem. we explored a large archival database to assess environmental, familial, and biological variables identified as significant for parental success in previous studies of captive tamarins, through several generations and across several dozen pedigrees. using a stepwise multiple regression ...200111443631
what guides a search for food that has disappeared? experiments on cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).when food is launched down a vertically positioned s-shaped opaque tube, cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) search for the food in the position directly beneath the release point, even though over several trials it never appears in this position (b. m. hood et al., 1999). experiment 1 showed that when the trajectory of the food shifts from the vertical to the horizontal plane, tamarins no longer show systematic perseverative errors and, in general, perform better on this invisible displaceme ...200111459161
semenogelin ii gene is replaced by a truncated line 1 repeat in the cotton-top tamarin.the human seminal vesicles secrete two proteins, semenogelin i and semenogelin ii, at very high concentrations. it has previously been shown that the cotton-top tamarin (sanguinus oedipus), a new world monkey, is lacking the semenogelin ii gene. we have now determined the nucleotide sequence of dna located 5--13 kilobases (kb) downstream of the tamarin semenogelin i gene---a region that in man is occupied by the semenogelin ii gene. two regions with homology to the human semenogelin ii gene were ...200111466209
callitrichid nutrition and food sensitivity.captive callitrichids are prone to developing intestinal problems. their captive and natural diets differ enormously, and diet has been suggested to play a major role in wasting marmoset syndrome. proteins in wheat, soy and milk are included in callitrichid diets of most colonies and have been linked to an immune reaction in saguinus oedipus and callithrix jacchus. in the present study of 23 males and females of the two species, wheat protein was tested but soy and milk products were excluded. o ...200111515674
enteropathogenic escherichia coli and ulcerative colitis in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).the cotton-top tamarin (ctt; saguinus oedipus) is an endangered new world primate that develops a highly prevalent idiopathic colitis resembling human ulcerative colitis. this study found that enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) caused acute colitis in ctts, which was associated with ulcerative colitis. epec clinical isolates revealed localized adherence patterns by hep-2 assay and were devoid of shiga-toxin production. sequencing of the eae gene (genbank accession no. af319597) revealed 99 ...200111517446
spontaneous representation of number in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).the "violation of expectancy" looking-time methodology has proven a powerful tool for exploring prelinguistic mental representations in human infants as well as in nonhuman primates. four studies applying this methodology to the question of spontaneous number representations in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) are reported here. monkeys were shown 1 + 1 events in which objects were placed behind a screen, 1 by 1. the screen was removed, revealing consistent (2 objects) and inconsistent (1, ...200111594494
the production and perception of long calls by cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus): acoustic analyses and playback experiments.the authors' goal was to provide a better understanding of the relationship between vocal production and perception in nonhuman primate communication. to this end, the authors examined the cotton-top tamarin's (saguinus oedipus) combination long call (clc). in part 1 of this study, the authors carried out a series of acoustic analyses designed to determine the kind of information potentially encoded in the tamarin's clc. using factorial analyses of variance and multiple discriminant analyses, th ...200111594495
overexpression of the fk506-binding immunophilin fkbp51 is the common cause of glucocorticoid resistance in three new world primates.many new world primates have high circulating levels of cortisol to compensate for the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (grs) with low activity. recent work in squirrel monkeys has suggested that this may be due to either the expression of grs that are transcriptionally incompetent or the expression of an fk506-binding immunophilin that inhibits gr binding. the goal of this study was to resolve this controversy by determining the molecular basis of glucocorticoid resistance not only in spe ...200111703081
an extensive monoclonal antibody panel for the phenotyping of leukocyte subsets in the common marmoset and the cotton-top tamarin.new world monkeys are valuable animal models to study human diseases. to determine the phenotype of cells involved in immune responses, we used flow cytometry to screen a large panel of anti-human monoclonal antibodies (mab) for cross-reactivity with cells of the common marmoset and the cotton-top tamarin. certain antigens (e.g., cd2, cd8, cd20) are well conserved. however, cd10, cd23, and cd33 showed a clear discrepancy in their reaction patterns in both species, indicating that significant dif ...200111746099
molecular cytogenetic characterization of the ebv-producing cell line b95-8 (saguinus oedipus, platyrrhini) by chromosome sorting and painting.the cell line b95-8 releases epstein-barr virus (ebv) with high titres of transforming activity and is widely used as a model in cancer research and virology. there are, however, controversial reports about the species of origin, cell line stability and karyotype. to address these questions, b95-8 chromosomes were analysed by chromosome sorting and painting by multicolour fluorescence in-situ hybridization. reciprocal painting was performed between b95-8, 'wildtype' new world monkey and human ch ...200111778691
neonatal and pubertal development in males of a cooperatively breeding primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus).in cooperatively breeding groups of mammals, reproduction is usually restricted to a small number of individuals within the social group. sexual development of mammals can be affected by social environment, but we know little regarding effects of the cooperative-breeding system on males. cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus) offspring typically do not reproduce in their natal group, even though they may be physically mature. we examined neonatal and pubertal development in captive male c ...200211804940
tracking responses related to self-recognition: a frequency comparison of responses to mirrors, photographs, and videotapes by cotton top tamanins (saguinus oedipus).the frequency of responses cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) emitted indicative of self-recognition to a mirror was compared with the frequencies of responses emitted to digitized photographs of tamarins (experiment 1) and to videotapes of real-time or prior tamarin action (experiment 2). results indicated more attentional responses toward the mirror in both studies, but behavioral indices of self-recognition were not consistently generated by the mirror. the 2 experiments confirmed that re ...200111824907
the nucleotide sequences of the parathyroid gene in primates (suborder anthropoidea).nucleotide sequences of the parathyroid (pth) gene of 12 species of primates belonging to suborder anthropoidea were examined. the pth gene contains one intron that separates two exons that code the sequence of prepro and pth, respectively. the intron of the pth gene in cebus apella, callithrix jacchus, and saguinus oedipus was 102 bp long, whereas a 103-bp intron was observed in the remaining species. phylogenetic analysis using the nucleotide sequences of pth revealed that these 12 species of ...200211825036
brackiella oedipodis gen. nov., sp. nov., gram-negative, oxidase-positive rods that cause endocarditis of cotton-topped tamarin (saguinus oedipus).a gram-negative, oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the heart of a cotton-topped tamarin was characterized by 16s rdna sequence analysis, sds-page of whole-cell proteins, fatty acid analysis and biochemical tests. outer-membrane proteins, iron-regulated outer-membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides and siderophore production were studied. on the basis of the results, the organism belongs to the beta-proteobacteria where it forms a separate line of descent, for which a novel genu ...200211837301
molecular cytotaxonomy of new world monkeys (platyrrhini) - comparative analysis of five species by multi-color chromosome painting gives evidence for a classification of callimico goeldii within the family of callitrichidae.chromosome rearrangements are considered as "rare genomic changes" and can provide useful markers and even landmarks for reconstructing phylogenies complementary to dna sequence data and bio-morphological comparisons. here, we applied multi-directional chromosome painting to reconstruct the chromosome phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among the new world monkey (platyrrhini) species callithrix argentata, cebuella pygmaea, saguinus oedipus, callithrix jacchus and callimico goeldii. the res ...200111856883
campylobacter-induced enteritis and diarrhea in captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) during the first year of life.a prospective study of 43 cotton-top tamarins, from infancy to 6 to 17 months of age, was conducted to determine the epidemiology of campylobacter spp. infection. nine infants followed for one year in an isolation unit, where attendants wore protective clothing, did not become infected. in the main facility where 32 of 34 animals had repeated infections with c. coli, 6% of the infections developed initially in incubators, 66% in the nursery room, and 28% after transfer to the main colony. fiftee ...200111924782
use of experimenter-given cues in visual co-orienting and in an object-choice task by a new world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).two methods assessed the use of experimenter-given directional cues by a new world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus). experiment 1 used cues to elicit visual co-orienting toward distal objects. experiment 2 used cues to generate responses in an object-choice task. although there were strong positive correlations between monkey pairs to co-orient, visual co-orienting with a human experimenter occurred at a low frequency to distal objects. human hand pointing cues generated mo ...200211926682
the relationship between problem solving and inhibitory control: cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) performance on a reversed contingency task.to explore the relationship between problem solving and inhibitory control, the authors present 4 experiments on cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) using a reverse-reward contingency task. in experiment 1, 1 group of tamarins was given a choice between a small and a large quantity of food. whichever quantity the tamarins reached for first, they received the alternative. the tamarins consistently picked the larger quantity, thereby receiving the smaller. a 2nd group of tamarins was given the ...200211926684
why do cotton-top tamarin female helpers carry infants? a preliminary study.shortly after giving birth, cotton-top tamarin mothers frequently attack the eldest female helpers [snowdon et al., american journal of primatology 31:11-21, 1993]. sometimes this aggression leads to the eviction of the eldest daughters from their natal groups 3-4 months after the birth of infants [price & mcgrew, folia primatologica 57:16-27, 1991]. we propose that daughters, during the act of carrying infants, may receive less aggression from mothers than when they are not carrying. on the oth ...200211977126
three spontaneous lymphomas in a colony of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).cotton-top tamarins are well known for their prevalence to idiopathic colitis and adenocarcinomas. at the same time, information on the incidence of spontaneous lymphomas in this highly endangered species is rare. records, 212 in total, of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) necropsied at the german primate centre between 1979 and 1998 were viewed to establish the prevalence of lymphoid neoplasms. neoplastic lymphoid cell growth was mentioned in three necropsy records. immunohistology was per ...200111990532
arboreal locomotion in small new-world monkeys.the postural and locomotor activity and its relation to substrates was observed in 3 saguinus oedipus, and 3 saimiri sciureus for comparison, during a period of 10 h for each individual. the animals moved freely in cages of 3.40 m x 3.40 m x 2.40 m (height) on rather diverse substrates. observations were made according to the focal-animal-method, with combined instantaneous and continuous sampling. they were protocoled in schematic form and video-recorded. in addition, 3 further saguinus oedipus ...200212050896
attachment and social preferences in cooperatively-reared cotton-top tamarins.in many primate species a close attachment between mother and infant provides a secure base for the infant when the infant is frightened or under stress. in cooperatively breeding primates infant carrying is divided among several individuals in the group, with the mother often doing little more than nursing. in these species it is not clear which individual would best serve as a secure base for the infant. we studied eight infant cotton-top tamarins from birth through 20 weeks of age, noting who ...200212111679
sequence and expression of mhc-dpb1 molecules of the new world monkey aotus nancymaae, a primate model for plasmodium falciparum.aotus nancymaae represents an animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of blood-stage vaccine candidates against plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax. we present here the nucleotide sequences of exon 2 and 3 of mhc-dpb1 genes. in a group of seven unrelated animals captured in the wild, three alleles of mhc-dpb1 exon 2 could be identified. phylogenetic analysis shows that in contrast to aona- drb and - dqb, the aona-dpb1exon 2 amino acid sequences cluster in a species-specific manner. n ...200212136336
housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories: adaptations allowing essential species-specific behaviour.during the last two decades an increasing amount of attention has been paid to the housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories, as has been done with the housing and care of other categories of captive animals. the purpose of this review is to develop recommendations for adaptations of housing and care from our knowledge of the daily behavioural activity of monkeys and apes in natural conditions and in enriched laboratory conditions. this review deals mainly with adaptations of daily ho ...200212144737
rule learning by cotton-top tamarins.previous work suggests that human infants are capable of rapidly generalizing patterns that have been characterized as abstract algebraic rules (science 283 (1999) 77), a process that may play a pivotal role in language acquisition. here we explore whether this capacity is uniquely human and evolved specifically for the computational problems associated with language, or whether this mechanism is shared with other species, and therefore evolved for problems other than language. we used the same ...200212208654
spontaneous number discrimination of multi-format auditory stimuli in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).studies using operant training have demonstrated that laboratory animals can discriminate the number of objects or events based on either auditory or visual stimuli, as well as the integration of both auditory and visual modalities. to date, studies of spontaneous number discrimination in untrained animals have been restricted to the visual modality, leaving open the question of whether such capacities generalize to other modalities such as audition. to explore the capacity to spontaneously disc ...200212435536
survey of tuberculin testing in swedish zoos.tuberculin test results from 214 animals in three swedish zoos, tested between the years 1993 and 2000, were compiled from a questionnaire sent out to zoo veterinarians. comparative testing with bovine and avian tuberculin was used on various sites of injection. a total of five skin test reactors were found: three cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in one zoo and two tapirs (tapirus terrestris) in another zoo. postmortem culture from one of the tapirs revealed growth of mycobacterium tubercu ...200212564537
the phylogeny of howler monkeys (alouatta, platyrrhini): reconstruction by multicolor cross-species chromosome painting.we performed multidirectional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three howler monkey species alouatta fusca, a. caraya and a. seniculus macconnelli (atelinae, platyrrhini) in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this genus. comparative genome maps between these species were established by multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the three species includ ...200212575795
are subordinates always stressed? a comparative analysis of rank differences in cortisol levels among primates.among primate species there is pronounced variation in the relationship between social status and measures of stress physiology. an informal meta-analysis was designed to investigate the basis of this diversity across different primate societies. species were included only if a substantial amount of published information was available regarding both social behavior and rank-related differences in stress physiology. four old world and three new world species met these criteria, including societie ...200312614636
a test of object permanence in a new-world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).cotton top tamarins were tested in visible and invisible displacement tasks in a method similar to that used elsewhere to test squirrel monkeys and orangutans. all subjects performed at levels significantly above chance on visible ( n=8) and invisible ( n=7) displacements, wherein the tasks included tests of the perseverance error, tests of memory in double and triple displacements, and "catch" trials that tested for the use of the experimenter's hand as a cue for the correct cup. performance on ...200312658533
the use of prosodic cues in language discrimination tasks by rats.recent research with cotton-top tamarin monkeys has revealed language discrimination abilities similar to those found in human infants, demonstrating that these perceptual abilities are not unique to humans but are also present in non-human primates. specifically, tamarins could discriminate forward but not backward sentences of dutch from japanese, using both natural and synthesized utterances. the present study was designed as a conceptual replication of the work on tamarins. results show that ...200312728358
representing tools: how two non-human primate species distinguish between the functionally relevant and irrelevant features of a tool.few studies have examined whether non-human tool-users understand the properties that are relevant for a tool's function. we tested cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) on an expectancy violation procedure designed to assess whether these species make distinctions between the functionally relevant and irrelevant features of a tool. subjects watched an experimenter use a tool to push a grape down a ramp, and then were presented with different displays in whi ...200312736800
interruptibility of long call production in tamarins: implications for vocal control.vocal production can be highly deterministic, such that once the central nervous system generates a signal to call, the vocalization is emitted immune to external events. conversely, vocal production can be modulated by auditory feedback such that interference or disruption can cause an individual to stop calling or, if it continues to call, for the acoustic morphology of the signal to change. to explore which of these models best accounts for the control of vocal production in non-human primate ...200312819269
social communication about unpalatable foods in tamarins (saguinus oedipus).many monkeys show social facilitation in sampling novel, palatable foods but not in avoiding unpalatable foods. cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) socially learned to avoid a preferred food when it was made unpalatable but showed no aversion toward a food not made unpalatable. only 33% sampled unpalatable tuna, and few sampled it again. in 3 of 8 groups, the socially induced aversion was long lasting, at least 15 weeks after food was made palatable again. potential cues include facial reacti ...200312856784
experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease.the etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) remains unsolved, but improved experimental models of enterocolitis have led to progress. intestinal inflammation and experimental ibd can be induced by chemical or dietary factors or by microbial products. many animal models of ibd can be used to evaluate new anti-inflammatory drugs. these models, however, usually demonstrate acute, self-limiting colitis. the spontaneous colitis models developed in the cotton-top tamarin monkey a ...200312894869
chromosomal studies in callicebus donacophilus pallescens, with classic and molecular cytogenetic approaches: multicolour fish using human and saguinus oedipus painting probes.this paper presents the karyotype of callicebus donacophilus pallescens for the first time. the analysis included g-, c-, nor-banding techniques and fish with chromosome painting probes from saguinus oedipus and homo sapiens. the results were compared with the karyotypes of callicebus moloch donacophilus and c. moloch previously published. these three karyotypes display the same diploid number (2n = 50) but diverge about the number of biarmed and acrocentric chromosomes. the acrocentrics 14 and ...200312906129
chronic hepatitis associated with gb virus b persistence in a tamarin after intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic viral rna.progress in understanding the pathogenesis of hepatitis c virus (hcv) has been slowed by the absence of tractable small animal models. whereas gb virus b (gbv-b, an unclassified flavivirus) shares a phylogenetic relationship and several biologic attributes with hcv, including hepatotropism, it is not known to cause persistent infection, a hallmark of hcv. here, we document persistent gbv-b infection in one of two healthy tamarins (saguinus oedipus) inoculated intrahepatically with infectious syn ...200312907703
evolutionary foundations of number: spontaneous representation of numerical magnitudes by cotton-top tamarins.although animals of many species have been shown to discriminate between visual-spatial arrays or auditory-temporal sequences based on numerosity, most of the evidence for numerosity discrimination derives from experiments involving extensive laboratory training. under these conditions, animals' discrimination of two numerosities depends on their ratio and is independent of their absolute value. it is an open question whether any untrained non-human animal spontaneously represents number in this ...200312965007
multiple acoustic features underlie vocal signal recognition in tamarins: antiphonal calling experiments.we examine which acoustic features are relevant for recognition of the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) combination long-call. this vocalization, emitted by both males and females, functions in maintaining group cohesion, territory defense and mate attraction. using the tamarins' natural antiphonal vocal response to hearing a combination long-call as the primary measure of recognition, we presented subjects with synthetic exemplars of combination long-calls in which we manipulated across on ...200414610683
give unto others: genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarin monkeys preferentially give food to those who altruistically give food back.altruistic food giving among genetically unrelated individuals is rare in nature. the few examples that exist suggest that when animals give food to unrelated others, they may do so on the basis of mutualistic or reciprocally altruistic relationships. we present the results of four experiments designed to tease apart the factors mediating food giving among genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus), a cooperatively breeding new world primate. in experiment 1 we show that indivi ...200314667352
identification of new world monkey mhc-drb alleles using pcr, dgge and direct sequencing.identification of new world monkey mhc-drb alleles has previously relied upon labor-intensive cloning and sequencing techniques. here we describe a rapid and unambiguous way to distinguish drb alleles in new world monkeys using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge), and direct sequencing. the highly variable second exon of new world monkey drb alleles was amplified using generic drb primers and alleles were separated by dgge. dna was then reamplified ...200414714152
pterygodermatites nycticebi (nematoda: rictulariidae): accidental detection of encapsulated third-stage larvae in the tissue of a white-fronted marmoset.twin, white-fronted marmosets (callithrix geoffroyi) born and raised in a zoo in japan died at 7 mo of age. several encapsulated nematode larvae were detected in the intestinal wall, as well as a few in the mesenteric lymph nodes of 1 of the twins. in the other marmoset, no encapsulated nematode larva was detected in the organs, but many adult pterygodermatites nycticebi were found in the intestinal lumen. in the past 5 yr, 5 primates kept in the same zoo, i.e., 1 squirrel monkey (saimiri sciure ...200314740905
different rates of line-1 (l1) retrotransposon amplification and evolution in new world monkeys.line-1 (l1) elements constitute the major family of retrotransposons in mammalian genomes. here we report the first investigation of l1 evolution in new world monkeys (nwm). two regions of the second open-reading frame were analyzed by two methods in three nwm species, the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), the tamarin (saguinus oedipus), and the spider monkey (ateles paniscus). since these three species diverged, l1 has amplified in the saimiri and saguinus lineages but l1 activity seems to ha ...200414743320
disseminated lethal encephalitozoon cuniculi (genotype iii) infections in cotton-top tamarins (oedipomidas oedipus)--a case report.for the first time, encephalitozoon (e.) cuniculi genotype iii ('dog strain') was verified in two cotton-top tamarins (oedipomidas oedipus) by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, pcr and sequencing. the animals had a disseminated lethal infection with this protist. in earlier reports, genotype iii had been found only in domestic dogs, man, emperor tamarins (saguinus imperator) and golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia). this investigation establishes now that the ...200414984833
responsiveness of expectant male cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus, to mate's pregnancy.in the cotton-top tamarin, a primate where paternal care is critical to the survival of the offspring, we found that expectant fathers experienced multiple hormonal changes during their mate's pregnancy. fathers that had experienced several previous births showed significant changes in urinary estrogens, androgens, prolactin and cortisol in the last 2 months before birth, whereas less-experienced fathers (lef) did not. the female's midpregnancy rise in glucocorticoids was followed within 1-2 wee ...200415019794
comparative analysis of masseter fiber architecture in tree-gouging (callithrix jacchus) and nongouging (saguinus oedipus) callitrichids.common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) (callitrichidae, primates) share a broadly similar diet of fruits, insects, and tree exudates. common marmosets, however, differ from tamarins by actively gouging trees with their anterior teeth to elicit tree exudate flow. during tree gouging, marmosets produce relatively large jaw gapes, but do not necessarily produce relatively large bite forces at the anterior teeth. we compared the fiber architecture of the mas ...200415281057
learning at a distance ii. statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in a non-human primate.in earlier work we have shown that adults, infants, and cotton-top tamarin monkeys are capable of computing the probability with which syllables occur in particular orders in rapidly presented streams of human speech, and of using these probabilities to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. we have also investigated adults' learning of regularities among elements that are not adjacent, and have found strong selectivities in their ability to learn various kinds of non-adjacent regulariti ...200415304368
sexual communication between breeding male and female cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus), and its relationship to infant care.male cotton-top tamarins have been shown to be responsive to female scent cues of ovulation, and are known to actively participate in infant care during the time when their mates are fertile. we measured urinary androgen levels and glucocorticoids in seven father tamarins for the first month following the birth of infants to determine 1) whether male tamarins showed an androgen response to their mate's postpartum ovulation, 2) when androgens rise relative to ovulation, 3) whether there is a gluc ...200415356858
a two-choice preference assessment with five cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).a study selected 5 cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) located at the frank buck zoo in gainesville, texas, for a food preference assessment. the study used a paired-choice procedure across 7 different food items for all 5 tamarins. preferences for the food items across all the tamarins varied, although general trends were noted as well. this article discusses the benefits of using paired-choice preference assessments in zoo settings.200415498723
intestinal adenocarcinoma with pancreas and lymph node metastases in a captive cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).a case of intestinal adenocarcinoma with metastases to the pancreas and regional lymph node was found in a 9-year-old, captive female cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) with intermittent diarrhea. at necropsy, the tumor mass was located in the ileo-cecal junction causing circumferential thickening and annular stenosis. microscopically, the lesions at primary and metastatic sites showed typical features of mucinous adenocarcinoma as seen in humans, including intracellular and extracellular muc ...200415528865
phylogenetic inferences of atelinae (platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles b. marginatus.we performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three atelinae species brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this platyrrhini subfamily. comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the ...200515545728
investigation of marmoset hybrids (cebuella pygmaea x callithrix jacchus) and related callitrichinae (platyrrhini) by cross-species chromosome painting and comparative genomic hybridization.we report on the cytogenetics of twin offspring from an interspecies cross in marmosets (callitrichinae, platyrrhini), resulting from a pairing between a female common marmoset (callithrix jacchus, 2n = 46) and a male pygmy marmoset (cebuella pygmaea, 2n = 44). we analyzed their karyotypes by multi-directional chromosome painting employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. both hybrid individuals had a karyotype with a diploid chromosome number of 2n = ...200515545729
quantifying remaining forested habitat within the historic distribution of the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) in colombia: implications for long-term conservation.landsat thematic mapper (tm) data were used to classify forested areas within the historic distribution of the endangered cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) in colombia. this species continues to be threatened by habitat destruction, and we observed a 31% decrease of the forested habitat within the tamarins' historic distribution in 1990-2000. it is estimated that since the establishment of some protected areas for cotton-top tamarins and other native colombian wildlife (parque nacional natur ...200415580586
are consonant intervals music to their ears? spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate.humans find some sounds more pleasing than others; such preferences may underlie our enjoyment of music. to gain insight into the evolutionary origins of these preferences, we explored whether they are present in other animals. we designed a novel method to measure the spontaneous sound preferences of cotton-top tamarins, a species that has been extensively tested for other perceptual abilities. animals were placed in a v-shaped maze, and their position within the maze controlled their auditory ...200415582619
the evolution of the glandular kallikrein locus: identification of orthologs and pseudogenes in the cotton-top tamarin.comparisons of the glandular kallikreins loci in human, mouse and rat revealed remarkable differences. for example, the mouse and the rat lack the genes encoding prostate-specific antigen (psa) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hk2). in contrast, the intergenic region between klk1 and klk15 is devoid of genes and spans only 1.5 kb in humans, but encompasses 23 klk1-like genes spanning 290 kb in the mouse. to further elucidate the evolution of glandular kallikrein genes, we investigated the struc ...200415588589
experimental norovirus infections in non-human primates.noroviruses, with norwalk virus as the prototype strain, are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in people of all ages. limited information on the immunology of norovirus infections has been obtained by studies both in the natural setting and in experimentally infected volunteers. interpretation of these studies is difficult due to the lack of information on the history of norovirus exposure and the cross-reactivity of antibodies. an animal model for norovirus infections would be impo ...200515602728
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