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development of early behaviors in neonatal squirrel monkeys and cotton-top tamarins. 19744207181
collagen turnover in the gingiva and other mature connective tissues of the marmoset saguinus oedipus. 19744217619
tetrapetalonema marmosete in cotton-topped marmosets, saguinus oedipus, from the region of san marcos, columbia. 19704247975
the ultrastructure of herpesvirus saimiri-induced lymphoma in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus). 19724337972
pathologic features of herpesvirus ateles lymphoma in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus). 19724630607
carcinogen-induced neoplasia with metastasis in a south american primate, saguinus oedipus. 19694976950
microfilarial infection of the oral structures in the cotton top marmoset (saguinus oedipus). 19704989567
[lymphocyte heterogeneity of the t system: characterization of an allotypic antiserum recognizing a sub-species antigenic determinant in non-human primates].to determine the membrane properties in t-lymphocyte population from saguinus primates or lymphoblastoid cell lines of the same origin, an allotypic antiserum was prepared inoculating two saguinus illigeri with 3.5 x 10(10) viable 70n2 cells obtained in-vitro, from a lymphoma induced by inoculation of herpesvirus saimiri in a saguinus oedipus. the 70n2 cells carried the virus genome in an episomal way; it did not produce infectious virus and it formed spontaneous rosettes (99%) with sheep erythr ...19826086023
gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates: a review and report of eleven new cases.reported gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates are reviewed, and the clinical and pathologic features of 11 new cases are described. the 11 monkeys had a total of 12 malignant gastrointestinal neoplasms; one had two primary carcinomas, one in the colon and one in the duodenum. ten of the 12 tumors were adenocarcinomas: two in the duodenum, one in the jejunum, four in the distal ileum or region of the ileocecal valve and three in the large intestine. the remaining two lesions were a his ...19826153001
an analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets.retrospective pathology data from necropsies of 162 marmosets, saguinus oedipus, were studied to determine the nature of chronic wasting syndrome, a poorly defined entity associated with a high mortality rate in many marmoset colonies. paraffin sections of the gastroenteric organs of 116 of these marmosets were re-examined in detail; lesions were identified, quantitated, and analyzed with a method of multiple chi-square testing for possible associations between findings. five distinct disease en ...19826153004
morphological observations of the replication of herpesvirus tamarinus in rl-33 cells.the replication in rl-33 cells (rabbit lung cell line) of herpesvirus tamarinus isolated from cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) was investigated by electron microscopy. in the early stages of infection, ring-shaped and granular structures, and fibrillar materials were recognized in the nucleus. immature particles were often found in such nuclei. the envelope of the virus was formed by budding through intracytoplasmic membranes, the inner nuclear membrane or the membrane of intracytoplas ...19806254473
chromosomes and cell surface markers of marmoset lymphocytes and epstein-barr virus-transformed marmoset cell lines.the g-banded karyotypes of both normal lymphocytes and epstein-barr virus (ebv)-transformed lymphocytes of cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) were examined. the marmoset lymphocytes and ebv-transformed lymphoblastoid cells had normal diploid chromosomes (2n = 46) with no specific cytogenic change associated with transformation in vitro. ebv-transformed marmoset lymphocytes expressed the cell surface markers of b lymphocytes and eb viral antigens.19816268289
fatal herpesvirus tamarinus infection in cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus). 19816275150
gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates: a review and report of eleven new cases.reported gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates are reviewed, and the clinical and pathologic features of 11 new cases are described. the 11 monkeys had a total of 12 malignant gastrointestinal neoplasms; one had two primary carcinomas, one in the colon and one in the duodenum. ten of the 12 tumors were adenocarcinomas: two in the duodenum, one in the jejunum, four in the distal ileum or region of the ileocecal valve and three in the large intestine. the remaining two lesions were a his ...19826293146
comparative immunogenicity studies on epstein-barr virus membrane antigen (ma) gp340 with novel adjuvants in mice, rabbits, and cotton-top tamarins.the effectiveness of immunisation of mice, rabbits, and cotton-top tamarins with small amounts of eb virus ma glycoprotein gp340 , incorporated into artificial liposomes, has been compared using various routes of injection with or without additional adjuvants. liposomes containing gp340 gave specific high titre antibodies after i.p. or i.v. administration, and the addition of lipid a to the liposomes resulted in a significant enhancement of the response. antibodies generated by the above procedu ...19846327902
cyclic excretion of urinary oestrogens in female tamarins (saguinus oedipus).urine was collected from 6 female cotton-top tamarins (saguinus o. oedipus) and urinary oestrone and oestradiol concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. oestrone was excreted at 50-fold higher concentrations than oestradiol. five females showed patterns of regular oestrone cyclicity, with a mean peak-to-peak oestrone cycle of 23.6 +/- 1.2 days. levels of oestradiol tended to vary with levels of oestrone excretion, but peaks were less pronounced and more variable. the sixth female, diagn ...19836405030
a retrospective study of infant mortality of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in captive breeding.fifty of 156 (32%) colony bred cotton-top tamarins were stillborn, and 31 (20%) died within the first week after birth. the stillbirth rate was related to litter size and parity in captivity. a higher percent of single births were stillborn (69%) compared to those of twin births (26%) (p less than 0.005). a higher percent of infants born of the first litter in captivity (42%) were stillborn than those of subsequent litters (23%) (p less than 0.025). stillbirths were not related to season of birt ...19836406761
factors influencing population growth of a colony of cotton-top tamarins.43% of full-term births in a colony of saguinus oedipus oedipus occurred during april and may. interbirth interval was usually 12 months in females which reared live young and 7 months in those whose young died perinatally. 81% of all full-term births were of twins, the rest were singles. high mortality among neonates was seen with a group of bought-in animals which had been taken from their parents at an early age without participating in the rearing of siblings, and was attributable to parenta ...19836408301
myeloproliferative disease in a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus). 19836408302
functional implications of skeletal diversity in two south american tamarins.this study examines the relationship between positional behavior and morphology for two closely related south american tamarin species, saguinus fuscicollis illigeri and saguinus oedipus oedipus. although never systematically documented, the two species are suspected of exhibiting highly similar yet subtly different locomotor behaviors with a greater propensity for climbing, springing, and more powerful leaping in s. oedipus. fourteen measurements reflecting biomechanical structuring were taken ...19836412558
relationship between social interactions and sexual maturation in female saguinus oedipus oedipus.4 female saguinus oedipus oedipus were paired with strange, unrelated males while 5 remained in their natal family groups. a comparison of the frequency of selected social interactions involving these females when sexually immature versus mature was made. the frequency of sexual and affiliative interactions in male-female pairs was basically unchanged by the female's maturation. mother-daughter interactions were also not changed in a consistent fashion by the daughters' maturation. females with ...19836414915
lactation and fertility: an examination of nursing and interbirth intervals in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus o. oedipus).breeding records from a colony of saguinus o. oedipus were examined to determine the influence of nursing on the return to a fertile status in adult females. the overall interbirth interval (ibi) was 208.5 +/- 16.3 days. nursing status (nursing vs. non-nursing) and number of infants nursed (0, 1, or 2) did not influence ibi. the lack of effects of nursing on fertility appears to be a general trait in callitrichid primates.19836414916
carcinoma of the colon in the cotton-top tamarin: a radiographic study. 19836417093
primary structures of adult hemoglobins of silvery marmoset, callithrix argentatus, and cotton-headed tamarin, saguinus oedipus.tryptic peptides of the alpha and beta chains from silvery marmoset (callithrix argentatus) and cotton-headed tamarin (saguinus oedipus) hemoglobins were isolated and sequenced, respectively, by conventional methods. the ordering of the peptides in each chain was deduced from the homology of their sequences with those of human adult hemoglobin. the primary structures thus deduced are compared with those of other primate hemoglobins, and the rate of evolution in new world monkey hemoglobins is di ...19846427202
reproductive performance of three species of callitrichidae.the reproductive performance of three species of callitrichidae housed under identical conditions, including relatively spacious caging and visual screening, was compared. the three species were callithrix jacchus, saguinus fuscicollis, and saguinus oedipus. callithrix jacchus was the most reliable breeder, with the lowest percentage of stillborn and the highest post-weaning survival. while the reproductive performance of s oedipus was better than that generally reported for other colonies, the ...19846431191
energy requirements of captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).food intake of captive cotton-top tamarins was measured at various stages of the life cycle and energy intake was calculated from the results. the intake of adults for maintenance was found to vary around 500 kj x kg-3/4 x day-1 and to decrease with age. during the last 8 weeks of pregnancy, females increased in weight by about 2 g x day-1 but energy intake did not show a marked rise above the maintenance range. during lactation, their energy intake appeared to double. measurements of intake at ...19846437946
ecological distinctions between sympatric species of saguinus and sciurus.tamarins are small new world monkeys that have been described as "squirrellike." squirrels, along with bats and birds, are the taxa most likely to utilize resources similar to those used by primates in the tropical forest canopy. in this paper we compare differences in ecology, diet, locomotion, and habitat utilization between sympatric populations of tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and tree squirrels (sciurus granatensis) in panama. data presented indicate that although there is some degree of reso ...19846439048
glomerulonephritis associated with arteritis in marmosets infected with hepatitis a virus.seven of 8 marmosets (saguinus oedipus and saguinus labiatus) injected i.v. with different inocula of hepatitis a virus isolated from patients in the acute phase of disease developed proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with arteritis. the glomerulonephritis was characterized by immunofluorescent and electron-dense deposits and hypercellularity. although no antigenic component of the glomerular immune complex was detected, this glomerulonephritis and arteritis may be diagnosed morphologic ...19816452891
colonic adenocarcinoma associated with chronic colitis in cotton top marmosets, saguinus oedipus.colitis is a common disease of cotton top marmosets, saguinus oedipus, characterized by crypt abscesses and inflammation of lamina propria. in more advanced colitis there is marked irregularity of mucosal surface, distortion of crypt architecture and epithelium, increased numbers of mitoses, and decreased numbers of goblet cells. foci of pleomorphic cells arranged in poorly formed glands or sheets, interpreted as carcinoma in situ, also occur. many such cases have invasive colonic adenocarcinoma ...19816781977
nutritional evaluation in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).four cotton-top tamarins were fed a commercial biscuit diet and three others a commercial canned diet for 12 weeks. thereafter, all seven were fed a purified diet for 12 weeks. general health, body weight, food intake, fecal output, serum biochemistry, blood count, and colonic histopathology were evaluated at various times during the experiments. the diets did not affect these parameters except the purified diet was associated with relatively reduced fecal output. diarrhea and chronic colitis oc ...19816787327
urinary oestrogen excretion in the female cotton-topped tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus).daily urinary oestrogen excretion was measured by radioimmunoassay in 6 adult female cotton-topped tamarins. four females showed obvious cyclicity in oestrogen excretion and the mean cycle length for 10 complete cycles was 22.7 +/- 1.7 days with a range of 19-25 days. in 3 of the 6 females a dip-and-read test for blood in the urine gave positive readings which were distributed during trough and mid-cycle periods although females of this species are believed not to menstruate.19816788947
competition for a desired food in family groups of the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).four captive groups of common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and three groups of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) were each presented with a desired food and their consumption was monitored. inequalities in consumption between individuals were found for each group of each species. generally, adult females consumed most of the desired food, followed by juveniles, and finally adult males. high consumption levels by all individuals during isolated feedings indicated that consumption inequalit ...19816789003
husbandry and breeding of a newly-established colony of cotton-topped tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).from november 1976 to february 1979 a total of 8 litters were born to 6 females. of the 14 infants, 10 were successfully reared by their parents. housing, nutrition, a balance between environmental stability and stimulation, and female multiparity are seen as factors contributing to the breeding success of this colony. a controlled male and female pairing programme provided information on mating behavior and gestation length. one gestation of at least 166 days was observed, longer than that of t ...19816790834
analysis of mutagen-induced chromosome damage in a primate species (saguinus oedipus oedipus) at risk for spontaneous adenocarcinoma of the colon.a high incidence of adenocarcinoma of the colon (greater than 16%) has been observed at necropsy in the south american primate, saguinus oedipus oedipus (s. oedipus), while the disease has not been found in tamarins of the closely related species, saguinus fuscicollis spp, housed in the same research colony. cytogenetic analyses in cultured lymphocytes from 10 s. oedipus and 10 s. fuscicollis illigeri (s. fuscicollis) demonstrated no differences in the average frequencies of spontaneous or mitom ...19816791815
a marmoset t lymphoma which functions as a human amplifier t cell.a long-term in vitro grown t cell line derived from a cotton-topped marmoset (saguinus oedipus) infected with herpesvirus saimiri was fond to share surface antigens with human amplifier t cells and to augment the capacity of human b cells to secrete immunoglobulin. this is the first demonstration of t/b collaboration across such a large phylogenetic barrier and might have interesting implications for understanding the nature of molecular interactions mediating cell/cell cooperation.19816801144
an analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets.retrospective pathology data from necropsies of 162 marmosets, saguinus oedipus, were studied to determine the nature of chronic wasting syndrome, a poorly defined entity associated with a high mortality rate in many marmoset colonies. paraffin sections of the gastroenteric organs of 116 of these marmosets were re-examined in detail; lesions were identified, quantitated, and analyzed with a method of multiple chi-square testing for possible associations between findings. five distinct disease en ...19826815872
noma in saguinus oedipus: a report of 2 cases.2 cases of noma in cotton topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) are reported. the condition did not respond to antibiotic therapy, but was successfully treated in one animal by local application of ethacridine lactate.19826816990
mucous and argentaffin cells in colonic adenocarcinomas of tamarins and rats.primary and metastatic neoplasms of four naturally occurring colonic adenocarcinomas in the cotton-topped tamarin, saguinus oedipus oedipus, and four chemically induced rat colonic adenocarcinomas were examined with light and electron microscopy. in each case, we observed mixtures of mucous and argentaffin cells in metastatic sites, proving that endocrine cells are an integral part of these tumors. the occurrence of mixed cell populations in metastases in both species suggests, but does not prov ...19807442128
self-recognition in primates: phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features.self-recognition has been explored in nonlinguistic organisms by recording whether individuals touch a dye-marked area on visually inaccessible parts of their face while looking in a mirror or inspect parts of their body while using the mirror's reflection. only chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and humans over the age of approximately 2 years consistently evidence self-directed mirror-guided behavior without experimenter training. to evaluate the inferred phylogenetic gap between hominoids and ...19957479889
inhibition of dexamethasone binding to human glucocorticoid receptor by new world primate cell extracts.to determine if new world primates express an inhibitor that influences glucocorticoid receptor (gr) binding characteristics, we examined [3h]dexamethasone binding in cytosol prepared from b95-8 lymphoid cells, derived from the cotton top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), in combination with cytosol prepared from human or rat tissues. b95-8 cytosol inhibited specific binding of [3h]dexamethasone (p < 0.01) when mixed with cytosol prepared from either a human lymphoid cell line (hl) or rat thymus. the ...19957482631
the relationship of cortisol levels to social environment and reproductive functioning in female cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus.cortisol levels were examined in 17 cotton-top tamarin monkeys (saguinus oedipus) to determine: (1) if first-morning void urine sampling could be used as a noninvasive method for monitoring cortisol excretion, (2) if capture and bleeding were associated with changes in urinary cortisol levels, (3) the relative cortisol levels in reproductively active and reproductively suppressed females, and (4) the relationship between cortisol levels and changes in social condition in cotton-top tamarins. mea ...19957490013
c4 gene polymorphism in primates: evolution, generation, and chido and rodgers antigenicity.eleven new c4d genomic primate sequences of the fourth complement factor (c4) have been obtained. seven of them belong to five species not yet explored for this gene: pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee), cercopithecus aethiops (green monkey), macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), and saguinus oedipus (cotton top tamarin). the new world monkeys (tamarins, four individuals) sequenced for c4 have a single c4d sequence only, which shows a b isotypic specificity and a rodgers ...19947525470
distribution of human endogenous retrovirus herv-k genomes in humans and different primates.the distribution of the human endogenous retrovirus (herv)-k genome was investigated by southern-blot analyses using a herv-k-env dna probe. with the exception of one dna-sample, obtained from a chinese individual in whom an amplification of herv-k was detected, southern-blot analyses yielded identical hybridization patterns with dna from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 37 normal healthy blood donors, with dna from six tumor cell lines, or with 23 dna samples prepared from various carcinoma tiss ...19957635468
fluctuating asymmetry in tamarin (saguinus) cranial morphology: intra- and interspecific comparisons between taxa with varying levels of genetic heterozygosity.fluctuating asymmetry has been proposed as a measure of developmental homeostasis and an indicator of populations under stress. however, controversy surrounds not only the validity of an association between fluctuating asymmetry and levels of protein heterozygosity, but also whether fluctuating asymmetry can be used to identify populations under genetic and environmental stress. the relationship between levels of heterozygosity and developmental homeostasis is considered by comparing levels of c ...20067657996
eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin. evolution of novel function in a primate ribonuclease gene family.human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (edn) and eosinophil cationic protein (ecp) are members of a unique subfamily of rapidly evolving primate ribonuclease genes that emerged via a gene duplication event occurring after the divergence of old world from new world monkeys (rosenberg, h. f., dyer, k. d., tiffany, h. l., and gonzalez, m. (1995) nature genet. 10, 219-223). in this work, we studied the activity of the protein encoded by the edn/ecp homolog of the new world monkey, saguinus oedipus (mar ...19957665566
attenuation of colitis in the cotton-top tamarin by anti-alpha 4 integrin monoclonal antibody.recent studies have demonstrated the induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules including e-selectin (also called endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule in actively involved mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease. similar induction has been demonstrated in the colon of the cotton-top tamarin (ctt), a new world primate that experiences a spontaneous acute and chronic colitis resembling ulcer ...19937686922
laterality in hand preferences and reaching accuracy of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).manual laterality of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) was observed for five different types of reaching. the tamarins displayed species-level right-handedness for spontaneous grasping for food but not for one-arm vertical suspension or any of 3 other types of elicited reaching. the results showed that difficult or novel tasks are neither necessary nor sufficient for the emergence of species-level handedness. accuracy in retrieving food from a rotating platform was greatest (a) for highly l ...19957705058
evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. a survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes mammalia, aves and amphibia.as part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (agt1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive agt1, using postembedding protein a-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes mammalia, aves, and amphibia. as far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. in members of the first category (type i), all, or nearly all, ...19947813517
selection of monoclonal antibodies for the identification of lymphocyte surface antigens in the new world primate saguinus oedipus oedipus (cotton top tamarin).32 monoclonal antibodies reactive with human cd antigens were tested against tamarin peripheral blood lymphocytes, cona blasts and lymphoblastoid b cell lines derived from tamarin cells. reagents that cross-react with mhc class i and ii, b cells (cd20, -21 and -23), monocytes (cd14) and nk cells (cd16, -56) have been identified. in addition monoclonals that cross-react with t cells (cd2, cd3), the cd4/cd8 subsets of t cells and the il-2 receptor (cd25) are reported. a monoclonal against the beta ...19957836781
molecular mass and isoelectric properties of pituitary and urinary gonadotrophins in callitrichid primates.in this study, the molecular masses and isoelectric characteristics of pituitary lh and fsh in two species of callitrichid primate, the common marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), were determined. comparative data for urine samples from callithrix jacchus are also presented. the separation of gonadotrophins from pituitary extracts and urine was performed under nonreducing conditions using sds-page and isoelectric focusing procedures. hormone activity in ge ...19947861403
conservative evolution of the mbc-dp region in anthropoid primates.to determine the organization of the dp region in the mbc of anthropoid primates, we constructed contig maps from cosmid clones of the chimpanzee and orangutan, representatives of the infraorder catarrhini, as well as of the cotton-top tamarin, a representative of the infraorder platyrrhini. we found the maps to be remarkably similar to each other and to the previously published map of the human dp region. in each of the four species, the dp region consists of four loci arranged in the same orde ...19937901184
temperature-metabolism relations in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) model for ulcerative colitis.examination of temperature-metabolism relations found no significant differences between thermoregulation of temperature housed laboratory cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) and wild tamarins in colombia, s.a. the results indicate that tamarins do not acclimate to a temperature environment and are metabolically stressed at ta less than 32 degrees c. this is consistent with an hypothesis of chronic metabolic stress as a factor in the etiology of cotton-top tamarin colitis, which is restricted ...19947932634
baboon and cotton-top tamarin b2m cdna sequences and the evolution of primate beta 2-microglobulin.nonhuman primates represent phylogenetic intermediates for studying the divergence of human and murine beta 2ms. we report the nucleotide sequences of b2m cdna clones from a baboon cell line, 26cb-1 (papio hamadryas; primates: cercopithecoidea), and a cotton-top tamarin cell line, 1605l (saguinus oedipus; primates: ceboidea). the baboon and tamarin b2m sequences indicate a very slow rate of b2m evolution in primates relative to that in murid rodents. phenotypic evolution of beta 2m has also been ...19948026986
the cotton-top tamarin revisited: mhc class i polymorphism of wild tamarins, and polymorphism and allelic diversity of the class ii dqa1, dqb1, and drb loci.cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in captivity are unusual in that they exhibit low levels of polymorphism and allelic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i loci. since the polymorphism has previously only been examined in captive tamarins, we analyzed the mhc class i alleles of a population of wild tamarins. these wild tamarins, like their captive counterparts, exhibited limited class i polymorphism. we also assessed the levels of polymorphism and allelic diversit ...19948039824
cloning and expression of interleukin-3 genes of chimpanzee and new world monkeys.interleukin-3 (il-3) genes were cloned from chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), tamarin (saguinus oedipus) and marmoset (callithrix jacchus) and expressed in cos cells. although the il-3 gene structure is well conserved in these primate species, sequence analysis revealed extensive base substitutions. the chimpanzee il-3 protein, which is highly homologous (98.5% identity) to human il-3, stimulated proliferation of human cells dependent on il-3. in contrast, due to the numerous amino acid substitution ...19948110834
postural effects on manual reaching laterality in squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) made unimanual food reaches from either a horizontal, quadrupedal posture or a vertical, clinging posture. no population-level handedness occurred in either species. however, in both species, directional lateral preferences weakly expressed for reaching from the stable quadrupedal posture were intensified in the vertical cling posture. this phenomenon, which we designate as soft handedness, may have been an evolutiona ...19938112050
a putative cea moiety is shared by the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) and humans.cea-like molecules immunologically distinct from those in humans have been described in non-human primates. these primates do not share the human predilection for colitis and subsequent development of colorectal cancer. cea expression has not been fully evaluated in a lower-order primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), an animal model for colitis and colorectal cancer. we found increased levels of cea in both colonic washings and tissues of these animals using a commercially availabl ...19948162564
aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), and retrospective study of infections in seven primate species. 19938231095
anti-colitic efficacy of sc-41930 in colitic cotton-top tamarins.to evaluate anti-colitic efficacy, eight cotton-top tamarins (ctts) with histologically confirmed persistent active colitis were given the anti-inflammatory agent sc-41930 (10 mg/kg bw by gavage bid) for eight weeks. colonic endoscopy and biopsy observations, cbcs and clinical chemistries, and stool consistency were evaluated pre-, mid-, and posttreatment. colitic activity was graded histologically from a1 (mild) to a5 (severe); results varied among the seven animals that completed the study: fi ...19938273579
inflammatory mediator changes in cotton-top tamarins (ctt) after sc-41930 anti-colitic therapy.use of the ctt model provides insight into the inflammatory mediator contribution in the pathogenesis of idiopathic colitis. to evaluate anti-colitic efficacy, the leukotriene b4 receptor antagonist and anti-inflammatory agent, sc-41930, was administered (10 mg/kg bw by gavage bid) for 8 weeks to ctts with histologically confirmed persistent and defined active colitis. the inflammatory mediators ltb4, pge2, txb2, and paf were assayed in colonic dialysate that was collected after 1 1/2 h from fou ...19938273593
measurement of faecal steroids for monitoring ovarian function in new world primates, callitrichidae.measurement of immunoreactive progesterone, pregnanediol and oestradiol in faeces collected throughout ovarian cycles in three species of callitrichid primates is reported. faecal hormone concentrations were compared with plasma progesterone profiles during pgf2 alpha-controlled (n = 7) and natural (n = 8) cycles in callithrix jacchus and saguinus fuscicollis, respectively, and with urinary oestrone conjugates during five cycles in saguinus oedipus. unconjugated steroids, which predominated over ...19938283445
cholesterol metabolism in new world primates: comparative studies in two tamarin species (saguinus oedipus and saguinus fuscicollis) and the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus).1. cholesterol metabolism has been characterized in three species of new world primates, the cotton-top tamarin, the saddle-back tamarin, and the squirrel monkey. 2. when fed a diet containing cholesterol, the three species exhibited differing responses of plasma cholesterol levels. 3. dietary cholesterol absorption was determined and plasma cholesterol die-away kinetics were analyzed in terms of a two-pool model. 4. the results of the analyses of cholesterol turnover are consistent with the obs ...19938299347
genetic epidemiology of colon cancer in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).colon cancer is known to be heritable in humans, but the opportunity to investigate the genetic epidemiology of cancer in nonhuman primates has been limited by the size of available populations. the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) colony at the oak ridge associated universities (orau) marmoset research center is a large population with a high rate of spontaneous colon cancer that has been monitored over several years, thus allowing investigation of the genetic basis for colon cancer in thi ...19938300080
fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).1. the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), a small new world primate susceptible to spontaneous development of colon cancer, was studied for its fecal neutral sterol and bile salt composition. 2. standardization procedures to establish the effect of exposure of the stool to room temperature air for various time-periods showed no significant effects on the neutral sterol and bile salt composition of the samples. 3. microbial degradation of cholesterol and bile acids to secondary metabolites sh ...19938365117
characterization of the rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) equivalent of hla-f.nucleotide sequence analysis of rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex class i cdnas allowed the identification of the orthologue of hla-f, designated mamu-f. comparison of mamu-f with earlier published human and chimpanzee orthologues demonstrated that these sequences share a high degree of similarity, both at the nucleotide and amino acid level, whereas a new world monkey (cotton-top tamarin) equivalent is more distantly related. exon 7, encoding one of the cytoplasmatic domains, is a ...19938482576
mhc-drb genes of platyrrhine primates.the two infraorders of anthropoid primates, platyrrhini (new world monkeys) and catarrhini (old world monkeys and the hominoids) are estimated to have diverged from a common ancestor 37 million years ago. the major histocompatibility complex class ii drb gene and haplotype polymorphism of the catarrhini has been characterized in several recent studies. the present study was undertaken to obtain information on the drb polymorphism of the platyrrhini. fifty-five complete exon 2 drb sequences were ...19938505064
the evolution of major histocompatibility class i genes in primates.mhc class i genes evolve by recombination, largely within loci, and selection (presumably pathogen-driven) maintains these new alleles in the population. although chimpanzees and humans share an a locus allelic lineage, the b locus molecules of the chimpanzee were less similar to human b locus molecules. the a and b locus molecules in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys were even less similar to their human counterparts, with little conservation of allelic lineages between macaques and humans. in cont ...19958519421
comparative study of oestrogen excretion in female new world monkeys: an overview of non-invasive ovarian monitoring and a new application in evolutionary biology.oestrogen was measured in urine samples collected from captive females representing 7 species of new world monkey to provide an overview of the applicability of such formation in the noninvasive monitoring of ovarian function and to assess the potential applicability of such information in phylogenetic studies. species available for study were the pygmy marmoset, common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, cotton-top tamarin, golden lion tamarin, goeldi's monkey and the owl monkey. oestrone conjugates ...19958529968
a prospective study of the epidemiology of colitis and colon cancer in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).spontaneous colitis and colon cancer in the cotton-top tamarin have been shown to resemble human ulcerative colitis and its associated cancer. the effect of environment and diet on the evolution of the disease was studied in animals from birth to 5 years of age.19968536845
oral efficacy of a leukotriene b4 receptor antagonist in colitic cotton-top tamarins.leukotriene b4 (ltb4) is a potent neutrophil activator and chemotaxin that is present in increased concentrations in the colonic tissue and rectal dialysates of acute ulcerative colitis patients. cotton-top tamarins (ctts) with confirmed active colitis were treated with the second generation ltb4 receptor antagonist, sc-53228 ((+)-(s)-7-[3-(2-cyclopropyl-methyl)-3-methoxy-4-[(methylamino) carbonyl]phenoxy]propoxy]-3,4-dihydro-8-propyl-2h-1-benzopyran-2- propanoic acid), 20 mg/kg bodyweight by ga ...19958549949
lectin histochemistry and carcinoembryonic antigen in spontaneous colonic cancers of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).the glycoconjugate-binding properties and the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen in colonic cancers of cotton-top tamarins at the german primate center are described. deviating from findings in non-tumorous colonic epithelia of cotton-top tamarins was the presence of uea-, sba-, or dba-binding sites in the infranuclear cytoplasm of colonic epithelial cells, staining of entire cells, and the occurrence of subepithelial extracellular glycoconjugates in and adjacent to colonic cancers. carcinoe ...19958592802
allelic diversity at the primate mhc-g locus: exon 3 bears stop codons in all cercopithecinae sequences.twenty-seven major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-g exon 2, exon 3, and exon 2 and 3 allelic sequences were obtained together with 12 different intron 2 sequences. homo sapiens, pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus, macaca fascicularis, macaca mulatta, and cercopithecus aethiops individuals were studied. polymorphism does not follow the classical pattern of three hypervariable regions per domain and is found in all species studied; exon 3 (equivalent to the alpha 2 pr ...19968606053
fecal short-chain fatty acids associated with inflammation in cotton-top tamarin model for idiopathic colitis.this study measured fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids (scfas) relative to the severity of colitis in the cotton-top tamarin model of colitis and colon cancer. severity of colitis was classified as mild, moderate, or severe by subjective scoring of colonic mucosal biopsies and quantification of inflammatory cell infiltrates in the lamina propria. scfas were determined by gas chromatography of scfas extracted from fresh feces. tamarins with moderate or severe colitis had significantly reduce ...19968769289
mhc class i-processed pseudogenes in new world primates provide evidence for rapid turnover of mhc class i genes.the mhc class i genes of the new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), are an exception to the high polymorphism and variability displayed by this multigene family. we report the isolation of the first two processed pseudogenes from the mhc region in primates. these two mhc class i-processed pseudogenes (mhc-ps1 and -ps2) were found in several species of new world primates, suggesting a possible explanation for the cotton-top tamarin's limited mhc class i diversity. the patte ...19968805639
metabolism of reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in two species of callitrichids, saguinus oedipus and callithrix jacchus, and estimation of the ovulatory period from fecal steroids.gonadal steroids were measured in daily fecal samples providing comparative data on steroid metabolism in two genera of new world primates. circulating bioactive lh and progesterone concentrations and fecal progesterone, pregnanediol, estradiol, and estrone concentrations were measured by collecting blood and daily fecal samples from four captive common marmoset females and four cotton-top tamarin females for 30 days. high recoveries (> 80%) of labeled steroids that were added directly to the fe ...19968838005
rapid resolution of chronic colitis in the cotton-top tamarin with an antibody to a gut-homing integrin alpha 4 beta 7.integrins play diverse roles in cellular actions and signalling in the immune system. in the context of mucosal immune responses, the integrin alpha 4 beta 7 has received particular attention because of its intimate involvement in lymphocyte recruitment to normal gastrointestinal mucosa and associated lymphoid tissue. the aim of this study was to determine the functional relevance of alpha 4 beta 7 in the pathogenesis of colonic inflammatory disease using the colitic cotton-top tamarin, an anima ...19968898653
cytokines in the cotton top tamarin model of human ulcerative colitis.the cotton top tamarin is a unique model of human ulcerative colitis. this disease is clinically and histologically similar. it is also complicated in some cases by colon cancer. the cotton top tamarin provides an appropriate animal model for assessing new treatments in inflammatory bowel disease.19968899100
bilateral giant myelolipoma in the adrenal of a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).a rare case of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas in a female cotton-top tamarin is reported. large bilateral masses in the adrenal glands were composed of mature adipose cells containing varying amounts of hematopoietic cells of the myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic series. the gross and histologic features of this case closely resemble human "giant" adrenal myelolipomas.19968906611
hormonal responses to parental and nonparental conditions in male cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus, a new world primate.the socially monogamous cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) monkey is a cooperative breeder with the breeding male providing extensive parental care shortly after birth. we examined the relationship of urinary prolactin and cortisol excretion both to male parental care and as a stress response in the cotton-top tamarin monkey. first-morning urine samples were collected to determine hormonal concentrations. hormonal and behavioral data were collected on 8 male cotton-top tamarins during the 2 w ...19968918686
immunisation of common marmosets with vaccinia virus expressing epstein-barr virus (ebv) gp340 and challenge with ebv.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with a variety of life-threatening diseases in humans. therefore the development of an effective vaccine is an important objective. many of the initial studies of vaccine efficacy analyse the ability of vaccine preparations to prevent the induction of lymphomas in cottontop tamarins by the b95-8 strain of ebv. we used a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing gp340, vma1, tested previously in the cotton-top tamarin ...19968923292
the t-cell receptor beta chain-encoding gene repertoire of a new world primate species, the cotton-top tamarin.the new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), expresses major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i molecules with limited diversity. the uniqueness of the cotton-top tamarin mhc class i loci may contribute to this species' unusual susceptibility to viral infections and high incidence of ulcerative colitis. as a prelude to examining the effect of this limited mhc class i diversity on the tamarin cd8(+) t-cell receptor (tcr) repertoire, we identified expressed tamarin tcr b ...19968952965
cloning and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor from the squirrel monkey (saimiri boliviensis boliviensis), a glucocorticoid-resistant primate.new world primates such as the squirrel monkey have elevated cortisol levels and glucocorticoid resistance. we have shown that the apparent binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor in squirrel monkey lymphocytes is 5-fold lower than that in human lymphocytes (apparent kd, 20.9 +/- 1.8 and 4.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/l, respectively; n = 3), consistent with previous studies in mononuclear leukocytes isolated from the two species. as a first step in understanding the mechanism of decreased binding aff ...19979024238
age of epiphyseal closure in tamarins and marmosets.estimates of the chronological age for animals of unknown age provide useful information for medical, demographic, and evolutionary studies. skeletal development, as indicated by epiphyseal closure, can be used to estimate an animal's chronological age or specify its stage of development. many studies of primate skeletal development have used animals of unknown age, with the order of epiphyseal closure providing a relative age for each animal. this study examines the age of epiphyseal closure at ...19979050370
high polymorphism of mhc-e locus in non-human primates: alleles with identical exon 2 and 3 are found in two different species.thirteen mhc-e new sequences were found in eight individuals belonging to the cercopithecinae family, i.e.: macaca mulatta, macaca fascicularis and cercopithecus aethiops when studying e locus polymorphism. no changes were found in the invariant residues which are required for the correct conformation of the peptide presenting region which are conserved in classical mhc class i molecules from fish and reptiles to humans; however, polymorphism of mhc-e alleles is not limited to the three typical ...19979062972
affiliative processes and vocal development.affiliative behavior is often expressed through communication, and the nature of affiliative interactions affects the ontogeny of communication. i presented three phenomena that demonstrate the importance of affiliation in vocal development in marmosets and tamarins, but the results have parallels in many other species including birds, dolphins, and humans. pygmy marmosets use trill-like vocalizations to maintain contact with other group members. individuals change subtle aspects of call structu ...19979071362
female reproductive status and male pairmate behavior in cotton-top tamarins. 19979071397
role of prolactin in paternal care in a monogamous new world primate, saguinus oedipus. 19979071409
drb, dqa, dqb and dpb nucleotide sequences of saguinus oedipus b95-8.we present eight new nucleotide sequences derived from the second exons of class ii genes within the major histocompatibility complex of sanguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin). these comprise two drb alleles (saoe-drb3*0504, -drb*w1203), two dqa1 alleles (saoe-dqa1*2501, -dqa1*2502), two dqb1 alleles (saoe-dqb1*2201, -dqb1*2301), one dqb2 allele (saoe-dqb2*0101) and one dpb1 allele (saoe-dpb1*0101).19949098421
toxoplasmosis in a colony of new world monkeys.in a colony of new world monkeys five tamarins (saguinus oedipus, saguinus labiatus and leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (callithrix jacchus and callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. the colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. the main pathological findings were necrotic lesions in the lung, the intestine, and the liver. histopathologically t. gondii parasites were observed in organs from the tamarins and the marmosets but not in th ...19979106950
cloning of the semenogelin ii gene of the rhesus monkey. duplications of 360 bp extend the coding region in man, rhesus monkey and baboon.the semenogelin ii gene from the rhesus monkey has been cloned and characterized. the transcription unit is split into three exons of 97, 2086 and 124 bp, with two intervening introns of 241 bp and 862 bp. the first exon codes for a 23-amino-acid signal peptide and the two amino-terminal residues of the secreted protein. the second exon codes for the rest of the mature protein, and the third exon contains non-coding nucleotides only. secreted rhesus monkey semenogelin ii consists of 683 amino ac ...19979128720
immunodominance of a single ctl epitope in a primate species with limited mhc class i polymorphism.mhc class i molecules play a crucial role in immunity to viral infections by presenting viral peptides to cytotoxic t lymphocytes. one of the hallmarks of mhc class i genes in outbred populations is their extraordinary polymorphism, yet the significance of this diversity is poorly understood. certain species with reduced mhc class i diversity, such as the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), are more susceptible to fatal viral infections. to explore the relationship between this primate's limi ...19979233634
diversity among the primate eosinophil-derived neurotoxin genes: a specific c-terminal sequence is necessary for enhanced ribonuclease activity.the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (hedn) is a secretory effector protein from eosinophilic leukocytes that is a member of the ribonuclease a (rnase a) family of ribonucleases. edn is a rapidly evolving protein, accumulating non-silent mutations at a rate exceeding those of most other functional coding sequences studied in primates. although all primate edns retain the structural and functional residues known to be prerequisites for ribonuclease activity, we have shown previously that recom ...19979254715
five spontaneous deaths associated with clostridium difficile in a colony of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).clostridium difficile toxin was detected in the feces of five cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) that died spontaneously over a period of 10 weeks. deaths occurred subsequent to antibiotic therapy for infectious diarrhea associated with campylobacter spp. relevant clinical signs of disease prior to death included weight loss, watery diarrhea, hematochezia, weakness, and sudden collapse. on histologic examination of the colon at necropsy, pseudomembranous colitis was evident in two cases, a l ...19979355088
reproductive events of wild cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in colombia.reproductive patterns of wild cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) females located in la reserva forestal protectora serranía de coraza-montes de maría in colosó, colombia, were examined using long-term behavioral observations and fecal steroid analysis. using an enzyme immunoassay, we analyzed fecal samples for e1c and pdg. comparisons of reproductive cycles of a reproductively active female and her daughters were made. an inhibition of ovarian cycles has been observed in daughters living in t ...19979403097
artifactual kinds and functional design features: what a primate understands without language.of several domains of knowledge, humans appear to be born with an innately structured representational system for making sense of objects, what properties individuate them, how they move in space, and what causes them to move from one location to another. they also appear to make simple conceptual cuts between artifactual kinds and living kinds. the basis for this distinction seems to be a combination of crucial functional properties, together with a teleological (i.e., historical/intentional) s ...19979426504
two different primate species express an identical functional mhc class i allele.the products of the highly polymorphic and variable major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i loci play a crucial role in host defenses against infectious disease. while similar alleles have been found in closely related species, sharing of a functional mhc class i allele between two species has never been reported. here we show that an identical functional mhc class i molecule is present in two different primate species with an approximate divergence time of 0.7 million years. lymphocytes ...19989435338
family history as a risk factor for ulcerative colitis-associated colon cancer in cotton-top tamarin.little is currently known about the relationship between family history of colon cancer and ulcerative colitis-associated colon cancer. a nested case-control study was performed to evaluate the association between family history of colon cancer and spontaneously occurring colon cancer in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).19989516387
t-cell lymphoma caused by herpesvirus saimiri c488 independently of ie14/vsag, a viral gene with superantigen homology.the immediate-early gene ie14/vsag of herpesvirus saimiri has homology with murine superantigens. we compared the pathogenesis of infection with either ie14/vsag deletion mutants or wild-type virus c488 in cottontop tamarin monkeys (saguinus oedipus). two weeks after infection, all animals developed acute t-cell lymphomas independently of the presence of the viral ie14/vsag gene.19989525684
the mhc-e locus is the most well conserved of all known primate class i histocompatibility genes.the hla-e locus is characterized by limited polymorphism and low levels of cell surface expression. however, the function of the products of this nonclassical mhc class i gene remains unknown. to evaluate the conservation of the mhc-e locus throughout anthropoid primate evolution, we identified the homologue of the hla-e locus in six different new world monkey species. full-length sequencing of mhc-ecdnas in four unrelated cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) revealed no evidence for polymorph ...19989551971
cerebrospinal angiostrongyliasis in five captive tamarins (sanguinus spp).four cotton-top tamarins (sanguinus oedipus oedipus) and one emperor tamarin (s imperator subgrisescens) housed in a zoo became depressed, anorexic, paraparetic and eventually paralysed. the animals died within 5 days to 18 months of the appearance of clinical signs. histological examination showed nonsuppurative and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, and metastrongyle nematode larvae were found within subarachnoid spaces of all animals and within the spinal cord of one. intact larvae with featur ...19989578750
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