probing the limits of tool competence: experiments with two non-tool-using species (cercopithecus aethiops and saguinus oedipus).non-human animals vary in their ability to make and use tools. the goal of the present study was to further explore what, if anything, differs between tool-users and non-tool-users, and whether these differences lie in the conceptual or motor domain. we tested two species that typically do not use tools-cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops)-on problems that mirrored those designed for prolific tool users such as chimpanzees. we trained subjects on a t ...200616341524
cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate (saguinus oedipus).we investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. a transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards. i ...200516804561
disseminated encephalitozoonosis in captive, juvenile, cotton-top (saguinus oedipus) and neonatal emperor (saguinus imperator) tamarins in north america.disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed in 2 sibling, juvenile, cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and 3 sibling, neonatal, emperor tamarins (s. imperator) by use of histologic examination, histochemical analysis, electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis with nucleotide sequencing. all tamarins were captive born at zoos in north america and died with no premonitory signs of disease. the main pathologic findings were myocarditis (4/5), hepatitis (3/5), intersti ...200616846985
quantifying remaining forested habitat within the historic distribution of the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) in colombia: implications for long-term conservation.landsat thematic mapper (tm) data were used to classify forested areas within the historic distribution of the endangered cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) in colombia. this species continues to be threatened by habitat destruction, and we observed a 31% decrease of the forested habitat within the tamarins' historic distribution in 1990-2000. it is estimated that since the establishment of some protected areas for cotton-top tamarins and other native colombian wildlife (parque nacional natur ...200415580586
fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. in the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (so) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (fg) were inversel ...200717289114
naturally occurring tyzzer's disease in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).we noted naturally occurring infection with clostridium piliforme (tyzzer's disease) in 2 captive-reared cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus). spontaneous tyzzer's disease has been reported in multiple species of laboratory, domestic, and wild animals but is extremely rare in humans and nonhuman primates. distinct from idiopathic colitis, which is common in cotton-top tamarins, these 2 tamarins had severe, transmural, necrotizing typhlocolitis accompanied by myocarditis and hepatitis. abundant ...200717348301
nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. we used a previously published method [mcdermott, j., & hauser, m. (2004). are consonant intervals music to their ears? spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. cognition, 94(2), b11-b21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-world primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with res ...200716935277
tracking silence: adjusting vocal production to avoid acoustic interference.organisms that use vocal signals to communicate often modulate their vocalizations to avoid being masked by other sounds in the environment. although some environmental noise is continuous, both biotic and abiotic noise can be intermittent, or even periodic. interference from intermittent noise can be avoided if calls are timed to coincide with periods of silence, a capacity that is unambiguously present in insects, amphibians, birds, and humans. surprisingly, we know virtually nothing about thi ...200717242881
hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals?similar in body size, locomotor behaviour and morphology to the last common ancestor of primates, living small quadrupedal primates provide a convenient model for investigating the evolution of primate locomotion. in this study, the hind limb kinematics of quadrupedal walking in mouse lemurs, brown lemurs, cotton-top tamarins and squirrel monkeys are analysed using cineradiography. the scaling of hind limb length to body size and the intralimb proportions of the three-segmented hind limb are tak ...200516109897
choosing and using tools: capuchins (cebus apella) use a different metric than tamarins (saguinus oedipus).cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) selected canes positioned so that a straight inward pull brought food within reach (m. d. hauser, 1997; see also record 1997-41347-003). tamarins failed to retrieve food with canes in other positions, and they did not reposition these canes. in this study, tufted capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) preferred canes they could pull straight in when these were present, but they also repositioned canes in individually variable ways, and their success at obtaining f ...200515982164
the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) has five beta-microseminoprotein genes, two of which are pseudogenes.beta-microseminoprotein (msp) is one of the most abundant proteins in human seminal plasma and is secreted from the prostate gland. its evolution can be traced from primates down to nonvertebrate species such as amphioxus, despite substantial differences in the primary structure. most mammals are known to have one single msp gene, but we have previously shown that the cotton-top tamarin and the common marmoset-two new world monkeys-carry several msp genes. in this study we continue our character ...200818020964
sleep quantitation in common marmoset, cotton top tamarin and squirrel monkey by non-invasive actigraphy.sleep quantitation data on the neotropical primate species, apart from the squirrel monkey, are still sparse. as such, we have quantitated sleep in the common marmosets (callithrix jacchus), cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) reared in one primate facility simultaneously, by non-invasive actigraphy. the range in total sleep time/24h measured for male adult common marmosets, cotton top tamarins and squirrel monkeys were 713-793 min (n=4), 707-889 min (n ...200616626986
when quantity trumps number: discrimination experiments in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and common marmosets (callithrix jacchus).the capacity for non-linguistic, numerical discrimination has been well characterized in non-human animals, with recent studies providing careful controls for non-numerical confounds such as continuous extent, density, and quantity. more poorly understood are the conditions under which animals use numerical versus non-numerical quantification, and the nature of the relation between these two systems. here we test whether cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets can discriminate between two quant ...200717354004
monkey see, monkey plan, monkey do: the end-state comfort effect in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).the way human adults grasp objects is typically influenced by their knowledge of what they intend to do with the objects. this influence is reflected in the end-state comfort effect: actors adopt initially uncomfortable postures to accommodate later task demands. although many experiments have demonstrated this effect, to the best of our knowledge its phylogenetic roots have not been investigated. in two experiments, we tested whether 9 cotton-top tamarin monkeys would show the end-state comfort ...200718031413
the evolution of the glandular kallikrein locus: identification of orthologs and pseudogenes in the cotton-top tamarin.comparisons of the glandular kallikreins loci in human, mouse and rat revealed remarkable differences. for example, the mouse and the rat lack the genes encoding prostate-specific antigen (psa) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hk2). in contrast, the intergenic region between klk1 and klk15 is devoid of genes and spans only 1.5 kb in humans, but encompasses 23 klk1-like genes spanning 290 kb in the mouse. to further elucidate the evolution of glandular kallikrein genes, we investigated the struc ...200415588589
cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early alzheimer's disease?alzheimer's disease (ad) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. two major neuropathological hallmarks of ad include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. in addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human ad brain, including apo e and ubiquitin. the amyloid pre ...200818341428
phylogenetic inferences of atelinae (platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles b. marginatus.we performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three atelinae species brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this platyrrhini subfamily. comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the ...200515545728
learning at a distance ii. statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in a non-human earlier work we have shown that adults, infants, and cotton-top tamarin monkeys are capable of computing the probability with which syllables occur in particular orders in rapidly presented streams of human speech, and of using these probabilities to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. we have also investigated adults' learning of regularities among elements that are not adjacent, and have found strong selectivities in their ability to learn various kinds of non-adjacent regulariti ...200415304368
investigation of marmoset hybrids (cebuella pygmaea x callithrix jacchus) and related callitrichinae (platyrrhini) by cross-species chromosome painting and comparative genomic hybridization.we report on the cytogenetics of twin offspring from an interspecies cross in marmosets (callitrichinae, platyrrhini), resulting from a pairing between a female common marmoset (callithrix jacchus, 2n = 46) and a male pygmy marmoset (cebuella pygmaea, 2n = 44). we analyzed their karyotypes by multi-directional chromosome painting employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. both hybrid individuals had a karyotype with a diploid chromosome number of 2n = ...200515545729
radiographic evaluation of neonatal skeletal development in callimico goeldii reveals closer similarity to callithrix jacchus than to saguinus oedipus.the phylogenetic affinities of the neotropical goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) have long been a matter of debate. whereas most morphological evidence appears to place callimico in a sister group position relative to the callitrichidae, genetic studies place c. goeldii within the callitrichidae and suggest that it is more closely related to marmosets than to tamarins. the present study presents the first radiographic analysis comparing the secondary limb bone ossification of newborn c. goeldi ...200717146795
forelimb proportions and kinematics: how are small primates different from other small mammals?the crouched limb posture of small mammals enables them to react to unexpected irregularities in the support. small arboreal primates would benefit from these kinematics in their arboreal habitat but it has been demonstrated that primates display certain differences in forelimb kinematics to other mammals. the objective of this paper is to find out whether these changes in forelimb kinematics are related to changes in body size and limb proportions. as primates descended from small ancestors, a ...200819043050
the effects of unequal reward distributions on cooperative problem solving by cottontop tamarins (saguinus oedipus).cooperation among non-human animals has been the topic of much theoretical and empirical research, but few studies have examined systematically the effects of various reward payoffs on cooperative behaviour. here, we presented heterosexual pairs of cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarins with a cooperative problem solving task. in a series of four experiments, we examined how the tamarins' cooperative performance changed under conditions in which (a) both actors were mutually rewarded, (b) bot ...200819122748
captive cotton-top tamarins' (saguinus oedipus oedipus) use of landmarks to localize hidden food items.seventeen captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) were individually tested on their use of spatial relationships between landmarks to locate multiple hidden food items. in two experiments, the tamarins were presented with a spatial-foraging task in which positions of hidden food rewards were fixed in relation to an array of visual cues. in experiment 1, the cues+hidden food configuration was rotated 90 degrees and the tamarins were successful in locating the food items significant ...200919130479
the ecology and evolution of patience in two new world monkeys.decision making often involves choosing between small, short-term rewards and large, long-term rewards. all animals, humans included, discount future rewards--the present value of delayed rewards is viewed as less than the value of immediate rewards. despite its ubiquity, there exists considerable but unexplained variation between species in their capacity to wait for rewards--that is, to exert patience or self-control. using two closely related primates--common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) an ...200517148172
the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) has two very similar semenogelin genes as the result of gene conversion.the semen coagulum proteins have undergone substantial structural changes during evolution. in primates, these seminal vesicle-secreted proteins are known as semenogelin i (semg1) and semenogelin ii (semg2). previous studies on the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) showed that ejaculated semen from this new world monkey contains semenogelin, but it remained unclear whether it carries both genes or only semg1 and no semg2, like the closely related cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus). in this ...200717192513
global and local processing in adult humans (homo sapiens), 5-year-old children (homo sapiens), and adult cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).this study compared adults (homo sapiens), young children (homo sapiens), and adult tamarins (saguinus oedipus) while they discriminated global and local properties of stimuli. subjects were trained to discriminate a circle made of circle elements from a square made of square elements and were tested with circles made of squares and squares made of circles. adult humans showed a global bias in testing that was unaffected by the density of the elements in the stimuli. children showed a global bia ...200617115853
the functional correlates of jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tree-gouging and nongouging callitrichid monkeys.common (callithrix jacchus) and pygmy (cebuella pygmaea) marmosets and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) share broadly similar diets of fruits, insects, and tree exudates. marmosets, however, differ from tamarins in actively gouging trees with their anterior dentition to elicit tree exudates flow. tree gouging in common marmosets involves the generation of relatively wide jaw gapes, but not necessarily relatively large bite forces. we compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporal ...200919140215
evaluation of control and treatment of gongylonema spp. infections in callitrichids.numerous cases of gongylonema spp. infection with associated pathological lesions and clinical signs were identified in a collection of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) (gms) at a zoological park during a 3-yr period. an increase in the incidence of clinical signs in the gms and other callitrichid species prompted an investigation to determine the prevalence of infection within the collection and evaluate treatment protocols. twenty-one callitrichids [nine gms, four golden lion tamarins (leo ...200717469272
the perception of rational, goal-directed action in nonhuman primates.humans are capable of making inferences about other individuals' intentions and goals by evaluating their actions in relation to the constraints imposed by the environment. this capacity enables humans to go beyond the surface appearance of behavior to draw inferences about an individual's mental states. presently unclear is whether this capacity is uniquely human or is shared with other animals. we show that cotton-top tamarins, rhesus macaques, and chimpanzees all make spontaneous inferences a ...200717823353
variations in male parenting behavior and physiology in the common marmoset.infant survival and wellbeing is dependent upon good parenting skills. in some species of primates, fathers are necessary to ensure both positive developmental and social outcomes for their offspring. common marmosets and the related cotton-top tamarin monkeys provide extensive paternal care of multiple offspring and are essential for infant survival. however, we have found significant variation in a father's motivation to respond to infant stimuli. additionally, marmoset males who are experienc ...200919367571
effects of backward speech and speaker variability in language discrimination by rats.human infants use prosodic cues present in speech to extract language regularities, and it has been suggested that this capacity is anchored in more general mechanisms that are shared across mammals. this study explores the extent to which rats can generalize prosodic cues that have been extracted from a training corpus to new sentences and how this discrimination process is affected by the normalization of the sentences when multiple speakers are introduced. conditions 1 and 2 show rats' abilit ...200515656730
modeling reciprocation and cooperation in primates: evidence for a punishing strategy.experiments in which animals strategically interact with one another or search over some controlled domain are becoming common. while these experiments often promise to illuminate sophisticated animal behavior, the analyses brought to bear on these data are often quite coarse. for example, many papers simply tally the number of observations consistent with a behavioral theory. this analysis is simple, but ignores a potentially rich source of information by failing to take into account patterns a ...200515833309
litter size and infant survivorship in wild groups of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in colombia.cotton-top tamains (saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered primate found only in colombia. efforts to conserve this species are centered on developing effective management plans that integrate biological information regarding population dynamics and factors that influence their survival. this study documented infants born to wild cotton-top tamarin females from 1994-2008 at two distinct field sites in northern colombia. our studies have shown that wild cotton-top tamarins typically give b ...200919382151
hla-g polymorphism and evolution.six proteins, one null allele and 22 human leukocyte antigen (hla)-g alleles were found in humans. bonobo, chimpanzee and gorilla only show one allele and orangutan shows five alleles. all cercopithecus alleles show stop codons at position 164 (macaca mulatta with seven dna alleles, macaca fascicularis with seven dna alleles and cercopithecus aethiops with three dna alleles). cotton-top tamarin new world monkeys showed 20 dna and protein alleles; the major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-g new ...200717445193
grammatical pattern learning by human infants and cotton-top tamarin monkeys.there is a surprising degree of overlapping structure evident across the languages of the world. one factor leading to cross-linguistic similarities may be constraints on human learning abilities. linguistic structures that are easier for infants to learn should predominate in human languages. if correct, then (a) human infants should more readily acquire structures that are consistent with the form of natural language, whereas (b) non-human primates' patterns of learning should be less tightly ...200818082676
captive-born cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) respond similarly to vocalizations of predators and sympatric nonpredators.what types of cues do callitrichid primates use to detect and respond to predators? do they respond to predator-specific cues or to more general cues? the evidence for these questions remains conflicting. we presented captive-born and reared cotton-top tamarins with no previous exposure to predators (or predator cues) with vocalizations from three potential predators of cotton-top tamarin in the wild (white hawk, jaguar, and tayra) and with vocalizations from sympatric nonpredators (black-faced ...200818473378
general intelligence in another primate: individual differences across cognitive task performance in a new world monkey (saguinus oedipus).individual differences in human cognitive abilities show consistently positive correlations across diverse domains, providing the basis for the trait of "general intelligence" (g). at present, little is known about the evolution of g, in part because most comparative studies focus on rodents or on differences across higher-level taxa. what is needed, therefore, are experiments targeting nonhuman primates, focusing on individual differences within a single species, using a broad battery of tasks. ...200919536274
evidence of an evolutionary precursor to human language affixation in a non-human primate.human language, and grammatical competence in particular, relies on a set of computational operations that, in its entirety, is not observed in other animals. such uniqueness leaves open the possibility that components of our linguistic competence are shared with other animals, having evolved for non-linguistic functions. here, we explore this problem from a comparative perspective, asking whether cotton-top tamarin monkeys (saguinus oedipus) can spontaneously (no training) acquire an affixation ...200919586963
hysteresis effects in a motor task with cotton-top tamarins (sanguinus oedipus).the way human adults grasp an object is influenced by their recent history of motor actions. previously executed grasps are often more likely to reoccur on subsequent grasps. this type of hysteresis effect has been incorporated into cognitive models of motor planning, suggesting that when planning movements, individuals tend to reuse recently used plans rather than generating new plans from scratch. to the best of our knowledge, the phylogenetic roots of this phenomenon have not been investigate ...200919594287
a monoclonal antibody selection for immunohistochemical examination of lymphoid tissues from non-human primates.non-human primates (nhps) offer valuable animal models for basic research into human diseases and for the preclinical validation of new therapeutics. detailed in situ examination of the involved cell types using immunohistochemistry is often hampered by the lack of cross-reactive antibodies (abs). in the current study, we have tested a large panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against human leukocyte differentiation and activation markers for cross-reactivity on cryosections of lymphoid tissue ...200919729671
characteristics of implicit chaining in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).in human cognition there has been considerable interest in observing the conditions under which subjects learn material without explicit instructions to learn. in the present experiments, we adapted this issue to nonhumans by asking what subjects learn in the absence of explicit reinforcement for correct responses. two experiments examined the acquisition of sequence information by cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) when such learning was not demanded by the experimental contingencies. an im ...201020140693
implicit chaining in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).in implicit learning, human subjects are exposed to patterned information, but they are not informed about the pattern. typically, they demonstrate learning of that pattern, but little awareness of the experimental contingencies. in a nonhuman analog of this procedure, two cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) were presented with a five-element chain that consisted of the same icon presented serially at different locations on a touchscreen. the tamarins had to touch the icon at each location to ...200919159167
phylogenetic studies of the genus cebus (cebidae-primates) using chromosome painting and g-banding.chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus cebus, including c. olivaceus, c. albifrons, c. apella robustus and c. apella paraguayanus. cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54.200818534011
donor payoffs and other-regarding preferences in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).helping others at no cost to oneself is a simple way to demonstrate other-regarding preferences. yet, primates exhibit mixed results for other-regarding preferences: chimpanzees and tamarins do not show these effects, whereas capuchin monkeys and marmosets preferentially give food to others. one factor of relevance to this no-cost food donation is the payoff to the donor. though donors always receive the same payoffs regardless of their choice, previous work varies in whether they receive either ...201020130946
histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of pheochromocytoma in 6 cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).pheochromocytomas are uncommon neoplasms of the adrenal medulla that are most frequently reported in rats and select mouse strains. in many cases, especially those in man, pheochromocytoma is associated with familial tumor syndromes, because of inherited mutations in a variety of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. nonhuman primates are valuable animal models for a variety of human diseases because of their similar anatomy and physiology; however, cases of pheochromocytomas have only rar ...200919605896
developing an effective community conservation program for cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in colombia.developing effective conservation programs that positively impact the survival of a species while considering the needs of local communities is challenging. here we present an overview of the conservation program developed by proyecto tití to integrate local communities in the conservation of colombia's critically endangered primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus). our comprehensive assessment of the threats effecting the long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin allowed us to esta ...201019998392
clavulanic acid: a competitive inhibitor of beta-lactamases with novel anxiolytic-like activity and minimal side effects.clavulanic acid is a member of the beta lactam family of antibiotics with little or no intrinsic antibacterial activity of its own; instead, it is used to enhance the activity of antibiotics by blocking bacterial beta-lactamases. because clavulanic acid by itself is very safe, orally active and shows good brain penetrance, we sought to determine if it had any potential as a psychotherapeutic. clavulanic acid was a tested across three mammalian species, hamsters, rats and cotton-top tamarin monke ...200919394358
natural history and pathology of colon cancer in saguinus oedipus oedipus. 20133933926
evolutionary roots of motor planning: the end-state comfort effect in lemurs.humans (homo sapiens) anticipate the consequences of their forthcoming actions. for example, they grasp objects with uncomfortable grasps to afford comfortable end positions-the end-state comfort (esc) effect. when did such sophisticated motor planning abilities emerge in evolution? we addressed this question by asking whether humans' most distant living primate relatives-lemurs-also exhibit the esc effect. we presented 6 species of lemurs (lemur catta, eulemur mongoz, eulemur coronatus, eulemur ...201020476823
social dynamics and individual plasticity of infant care behavior in cooperatively breeding cotton-top tamarins.individual variation in infant caretaking behavior is prevalent among marmoset and tamarin monkeys. although most group members participate in infant care, the timing and amount provided differs greatly. in this study, we quantified general trends in infant carrying behavior by using a longitudinal database that included 11 years of instantaneous scan observations following 80 births of cotton-top tamarins. using detailed focal observations on a subset of the same families (10 births) we identif ...201020014011
isolation and characterization of a novel helicobacter species, helicobacter jaachi sp. nov., from common marmosets (callithrix jaachus).purpose-bred common marmosets from domestic sources housed in a us research facility, and used in multiple drug discovery programmes, were noted to have a high incidence of spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease and sporadic cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. inflammatory infiltrates increased in incidence and severity with age. because helicobacter spp. have been linked to gastrointestinal diseases, samples from the gastrointestinal tracts of 39 marmosets were screened for helicobacter spp. ...201526297446
septic tularemia in 2 cottontop tamarins(sanguinus oedipus).two captive cottontop tamarins (sanguinus oedipus) died within 5 d of each other from systemic infection by francisella tularensis (tularemia). one tamarin experienced mild clinical signs, including malaise, anorexia, and a mucoid nasal discharge for 4 d before death, whereas the other experienced a more rapid progression of disease that lasted less than 24 h. differential diagnoses included gram-negative septicemia by an organism such as escherichia coli, salmonella, or yersinia; protozoal infe ...201222776056
is a sense of inequity an ancestral primate trait? testing social inequity in cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).to address a controversy in the literature concerning whether monkeys show an aversion to inequity, individuals of a new world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) were tested in an offering task and in a bartering task. at issue was whether the monkeys rejected rewards because of a violation of expectancy of the preferred reward, or whether they rejected rewards because of a sensitivity to socially mediated inequity. the data from both tasks indicated that the subjects were mo ...200919236140
pheochromocytoma in six new world primates.six new world primates, including 2 golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia), 2 cotton-top tamarins (saguinus o. oedipus), 1 black howler monkey (alouatta caraya), and 1 black-handed spider monkey (ateles g. geoffroyi), were diagnosed with unilateral (4/6) or bilateral (1/6) adrenal or extra-adrenal (1/6) pheochromocytoma by light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin a. overt invasive behavior or metastases were not observed in any primate, and thus these neoplasms w ...200919276065
the bony labyrinth of the early platyrrhine primate chilecebus.we document the morphology of the bony labyrinth of chilecebus carrascoensis, one of the best preserved early platyrrhines known, based on high resolution ct scanning and 3d digital reconstruction. the cochlea is low and conical in form, as in other anthropoids, but has only 2.5 spiral turns. when the allometric relationship with body mass is considered, cochlear size is similar to that in extant primates. the relative size of the semicircular canals, which is well within the range of other prim ...201020952046
type-c virus particles in placenta of the cottontop marmoset (saguinus oedipus).electron microscopy of near-term placentas of two cottontop marmosets (saguinus oedipus) revealed, in one placenta, the presence of budding and mature c-type virus particles associated with the basal trophoblast. the particles were morphologically similar to those observed by other investigators in placentas of other primate species.1996163321
chromosome banding patterns and nucleolar organizing regions in three species of callithricidae (saguinus oedipus, saguinus fuscicollis, and callithrix jacchus).chromosome complements of three species of callithricidae, saguinus oedipus, saguinus fuscicollis and callithrix jacchus, were analyzed by various banding techniques. morphometric data are presented. a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 46 is reconfirmed for all three species. several interesting interspecies chromosomal variations were demonstrated by g- and c-band patterns. active nucleolar organizing regions (nors) were revealed by the ag-as silver histochemical stain.2000101664
product-inhibition of testicular steroidogenic enzymes in the marmoset saguinus oedipus. 1999116088
features of female reproductive senescence in tamarins (saguinus spp.), a new world primate.cyclical changes in concentration of plasma progesterone, urinary oestrone-conjugates and urinary luteinizing hormone (lh) were compared in young and older cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and saddle-backed tamarins (s. fuscicollis). a group of six young adult tamarin females (4-5 years of age) was sampled over eight periods of 6-8 weeks and six older (14-20 years of age) females were sampled over thirteen periods. there was hormonal evidence of ovulation in all of the sampling periods for ...20051317448
helicobacter saguini, a novel helicobacter isolated from cotton-top tamarins with ulcerative colitis, has proinflammatory properties and induces typhlocolitis and dysplasia in gnotobiotic il-10-/- mice.a urease-negative, fusiform, novel bacterium named helicobacter saguini was isolated from the intestines and feces of cotton-top tamarins (ctts) with chronic colitis. helicobacter sp. was detected in 69% of feces or intestinal samples from 116 ctts. the draft genome sequence, obtained by illumina miseq sequencing, for h. saguini isolate mit 97-6194-5, consisting of ∼2.9 mb with a g+c content of 35% and 2,704 genes, was annotated using the ncbi prokaryotic genomes automatic annotation pipeline. h ...201627245408
successive radiations, not stasis, in the south american primate fauna.the earliest neotropical primate fossils complete enough for taxonomic assessment, dolichocebus, tremacebus, and chilecebus, date to approximately 20 ma. these have been interpreted as either closely related to extant forms or as extinct stem lineages. the former hypothesis of morphological stasis requires most living platyrrhine genera to have diverged before 20 ma. to test this hypothesis, we collected new complete mitochondrial genomes from aotus lemurinus, saimiri sciureus, saguinus oedipus, ...200919321426
species specificities among primates probed with commercially available fluorescence-based multiplex pcr typing assess species specificities among primates of signals from short tandem repeat (str) loci included in two commercially available kits, mainly the ampflstr identifiler kit and additionally the geneprint powerplex 16 system, we analyzed 69 dna samples from 22 nonhuman primate species representing apes, old world monkeys (owms), new world monkeys (nwms), and prosimians. each prosimian species and the nwm cotton-top tamarin apparently lacked all str loci probed. only one peak, the amelogenin-x p ...201525899252
pulmonary arterial disease associated with right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure in zoo mammals housed at 2,100 m above sea level.subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. the authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mam ...201526667539
kin preference in marmosets and tamarins: saguinus oedipus and callithrix jacchus (callitrichidae, primates).field studies on callitrichid primates have suggested that some species may exhibit a communal breeding system in which two or more males mate with a single female and cooperatively participate in infant rearing. however, high levels of aggression have been observed between males under both laboratory and field conditions. in avian models for communal breeding, cooperating males are often closely related. in a laboratory test of a hypothesis of the amelioration of aggression based on kinship, fo ...20113147598
chronic colitis in common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (saquinus oedipus). 20113122405
polymorphisms of the group-specific component (gc) in three species of tamarins (saguinus oedipus, s. labiatus, s. mystax). 20062117093
chromosome phylogeny of the subfamily pitheciinae (platyrrhini, primates) by classic cytogenetics and chromosome painting.the new world monkey (platyrrhini) subfamily pitheciinae is represented by the genera pithecia, chiropotes and cacajao. in this work we studied the karyotypes of pithecia irrorata (2n = 48) and cacajao calvus rubicundus (2n = 45 in males and 2n = 46 in females) by g- and c-banding, nor staining and chromosome painting using human and saguinus oedipus whole chromosome probes. the karyotypes of both species were compared with each other and with chiropotes utahicki (2n = 54) from the literature.201020565908
colorectal cancer in the cotton top tamarin (saguinus oedipus): how do they evade liver metastasis?a major cause of cancer-related deaths is the development of liver metastasis. to better understand the metastatic process, we studied the cotton top tamarin as an animal model, which spontaneously develops colorectal cancer but rarely liver metastasis.201120645001
herpesvirus saimiri infection of rhesus macaques: a model for acute rhadinovirus-induced t-cell transformation and oncogenesis.herpesvirus saimiri (hvs) causes acute lymphoma and leukemia upon experimental infection of various monkey species. hvs strain c488 is also capable of transforming human t-lymphocytes to stable growth in culture. the most susceptible species for oncogenesis are new world primates, in particular the cottontop tamarin (saguinus oedipus). however, old world monkeys such as macaques are the most used animal model for the close-to-human situation. the limited data on hvs infection in old world monkey ...201121915869
social effects via olfactory sensory stimuli on reproductive function and dysfunction in cooperative breeding marmosets and tamarins.most primates are social species whose reproduction is influenced by their social relationships. the cotton-top tamarin, saguinus oedipus, and the common marmoset, callithrix jacchus, are cooperative breeding species where the family structure alters reproductive function in many ways. while primates receive social effects on reproduction via all sensory stimuli, the marmosets and tamarins are particularly influenced by olfactory/chemosensory stimuli. the olfactory sensory processing is the "soc ...201322890774
quantitative molecular assessment of chimerism across tissues in marmosets and tamarins.marmosets are playing an increasingly large and important role in biomedical research. they share genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities with humans and other primate model species, but their smaller sizes, reproductive efficiency, and amenability to genetic manipulation offer an added practicality. while their unique biology can be exploited to provide insights into disease and function, it is also important that researchers are aware of the differences that exist between marmosets ...201222429831
bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov., bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. and bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov.: three novel taxa from the faeces of cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus l.).forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus l.). all isolates were gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. in this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. they were grouped by box-pcr into thr ...201627236565
increased positive selection pressure within the complementarity determining regions of the t-cell receptor ß gene in new world monkeys.because of the long-term co-evolution of tcr and mhc molecules, numerous nucleotide substitutions have accumulated within the domains of tcrß genes. we previously found that nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions occurred more frequently in complementarity determining region (cdr)ß than in cdra, even though only a limited number of common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and human t-cell receptor ß variable (trbv) sequences were compared. this interesting finding raised the question of whether the ...201121769905
the repertoire of mhc class i genes in the common marmoset: evidence for functional humans, the classical antigen presentation function of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i molecules is controlled by the human leukocyte antigen hla -a, hla-b and hla-c loci. a similar observation has been made for great apes and old world monkey species. in contrast, a new world monkey species such as the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) appears to employ the g locus for its classical antigen presentation function. at present, little is known about the classical mhc class i ...201324018468
fatal cowpox virus infection in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in germany.cowpox virus (cpxv) was isolated from a fatal outbreak among cotton-top tamarins. samples from healthy common marmosets in contact were also cpxv genome positive. the cpxv isolated from the cotton-top tamarins exhibited a unique hemagglutinin sequence. pathogenicity investigations using a wistar rat model characterized the isolate as low pathogenic.201424689730
the morphology of the masticatory apparatus facilitates muscle force production at wide jaw gapes in tree-gouging common marmosets (callithrix jacchus).common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) generate wide jaw gapes when gouging trees with their anterior teeth to elicit tree exudate flow. closely related cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) do not gouge trees but share similar diets including exudates. maximizing jaw opening theoretically compromises the bite forces that marmosets can generate during gouging. to investigate how jaw-muscle architecture and craniofacial position impact muscle performance during gouging, we combine skull and jaw-m ...200919946083
metabolism of reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in two species of callitrichids, saguinus oedipus and callithrix jacchus, and estimation of the ovulatory period from fecal steroids.gonadal steroids were measured in daily fecal samples providing comparative data on steroid metabolism in two genera of new world primates. circulating bioactive lh and progesterone concentrations and fecal progesterone, pregnanediol, estradiol, and estrone concentrations were measured by collecting blood and daily fecal samples from four captive common marmoset females and four cotton-top tamarin females for 30 days. high recoveries (> 80%) of labeled steroids that were added directly to the fe ...19968838005
molecular mass and isoelectric properties of pituitary and urinary gonadotrophins in callitrichid this study, the molecular masses and isoelectric characteristics of pituitary lh and fsh in two species of callitrichid primate, the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), were determined. comparative data for urine samples from callithrix jacchus are also presented. the separation of gonadotrophins from pituitary extracts and urine was performed under nonreducing conditions using sds-page and isoelectric focusing procedures. hormone activity in ge ...19947861403
identification of igh gene rearrangement and immunophenotype in an animal model of epstein-barr virus-associated lymphomas.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. because the susceptible hosts of eb virus are limited to human and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus), there have been no appropriate animal models until the lymphoma model induced by ebv in human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-pbl)/scid chimeric mice was reported. however, it is still controversial whether the ebv-associated lymphoma induced in hu-pbl/scid mice is a monoclonal t ...201626991077
learning generalization in problem solving by a blue-fronted parrot (amazona aestiva).pepperberg (the alex studies: cognitive and communicative abilities of gray parrots. harvard university press, cambridge;1999) showed that some of the complex cognitive capabilities found in primates are also present in psittacine birds. through the replication of an experiment performed with cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) by hauser et al. (anim behav 57:565-582; 1999), we examined a blue-fronted parrot's (amazona aestiva) ability to generalize the solution of a particular proble ...200818575906
measurement of faecal steroids for monitoring ovarian function in new world primates, callitrichidae.measurement of immunoreactive progesterone, pregnanediol and oestradiol in faeces collected throughout ovarian cycles in three species of callitrichid primates is reported. faecal hormone concentrations were compared with plasma progesterone profiles during pgf2 alpha-controlled (n = 7) and natural (n = 8) cycles in callithrix jacchus and saguinus fuscicollis, respectively, and with urinary oestrone conjugates during five cycles in saguinus oedipus. unconjugated steroids, which predominated over ...19938283445
distribution of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in a german zoological garden determined by is900 semi-nested and quantitative real-time pcr.little data concerning the distribution of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) in zoological gardens is available. the presence of map in captured wildlife might provide further information on non-ruminant hosts and expand the list of animals susceptible to map being potential sources of map transmission. therefore, a german zoological garden with recent history of clinical paratuberculosis in barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia) and an alpaca (lama pacos) was selected to estimate the d ...201323298700
fatal angiostrongylus dujardini infection in callitrichid monkeys and suricates in an italian zoological garden.this paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a saguinus oedipus and a callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (suricata suricatta). all animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central italy. the two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological fi ...201627094227
spontaneous pathology of the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and tamarins (saguinus oedipus, saguinus mystax).marmosets and tamarins are increasingly used in research, but their pathology remains poorly defined compared with old world primates.200919522731
husbandry and breeding of a newly-established colony of cotton-topped tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).from november 1976 to february 1979 a total of 8 litters were born to 6 females. of the 14 infants, 10 were successfully reared by their parents. housing, nutrition, a balance between environmental stability and stimulation, and female multiparity are seen as factors contributing to the breeding success of this colony. a controlled male and female pairing programme provided information on mating behavior and gestation length. one gestation of at least 166 days was observed, longer than that of t ...19816790834
competition for a desired food in family groups of the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).four captive groups of common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and three groups of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) were each presented with a desired food and their consumption was monitored. inequalities in consumption between individuals were found for each group of each species. generally, adult females consumed most of the desired food, followed by juveniles, and finally adult males. high consumption levels by all individuals during isolated feedings indicated that consumption inequalit ...19816789003
effect of various biological factors on spontaneous marmoset and tamarin colitis. a retrospective histopathologic study.histological sections of colons from 69 tamarins (46 saguinus oedipus and 23 saguinus fuscicollis illigeri) and 27 marmosets (callithrix jacchus) that died between 1979 and 1984 were examined for colitis. evaluated biological factors were species, age at death, source of animals, manner of death, presence of colon cancer, and time after importation. most normal colons were found in young animals (dead at less than 1 years of age). nearly all (approximately 96%) animals had colitis; 70-80% of mos ...19883134175
reproductive performance of three species of callitrichidae.the reproductive performance of three species of callitrichidae housed under identical conditions, including relatively spacious caging and visual screening, was compared. the three species were callithrix jacchus, saguinus fuscicollis, and saguinus oedipus. callithrix jacchus was the most reliable breeder, with the lowest percentage of stillborn and the highest post-weaning survival. while the reproductive performance of s oedipus was better than that generally reported for other colonies, the ...19846431191
pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too.paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males did not (five consecutive months for marmoset males and six months for cotton-top tamarin males). expectant fathers might be preparing for the energet ...200616810338
comparative analysis of masseter fiber architecture in tree-gouging (callithrix jacchus) and nongouging (saguinus oedipus) callitrichids.common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) (callitrichidae, primates) share a broadly similar diet of fruits, insects, and tree exudates. common marmosets, however, differ from tamarins by actively gouging trees with their anterior teeth to elicit tree exudate flow. during tree gouging, marmosets produce relatively large jaw gapes, but do not necessarily produce relatively large bite forces at the anterior teeth. we compared the fiber architecture of the mas ...200415281057
callitrichid nutrition and food sensitivity.captive callitrichids are prone to developing intestinal problems. their captive and natural diets differ enormously, and diet has been suggested to play a major role in wasting marmoset syndrome. proteins in wheat, soy and milk are included in callitrichid diets of most colonies and have been linked to an immune reaction in saguinus oedipus and callithrix jacchus. in the present study of 23 males and females of the two species, wheat protein was tested but soy and milk products were excluded. o ...200111515674
social processes in communication and cognition in callitrichid monkeys: a review.studies of vocal development in nonhuman primates have found little evidence for plasticity in vocal production, somewhat more for usage of calls, with the greatest plasticity arising in response to calls of others. generally, similar results were obtained with callitrichid monkeys, the marmosets and tamarins, but with several interesting exceptions. infant pygmy marmosets show babbling behavior with improvement in adult call structure related to the amount and diversity of babbling. adult marmo ...200124777515
prolactin levels of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in common marmosets, callithrix jacchus.previous studies have suggested that prolactin may play a role in regulating allocare behaviour in cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus. in this study, we investigate the prolactin profile of 3 groups of captive common marmosets, callithrix jacchus. carrying behaviour in this species was observed after parturition. prolactin assays of blood samples of both fathers and helpers (sub-adult non-fathers) in 3 family groups were taken for 8 weeks before and after birth of the infants. the after-birth ...200610686484
characterization of circulating natural killer cells in neotropical primates.despite extensive use of nonhuman primates as models for infectious diseases and reproductive biology, imprecise phenotypic and functional definitions exist for natural killer (nk) cells. this deficit is particularly significant in the burgeoning use of small, less expensive new world primate species. using polychromatic flow cytometry, we identified peripheral blood nk cells as cd3-negative and expressing a cluster of cell surface molecules characteristic of nk cells (i.e., nkg2a, nkp46, nkp30) ...201324244365
indoor-outdoor housing systems for a self-sustaining marmoset breeding colony.indoor-outdoor housing of three types was designed, constructed, used and evaluated for housing a breeding colony of common (callithrix jacchus) and cottontop (saguinus oedipus) marmosets. all types were relatively inexpensive to construct, required minimal care, simulated a natural environment and allowed for some isolation between units and between individual runs within units.1979119116
classification of cowpox viruses into several distinct clades and identification of a novel lineage.cowpox virus (cpxv) was considered as uniform species within the genus orthopoxvirus (opv). previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that cpxv is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (varv) or vaccinia viruses (vacv). further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating cpxvs. here we report the full-length sequences of 20 cpxv strains isol ...201728604604
twinning and survivorship of captive common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).here we present the results of a demographic analysis of 25 y (1985 to 2010) of common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) records from the new england primate research center. summaries of longevity and survivorship are analyzed by birth-type category (including singletons, twins, triplets, and quadruplets) and sex. in addition, a brief evolutionary review is presented. surrogates of hematopoietic chimerism, twinning, and reproductive output are explored in a ...201424411773
implicit learning in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (columba livia).there is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. this form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they ha ...201525673101
avoiding hepatic metastasis naturally: lessons from the cotton top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).much has been written about hepatic metastasis and animal models abound. in terms of the human experience, progress in treating this final common pathway, a terminal event of many human malignancies has been relatively slow. the current thinking is that primary prevention is best served by early detection of cancer and eradication of early stage cancers by screening. some cancers spread early in their course and the role of screening may be limited. until relatively recently there has not been a ...201627350726
[chromosomal aberrations in a subfertile cotton-top tamarin].the present case report describes a female cotton-top tamarin which was taken over by the zoo basel to form a new breeding pair. the animal demonstrated increased marking behavior without any obvious medical reasons, dominant behavior, failure to become pregnant and its external genitals were ambiguous. a disorder of the sexual development (dsd) was suspected by the zoo veterinarians and in a first step, the chromosomes of the monkey were analyzed. six cell lines with different karyotypes were o ...201728703709
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