hormonal responses to parental and nonparental conditions in male cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus, a new world primate.the socially monogamous cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) monkey is a cooperative breeder with the breeding male providing extensive parental care shortly after birth. we examined the relationship of urinary prolactin and cortisol excretion both to male parental care and as a stress response in the cotton-top tamarin monkey. first-morning urine samples were collected to determine hormonal concentrations. hormonal and behavioral data were collected on 8 male cotton-top tamarins during the 2 w ...19968918686
inhibition of dexamethasone binding to human glucocorticoid receptor by new world primate cell determine if new world primates express an inhibitor that influences glucocorticoid receptor (gr) binding characteristics, we examined [3h]dexamethasone binding in cytosol prepared from b95-8 lymphoid cells, derived from the cotton top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), in combination with cytosol prepared from human or rat tissues. b95-8 cytosol inhibited specific binding of [3h]dexamethasone (p < 0.01) when mixed with cytosol prepared from either a human lymphoid cell line (hl) or rat thymus. the ...19957482631
the t-cell receptor beta chain-encoding gene repertoire of a new world primate species, the cotton-top tamarin.the new world primate, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), expresses major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i molecules with limited diversity. the uniqueness of the cotton-top tamarin mhc class i loci may contribute to this species' unusual susceptibility to viral infections and high incidence of ulcerative colitis. as a prelude to examining the effect of this limited mhc class i diversity on the tamarin cd8(+) t-cell receptor (tcr) repertoire, we identified expressed tamarin tcr b ...19968952965
immunisation of common marmosets with vaccinia virus expressing epstein-barr virus (ebv) gp340 and challenge with ebv.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with a variety of life-threatening diseases in humans. therefore the development of an effective vaccine is an important objective. many of the initial studies of vaccine efficacy analyse the ability of vaccine preparations to prevent the induction of lymphomas in cottontop tamarins by the b95-8 strain of ebv. we used a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing gp340, vma1, tested previously in the cotton-top tamarin ...19968923292
age of epiphyseal closure in tamarins and marmosets.estimates of the chronological age for animals of unknown age provide useful information for medical, demographic, and evolutionary studies. skeletal development, as indicated by epiphyseal closure, can be used to estimate an animal's chronological age or specify its stage of development. many studies of primate skeletal development have used animals of unknown age, with the order of epiphyseal closure providing a relative age for each animal. this study examines the age of epiphyseal closure at ...19979050370
c4 gene polymorphism in primates: evolution, generation, and chido and rodgers antigenicity.eleven new c4d genomic primate sequences of the fourth complement factor (c4) have been obtained. seven of them belong to five species not yet explored for this gene: pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee), cercopithecus aethiops (green monkey), macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), and saguinus oedipus (cotton top tamarin). the new world monkeys (tamarins, four individuals) sequenced for c4 have a single c4d sequence only, which shows a b isotypic specificity and a rodgers ...19947525470
mhc-drb genes of platyrrhine primates.the two infraorders of anthropoid primates, platyrrhini (new world monkeys) and catarrhini (old world monkeys and the hominoids) are estimated to have diverged from a common ancestor 37 million years ago. the major histocompatibility complex class ii drb gene and haplotype polymorphism of the catarrhini has been characterized in several recent studies. the present study was undertaken to obtain information on the drb polymorphism of the platyrrhini. fifty-five complete exon 2 drb sequences were ...19938505064
comparative immunogenicity studies on epstein-barr virus membrane antigen (ma) gp340 with novel adjuvants in mice, rabbits, and cotton-top tamarins.the effectiveness of immunisation of mice, rabbits, and cotton-top tamarins with small amounts of eb virus ma glycoprotein gp340 , incorporated into artificial liposomes, has been compared using various routes of injection with or without additional adjuvants. liposomes containing gp340 gave specific high titre antibodies after i.p. or i.v. administration, and the addition of lipid a to the liposomes resulted in a significant enhancement of the response. antibodies generated by the above procedu ...19846327902
comparative study of oestrogen excretion in female new world monkeys: an overview of non-invasive ovarian monitoring and a new application in evolutionary biology.oestrogen was measured in urine samples collected from captive females representing 7 species of new world monkey to provide an overview of the applicability of such formation in the noninvasive monitoring of ovarian function and to assess the potential applicability of such information in phylogenetic studies. species available for study were the pygmy marmoset, common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, cotton-top tamarin, golden lion tamarin, goeldi's monkey and the owl monkey. oestrone conjugates ...19958529968
a prospective study of the epidemiology of colitis and colon cancer in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).spontaneous colitis and colon cancer in the cotton-top tamarin have been shown to resemble human ulcerative colitis and its associated cancer. the effect of environment and diet on the evolution of the disease was studied in animals from birth to 5 years of age.19968536845
oral efficacy of a leukotriene b4 receptor antagonist in colitic cotton-top tamarins.leukotriene b4 (ltb4) is a potent neutrophil activator and chemotaxin that is present in increased concentrations in the colonic tissue and rectal dialysates of acute ulcerative colitis patients. cotton-top tamarins (ctts) with confirmed active colitis were treated with the second generation ltb4 receptor antagonist, sc-53228 ((+)-(s)-7-[3-(2-cyclopropyl-methyl)-3-methoxy-4-[(methylamino) carbonyl]phenoxy]propoxy]-3,4-dihydro-8-propyl-2h-1-benzopyran-2- propanoic acid), 20 mg/kg bodyweight by ga ...19958549949
allelic diversity at the primate mhc-g locus: exon 3 bears stop codons in all cercopithecinae sequences.twenty-seven major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-g exon 2, exon 3, and exon 2 and 3 allelic sequences were obtained together with 12 different intron 2 sequences. homo sapiens, pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus, macaca fascicularis, macaca mulatta, and cercopithecus aethiops individuals were studied. polymorphism does not follow the classical pattern of three hypervariable regions per domain and is found in all species studied; exon 3 (equivalent to the alpha 2 pr ...19968606053
t-cell lymphoma caused by herpesvirus saimiri c488 independently of ie14/vsag, a viral gene with superantigen homology.the immediate-early gene ie14/vsag of herpesvirus saimiri has homology with murine superantigens. we compared the pathogenesis of infection with either ie14/vsag deletion mutants or wild-type virus c488 in cottontop tamarin monkeys (saguinus oedipus). two weeks after infection, all animals developed acute t-cell lymphomas independently of the presence of the viral ie14/vsag gene.19989525684
the mhc-e locus is the most well conserved of all known primate class i histocompatibility genes.the hla-e locus is characterized by limited polymorphism and low levels of cell surface expression. however, the function of the products of this nonclassical mhc class i gene remains unknown. to evaluate the conservation of the mhc-e locus throughout anthropoid primate evolution, we identified the homologue of the hla-e locus in six different new world monkey species. full-length sequencing of mhc-ecdnas in four unrelated cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) revealed no evidence for polymorph ...19989551971
cerebrospinal angiostrongyliasis in five captive tamarins (sanguinus spp).four cotton-top tamarins (sanguinus oedipus oedipus) and one emperor tamarin (s imperator subgrisescens) housed in a zoo became depressed, anorexic, paraparetic and eventually paralysed. the animals died within 5 days to 18 months of the appearance of clinical signs. histological examination showed nonsuppurative and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, and metastrongyle nematode larvae were found within subarachnoid spaces of all animals and within the spinal cord of one. intact larvae with featur ...19989578750
functional and adaptive significance of primate pads and claws: evidence from new world anthropoids.this study tests predicted morphoclines in fingertip morphology among four small-bodied (<1 kg) new world monkeys (saimiri sciureus, leontopithecus rosalia, callithrix jacchus, and saguinus oedipus) in order to test previous functional and adaptive explanations for the evolution of flattened nails, expanded apical pads, and grasping extremities within the order primates. small-bodied platyrrhines which frequently forage among small-diameter substrates are expected to possess 1) relatively expand ...19989637179
colitis and colon cancer in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) living wild in their natural habitat.the cotton-top tamarin is a nonhuman primate noted for susceptibility to juvenile onset colitis and subsequent colon cancer. about 80% develop colitis in captive environments outside the tropics. the aim was to determine the prevalence of colitis and colorectal cancer in tamarins living wild in their tropical habitat. endoscopic biopsy was used to compare severity of colitis, inflammatory/immune cell densities, mucosal dysplasia, and occurrence of cancer in wild tamarins in a tropical habitat wi ...19989690378
the cotton-top tamarin carries an extended semenogelin i gene but no semenogelin ii gene.previous studies have shown that the predominant proteins secreted by the seminal vesicles are transglutaminase substrates which have undergone major structural alterations during evolution. in man, they are known as semenogelin i and ii; recently it was shown that, similar to man, several new world and old world monkeys carry two semenogelin genes as well, the exception being the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) with a single gene. this gene has now been cloned and identified as a semenoge ...19989692899
novel intestinal helicobacter species isolated from cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) with chronic colitis.a disease similar to ulcerative colitis in humans has been identified in cotton-top tamarins (ctts) in captivity. the clinical signs include weight loss, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding with the pathological features and biochemical abnormalities of ulcerative colitis. approximately 25 to 40% of these animals develop colon cancer after 2 to 5 years of captivity. an infectious etiology has been proposed; however, no microbial agent to date has been identified. helicobacter spp. have been associated ...19999854080
chromosomes and cell surface markers of marmoset lymphocytes and epstein-barr virus-transformed marmoset cell lines.the g-banded karyotypes of both normal lymphocytes and epstein-barr virus (ebv)-transformed lymphocytes of cotton-topped marmosets (saguinus oedipus) were examined. the marmoset lymphocytes and ebv-transformed lymphoblastoid cells had normal diploid chromosomes (2n = 46) with no specific cytogenic change associated with transformation in vitro. ebv-transformed marmoset lymphocytes expressed the cell surface markers of b lymphocytes and eb viral antigens.19816268289
problem solving and functional design features: experiments on cotton-top tamarins, saguinus oedipus any problem-solving situation, there are features associated with the problem that are relevant from a functional perspective and other features that are irrelevant. to determine whether animals are sensitive to the distinction between functionally relevant and irrelvant features of a problem, we conducted two main experiments with a new world monkey, the cotton-top tamarin. in the first condition of both experiments, subjects were required to pull a piece of cloth to gain access to a piece o ...199910196046
high polymorphism of mhc-e locus in non-human primates: alleles with identical exon 2 and 3 are found in two different species.thirteen mhc-e new sequences were found in eight individuals belonging to the cercopithecinae family, i.e.: macaca mulatta, macaca fascicularis and cercopithecus aethiops when studying e locus polymorphism. no changes were found in the invariant residues which are required for the correct conformation of the peptide presenting region which are conserved in classical mhc class i molecules from fish and reptiles to humans; however, polymorphism of mhc-e alleles is not limited to the three typical ...19979062972
affiliative processes and vocal development.affiliative behavior is often expressed through communication, and the nature of affiliative interactions affects the ontogeny of communication. i presented three phenomena that demonstrate the importance of affiliation in vocal development in marmosets and tamarins, but the results have parallels in many other species including birds, dolphins, and humans. pygmy marmosets use trill-like vocalizations to maintain contact with other group members. individuals change subtle aspects of call structu ...19979071362
toxoplasmosis in a colony of new world a colony of new world monkeys five tamarins (saguinus oedipus, saguinus labiatus and leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (callithrix jacchus and callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. the colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. the main pathological findings were necrotic lesions in the lung, the intestine, and the liver. histopathologically t. gondii parasites were observed in organs from the tamarins and the marmosets but not in th ...19979106950
cloning of the semenogelin ii gene of the rhesus monkey. duplications of 360 bp extend the coding region in man, rhesus monkey and baboon.the semenogelin ii gene from the rhesus monkey has been cloned and characterized. the transcription unit is split into three exons of 97, 2086 and 124 bp, with two intervening introns of 241 bp and 862 bp. the first exon codes for a 23-amino-acid signal peptide and the two amino-terminal residues of the secreted protein. the second exon codes for the rest of the mature protein, and the third exon contains non-coding nucleotides only. secreted rhesus monkey semenogelin ii consists of 683 amino ac ...19979128720
immunodominance of a single ctl epitope in a primate species with limited mhc class i polymorphism.mhc class i molecules play a crucial role in immunity to viral infections by presenting viral peptides to cytotoxic t lymphocytes. one of the hallmarks of mhc class i genes in outbred populations is their extraordinary polymorphism, yet the significance of this diversity is poorly understood. certain species with reduced mhc class i diversity, such as the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), are more susceptible to fatal viral infections. to explore the relationship between this primate's limi ...19979233634
diversity among the primate eosinophil-derived neurotoxin genes: a specific c-terminal sequence is necessary for enhanced ribonuclease activity.the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (hedn) is a secretory effector protein from eosinophilic leukocytes that is a member of the ribonuclease a (rnase a) family of ribonucleases. edn is a rapidly evolving protein, accumulating non-silent mutations at a rate exceeding those of most other functional coding sequences studied in primates. although all primate edns retain the structural and functional residues known to be prerequisites for ribonuclease activity, we have shown previously that recom ...19979254715
three different mhc class i molecules bind the same ctl epitope of the influenza virus in a primate species with limited mhc class i of the most remarkable features of the mhc class i loci of most outbred mammalian populations is their exceptional diversity, yet the functional importance of this diversity remains to be fully understood. the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) is unusual in having mhc class i loci that exhibit both limited polymorphism and sequence variation. to investigate the functional implications of limited mhc class i diversity in this outbred primate species, we infected five tamarins with influen ...199910201917
five spontaneous deaths associated with clostridium difficile in a colony of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).clostridium difficile toxin was detected in the feces of five cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) that died spontaneously over a period of 10 weeks. deaths occurred subsequent to antibiotic therapy for infectious diarrhea associated with campylobacter spp. relevant clinical signs of disease prior to death included weight loss, watery diarrhea, hematochezia, weakness, and sudden collapse. on histologic examination of the colon at necropsy, pseudomembranous colitis was evident in two cases, a l ...19979355088
artifactual kinds and functional design features: what a primate understands without language.of several domains of knowledge, humans appear to be born with an innately structured representational system for making sense of objects, what properties individuate them, how they move in space, and what causes them to move from one location to another. they also appear to make simple conceptual cuts between artifactual kinds and living kinds. the basis for this distinction seems to be a combination of crucial functional properties, together with a teleological (i.e., historical/intentional) s ...19979426504
gastrointestinal tumors observed in nonhuman primates at the german primate center.twenty-six gastrointestinal tumors were observed in twenty-three nonhuman primates during routine necropsies at the german primate center, göttingen. the majority (15 cases) were colorectal mucoid adenocarcinomas in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus), which in two animals were associated with gastric adenomas. three cases of small intestinal mucoid adenocarcinomas occurred in common marmosets (callithrix jacchus). one colonic leiomyoma was observed in a dwarf galago (galagoides demidovii) an ...199810203013
herpesvirus ateles gene product tio interacts with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases.herpesvirus ateles is a gamma-2-herpesvirus which naturally infects spider monkeys (ateles spp.) and causes malignant lymphoproliferative disorders in various other new world primates. the genomic sequence of herpesvirus ateles strain 73 revealed a close relationship to herpesvirus saimiri, with a high degree of variability within the left terminus of the coding region. a spliced mrna transcribed from this region was detected in new world monkey t-cell lines transformed by herpesvirus ateles in ...199910233922
new world, but not old world, monkeys carry several genes encoding was shown by southern hybridization that cotton-top tamarin and common marmoset, new world monkeys, carry three or more genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein, also known as psp94. in contrast, the genomes of old world monkeys, as represented by rhesus macaque and sacred baboon, contain a single gene. clones containing three different genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein were isolated from a cotton-top tamarin genomic library. they carry two complete genes of four exons and a third gene lac ...199910491085
two different primate species express an identical functional mhc class i allele.the products of the highly polymorphic and variable major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i loci play a crucial role in host defenses against infectious disease. while similar alleles have been found in closely related species, sharing of a functional mhc class i allele between two species has never been reported. here we show that an identical functional mhc class i molecule is present in two different primate species with an approximate divergence time of 0.7 million years. lymphocytes ...19989435338
evidence that colitis is initiated by environmental stress and sustained by fecal factors in the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).parallel changes in spontaneously occurring inflammation in colonic thiry-vella loops and the in-line colon of cotton-top tamarins were studied in a colitis-inducing environment at 8 and 15 months following surgical preparation of the loops. gross disease severity and numbers of inflammatory/immune cells per unit area of lamina propria in histological sections from endoscopic biopsies were analyzed. cell counts and severity of colitis declined over time in the thiry-villa loops while the disease ...200010711456
an unusual insertion in intron 2 of apparently functional mhc class i alleles in rhesus we describe a nucleotide insertion in intron 2 of two rhesus major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i alleles, mamu-a*05 and mamu-a*07. this resulted in an intron 2 that was nearly twice the length of any other intron 2 of primate mhc class i genes sequenced to date. this insertion was most similar (93% identity) to the beginning of intron 3 of hla-a alleles. it was also similar to intron 3 of several human mhc class i pseudogenes and mhc class i pseudogenes from cotton top tamarin an ...200010746787
adrenal gland tumours in two cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).two adrenal gland tumours in captive born cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus) are described. one was a pheochromocytoma in a 14-year-old male, the other one a cortical adenoma in a 7.5-year-old female. both were associated with morphological signs of myocardial damage and circulatory problems. the findings are discussed and compared to adrenal gland tumours in man.200010759374
language discrimination by human newborns and by cotton-top tamarin monkeys.humans, but no other animal, make meaningful use of spoken language. what is unclear, however, is whether this capacity depends on a unique constellation of perceptual and neurobiological mechanisms or whether a subset of such mechanisms is shared with other organisms. to explore this problem, parallel experiments were conducted on human newborns and cotton-top tamarin monkeys to assess their ability to discriminate unfamiliar languages. a habituation-dishabituation procedure was used to show th ...200010764650
the evolution of major histocompatibility class i genes in primates.mhc class i genes evolve by recombination, largely within loci, and selection (presumably pathogen-driven) maintains these new alleles in the population. although chimpanzees and humans share an a locus allelic lineage, the b locus molecules of the chimpanzee were less similar to human b locus molecules. the a and b locus molecules in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys were even less similar to their human counterparts, with little conservation of allelic lineages between macaques and humans. in cont ...19958519421
eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin. evolution of novel function in a primate ribonuclease gene family.human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (edn) and eosinophil cationic protein (ecp) are members of a unique subfamily of rapidly evolving primate ribonuclease genes that emerged via a gene duplication event occurring after the divergence of old world from new world monkeys (rosenberg, h. f., dyer, k. d., tiffany, h. l., and gonzalez, m. (1995) nature genet. 10, 219-223). in this work, we studied the activity of the protein encoded by the edn/ecp homolog of the new world monkey, saguinus oedipus (mar ...19957665566
description of two mhc-c-related sequences in the new world monkey saguinus oedipus.two new mhc class i partial exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, intron 2 and partial exon 3 dna sequences from the new world monkey saguinus oedipus (saoe) are described. these two sequences show certain mhc-c sequence-specific changes. the only difference between these two new sequences is a productive substitution at position 152 [gcg (ala)-->gag (glu)]. this change occurs in a position which in mhc classical class i molecules affects the interaction between the peptide and the t-cell receptor. a dendro ...19989949946
new world monkey pepsinogens a and c, and prochymosins. purification, characterization of enzymatic properties, cdna cloning, and molecular evolution.pepsinogens a and c, and prochymosin were purified from four species of adult new world monkeys, namely, common marmoset (callithrix jacchus), cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), and capuchin monkey (cebus apella). the occurrence of prochymosin was quite unique since this zymogen is known to be neonate-specific and, in primates, it has been thought that the prochymosin gene is not functional. no multiple form has been detected for any type of pepsinogen exc ...200010788784
binding of hepatitis c virus e2 glycoprotein to cd81 does not correlate with species permissiveness to infection.hepatitis c virus (hcv) glycoprotein e2 binds to human cells by interacting with the cd81 molecule, which has been proposed to be the viral receptor. a correlation between binding to cd81 and species permissiveness to hcv infection has also been reported. we have determined the sequence of cd81 from the tamarin, a primate species known to be refractory to hcv infection. tamarin cd81 (t-cd81) differs from the human molecule at 5 amino acid positions (155, 163, 169, 180, and 196) within the large ...200010846074
cloning and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor from the squirrel monkey (saimiri boliviensis boliviensis), a glucocorticoid-resistant world primates such as the squirrel monkey have elevated cortisol levels and glucocorticoid resistance. we have shown that the apparent binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor in squirrel monkey lymphocytes is 5-fold lower than that in human lymphocytes (apparent kd, 20.9 +/- 1.8 and 4.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/l, respectively; n = 3), consistent with previous studies in mononuclear leukocytes isolated from the two species. as a first step in understanding the mechanism of decreased binding aff ...19979024238
carcinoembryonic antigen family of adhesion molecules in the cotton top tamarin (saguinus oedipus).humans and the cotton top tamarin, a model for colitis and colorectal cancer, share carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) moieties. we quantified cea in colonic washings and extracts in both, and cea bands were confirmed by western blot. we compared cea-family expression in tissues and serum in the tamarin with that of the common marmoset, which develops colitis but not cancer. cea levels are higher in tamarin washings compared with humans, and higher than in marmosets extracts (p<0.005). cea molecular ...200010893441
measurement of scrotum and testis size of unrestrained captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).reproduction is restricted to a small number of animals within both captive and wild groups of callitrichid monkeys (marmosets and tamarins). sexual development of nonbreeding group members might differ from that of active breeders. measurements of physical growth typically involve animal handling. however, capture and restraint of callitrichid monkeys can disrupt natural behaviors and physiology. this study introduces a method for estimating size of external genitalia by measuring frontal scrot ...200010902667
conservative evolution of the mbc-dp region in anthropoid determine the organization of the dp region in the mbc of anthropoid primates, we constructed contig maps from cosmid clones of the chimpanzee and orangutan, representatives of the infraorder catarrhini, as well as of the cotton-top tamarin, a representative of the infraorder platyrrhini. we found the maps to be remarkably similar to each other and to the previously published map of the human dp region. in each of the four species, the dp region consists of four loci arranged in the same orde ...19937901184
molecular and cytogenetic analysis of lymphoblastoid and colon cancer cell lines from cotton-top tamarin (sagiunus oedipus).the cotton-top tamarin (ctt) (sagiunus oedipus) has been used as an animal model to investigate the etiology and pathophysiology of several human diseases, including ulcerative colitis and its associated colorectal carcinoma (crc). little is known, however, about genetic synteny between ctt and humans, and about chromosome aberrations in ctt crc. to address these issues, we have analyzed ctt lymphoblastoid and crc cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (zoo-fish), and ...200010913670
the phonetic potential of nonhuman vocal tracts: comparative cineradiographic observations of vocalizing animals.for more than a century it has been noted that the adult human vocal tract differs from that of other mammals, in that the resting position of the larynx is much lower in humans. while animals habitually breathe with the larynx inserted into the nasal cavity, adult humans are unable to do this. this anatomical difference has been cited as an important factor limiting the vocal potential of nonhuman animals, because the low larynx of humans allows a wider range of vocal tract shapes and thus form ...200010992141
comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates.this study examines behavioral affective reactions elicited by tastes from eight newborn human infants, and from 27 other infant or adult primates. non-human primates belonged to 11 species: three great apes (chimpanzee, orangutan, gorilla), three old world monkeys (rhesus monkey, greater spot-nosed monkey, and red-capped mangabey), four new world monkeys (golden-handed tamarin, cotton-top tamarin, white tufted-ear marmoset, and humboldt's night monkey), and one lemur (mongoose lemur). the taste ...200111166078
reproductive biology of captive male cottontop tamarin monkeys as a function of social environment.the cottontop tamarin, saguinus oedipus oedipus, is a cooperatively breeding monkey in which mature male and female offspring serve as helpers to assist in rearing younger siblings. generally, only one female per social group reproduces; breeding restriction is mediated in postpubertal female offspring through low and acyclic levels of reproductive hormones. we investigated (1) reproductive activity of postpubertal male offspring, and (2) whether aggression towards male offspring and a cortisol- ...200111170697
glandular kallikreins of the cotton-top tamarin: molecular cloning of the gene encoding the tissue kallikrein.the glandular kallikrein family is composed of structurally related serine proteases. studies show that the mouse family encompasses at least 14 highly conserved functional genes, but of these only the tissue kallikarein has a human ortholog. in man, the tissue kallikrein display high sequence similarity with prostate specific antigen and human glandular kallikrein 2, suggesting that they evolved after the separation of primates and rodents. a phylogenetic study of the genes encoding glandular k ...200011177570
gastrointestinal tract antigenic profile of cotton-top tamarin, saguinus oedipus, is similar to that of humans with inflammatory bowel an animal model for human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, the cotton-top tamarin remains controversial. demonstration of antigenic similarity to the human would enhance its validity. using colonic extracts and washings, we compared binding of seven monoclonal antibodies reactive with bowel and cancer antigens in both tamarins and humans with inflammatory bowel disease. additionally, telomerase activity was tested for. expression of a mucin antigen specific to human cancer wa ...200011258547
cloning, sequencing, and functional characterization of the vitamin d receptor in vitamin d-resistant new world world primates (nwps) have high circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (1,25-(oh)2d) levels. comparable levels would be harmful to old world primates (owps) and humans. thus, nwps must have developed mechanisms of 1,25-(oh)2d resistance to survive. in humans, patients with hypocalcemic vitamin d-resistant rickets type ii have high circulating vitamin d levels and vitamin d resistance due to expression of a dysfunctional vitamin d receptor (vdr). to examine if this could wholly or in part explai ...200111376448
parental failure in captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).several new world monkey species experience high rates of infant mortality in captivity, and parental failure in the form of infant neglect and abuse is often regarded as one of the leading causes of this problem. we explored a large archival database to assess environmental, familial, and biological variables identified as significant for parental success in previous studies of captive tamarins, through several generations and across several dozen pedigrees. using a stepwise multiple regression ...200111443631
semenogelin ii gene is replaced by a truncated line 1 repeat in the cotton-top tamarin.the human seminal vesicles secrete two proteins, semenogelin i and semenogelin ii, at very high concentrations. it has previously been shown that the cotton-top tamarin (sanguinus oedipus), a new world monkey, is lacking the semenogelin ii gene. we have now determined the nucleotide sequence of dna located 5--13 kilobases (kb) downstream of the tamarin semenogelin i gene---a region that in man is occupied by the semenogelin ii gene. two regions with homology to the human semenogelin ii gene were ...200111466209
gonadal source of testosterone metabolites in urine of male cotton-top tamarin monkeys (saguinus oedipus).examining gonadal function in the small excitable cotton-top tamarin monkey (saguinus oedipus) requires noninvasive sampling techniques. two studies were performed to identify the quantifiable urinary metabolites of testosterone in cotton-top tamarins and which of the measurable metabolites would best reflect a gonadal source of testosterone secretion. in the first study, we injected unlabeled testosterone i.m. in males at either 500-ng or 1-microg levels. urine samples were analyzed for androge ...200010890572
species-specific tt viruses and cross-species infection in nonhuman primates.viruses resembling human tt virus (ttv) were searched for in sera from nonhuman primates by pcr with primers deduced from well-conserved areas in the untranslated region. ttv dna was detected in 102 (98%) of 104 chimpanzees, 9 (90%) of 10 japanese macaques, 4 (100%) of 4 red-bellied tamarins, 5 (83%) of 6 cotton-top tamarins, and 5 (100%) of 5 douroucoulis tested. analysis of the amplification products of 90 to 106 nucleotides revealed ttv dna sequences specific for each species, with a decreasi ...200010627523
hormones associated with non-maternal infant care: a review of mammalian and avian studies.hormonal changes during non-maternal infant care have been demonstrated in many cooperatively breeding bird species, some monogamous rodents and two species of new world primates. coevolution of hormones and social traits may have provided for the different breeding systems that occur today. several hormones have been shown to covary with the breeding systems of vertebrates. elevated levels of the hormone prolactin with male parenting behaviours are common to many birds, rodents and the callitri ...200010686483
overexpression of the fk506-binding immunophilin fkbp51 is the common cause of glucocorticoid resistance in three new world primates.many new world primates have high circulating levels of cortisol to compensate for the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (grs) with low activity. recent work in squirrel monkeys has suggested that this may be due to either the expression of grs that are transcriptionally incompetent or the expression of an fk506-binding immunophilin that inhibits gr binding. the goal of this study was to resolve this controversy by determining the molecular basis of glucocorticoid resistance not only in spe ...200111703081
an extensive monoclonal antibody panel for the phenotyping of leukocyte subsets in the common marmoset and the cotton-top world monkeys are valuable animal models to study human diseases. to determine the phenotype of cells involved in immune responses, we used flow cytometry to screen a large panel of anti-human monoclonal antibodies (mab) for cross-reactivity with cells of the common marmoset and the cotton-top tamarin. certain antigens (e.g., cd2, cd8, cd20) are well conserved. however, cd10, cd23, and cd33 showed a clear discrepancy in their reaction patterns in both species, indicating that significant dif ...200111746099
molecular cytogenetic characterization of the ebv-producing cell line b95-8 (saguinus oedipus, platyrrhini) by chromosome sorting and painting.the cell line b95-8 releases epstein-barr virus (ebv) with high titres of transforming activity and is widely used as a model in cancer research and virology. there are, however, controversial reports about the species of origin, cell line stability and karyotype. to address these questions, b95-8 chromosomes were analysed by chromosome sorting and painting by multicolour fluorescence in-situ hybridization. reciprocal painting was performed between b95-8, 'wildtype' new world monkey and human ch ...200111778691
the nucleotide sequences of the parathyroid gene in primates (suborder anthropoidea).nucleotide sequences of the parathyroid (pth) gene of 12 species of primates belonging to suborder anthropoidea were examined. the pth gene contains one intron that separates two exons that code the sequence of prepro and pth, respectively. the intron of the pth gene in cebus apella, callithrix jacchus, and saguinus oedipus was 102 bp long, whereas a 103-bp intron was observed in the remaining species. phylogenetic analysis using the nucleotide sequences of pth revealed that these 12 species of ...200211825036
distribution of human endogenous retrovirus herv-k genomes in humans and different primates.the distribution of the human endogenous retrovirus (herv)-k genome was investigated by southern-blot analyses using a herv-k-env dna probe. with the exception of one dna-sample, obtained from a chinese individual in whom an amplification of herv-k was detected, southern-blot analyses yielded identical hybridization patterns with dna from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 37 normal healthy blood donors, with dna from six tumor cell lines, or with 23 dna samples prepared from various carcinoma tiss ...19957635468
molecular cytotaxonomy of new world monkeys (platyrrhini) - comparative analysis of five species by multi-color chromosome painting gives evidence for a classification of callimico goeldii within the family of callitrichidae.chromosome rearrangements are considered as "rare genomic changes" and can provide useful markers and even landmarks for reconstructing phylogenies complementary to dna sequence data and bio-morphological comparisons. here, we applied multi-directional chromosome painting to reconstruct the chromosome phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among the new world monkey (platyrrhini) species callithrix argentata, cebuella pygmaea, saguinus oedipus, callithrix jacchus and callimico goeldii. the res ...200111856883
in vivo models for epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated b cell lymphoproliferative disease (blpd).ebv infects b lymphocytes in vivo and establishes a life-long persistent infection in the host. the latent infection is controlled by ebv-specific mhc class 1-restricted ctl. immunosuppression reduces ctl activity, and this facilitates outgrowth of ebv+ve b cell lymphoproliferative disease (blpd). blpd are aggressive lesions with high mortality. this review presents some key facets in the development of ebv-associated blpd and in vivo studies on its pathogenesis. the animal models used to date i ...199910578121
use of experimenter-given cues in visual co-orienting and in an object-choice task by a new world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).two methods assessed the use of experimenter-given directional cues by a new world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus). experiment 1 used cues to elicit visual co-orienting toward distal objects. experiment 2 used cues to generate responses in an object-choice task. although there were strong positive correlations between monkey pairs to co-orient, visual co-orienting with a human experimenter occurred at a low frequency to distal objects. human hand pointing cues generated mo ...200211926682
three spontaneous lymphomas in a colony of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).cotton-top tamarins are well known for their prevalence to idiopathic colitis and adenocarcinomas. at the same time, information on the incidence of spontaneous lymphomas in this highly endangered species is rare. records, 212 in total, of cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) necropsied at the german primate centre between 1979 and 1998 were viewed to establish the prevalence of lymphoid neoplasms. neoplastic lymphoid cell growth was mentioned in three necropsy records. immunohistology was per ...200111990532
arboreal locomotion in small new-world monkeys.the postural and locomotor activity and its relation to substrates was observed in 3 saguinus oedipus, and 3 saimiri sciureus for comparison, during a period of 10 h for each individual. the animals moved freely in cages of 3.40 m x 3.40 m x 2.40 m (height) on rather diverse substrates. observations were made according to the focal-animal-method, with combined instantaneous and continuous sampling. they were protocoled in schematic form and video-recorded. in addition, 3 further saguinus oedipus ...200212050896
brackiella oedipodis gen. nov., sp. nov., gram-negative, oxidase-positive rods that cause endocarditis of cotton-topped tamarin (saguinus oedipus).a gram-negative, oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the heart of a cotton-topped tamarin was characterized by 16s rdna sequence analysis, sds-page of whole-cell proteins, fatty acid analysis and biochemical tests. outer-membrane proteins, iron-regulated outer-membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides and siderophore production were studied. on the basis of the results, the organism belongs to the beta-proteobacteria where it forms a separate line of descent, for which a novel genu ...200211837301
sequence and diversity of mhc dqa and dqb genes of the owl monkey aotus nancymaae.the new world primate aotus nancymaae has been recommended by the world health organization (who) as a model for evaluation of malaria vaccine candidates, given its susceptibility to experimental infection with the human malaria parasites plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax. we present here the nucleotide sequences of the complete cdna of mhc-dqa1 and of the polymorphic exon 2 segments of mhc-dqb1/dqb2. in a group of three nonrelated animals captured in the wild, five alleles of mhc-dqa1 ...200010912504
attachment and social preferences in cooperatively-reared cotton-top many primate species a close attachment between mother and infant provides a secure base for the infant when the infant is frightened or under stress. in cooperatively breeding primates infant carrying is divided among several individuals in the group, with the mother often doing little more than nursing. in these species it is not clear which individual would best serve as a secure base for the infant. we studied eight infant cotton-top tamarins from birth through 20 weeks of age, noting who ...200212111679
housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories: adaptations allowing essential species-specific behaviour.during the last two decades an increasing amount of attention has been paid to the housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories, as has been done with the housing and care of other categories of captive animals. the purpose of this review is to develop recommendations for adaptations of housing and care from our knowledge of the daily behavioural activity of monkeys and apes in natural conditions and in enriched laboratory conditions. this review deals mainly with adaptations of daily ho ...200212144737
sequence and expression of mhc-dpb1 molecules of the new world monkey aotus nancymaae, a primate model for plasmodium falciparum.aotus nancymaae represents an animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of blood-stage vaccine candidates against plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax. we present here the nucleotide sequences of exon 2 and 3 of mhc-dpb1 genes. in a group of seven unrelated animals captured in the wild, three alleles of mhc-dpb1 exon 2 could be identified. phylogenetic analysis shows that in contrast to aona- drb and - dqb, the aona-dpb1exon 2 amino acid sequences cluster in a species-specific manner. n ...200212136336
spontaneous number discrimination of multi-format auditory stimuli in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).studies using operant training have demonstrated that laboratory animals can discriminate the number of objects or events based on either auditory or visual stimuli, as well as the integration of both auditory and visual modalities. to date, studies of spontaneous number discrimination in untrained animals have been restricted to the visual modality, leaving open the question of whether such capacities generalize to other modalities such as audition. to explore the capacity to spontaneously disc ...200212435536
survey of tuberculin testing in swedish zoos.tuberculin test results from 214 animals in three swedish zoos, tested between the years 1993 and 2000, were compiled from a questionnaire sent out to zoo veterinarians. comparative testing with bovine and avian tuberculin was used on various sites of injection. a total of five skin test reactors were found: three cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) in one zoo and two tapirs (tapirus terrestris) in another zoo. postmortem culture from one of the tapirs revealed growth of mycobacterium tubercu ...200212564537
the phylogeny of howler monkeys (alouatta, platyrrhini): reconstruction by multicolor cross-species chromosome painting.we performed multidirectional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three howler monkey species alouatta fusca, a. caraya and a. seniculus macconnelli (atelinae, platyrrhini) in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this genus. comparative genome maps between these species were established by multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the three species includ ...200212575795
are subordinates always stressed? a comparative analysis of rank differences in cortisol levels among primates.among primate species there is pronounced variation in the relationship between social status and measures of stress physiology. an informal meta-analysis was designed to investigate the basis of this diversity across different primate societies. species were included only if a substantial amount of published information was available regarding both social behavior and rank-related differences in stress physiology. four old world and three new world species met these criteria, including societie ...200312614636
campylobacter-induced enteritis and diarrhea in captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) during the first year of life.a prospective study of 43 cotton-top tamarins, from infancy to 6 to 17 months of age, was conducted to determine the epidemiology of campylobacter spp. infection. nine infants followed for one year in an isolation unit, where attendants wore protective clothing, did not become infected. in the main facility where 32 of 34 animals had repeated infections with c. coli, 6% of the infections developed initially in incubators, 66% in the nursery room, and 28% after transfer to the main colony. fiftee ...200111924782
enteropathogenic escherichia coli and ulcerative colitis in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).the cotton-top tamarin (ctt; saguinus oedipus) is an endangered new world primate that develops a highly prevalent idiopathic colitis resembling human ulcerative colitis. this study found that enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) caused acute colitis in ctts, which was associated with ulcerative colitis. epec clinical isolates revealed localized adherence patterns by hep-2 assay and were devoid of shiga-toxin production. sequencing of the eae gene (genbank accession no. af319597) revealed 99 ...200111517446
spontaneous representation of number in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).the "violation of expectancy" looking-time methodology has proven a powerful tool for exploring prelinguistic mental representations in human infants as well as in nonhuman primates. four studies applying this methodology to the question of spontaneous number representations in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) are reported here. monkeys were shown 1 + 1 events in which objects were placed behind a screen, 1 by 1. the screen was removed, revealing consistent (2 objects) and inconsistent (1, ...200111594494
rule learning by cotton-top tamarins.previous work suggests that human infants are capable of rapidly generalizing patterns that have been characterized as abstract algebraic rules (science 283 (1999) 77), a process that may play a pivotal role in language acquisition. here we explore whether this capacity is uniquely human and evolved specifically for the computational problems associated with language, or whether this mechanism is shared with other species, and therefore evolved for problems other than language. we used the same ...200212208654
social communication about unpalatable foods in tamarins (saguinus oedipus).many monkeys show social facilitation in sampling novel, palatable foods but not in avoiding unpalatable foods. cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) socially learned to avoid a preferred food when it was made unpalatable but showed no aversion toward a food not made unpalatable. only 33% sampled unpalatable tuna, and few sampled it again. in 3 of 8 groups, the socially induced aversion was long lasting, at least 15 weeks after food was made palatable again. potential cues include facial reacti ...200312856784
experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease.the etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) remains unsolved, but improved experimental models of enterocolitis have led to progress. intestinal inflammation and experimental ibd can be induced by chemical or dietary factors or by microbial products. many animal models of ibd can be used to evaluate new anti-inflammatory drugs. these models, however, usually demonstrate acute, self-limiting colitis. the spontaneous colitis models developed in the cotton-top tamarin monkey a ...200312894869
a test of object permanence in a new-world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (saguinus oedipus).cotton top tamarins were tested in visible and invisible displacement tasks in a method similar to that used elsewhere to test squirrel monkeys and orangutans. all subjects performed at levels significantly above chance on visible ( n=8) and invisible ( n=7) displacements, wherein the tasks included tests of the perseverance error, tests of memory in double and triple displacements, and "catch" trials that tested for the use of the experimenter's hand as a cue for the correct cup. performance on ...200312658533
chronic hepatitis associated with gb virus b persistence in a tamarin after intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic viral rna.progress in understanding the pathogenesis of hepatitis c virus (hcv) has been slowed by the absence of tractable small animal models. whereas gb virus b (gbv-b, an unclassified flavivirus) shares a phylogenetic relationship and several biologic attributes with hcv, including hepatotropism, it is not known to cause persistent infection, a hallmark of hcv. here, we document persistent gbv-b infection in one of two healthy tamarins (saguinus oedipus) inoculated intrahepatically with infectious syn ...200312907703
evolutionary foundations of number: spontaneous representation of numerical magnitudes by cotton-top tamarins.although animals of many species have been shown to discriminate between visual-spatial arrays or auditory-temporal sequences based on numerosity, most of the evidence for numerosity discrimination derives from experiments involving extensive laboratory training. under these conditions, animals' discrimination of two numerosities depends on their ratio and is independent of their absolute value. it is an open question whether any untrained non-human animal spontaneously represents number in this ...200312965007
give unto others: genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarin monkeys preferentially give food to those who altruistically give food back.altruistic food giving among genetically unrelated individuals is rare in nature. the few examples that exist suggest that when animals give food to unrelated others, they may do so on the basis of mutualistic or reciprocally altruistic relationships. we present the results of four experiments designed to tease apart the factors mediating food giving among genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus), a cooperatively breeding new world primate. in experiment 1 we show that indivi ...200314667352
identification of new world monkey mhc-drb alleles using pcr, dgge and direct sequencing.identification of new world monkey mhc-drb alleles has previously relied upon labor-intensive cloning and sequencing techniques. here we describe a rapid and unambiguous way to distinguish drb alleles in new world monkeys using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge), and direct sequencing. the highly variable second exon of new world monkey drb alleles was amplified using generic drb primers and alleles were separated by dgge. dna was then reamplified ...200414714152
pterygodermatites nycticebi (nematoda: rictulariidae): accidental detection of encapsulated third-stage larvae in the tissue of a white-fronted marmoset.twin, white-fronted marmosets (callithrix geoffroyi) born and raised in a zoo in japan died at 7 mo of age. several encapsulated nematode larvae were detected in the intestinal wall, as well as a few in the mesenteric lymph nodes of 1 of the twins. in the other marmoset, no encapsulated nematode larva was detected in the organs, but many adult pterygodermatites nycticebi were found in the intestinal lumen. in the past 5 yr, 5 primates kept in the same zoo, i.e., 1 squirrel monkey (saimiri sciure ...200314740905
segmentation of the speech stream in a non-human primate: statistical learning in cotton-top tamarins.previous work has shown that human adults, children, and infants can rapidly compute sequential statistics from a stream of speech and then use these statistics to determine which syllable sequences form potential words. in the present paper we ask whether this ability reflects a mechanism unique to humans, or might be used by other species as well, to acquire serially organized patterns. in a series of four experimental conditions, we exposed a new world monkey, the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus ...200111124355
disseminated lethal encephalitozoon cuniculi (genotype iii) infections in cotton-top tamarins (oedipomidas oedipus)--a case report.for the first time, encephalitozoon (e.) cuniculi genotype iii ('dog strain') was verified in two cotton-top tamarins (oedipomidas oedipus) by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, pcr and sequencing. the animals had a disseminated lethal infection with this protist. in earlier reports, genotype iii had been found only in domestic dogs, man, emperor tamarins (saguinus imperator) and golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia). this investigation establishes now that the ...200414984833
learning at a distance ii. statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in a non-human earlier work we have shown that adults, infants, and cotton-top tamarin monkeys are capable of computing the probability with which syllables occur in particular orders in rapidly presented streams of human speech, and of using these probabilities to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. we have also investigated adults' learning of regularities among elements that are not adjacent, and have found strong selectivities in their ability to learn various kinds of non-adjacent regulariti ...200415304368
phylogenetic inferences of atelinae (platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles b. marginatus.we performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three atelinae species brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this platyrrhini subfamily. comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the ...200515545728
investigation of marmoset hybrids (cebuella pygmaea x callithrix jacchus) and related callitrichinae (platyrrhini) by cross-species chromosome painting and comparative genomic hybridization.we report on the cytogenetics of twin offspring from an interspecies cross in marmosets (callitrichinae, platyrrhini), resulting from a pairing between a female common marmoset (callithrix jacchus, 2n = 46) and a male pygmy marmoset (cebuella pygmaea, 2n = 44). we analyzed their karyotypes by multi-directional chromosome painting employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. both hybrid individuals had a karyotype with a diploid chromosome number of 2n = ...200515545729
quantifying remaining forested habitat within the historic distribution of the cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) in colombia: implications for long-term conservation.landsat thematic mapper (tm) data were used to classify forested areas within the historic distribution of the endangered cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus) in colombia. this species continues to be threatened by habitat destruction, and we observed a 31% decrease of the forested habitat within the tamarins' historic distribution in 1990-2000. it is estimated that since the establishment of some protected areas for cotton-top tamarins and other native colombian wildlife (parque nacional natur ...200415580586
the evolution of the glandular kallikrein locus: identification of orthologs and pseudogenes in the cotton-top tamarin.comparisons of the glandular kallikreins loci in human, mouse and rat revealed remarkable differences. for example, the mouse and the rat lack the genes encoding prostate-specific antigen (psa) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hk2). in contrast, the intergenic region between klk1 and klk15 is devoid of genes and spans only 1.5 kb in humans, but encompasses 23 klk1-like genes spanning 290 kb in the mouse. to further elucidate the evolution of glandular kallikrein genes, we investigated the struc ...200415588589
experimental norovirus infections in non-human primates.noroviruses, with norwalk virus as the prototype strain, are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in people of all ages. limited information on the immunology of norovirus infections has been obtained by studies both in the natural setting and in experimentally infected volunteers. interpretation of these studies is difficult due to the lack of information on the history of norovirus exposure and the cross-reactivity of antibodies. an animal model for norovirus infections would be impo ...200515602728
chromosomal studies in callicebus donacophilus pallescens, with classic and molecular cytogenetic approaches: multicolour fish using human and saguinus oedipus painting probes.this paper presents the karyotype of callicebus donacophilus pallescens for the first time. the analysis included g-, c-, nor-banding techniques and fish with chromosome painting probes from saguinus oedipus and homo sapiens. the results were compared with the karyotypes of callicebus moloch donacophilus and c. moloch previously published. these three karyotypes display the same diploid number (2n = 50) but diverge about the number of biarmed and acrocentric chromosomes. the acrocentrics 14 and ...200312906129
different rates of line-1 (l1) retrotransposon amplification and evolution in new world monkeys.line-1 (l1) elements constitute the major family of retrotransposons in mammalian genomes. here we report the first investigation of l1 evolution in new world monkeys (nwm). two regions of the second open-reading frame were analyzed by two methods in three nwm species, the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), the tamarin (saguinus oedipus), and the spider monkey (ateles paniscus). since these three species diverged, l1 has amplified in the saimiri and saguinus lineages but l1 activity seems to ha ...200414743320
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