unique spectrum of activity of prosimian trim5alpha against exogenous and endogenous retroviruses.lentiviruses, the genus of retrovirus that includes hiv-1, rarely endogenize. some lemurs uniquely possess an endogenous lentivirus called psiv ("prosimian immunodeficiency virus"). thus, lemurs provide the opportunity to study the activity of host defense factors, such as trim5a, in the setting of germ line invasion. we characterized the activities of trim5a proteins from two distant lemurs against exogenous retroviruses and a chimeric psiv. trim5a from gray mouse lemur, which carries psiv in i ...201121345948
multi-locus analysis of giardia duodenalis from nonhuman primates kept in zoos in china: geographical segregation and host-adaptation of assemblage b isolates.only a few studies based on single locus characterization have been conducted on the molecular epidemiology of giardia duodenalis in nonhuman primates (nhps). the present study was conducted to examine the occurrence and genotype identity of g. duodenalis in nhps based on multi-locus analysis of the small-subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and beta-giardin (bg) genes. fecal specimens were collected from 496 animals of 36 nhp species ...201525530435
giardia duodenalis assemblages and entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits.giardia duodenalis and entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (nhp). from a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. in this study we carried out the molecular identification of g. duodenalis and entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of rome, to better ascertain their occurrence an ...201121988762
dominance rank reversals and rank instability among male lemur catta: the effects of female behavior and this study, dominance rank instability among male lemur catta during mating was investigated. also, data on agonism and sexual behavior across five consecutive mating seasons in a population of l. catta on st. catherines island, usa, were collected. instances of male rank instability were categorized into three types. type 1 consisted of a temporary switch in the dominance ranks of two males, which lasted for a period of minutes or hours. type 2 dyadic male agonistic interactions showed highl ...200918785630
fatal echinococcosis in three lemurs in the united kingdom--a case series.tapeworms of the genus echinococcus reside in the small intestine of a number of carnivorous species, predominantly canids. in enzootic areas, hydatidosis caused by taeniid metacestodes can present a significant problem in accidental intermediate hosts, including humans. whereas the united kingdom is currently considered free of echinococcus multilocularis, echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and echinococcus equinus are endemic in the uk and have been reported in a variety of captive m ...201626872922
behavioral responses to tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.severe dental wear and tooth loss is often assumed to impede the processing, breakdown, and energetic conversion of food items, thereby negatively impacting individual health, reproduction, and survival. ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly special reserve demonstrate exceptionally high frequencies of severe dental wear and antemortem tooth loss, yet often survive multiple years with these impairments. to test the hypothesis that these lemurs mitigate tooth loss through behavioral adjustments ...200919373842
primate disease and breeding rates.33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. there were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. highest rates were: birth, macaca nemestrina; illness, pongo pygmaeus; death, cercopithecus aethiops. lowest rates were: birth, lemur catta; illness, sanguinus mystax; death, galago crassicaudatus. galago crassicaudatus and macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates.1979119108
condensed tannin intake in spiny-forest-dwelling lemur catta at berenty reserve, madagascar, during reproductive periods.primates vary in their choice or avoidance of plant foods high in condensed tannins (ct). our study focused on ct intake in two groups of lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during two reproductive periods. we examined whether l. catta in this habitat avoided plant foods high in ct, and whether reproductive females ingested lower concentrations of ct compared with males, since ct consumption compromises protein absorption. feeding data and plant food samples were collected during reprod ...200919864917
a comparison of salivary ph in sympatric wild lemurs (lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi) at beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.chemical deterioration of teeth is common among modern humans, and has been suggested for some extinct primates. dental erosion caused by acidic foods may also obscure microwear signals of mechanical food properties. ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), madagascar, display frequent severe tooth wear and subsequent tooth loss. in contrast, sympatric verreaux's sifaka display far less tooth wear and infrequent tooth loss, despite both species regularly consuming acidic t ...200818157845
Brown (Eulemur fulvus) and Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) Use Human Head Orientation as a Cue to Gaze Direction in a Food Choice Task.Whilst the ability to follow human gaze has been demonstrated in monkeys and apes, there is little evidence that prosimians share this ability. The current study used a food choice paradigm to assess whether captive brown (Eulemur fulvus) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) use human gaze direction as a cue when choosing between an attending or non-attending human. Four experiments assessed the use of body, head and eye cues by the lemurs. In experiment 1, the non-attending human stood with her ...201122123170
the season for peace: reconciliation in a despotic species (lemur catta).however despotic a social group may be, managing conflicts of interest is crucial to preserve group living benefits, mainly based on cooperation. in despotic groups, post-conflict management via reconciliation (the first post-conflict reunion between former opponents) can occur, even if conciliatory rates are considerably different. lemur catta is defined as a despotic species because groups are characterized by a strict linear hierarchy maintained by the adult females (the dominant sex) mainly ...201526569400
highly variable streptococcus oralis strains are common among viridans streptococci isolated from primates.viridans streptococci were obtained from primates (great apes, rhesus monkeys, and ring-tailed lemurs) held in captivity, as well as from free-living animals (chimpanzees and lemurs) for whom contact with humans is highly restricted. isolates represented a variety of viridans streptococci, including unknown species. streptococcus oralis was frequently isolated from samples from great apes. genotypic methods revealed that most of the strains clustered on separate lineages outside the main cluster ...201727303717
comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of f. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.detection of the zoonotic pathogen francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (ef tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. the samples originated from 55 european brown hares (lepus europaeus), two red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), a european beaver (castor fiber), and a lemur (lemur catta). when comparing the growth of 28 f. ...201323901583
a comparative analysis of serial ordering in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).research over the last 25 years has demonstrated that animals are able to organize sequences in memory and retrieve ordered sequences without language. qualitative differences have been found between the serial organization of behavior in pigeons and monkeys. here the authors test serial ordering abilities in ring-tailed lemurs, a strepsirrhine primate whose ancestral lineage diverged from that of monkeys, apes, and humans approximately 63 million years ago. lemurs' accuracy and response times w ...200718085919
the pluripotency factor lin28 in monkey and human testes: a marker for spermatogonial stem cells?mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by spermatogonial stem cells (sscs). however, since evidentiary assays and unequivocal markers are still missing in non-human primates (nhps) and man, the identity of primate sscs is unknown. in contrast, in mice, germ cell transplantation studies have functionally demonstrated the presence of sscs. lin28 is an rna-binding pluripotent stem cell factor, which is also strongly expressed in undifferentiated mouse spermatogonia. by contrast, two recent reports ...201222689537
social complexity predicts transitive reasoning in prosimian primates.transitive inference is a form of deductive reasoning that has been suggested as one cognitive mechanism by which animals could learn the many relationships within their group's dominance hierarchy. this process thus bears relevance to the social intelligence hypothesis which posits evolutionary links between various forms of social and nonsocial cognition. recent evidence corroborates the link between social complexity and transitive inference and indicates that highly social animals may show s ...200819649139
mebendazole in the treatment of hymenolepis nana infections in the captive ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), china.the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mebendazole in the treatment of hymenolepis nana infection in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). ten (l. catta) from the chengdu zoological garden in china, which were naturally infected with h. nana, were treated with mebendazole (10 mg/kg for 5 days). a posttreatment fecal examination was conducted 10 and 20 days after the start of treatment. all treatments resulted in a decrease in the number of eggs per gram in the posttreatment ...201222327317
habituation to territorial scent marks in the field by lemur catta. 1979414729
sex and seasonal differences in aggression and steroid secretion in lemur catta: are socially dominant females hormonally 'masculinized'?female social dominance characterizes many strepsirrhine primates endemic to madagascar, but currently there is no comprehensive explanation for how or why female lemurs routinely dominate males. reconstructing the evolutionary pressures that may have shaped female dominance depends on better understanding the mechanism of inheritance, variation in trait expression, and correlating variables. indeed, relative to males, many female lemurs also display delayed puberty, size monomorphism, and 'masc ...200717382329
cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in the spiny forest of tsimanampetsotsa national park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. though uncommon within primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as eulemur, hapalemur, and prolemur. several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". we used behavioral observations and camera traps to examine cathemerality of l. catta at the tsimanampetsotsa national park, madagascar. nighttime activit ...201424165866
cuterebrid myiasis (diptera: oestridae) in captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at a south carolina september 2008, two ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), comprising a mother-daughter pair, at the greenville zoo, greenville, south carolina, usa, were diagnosed with cuterebrid myiasis (diptera: oestridae) subsequent to sudden death of the adult lemur. on necropsy, a single bot warble was discovered in the subcutis of the axillary region. histopathology revealed a severe eosinophilic bronchopneumonia. the juvenile lemur was inspected and found to have warbles on three separate dates in late se ...201122950327
dispersal among male ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) on st. catherines island.male dispersal patterns were analyzed across a nine-year period in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) on st. catherines island (sci), usa, to evaluate two ultimate explanations for male dispersal: inbreeding avoidance and intrasexual mating competition. as part of this analysis, we also compared patterns of dispersal at this site with data from wild populations. overall, we found that patterns of male intertroop movement on sci are similar to the wild with respect to the frequency ...200818478578
lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity.we investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ans) in three lemur species (lemur catta, eulemur mongoz, and eulemur macaco flavifrons), one old world monkey species (macaca mulatta) and humans (homo sapiens). in experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. we estimated numerical acuity by modeling weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all f ...201424068469
bifidobacterium. eulemuris sp. nov. isolated from the faeces of the black lemur (eulemur macaco).forty strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from the faeces of two adult subjects of black lemur, eulemur macaco. twenty-five were identified as bifidobacterium lemurum, the novel species recently described in lemur catta. all other isolates resulted gram-positive-staining, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, microaerophilic, irregular rod-shaped bacteria that often resembled y or v shapes cells. typing techniques revealed these isolates were nearly identical and ...201626823373
bifidobacterium lemurum sp. nov., from faeces of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).four gram-positive-staining, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains were isolated from a faecal sample of a 5-year-old ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). the strains showed a peculiar morphology, resembling a small coiled snake, a ring shape, or forming a little 'y' shape. the isolated strains appeared identical, and lmc 13t was chosen as a representative strain and characterized further. strain lmc 13t showed an a3β peptidoglycan type, ...201525736415
retrospective evaluation of the incidence and severity of hemosiderosis in a large captive lemur population.significant concern has been generated about the susceptibility of captive lemurs to iron storage disease, which has led some researchers to propose husbandry changes regarding dietary iron. in the current study we sought to determine the history, severity, and prevalence of iron storage disease within a large captive lemur population. iron concentration and hemosiderin accumulation in a target organ, the liver, were assessed in necropsy specimens from 15 different species (n=153) of lemurs over ...200616534809
daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center.light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center (eulemur mongoz, lemur catta, propithecus coquereli, ...201424318943
nails and claws in primate evolution.the issue of whether nails or claws were present on the digits of the last common ancestor of living primates is central to the understanding of the ecological context in which the order originated. two lines of evidence are available, the shape (claw, nail, toilet-claw) and the histological structure (one or two horny strata). here we review the existing data regarding the shape and histological structure of cheirideal appendages in primates and present new information from a wide range of livi ...19999924135
[animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].the main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis, e. hellem, e. cuniculi, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in poland in animal faecal using the fish (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and multiplex fish techniques. additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite i ...200919579789
assessment of organochlorine pesticides and metals in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly special reserve, most of madagascar's endemic primates, ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) face a number of threats to their survival. although habitat loss is of greatest concern, other anthropogenic factors including environmental contamination may also affect lemur health and survival. in this study, we examined ring-tailed lemurs from the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), southern madagascar for exposure to organochlorine (oc) pesticides and metals and examined differences in contaminant concentration ...200919746443
fatal infection with taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) living in an italian zoological garden.a case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) living in the rome zoological garden is described. the animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the istituto zooprofilattico of rome for post-mortem examination. the anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. a se ...201424928170
occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis in the red ruffed lemur (varecia rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) housed in the poznan zoological garden, poland.encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. the presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. the aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the poznan zoological garden, poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. a total of 339 fr ...201223094336
distribution of interstitial telomeric sequences in primates and the pygmy tree shrew (scandentia).it has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (itss), i.e., repeated telomeric dna sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. to test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric pna probe through fish on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, strepsirrhini (lemur catta, otolemur garnettii, nycticebus coucang) and catarrhini (erythrocebus patas, cercopithecus petaurista, chlorocebus aet ...201728423373
the impact of fallback foods on wild ring-tailed lemur biology: a comparison of intact and anthropogenically disturbed habitats.fallback foods are often viewed as central in shaping primate morphology, and influencing adaptive shifts in hominin and other primate evolution. here we argue that fruit of the tamarind tree (tamarindus indica) qualifies as a fallback food of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), madagascar. contrary to predictions that fallback foods may select for dental and masticatory morphologies adapted to processing these foods, consumption of tamarind fruit by the ...200919890872
external forces on the limbs of jumping lemurs at takeoff and landing.ground reaction forces were recorded for jumps of three individuals each of lemur catta and eulemur fulvus. animals jumped back and forth between a ground-mounted force plate and a 0.5-m elevated platform, covering horizontal distances of 0.5-2 m. in total, 190 takeoffs and 263 landings were collected. animals typically jumped from a run up and into a run out, during which they gained or into which they carried horizontal impulse. correspondingly, vertical impulses dominated takeoffs and landing ...200515810009
localization of a new highly repeated dna sequence of lemur cafta (lemuridae, strepsirhini).we have isolated and cloned an 800-bp highly repeated dna (hrdna) sequence from lemur catta (lca) and described its localization on lca chromosomes. lemur catta hrdna sequences were localized by performing fish experiments on standard and elongated metaphasic chromosomes using an lca hrdna probe (lcasat). a complex hybridization pattern was detected. a strong pericentromeric hybridization signal was observed on most lca chromosomes. chromosomes 7 and 13 were lit in pericentromeric regions, as we ...200212416631
illegal captive lemurs in madagascar: comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods.although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern madagascar. the current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. in this study, we collected data through a web-based survey re ...201626927567
adaptive and phylogenetic significance of ontogenetic sequences in archaeolemur, subfossil lemur from madagascar.among the best known of recently extinct malagasy lemurs is archaeolemur, which is represented by many hundreds of specimens. the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon are unclear, especially in light of recent preliminary analysis of ancient dna which does not support its previously accepted close relationship with the living indridae. we examined the nearly complete skeletons of two adults and one juvenile and other less complete specimens to reconstruct aspects of the ontogeny of archaeolemur ...200111782109
preventing dental calculus formation in lemurs (lemur catta, eulemur fulvus collaris) and baboons (papio cynocephalus).the prevention of calculus accumulation in exotic animals is a relatively unexplored topic. a 6-mo study in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and collared lemurs (eulemur fulvus collaris) and two studies in baboons (papio cynocephalus) (7.5 wks and 6.5 mo) tested the benefits of a primate diet coated with 0.6% sodium hexametaphosphate (hmp) in controlling calculus in these species using a sequential crossover design. the control regimen was an identical, but non-hmp-coated, dry primate chow. at s ...199910572860
brief communication: effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.this study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (eulemur fulvus, hapalemur griseus, lemur catta, varecia variegata, galago senegalensis, otolemur crassicaudatus, nycticebus coucang, and tarsius syrichta). measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (cvs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess ...201323900852
pair-bonding, female aggression and the evolution of lemur societies.lemur societies have been described as convergent with those of anthropoids, including papio-like female-bonded multi-male groups. recent research, however, shows at least 5 pair-bonded species among the lemuridae and indriidae. three more, eulemur mongoz, eulemur fulvus and varecia variegata, have societies combining aspects of pairing with aspects of troop life. the best-known female-bonded societies, those of lemur catta, propithecus diadema edwardsi and propithecus verreauxi, may be assembla ...19989595685
evaluation of iron status in lemurs by analysis of serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin assess serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation as indicators of iron metabolic status in 3 genera of lemurs and determine whether these variables are useful for screening for iron overload.200818279098
organization of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic nuclei in three strepsirrhine primates: galago demidoff, perodicticus potto and lemur catta.the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of three species of strepsirrhine primates is presented. we aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of simian primates, megachiropterans and other mammalian species. the brains were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-a. t ...201526562782
anatomy of the hand and arm in daubentonia madagascariensis : a functional and phylogenetic outlook.the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) is easily the most enigmatic of living primates. it sports a unique combination of derived characters, including continuously growing incisors, functional claws, the largest hand of any primate and a highly modified middle finger. the specialised middle finger is no longer used in locomotion and serves as a probe-like instrument for investigating, locating and extracting xylophagous (wood-boring) larvae as well as other food items. its phalanges can be ...200616230860
visual acuity in the cathemeral strepsirrhine eulemur macaco flavifrons.studies of visual acuity in primates have shown that diurnal haplorhines have higher acuity (30-75 cycles per degree (c/deg)) than most other mammals. however, relatively little is known about visual acuity in non-haplorhine primates, and published estimates are only available for four strepsirrhine genera (microcebus, otolemur, galago, and lemur). we present here the first measurements of visual acuity in a cathemeral strepsirrhine species, the blue-eyed black lemur (eulemur macaco flavifrons). ...200919180555
the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).201625929742
effects of three food enrichment items on the behavior of black lemurs (eulemur macaco macaco) and ringtail lemurs (lemur catta) at the henson robinson zoo, springfield, illinois.this study tested 3 food enrichment items mentioned in a laboratory primate newsletter with 6 adult eulemur macaco and 3 adult lemur catta to examine whether the items would affect the behavior of the lemurs. the results suggest that food enrichment item 3 (a wire box filled with whole grapes, apples, or both hidden in straw hung from a branch within the enclosure) caused a significant decrease in the incidence of resting and a significant increase in the incidences of playing and grooming, with ...200616956316
the ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species.evolutionary theories suggest that ecology is a major factor shaping cognition in primates. however, there have been few systematic tests of spatial memory abilities involving multiple primate species. here, we examine spatial memory skills in four strepsirrhine primates that vary in level of frugivory: ruffed lemurs (varecia sp.), ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), mongoose lemurs (eulemur mongoz), and coquerel's sifakas (propithecus coquereli). we compare these species across three studies targ ...201424469310
takeoff and landing forces of leaping strepsirhine primates.knowledge of the forces animals generate and are exposed to during locomotion is an important prerequisite for understanding the musculoskeletal correlates of locomotor modes. we recorded takeoff and landing forces for 14 animals representing seven species of strepsirhine primates with a compliant force pole. our sample included both specialized vertical clingers and leapers and more generalized species. takeoff forces are higher than landing forces. peak forces during acceleration for takeoff r ...199910444353
patterns of dental macrowear in subfossil lemur catta from ankilitelo cave, madagascar: indications of ecology and habitat use over time.the ankilitelo cave site, madagascar, contains a large collection of extant and recently extinct subfossil lemurs including the extant taxa lemur catta and eulemur rufifrons, which today are rarely found in sympatry. dates for this assemblage range from 300 to 13,000 bp, though known dates for extinct primate specimens range between ∼500 and ∼600 bp. data from ankilitelo l. catta and e. rufifrons were compared to assess tooth wear in sympatric, related forms. wear was scored using an ordinal sca ...201526022310
the socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs.dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. however, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. we applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: lemur catta, propithecus ...201525653908
how prosimian primates represent tools: experiments with two lemur species (eulemur fulvus and lemur catta).the authors examined how 2 lemur species (eulemur fulvus and lemur catta) reason about tools. experiment 1 allowed subjects to use 1 of 2 canes to retrieve an inaccessible food reward. lemurs learned to solve this problem as quickly as other primates. experiment 2 then presented subjects with novel tools differing from the originals along one featural dimension. subjects attended more to tools' sizes than to their colors and made no distinction between tools' shapes and textures. experiments 3 a ...200516366773
activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: evidence of cathemerality in varecia and lemur catta?cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. however, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. for example, lemur catta and varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. to investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemu ...201728257553
soil fungus causes sporadic bovine abortions in scotland.abortions in cattle due to the soil fungus scedosporium apiospermumtickborne fever in ewe hoggscopper toxicity in a five-week-old lambduck virus enteritistoxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur these are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for may from sac consulting: veterinary services (sac c vs).201528319922
statistical methods for analyzing data on daily activity cycles of primates.many field studies on primates have recently been carried out in which quantitative data have been collected using instantaneous scan sampling techniques. however, data collected in this manner are difficult to analyze statistically because of the problem of independence of samples, and a number of investigators have analyzed such data incorrectly. in this paper, we evaluate such analyses and suggest alternative techniques that may be more appropriate. examples are drawn from data on daily activ ...1979453341
correlates between locomotor anatomy and behavior in two sympatric of lemur.sympatric populations of lemur catta and lemur fulvus show major differences in their occupation of canopy forest levels. lemur catta is usually found in the lowest levels of the forest, and uses the ground for travel over 65% of the time. lemur fulvus uses the upper levels of the canopy forest and is observed on the ground in less than 2% of all observations. comparison of hindlimb musculoskeletal anatomy show statistically significant differences in the lengths of the long bones and the height ...1979111558
endocrine correlates of pregnancy in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta): implications for the masculinization of daughters.female ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) are malagasy primates that are size monomorphic with males, socially dominate males, and exhibit a long, pendulous clitoris, channeled by the urethra. these masculine traits evoke certain attributes of female spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and draw attention to the potential role of androgens in lemur sexual differentiation. here, hormonal correlates of prenatal development were assessed to explore the possibility that maternal androgens may shape the ma ...201120932838
[blastocystis from primates].a new species, blastocystis lemuri sp. n., was found in the lemur catta. size of blastocysts in a culture is 10.25-35.25 mkm, the number of nuclei varies from 1 to 2. the optimum temperature for cultivation is +39 degrees.20079479381
habitat separation of semifree-ranging lemur catta and lemur fulvus.habitat use of two semifree-ranging groups of lemurs, lemur catta and lemur fulvus, was studied in relation to abiotic, floristic, and structural characteristics of their enclosure. l. catta was very flexible in the use of the habitat and showed a tendency for random utilization. but this species reacted quickly to changes of the abiotic environment. l. fulvus preferred to stay in areas with dense vegetation but good lateral visibility and close to the food plants. abiotic factors such as solar ...19854093080
external genital morphology of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta): females are naturally "masculinized".the extravagance and diversity of external genitalia have been well characterized in male primates; however, much less is known about sex differences or variation in female form. our study represents a departure from traditional investigations of primate reproductive anatomy because we 1) focus on external rather than internal genitalia, 2) measure both male and female structures, and 3) examine a strepsirrhine rather than an anthropoid primate. the subjects for morphological study were 21 repro ...200817972270
a model for comparison of masticatory effectiveness in primates.a model is presented to express how effectively animals increase the exposed surface area of their food by chewing. it includes a coefficient of masticatory effectiveness (e) the value of which increases with effectiveness of exposing new food surface area with each chew. humans and other species of primates differ significantly in their values of e; among the nonhuman primates studied, lemur catta has a higher coefficient than lemur fulvus, and both have higher coefficients than either varecia ...19827097769
the skin of primates. xx. development of the appendages in lemur catta and lemur fulvus. 196414298294
social inhibitory control in five lemur species.we tested five lemur species-ring-tailed lemurs, ruffed lemurs, mongoose lemurs, black lemurs, and coquerel's sifakas-(n = 52) in an experiment that evaluated skills for inhibitory control in a social context. first, two human experimenters presented identical food rewards; the "generous" experimenter allowed the subject to eat from her hand, whereas the "competitive" experimenter always withheld the reward. lemurs quickly learned to approach the generous experimenter and avoid the competitive o ...201525822664
centromere emergence in evolution.evolutionary centromere repositioning is a paradox we have recently discovered while studying the conservation of the phylogenetic chromosome ix in primates. two explanations were proposed: a conservative hypothesis assuming sequential pericentric inversions, and a more challenging assumption involving centromere emergence during evolution. the complex evolutionary history showed by chromosome ix did not allow us to clearly distinguish between these two hypotheses. here we report comparative stu ...200111282974
a comparison of the reproductive cycle of three species of lemur.the duration of the luteal phase and the 'proestrus' phase in three species of lemurs (lemur macaco, lemur catta, and lemur variegatus) was determined by serum progesterone measurement. total immunoreactive estrogens were measured and remained below 0.20 ng/ml except for an apparent peak of short duration during estrus. circulating testosterone levels in males confirm previously described seasonal gonadal function. the reproductive cycle of the female lemur is discussed and compared to the cycle ...1977410710
comparative studies of the respiratory functions of mammalian blood. ix. ring-tailed lemur(lemur catta)and black lemur (lemur macaco). 19725050473
hand preference on unimanual and bimanual tasks in strepsirrhines: the case of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).assessing manual lateralization in non-human primates could be an optimal way to understand the adaptive value of this asymmetry in humans. though many studies have investigated hand preferences in old and new world monkeys and apes, fewer studies have considered manual lateralization in strepsirrhines, especially in experimental tasks. this study investigated hand preferences for a unimanual and a bimanual task of 17 captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), housed at parco natura viva (vr), it ...201627078687
lifespan and reproductive senescence in a free-ranging ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) population at berenty, madagascar.the lifespan and age-specific fecundity of female ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) were estimated from a 24-year longitudinal dataset based on individual identification at berenty reserve, madagascar. the mean lifespan of females in 10-year (1989-1998) birth cohorts was 4.9 ± 4.9 years (n = 77), and the longest recorded lifespan in the population was 20 years. the mortality rate of adult females increased to ≥20% at 10-11 years old and reached 33-50% at 12-15 years old. although the birth rate o ...201526022309
patterns of quadrupedal locomotion in a vertical clinging and leaping primate (propithecus coquereli) with implications for understanding the functional demands of primate quadrupedal locomotion.many primates exhibit a suite of characteristics that distinguish their quadrupedal gaits from non-primate mammals including the use of a diagonal sequence gait, a relatively protracted humerus at touchdown, and relatively high peak vertical forces on the hindlimbs compared to the forelimbs. these characteristics are thought to have evolved together in early, small-bodied primates possibly in response to the mechanical demands of navigating and foraging in a complex arboreal environment. it rema ...201627062049
cognition in ring-tailed order to better understand the evolution of cognitive abilities in primates, information on cognitive traits of the most basal living primates can provide important comparative baseline data. compared to haplorhine primates, lemurs have relatively smaller brains and reduced abilities to solve problems in the technical and social domain. however, recent studies have suggested that some cognitive abilities of lemurs are qualitatively equal to those of haplorhines. here, we review studies invest ...201526022306
minimum alveolar concentration and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).the goal of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). the mac of isoflurane was determined by using a tail-clamp stimulus in adult ring-tailed lemurs (6 male, 4 female). once mac was determined, another group of 10 adult ring-tailed lemurs (5 male, 5 female) were anesthetized and instrumented similarly as the previous group and maintained at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times mac for 15 min each with ...201728724495
the gut microbiome of wild lemurs: a comparison of sympatric lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi.mammalian gut microbes are invaluable to the host's metabolism, but few researchers have examined gut microbial dynamics under natural conditions in wild mammals. this study aims to help fill this knowledge gap with a survey of the natural variation of the gut microbiome in 2 wild lemur species, lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi. the wild l. catta were also compared to a captive population to discern the effect of habitat within a species. gut microbial dna was extracted from fecal samples c ...201526022304
genetic diversity of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in south-central madagascar.madagascar's lemurs, now deemed the most endangered group of mammals, represent the highest primate conservation priority in the world. due to anthropogenic disturbances, an estimated 10% of malagasy forest cover remains. the endangered lemur catta is endemic to the southern regions of madagascar and now occupies primarily fragmented forest habitats. we examined the influence of habitat fragmentation and isolation on the genetic diversity of l. catta across 3 different forest fragments in south- ...201526022303
fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by cysticercus longicollis in a captive ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).here we describe fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by cysticercus longicollis, the larval stage of taenia crassiceps in a 15-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) from sarajevo zoo. after sudden death, the lemur was subjected to necropsy and large multicystic structure, subdivided with fibrous septa and filled with numerous translucent, oval to ellipsoid bladder-like cysts (cysticerci), almost completely replacing right lung lobe was observed. in addition, numerous free and encysted ...201728579023
ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) health parameters across two habitats with varied levels of human disturbance at the bezà mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.the health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the bezà mahafaly special reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. while there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or differential between habitats, female lemurs in the reserve gallery forest had significantly higher percentages of monocytes and eosinophils than male ...201526022301
the effects of environmental and visitor variables on the behavior of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in captivity.the effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. it is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influen ...201728547779
minimum alveolar concentration and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).the goal of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) and cardiopulmonary effects of isofluranein ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). the mac of isoflurane was determined by using a tail-clamp stimulus in adultring-tailed lemurs (6 male, 4 female). once mac was determined, another group of 10 adult ring-tailed lemurs (5 male, 5female) were anesthetized and instrumented similarly as the previous group and maintained at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times macfor 15 min each with no e ...201728524022
synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of lemur catta l.the skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. the vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. the function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel ...201728260706
draft genome sequence of bifidobacterium lemurum dsm 28807(t) isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).bifidobacterium lemurum dsm 28807(t) was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). here, we report the first draft genome sequence of this organism.201728232445
rapid decrease in populations of wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in madagascar.lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. in this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of l. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. we estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual l. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. ...201628081528
paternity in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta): implications for male mating group-living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. however, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single-male monopolization of paternity in groups. ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi-male, multi-female groups. although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male domin ...201627391113
next-generation genotyping of hypervariable loci in many individuals of a non-model species: technical and theoretical implications.across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is critical to disease resistance and population health; however, use of mhc diversity to quantify the genetic health of populations has been hampered by the extreme variation found in mhc genes. next generation sequencing (ngs) technology generates sufficient data to genotype even the most diverse species, but workflows for distinguishing artifacts from alleles are still under development. we used ngs to evaluate the mhc di ...201626957424
relationships between steroid hormones in hair and social behaviour in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axes and social behaviour in primates are complex. by using hair to quantify steroid hormones, one can obtain retrospective estimates of long-term free hormone levels from a single sample. in this study, hair was used to quantify long-term levels of cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol among members of a colony of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) to explore associations between intra- and intersexual lev ...201727544195
radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern madagascar. it is classified as an endangered species by the international union for conservation of nature. various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. the aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdom ...201627468031
total energy expenditure and body composition in two free-living sympatric lemurs.evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur ...201020360848
host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).the gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. the composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. here we use high-thr ...201627177345
mix it and fix it: functions of composite olfactory signals in ring-tailed lemurs.animals communicating via scent often deposit composite signals that incorporate odorants from multiple sources; however, the function of mixing chemical signals remains understudied. we tested both a 'multiple-messages' and a 'fixative' hypothesis of composite olfactory signalling, which, respectively, posit that mixing scents functions to increase information content or prolong signal longevity. our subjects-adult, male ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta)-have a complex scent-marking repertoire, ...201627152222
antipredator vocalization usage in the male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) is a group-living strepsirrhine primate endemic to madagascar that faces considerable predation pressure from aerial and terrestrial predators. this species engages in mobbing and vigilance behavior in response to predators, and has referential alarm vocalizations. because l. catta is female dominant, less is known about the alarm calls of males. we tested 3 hypotheses for male antipredator vocalization behavior on l. catta at the bezà mahafaly special reserve ...201526022308
ecological risk aversion and juvenile ring-tailed lemur feeding and foraging.the extended primate juvenile period has been linked to interactions between feeding ecology and sociality. however, accumulating field data on juvenile primates suggest variation in the linkages between foraging efficiency, group foraging and social behaviour. in many non-human primates, juvenile ability (strength, coordination and motor skills) does not limit foraging success. if predicted limitations in feeding are not found in juvenile monkeys, it is possible that the gregarious strepsirrhin ...201526022305
implicit sequence learning in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).implicit learning involves picking up information from the environment without explicit instruction or conscious awareness of the learning process. in nonhuman animals, conscious awareness is impossible to assess, so we define implicit learning as occurring when animals acquire information beyond what is required for successful task performance. while implicit learning has been documented in some nonhuman species, it has not been explored in prosimian primates. here we ask whether ring-tailed le ...201626615500
mechanical food properties and dental topography differentiate three populations of lemur catta in southwest madagascar.determining the proximate causes of tooth wear remains a major focus of dental study. here we compare the diets of three ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) populations and examine how different dietary components may contribute to patterns of wear-related tooth shape. casts were made from dental impressions collected between 2003 and 2010 from lemurs in the gallery and spiny/mixed forests of the bezá mahafaly special reserve (bmsr; parcels 1 and 2) and the spiny/mixed forests of tsimanampesotse nat ...201626601707
testing yawning hypotheses in wild populations of two strepsirrhine species: propithecus verreauxi and lemur catta.yawning, although easily recognized, is difficult to explain. traditional explanations stressed physiological mechanisms, but more recently, behavioral processes have received increasing attention. this is the first study to test a range of hypotheses on yawning in wild primate populations. we studied two sympatric strepsirrhine species, lemur catta, and propithecus verreauxi, of the ankoba forest (24.99°s, 46.29°e, berenty reserve) in southern madagascar. sexual dimorphism is lacking in both sp ...201526317594
solitary osteochondroma in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. the animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. the mass grew quickly after ...201526310465
comparison of the genetic variation of captive ring-tailed lemurs with a wild population in madagascar.genetic variability among captive and wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) was assessed using mitochondrial and nuclear dna data. a 529 bp segment of mtdna was sequenced and 9 microsatellite loci were genotyped for 286 ring-tailed lemurs. samples were obtained from the well-studied l. catta population at the bezà mahafaly special reserve and from captive animals at six institutions worldwide. we found evidence of possible patrilineal contribution but the absence of matrilineal contribution from ...201526032097
genetic evidence for male and female dispersal in wild lemur catta.lemur catta has traditionally been considered a species with male-biased dispersal; however, occasional female dispersal occurs. using molecular data, we evaluated dispersal patterns in 2 l. catta populations in southwestern madagascar: tsimanampesotse national park (tnp) and bezà mahafaly special reserve (bmsr). we also investigated the genetic differentiation between the populations and dispersal partner relatedness. results showed minor genetic differentiation between the populations (θ(st) = ...201526022302
is wounding aggression in zoo-housed chimpanzees and ring-tailed lemurs related to zoo visitor numbers?chimpanzees in laboratory colonies experience more wounds on weekdays than on weekends, which has been attributed to the increased number of people present during the week; thus, the presence of more people was interpreted as stressful. if this were also true for primates in zoos, where high human presence is a regular feature, this would clearly be of concern. here we examine wounding rates in two primate species (chimpanzees pan troglodytes and ring-tailed lemurs lemur catta) at three differen ...201626928968
behavioral thermoregulation in lemur catta: the significance of sunning and huddling behaviors.regulation of body temperature poses significant problems for organisms that inhabit environments with extreme and seasonally fluctuating ambient temperatures. to help alleviate the energetic costs of autonomic responses, these organisms often thermoregulate through behavioral mechanisms. among primates, lemurs in madagascar experience uncharacteristically seasonal and unpredictable climates relative to other primate-rich regions. malagasy primates are physiologically flexible, but different spe ...201626890578
patterns of behaviour, group structure and reproductive status predict levels of glucocorticoid metabolites in zoo-housed ring-tailed lemurs, lemur ring-tailed lemurs, lemur catta, the factors modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) activity differ between wild and semi-free-ranging populations. here we assess factors modulating hpa activity in ring-tailed lemurs housed in a third environment: the zoo. first we validate an enzyme immunoassay to quantify levels of glucocorticoid (gc) metabolites in the faeces of l. catta. we determine the nature of the female-female dominance hierarchies within each group by computing david's scor ...201526824528
gait kinetics of above- and below-branch quadrupedal locomotion in lemurid primates.for primates and other mammals moving on relatively thin branches, the ability to effectively adopt both above- and below-branch locomotion is seen as critical for successful arboreal locomotion, and has been considered an important step prior to the evolution of specialized suspensory locomotion within our order. yet, little information exists on the ways in which limb mechanics change when animals shift from above- to below-branch quadrupedal locomotion. this study tested the hypothesis that v ...201626739686
relaxed open mouth as a playful signal in wild ring-tailed signals are commonly used by animals to communicate their playful motivation and to limit the risk that rough acts are misunderstood by playmates. the relaxed open mouth is the most common facial expression performed during play in many mammals and represents the ritualized version of the movement anticipating a play bite. the signaling nature of this expression has been proven in many haplorrhine species but never demonstrated in strepsirrhines. our purpose was assessing whether, also in s ...201424810169
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