Publications

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a sarcoma of bone in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). 195114874165
the skin of primates. x. the skin of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). 196214475446
[1st isolation of toxoplasma gondii in madagascar. spontaneous and experimental toxoplasmosis in lemur catta]. 196213979332
the skin of primates. xx. development of the appendages in lemur catta and lemur fulvus. 196414298294
fine structure of the sweat glands of the antebrachial organ of lemur catta. 19665986740
[some studies on the behavior of lemur catta]. 19674386897
[the role of testosterone in the determinism of the brachial and antebrachial glands of the lemur catta]. 19684238211
histopathological observations on two spontaneous cases of toxoplasmosis in the monkey (lemur catta). 19685753271
[cytogenetic study of lemur catta]. 19704990837
comparative studies of the respiratory functions of mammalian blood. ix. ring-tailed lemur(lemur catta)and black lemur (lemur macaco). 19725050473
troop continuity and troop spacing in propithecus verreauxi and lemur catta at berenty (madagascar). 19724673322
hydatid disease in four nonhuman primates.hydatid disease was detected in 4 nonhuman primates (galago crassicaudatus, lemur catta, and 2 macaca mulatta) at the oregon regional primate research center. involvement extended from 2 1/2 to 7 1/2 years. a 6-cm cyst was surgically removed from the thoracic cavity of 1 macaque; 6 years later multiple cysts were found in its abdominal cavity. lesions found in the primates at necropsy included compression or displacement of the lungs, hydroureter and hydronephrosis, and distension of the abdomen ...1975809387
primate breeding season: photoperiodic regulation in captive lemur catta.under natural light in portland, oreg., captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) experience a breeding season that differs by nearly half a year from the season in madagascar. a series of experimental day length changes from 1971 to 1974 demonstrated the ability of both temperate and tropical photoperiod cycles to induce estrous cycles in quiescent animals. after photoperiodic activation, most impregnated females failed to resume estrous cycles even after infant separations unless they received ...1975809326
diurnal variations of plasma testosterone in two prosimian primates (galago crassicaudatus crassicaudatus and lemur catta). 1976823984
composition of lemur milk.the average composition of 8 samples of milk from lemur catta, l. fulvus, l. macaco and a hybrid lemur was (in g/100 mt): lipids, 2.3; protein, 2.7; lactose, 6.4; and ash, 0.35. the fatty acids and major minerals were also quantified. the results did not support classification of l. fulvus and l. macao within the same species.1976827483
olfactory and visual cues in social interactions of lemur catta.the relationship between visual and olfactory cues and their relative importance in interactions between pairs of adult male ring-tailed lemurs was determined. visual and olfactory contact was controlled. when visualcontact was prevented. little behavior occurred. when visual contact was permitted, olfactory cues altered behavior.1976821832
crystalloid configuration in the adrenal cortex of the siamese tree shrew (tupaia glis).crystalloids of what appear to be smooth reticulum have been observed in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis in both the stressed and nonstressed adrenal gland of the siamese tree shrew (tupaia glis). no crystalloids are observed in the zona glomerulosa. similar crystalloids have been described in other steroid-secreting organs, including the antebrachial organ of the lemur (lemur catta), the parotoid gland of bufo alvarius and in sebaceous gland cells of the galagos and macaques. moreover ...1976820215
codominant autosomal inheritance of polymorphic red cell acid phosphates of lemurs and some properties of the enzymes.red cell acid phosphatase phenotypes of 207 captive animals of the genera lemur, hapalemur, and prophithecus were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and phosphatase-specific staining. in lemur fulvus, three phenotypes, designated a, b, and ab, were observed. in each of the species l. catta, l. macaco, l. mongoz, and l. variegatus, a single phenotype was observed, in hapalemur griseus, three phenotypes were found: a,b, and ab. in propithecus verreauxi, a single phenotype was found. examinat ...1977406895
the reproductive cycle of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta): sex steroid levels and sexual receptivity under controlled photoperiods. 1977410632
induction of estrus in intact lemur catta under photoinhibition of ovarian cycles. 1977408831
a comparison of the reproductive cycle of three species of lemur.the duration of the luteal phase and the 'proestrus' phase in three species of lemurs (lemur macaco, lemur catta, and lemur variegatus) was determined by serum progesterone measurement. total immunoreactive estrogens were measured and remained below 0.20 ng/ml except for an apparent peak of short duration during estrus. circulating testosterone levels in males confirm previously described seasonal gonadal function. the reproductive cycle of the female lemur is discussed and compared to the cycle ...1977410710
chromosomal evolution in malagasy lemurs. iii. chromosome banding studies in the genus hapalemur and the species lemur catta.the karyotypes of five malagasy lemurs are described and compared after the successive use of various banding methods. phylogenic relationships appear to exist between the respective ancestors of lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus occidentalis, h. griseus ssp, and h. griseus griseus. their karyotypes can be derived from that of l. fulvus fulvus by chromosomal rearrangements affecting mainly chromosomes 1 and x. intense staining of juxtacentromeric heterochromatin was detected among the dif ...197897055
radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone (lh) in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) with antiovine lh and ovine 125i-lh. 1978105771
population and territory stability of the lemur catta at berenty, madagascar.several lemur catta troops at berenty, madagascar have been censused repeatedly since 1963. in 1972, the entire reserve was censused. a recensus in 1975 showed that although some minor changes have occurred in the number of animals in individual troops, the population of the reserve as a whole, the core areas of the lemurs' territories, and their home range boundaries have all remained stable ever since the first complete census 3 years earlier.1979114464
habituation to territorial scent marks in the field by lemur catta. 1979414729
primate disease and breeding rates.33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. there were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. highest rates were: birth, macaca nemestrina; illness, pongo pygmaeus; death, cercopithecus aethiops. lowest rates were: birth, lemur catta; illness, sanguinus mystax; death, galago crassicaudatus. galago crassicaudatus and macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates.1979119108
statistical methods for analyzing data on daily activity cycles of primates.many field studies on primates have recently been carried out in which quantitative data have been collected using instantaneous scan sampling techniques. however, data collected in this manner are difficult to analyze statistically because of the problem of independence of samples, and a number of investigators have analyzed such data incorrectly. in this paper, we evaluate such analyses and suggest alternative techniques that may be more appropriate. examples are drawn from data on daily activ ...1979453341
correlates between locomotor anatomy and behavior in two sympatric of lemur.sympatric populations of lemur catta and lemur fulvus show major differences in their occupation of canopy forest levels. lemur catta is usually found in the lowest levels of the forest, and uses the ground for travel over 65% of the time. lemur fulvus uses the upper levels of the canopy forest and is observed on the ground in less than 2% of all observations. comparison of hindlimb musculoskeletal anatomy show statistically significant differences in the lengths of the long bones and the height ...1979111558
spontaneous cholangiocarcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a cholangiocarcinoma in the liver with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was found in a male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). the liver was partially replaced by a gray-white, coarsely lobulated mass. microscopically, the tumor consisted of well circumscribed lobules of anaplastic, low cuboidal cells occasionally arranged in duct-like structures. the tumor did not involve the gallbladder.1979228114
mammary neoplasia in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). 19806768185
a model for comparison of masticatory effectiveness in primates.a model is presented to express how effectively animals increase the exposed surface area of their food by chewing. it includes a coefficient of masticatory effectiveness (e) the value of which increases with effectiveness of exposing new food surface area with each chew. humans and other species of primates differ significantly in their values of e; among the nonhuman primates studied, lemur catta has a higher coefficient than lemur fulvus, and both have higher coefficients than either varecia ...19827097769
population and troop ranges of lemur catta and lemur fulvus at berenty, madagascar: 1980 census.the november 1980 census suggests that population size and troop ranges have remained stable since 1972 and in a small area since 1963. this prolongs the apparent stability described by some authors, remarkable in a 200-ha reserve containing a maximum of 300 lemur catta. however, inadvertent introduction of lemur fulvus rufus and apparent loss of tamarind trees, as well as general genetic and biogeographic considerations, imply this stability may not continue. berently underlines the need for lo ...19827141348
propithecus verreauxi population and ranging at berenty, madagascar, 1975 and 1980.propithecus verreauxi have been repeatedly censused in parts of the 200-ha reserve at berenty between 1963 and 1975. troop rearrangements in 1963 and 1975 showed that both males and females can change troop outside the breeding season. group sex ratio varies from 0.3 female/male to 5.0 female/male. usually, at berenty, groups defend highly exclusive territories, in contrast to ranging patterns elsewhere. in 1980 troops were censused during 2 weeks in november at a different season from earlier s ...19827141349
prosimian hemoglobins i. the primary structure of the beta-globin chain of lemur catta.the primary structure of the beta chain from the hemoglobin of a prosimian primate, lemur catta, has been determined by automated edman degradation of intact polypeptide chain and fragments produced by tryptic, cyanogen bromide and acid cleavage, and by homology with the sequence of lemur fulvus. the sequence presented here differs from the human beta-globin sequence at 26 sites. this is the same degree of divergence previously reported for the beta-globin chain of lemur fulvus. the sequences of ...19836841124
inter-troop transfer of lemur catta males at berenty, madagascar.lemur catta male exchange occurred throughout the reserve at berenty and affected change in the composition of most, if not all, of the twelve troops in the reserve. males migrate into troops with which they are already familiar. inter-troop encounters may serve to increase a male's knowledge of a potential new home. extensive overlap in home ranges may facilitate this process. an important result of migration in l. catta is the avoidance of inbreeding in a species whose females form stable grou ...19836862323
habitat separation of semifree-ranging lemur catta and lemur fulvus.habitat use of two semifree-ranging groups of lemurs, lemur catta and lemur fulvus, was studied in relation to abiotic, floristic, and structural characteristics of their enclosure. l. catta was very flexible in the use of the habitat and showed a tendency for random utilization. but this species reacted quickly to changes of the abiotic environment. l. fulvus preferred to stay in areas with dense vegetation but good lateral visibility and close to the food plants. abiotic factors such as solar ...19854093080
acute death associated with toxoplasma gondii in ring-tailed lemurs. 19854077665
color vision in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).behavioral discrimination tests were used to examine spectral sensitivity and color vision in a pair of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). sensitivity tests revealed the presence of a purkinje shift and a photopic visual system. as measured at increment-threshold, the photopic spectral sensitivity function for the lemur has multiple peaks (at ca. 440-460, 540, and 620 nm). in color vision tests lemurs behave trichromatically in that (a) they show no evidence for a neutral point in the spectral ra ...19854084762
population ecology of the ring-tailed lemur, lemur catta, and the white sifaka, propithecus verreauxi verreauxi, at berenty, madagascar, 1981.the diurnal lemurs propithecus verreauxi verreauxi and lemur catta at berenty in southern madagascar, have been studied for the last 30 years. the august 1981 census indicates that the population size of l. catta remains stable at 150 adults but that p. v. verreauxi troops have become fragmented and scattered and the population is apparently increasing. eight different vegetation types were classified within the reserve and their influence on the distribution of l. catta and p. v. verreauxi inve ...19863557229
coccidioidomycosis in a ring-tailed lemur. 19863505988
individuality in a contact call of the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta).a vocalization of the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta) was examined for individual differences according to several temporal- and frequency-dependent variables. vocalizations were tape recorded at the duke university primate center (durham, nc) and spectrographically analyzed. significant differences were found in pair-wise comparisons of call structure among the study subjects, thus providing the physical basis for individual discrimination. a separate analysis comparing degree of kinship and voc ...198631979454
prosimian hemoglobins: iv. the structural difference responsible for the hemoglobin phenotype of lemur catta.the ring-tailed lemur, lemur catta, shows a two-component hemoglobin phenotype after alkaline electrophoresis. a difference in the amino acid sequence of the isolated α-globins was observed at position 15 (α i-gly, α ii-lys) and can account for the electrophoretic pattern of two hemoglobin components. only one other amino acid difference was found in the sequence of the two globin chains: a neutral substitution occurs at position 53 (α i-gly, α ii-ala). the complete primary structures of the dup ...198731973472
antigenic properties of human and animal bloodstains studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using various antisera against specific plasma proteins.antigenic properties of bloodstains of human and non-human primates as well as other animal bloodstains were investigated by the inhibition elisa using commercially available anti-human albumin (alb), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-m), fibrinogen, transferrin, and immunoglobulin g. in general, chimpanzee bloodstains showed strong cross-reactions with these antisera, and the extent of the cross-reactions of other animal bloodstains decreased largely with the phylogenic order, i.e., agile gibbon ( ...19872448970
olfactory demarcation of territorial but not home range boundaries by lemur catta.over 350 h of observations were collected using focal animal sampling of scent-marking behavior by 2 troops of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in the field in madagascar. although they did not mark any branch species preferentially, they did have preferred marking sites. significantly more scent marks were deposited in the area of home range overlap between troops than in the area of exclusive use. however, few marks were deposited at the periphery of the area of overlap. instead, the majority ...19883240911
excretion of radiolabeled estradiol metabolites in the slow loris (nycticebus coucang).the excretion pattern of estradiol was studied in the slow loris nycticebus coucang) and the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in order to compare steroid excretion in two representative prosimian species. daily urinary estrone conjugate measurements in the female loris provided little information when applied over prolonged periods. as a result of these negative data, a metabolic study was performed to determine if estrogen excretion patterns in the slow loris differed from those in the lemur, wh ...198832079377
aerial maneuvers of leaping lemurs: the physics of whole-body rotations while airborne.several prosimian species begin a leap from a vertical support with their back toward the landing target. to reorient themselves from this dorsally facing, head-first lift-off to a ventrally facing, feet-first landing, the animals combine an initial twist with a partial backward somersault. cinefilms of a captive colony of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) revealed that during leaps from vertical poles to horizontal supports, the backward somersaulting rotations were often initiated while the anim ...198832079371
lactation and care for unrelated infants in forest-living ringtailed lemurs.an adult female ringtailed lemur (lemur catta) known not to have been pregnant showed spontaneous lactation in response to twin infants born to an unrelated female. the females had met only 7 months earlier, when they and two other unrelated adult females were released from separate locations in a forest enclosure to form a new social group. three months after release, an adult male from an adjacent enclosure gained access to the new group for 1 day, the day of one female's estrus. no males had ...198931964040
multiple measures of hand-use lateralization in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).evaluated a free-ranging matriline of 13 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from videotaped records for lateralized hand use with 2 tasks and 4 measures: food reaching, feeding posture, duration of food holding, and manipulation of food between mouth and hand while eating. binomial z scores determined 7 lemurs to be left preferent in reaching, 3 right, and 3 ambipreferent. ideographic analyses suggested possible sex-linked and early experience twin effects. when compared to right and ambipreferent ...19892776422
[comparative anatomic studies of the tongue of pan troglodytes (blumenbach, 1799) and other primates. i. the chimpanzee tongue].this study was carried out on a comprehensive collection of tongues of pan troglodytes. material of tongues of tupaia glis, microcebus murinus, chirogaleus major, lemur catta, galago crassicaudatus, cebus apella, and macaca mulatta were used for comparison of the different stages of the development of the papilla foliata. the tongue of pan exhibits longitudinal growth correlated with the growth of length of the jaws and individual age. a typical foramen caecum as it occurs in man was gross anato ...19902242823
a study of locomotor behavior in a captive colony of red-bellied lemurs (eulemur rubriventer).the considerable diversity of locomotor behavior within the suborder prosimii largely is due to differences in locomotion between families. within families, locomotion is relatively homogeneous, although some species, such as otolemur crassicaudatus among the galagids and hapalemur simus and lepilemur spp. among the lemurids, differ from other species in their family. this paper describes the locomotion of a captive colony of red-bellied lemurs, eulemur rubriventer (following the classification ...199031963961
the jump as a fast mode of locomotion in arboreal and terrestrial biotopes.the jump is always used for locomotion. for its execution in arboreal and terrestrial biotopes the requirements are of somewhat different nature. in an arboreal biotope the jump is characterized by a rapid progression through discontinuous substrates and the ability to take off from a small area and a secure landing on a spot. this requires well coordinated movements in all phases of the jump. on the ground, the jump is less frequent and often used for crossing obstacles or gaps. in primates bot ...19911887664
analyses of feeding lateralization in the small-eared bushbaby (otolemur garnettii): a comparison with the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).feeding related lateralization was examined in a population of 23 small-eared bushbabies (otolemur garnettii). the three measures used to determine lateralization were food reaching, holding, and manipulation. sex and age differences were found, with adult females showing a strong right bias and adult males a left bias. juvenile males were weakly lateralized and less consistent across measures than adult animals. the use of standard scores to assess lateralization allowed species comparisons to ...19911935006
asynchrony within estrous synchrony among ringtailed lemurs (primates: lemuridae).data from wild and semifree-ranging groups of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) were combined to evaluate the hypothesis that female ringtailed lemurs exhibit asynchrony of estrus within seasonal synchrony of estrous cycles. photoperiodic and probably social entrainments lead all females within social groups of ringtailed lemurs to experience estrus annually within periods of 7 to 20 days. among an average of five adult females in each of 11 group-years, however, only 2 separate instances of dyadi ...19912017479
the vocal repertoire of the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta).the vocal repertoire of the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta) is described quantitatively and spectrographically. structure, usage and inferred function of the vocalizations of adults and immatures are examined and discussed. the size, acoustic variability and development of the ringtailed lemur's vocal repertoire are compared to prior assessments for this species as well as for other primates. with up to 22 different adult call types, the ringtailed lemur has a moderately large vocal repertoire fo ...19937959437
comparison of highly repeated dna sequences in some lemuridae and taxonomic implications.highly repeated dna sequences of eulemur fulvus mayottensis, e. coronatus, lemur catta, and hapalemur griseus griseus have been identified and compared. sequence analysis of highly repeated dna fragments isolated from l. catta and hapalemur showed a high percentage of similarity (nearly 95%), as did fragments isolated from the two very close eulemur species, whereas comparison of the dna fragments isolated from the two eulemur species and the l. catta/hapalemur group showed a very low percentage ...19938467713
photopigments underlying color vision in ringtail lemurs (lemur catta) and brown lemurs (eulemur fulvus).a recent examination of color vision in the ringtail lemur produced evidence that these prosimians could make color discriminations consistent with a diagnosis of trichromatic color vision. however, it was unclear if this behavior reflected the presence of three classes of cone or whether lemurs might be able to utilize signals from rods in conjunction with those from only two classes of cone. to resolve that issue, spectral sensitivity functions were obtained from ringtail lemurs (lemur catta) ...199331937014
infanticide among ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty reserve, madagascar.during an intertroop encounter, an infanticide was observed in a population of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty reserve, madagascar. the killer was a male that had not been previously observed to mate with any females in the infant's troop. this observation, combined with other observations of infanticidal behavior by males at berenty reserve and the duke university primate center, is consistent with the hypothesis that infanticide is a reproductive tactic for some male ringtailed lemu ...199431936926
enamel microstructure in lemuridae (mammalia, primates): assessment of variability.this study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: hapalemur griseus, varecia variegata, lemur catta, lemur macaco, lemur fulvus rufus, lemur fulvus fulvus, and lemur fulvus albifrons. contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both lemur and varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (hunter-schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surfac ...19947802097
phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. first, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated dna fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between lemur catta and the genus hapalemur. moreover, our results indicate that l. catta is nested within the hapalemur clade as the ...19947813970
human eccrine hamartoma of the forearm-antebrachial organ of the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta). a possible phylogenetic relationship?a 31-year-old woman presented with a clinically otherwise unsuspicious area of profuse sweating on her right forearm. without triggering agents, sweating attacks producing a clear, serous fluid were observed daily. histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen showed hyperplastic eccrine glands with pale, stippled cytoplasm characteristic of eccrine hamartoma. no explanation, however, has been given for the fact that several authors observed eccrine hamartomas in the same anatomical location. ...19947943634
evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii gene.we examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii (coii) gene from 25 primates (4 hominoids, 8 old world monkeys, 2 new world monkeys, 2 tarsiers, 7 lemuriforms, 2 lorisiforms). marginal support was found for three phylogenetic conclusions: (1) sister-group relationship between tarsiers and a monkey/ape clade, (2) placement of the aye-aye (daubentonia) sister to all other strepsirhine primates, and (3) rejection of a sister-group relationship of ...19948006990
the origin of the primate mhc-drb genes and allelic lineages as deduced from the study of prosimians.mhc class ii genes of the drb family were partially sequenced from 10 individuals representing six species of prosimians: galago senegalensis, g. moholi, otolemur garnetti, loris tardigradus, petterus (lemur) fulvus, and lemur catta. altogether, 41 different genes were discerned, all distinct from genes identified previously. comparative analysis of the sequences has led to the following conclusions. first, the drb loci present in human populations diverged from one another before the divergence ...19948157963
analysis of lateralized components of feeding behavior in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).twenty-one ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) were videotaped during feeding. they had previously been classified as left-, right- or ambipreferent on the basis of the hand used to reach for food. the feeding sequences provided duration-based measures of manipulation, hand and mouth lateralization, and posture during feeding sequences with 2 types of food. hand preference for reaching and holding was stable over time and across measurement conditions. as a group, the lemurs grasped fruit bimanuall ...19957705057
development and social dominance among group-living primates.organisms are integrated systems whose physical and behavioral components codevelop and coevolve. ontogenetic requirements in one domain are satisfied in part by prior or concurrent developments in another. this work explores how characteristic growth patterns in two primate groups interact with ecological, social, and other life-history constraints to promote the development of particular systems of agonistic relationship. first, the markedly size-dimorphic savanna baboons are contrasted with r ...199531936944
organization of white adipose tissue in lemuridae.the gross anatomy of white adipose tissue was studied in seven carcasses representing three lemurid species (lemur catta, eulemur fulvus, e. mongoz) to validate in vivo methods of assessing fatness, and to contribute to a comprehensive database on the organization of adipose tissue in mammalia. during the years preceding their deaths, subjects had been either caged or semi-provisioned under semi-captive conditions, and their body masses had been recorded several times annually. all specimens wer ...199531924060
male-female affiliative relationships in naturally occurring ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza-mahafaly reserve, madagascar.affiliative behavior between adult male and female ringtailed lemurs was examined as part of a project concerning male affiliation with conspecifics of all age/sex classes. males in three social groups were studied over a 12 month period. male-female preferred partnerships existed, and were variable according to reproductive season. dominance rank, age, or tenure of the male did not appear to affect either the number of partnerships or frequency of affiliative behaviors that males had with femal ...199631918491
demonstration of homoeologies between human and lemur chromosomes by chromosome painting.human-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 7, 9, 14, 19, and 21 were used to paint chromosomes of three lemur species: eulemur fulvus mayottensis, e. macaco macaco, and lemur catta. chromosomes 1 and 3 of e. f. mayottensis are homoeologous to human chromosomes 3, 9, 14, and 21, as previously suggested by chromosome banding. probes for human chromosomes 7 and 19 produced unexpectedly strong signals in the centromeric regions of all lemur chromosomes, suggesting that sequences homologous to nonrepea ...19968565634
alveolar hydatidosis in a gorilla and a ring-tailed lemur in japan.alveolar hydatidosis by echinococcus multilocularis (em) infection occurred on a 22-year-old (approx.) male gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and a 4-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in a zoo, in hokkaido, japan. case 1: the gorilla presented neurologic signs in course of nine months and died. pathologically, alveolar hydatid lesions were found in the liver, the liver-associated lymph nodes, the cerebrum, and the lungs. a protoscolex was found only in one hepatic cyst. case 2: in the lemu ...19968741606
milk composition reflects pattern of maternal care in prosimian primates.hypothesized relationships between milk composition and life history traits were examined by analyzing mid-lactation milks of seven lemurs (eulemur fulvus, e. macaco, e. rubriventer, e. mongoz, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, lemur catta), three bushbabies (otolemur crassicaudatus, o. garnettii, galago moholi), and two lorises (nycticebus coucang, loris tardigradus); partial data were also obtained for the lemuroid cheirogaleus medius. there were no significant differences in milk composit ...19979057965
affiliative relationships between adult males and immature group members in naturally occurring ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta).affiliative relations between adult males and immature group members were studied in three naturally occurring groups of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) over a 12-month period at beza-mahafaly reserve, southwestern madagascar. no statistically significant difference was found in rates of affiliative interactions between adult males and older immatures (juveniles and adolescents) over reproductive seasons. however, some of the adult males in two focal groups increased their rates of affiliative b ...19979209574
encephalomyocarditis virus infections in an australian zoo.fatal encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) infections in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), a squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), three mandrills (mandrillus sphinx), a chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), a pygmy hippopotamus (choeropsis liberiensis), and two goodfellows tree kangaroos (dendrolagus goodfellowi) occurred at taronga zoo. this is the first description of emcv in a zoological collection outside of the united states. regardless of species, the most common clinical presentation was sudden deat ...19979279403
chromosome painting: a method for testing chromosomal changes in lemur evolution.chromosome painting using commercially available human chromosome-specific dna libraries was performed to elucidate chromosomal rearrangements in lemur evolution. human-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 14, 15, and 21 were used to paint chromosomes of six species: eulemur fulvus mayottensis, varecia variegata, lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus griseus, and h. aureus. all human chromosome libraries hybridized specifically to chromosome segments of varying length or to whole arms of lemur ...19979371411
trypanosoma cruzi infection of free-ranging lion-tailed macaques (macaca silenus) and ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) on st. catherine's island, georgia, usa.free-ranging old world primates released on st. catherine's island, georgia (usa), were tested for infection with trypanosoma cruzi as part of a study of the epizootiology of sylvatic t. cruzi in the southeastern usa. the parasite was observed in liver infusion tryptose medium cultures of blood from seven of 11 lion-tailed macaques (macaca silenus) and one of 19 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). cultures of blood from 10 black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata) were all negative. analys ...19989638621
[preference for high frequency sounds of contact calls in primates: japanese macaques and ringtailed lemurs].preference for high frequency sounds in human infants are found by other researchers. the purpose of this study is to examine whether nonhuman primates also have the same tendency as human infants. it is important to consider language origins. two types of tape recorded coo calls, contact calls, with high and low fundamental frequencies were played back as stimuli for two groups of japanese macaques (macaca fuscata). the result showed that the animals of both groups preferred high frequency soun ...19989755467
pair-bonding, female aggression and the evolution of lemur societies.lemur societies have been described as convergent with those of anthropoids, including papio-like female-bonded multi-male groups. recent research, however, shows at least 5 pair-bonded species among the lemuridae and indriidae. three more, eulemur mongoz, eulemur fulvus and varecia variegata, have societies combining aspects of pairing with aspects of troop life. the best-known female-bonded societies, those of lemur catta, propithecus diadema edwardsi and propithecus verreauxi, may be assembla ...19989595685
the responses of verreaux's sifakas to anti-predator alarm calls given by sympatric ring-tailed lemurs. 19989885336
behavioural patterns associated with faecal cortisol levels in free-ranging female ring-tailed lemurs, lemur catta.the study of physiological stress and its context in free-ranging animals provides a means for understanding the challenges found in the natural habitat. patterns of physiological stress in free-ranging animals have yet to be well characterized. methodological difficulties in measuring physiological responses in the natural habitat have limited this area of research. in this research, physiological stress in free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs, lemur catta, was estimated using a steroid-extraction m ...199910202101
preventing dental calculus formation in lemurs (lemur catta, eulemur fulvus collaris) and baboons (papio cynocephalus).the prevention of calculus accumulation in exotic animals is a relatively unexplored topic. a 6-mo study in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and collared lemurs (eulemur fulvus collaris) and two studies in baboons (papio cynocephalus) (7.5 wks and 6.5 mo) tested the benefits of a primate diet coated with 0.6% sodium hexametaphosphate (hmp) in controlling calculus in these species using a sequential crossover design. the control regimen was an identical, but non-hmp-coated, dry primate chow. at s ...199910572860
takeoff and landing forces of leaping strepsirhine primates.knowledge of the forces animals generate and are exposed to during locomotion is an important prerequisite for understanding the musculoskeletal correlates of locomotor modes. we recorded takeoff and landing forces for 14 animals representing seven species of strepsirhine primates with a compliant force pole. our sample included both specialized vertical clingers and leapers and more generalized species. takeoff forces are higher than landing forces. peak forces during acceleration for takeoff r ...199910444353
nails and claws in primate evolution.the issue of whether nails or claws were present on the digits of the last common ancestor of living primates is central to the understanding of the ecological context in which the order originated. two lines of evidence are available, the shape (claw, nail, toilet-claw) and the histological structure (one or two horny strata). here we review the existing data regarding the shape and histological structure of cheirideal appendages in primates and present new information from a wide range of livi ...19999924135
changes in behavior in free-ranging lemur catta following release in a natural habitat.the adjustment of captive-reared and developmentally deprived ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) to supported release on st. catherine's island, georgia, was studied over 7 years to examine if these animals developed behavior comparable to wild populations. initial changes after release included decreased obesity and increased agility as well as foraging for appropriate novel plants. ranging, daily behavior cycles, and vocalizations developed more slowly over 1-3 years, but eventually the behavior ...19999888718
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
microsatellite structures in the context of human evolution.six microsatellite - or short tandem repeat (str) - systems with uniform repetitive sequences (humth01, humcd4, humfes/fps, humf13b, humtpo, humlpl) and three compound repeat systems (humvwa, humfibra, d21s11) were used, including data from the literature, to determine genetic distances among eight populations worldwide. the th01- and vwa homologous loci in nonhuman primates (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, rhesus monkeys, ring-tailed lemurs) were compared and found to be shorter than in huma ...200010768773
description of the gastrointestinal tract of five lemur species: propithecus tattersalli, propithecus verreauxi coquereli, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, and lemur catta.the objective of this project was to better define the similarities and differences in gastrointestinal morphology present in lemur species. measurements of the gastrointestinal tract of lemurs were obtained at necropsy from the captive population at duke university primate center. measurements of body length and weight, as well as gastrointestinal length, were recorded from five prosimian species: propithecus tattersalli, propithecus verreauxi, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, and lemur ca ...200011078027
t-cell-rich b-cell lymphoma in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a 13-yr-old ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) was evaluated for depression, anorexia, polyuria, and polydipsia. the lemur was in poor body condition and was anemic, hypoalbuminemic, and hyponatremic. cytologic examination of aspirates of the spleen, liver, and bone marrow and histopathologic examination of liver and bone marrow biopsies revealed a disseminated round cell tumor. after euthanasia, necropsy revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and mesenteric lymphadenomegaly. neoplastic cells were pr ...200011558462
exogenous estradiol and sexual receptivity in photoinhibited female lemur catta. 2000105365
androgen levels and female social dominance in lemur catta.morphological and behavioural traits which improve agonistic power are subject to intrasexual selection and, at the proximate level, are influenced by circulating androgens. because intrasexual selection in mammals is more intense among males, they typically dominate females. female social dominance is therefore unexpected and, indeed, rare. ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) are sexually monomorphic primates in which all adult females dominate all males. the goal of our study was to test the pred ...200011007329
mating season aggression and fecal testosterone levels in male ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).the challenge hypothesis (j. c. wingfield, r. e. hegner, b. g. ball, and a. m. duffy, 1990, am. nat. 136, 829-846) proposes that in birds, reptiles, and fish, "the frequency or intensity of reproductive aggression as an effect of t[estosterone] is strongest in situations of social instability, such as during the formation of dominance relationships, the establishment of territorial boundaries, or challenges by a conspecific male for a territory or access to mates" (p. 833). to determine the exte ...200010868488
phylogeny and character behavior in the family lemuridae.a phylogenetic analysis of the family lemuridae was accomplished using multiple gene partitions and morphological characters. the results of the study suggest that several nodes in the lemurid phylogeny can be robustly resolved; however, the relationships of the species within the genus eulemur are problematically nonrobust. the genus varecia is strongly supported as the basal genus in the family. hapalemur and lemur catta are strongly supported as sister taxa and together are the sister group t ...200010764540
intra-troop affiliative relationships of females with newborn infants in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).to determine how the birth and development of infants influence their mothers' social relationships with other adult troop members, we observed two free-ranging troops of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the berenty reserve, madagascar. the number of acts of affiliative contact that the mothers received from other adult troop members during the first and second months of infant life were significantly higher than those before they gave birth, and the values during the third month were as low ...200010711533
adoption of a wild orphaned ringtailed lemur infant by natal group members: adaptive explanations.in december 1992 an infant ringtailed lemur, approximately 7 weeks of age, was orphaned in one of the regularly-censused social groups at the beza-mahafaly reserve, southwestern madagascar. the infant was initially adopted by a subadult (2 yr-old) male from the group. continuous-time focal animal data were collected for a 12-hr period, from the time that the infant was retrieved by the young male, in order to document the adoption process. ten members of the infant's social group (total group nu ...200030545205
do ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) reconcile in the hour post-conflict?: a pilot study.a previous study bykappeler (1993) showed that no reconciliation occurred in the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta). like the majority of studies dealing with reconciliation, the post-conflict period lasted 10 minutes. an identical study using a 70-min post-conflict period was conducted on one of the same semi-free ranging group studied six years earlier bykappeler. results showed that individuals who never interacted within 10 min did engage in friendly interactions in the longer lasting postconfli ...200030545174
centromere emergence in evolution.evolutionary centromere repositioning is a paradox we have recently discovered while studying the conservation of the phylogenetic chromosome ix in primates. two explanations were proposed: a conservative hypothesis assuming sequential pericentric inversions, and a more challenging assumption involving centromere emergence during evolution. the complex evolutionary history showed by chromosome ix did not allow us to clearly distinguish between these two hypotheses. here we report comparative stu ...200111282974
dietary and dental variations in the genus lemur, with comments concerning dietary-dental correlations among malagasy primates.field studies of feeding in the lemur subspecies lemur fulvus rufus and l. f. mayottensis have revealed that feeding patterns within a single species can be markedly different, both regionally and seasonally. thus l. f. rufus is a dietary specialist (3 plant species accounting for 80-90% of feeding time), and is highly folivorous, especially during the dry season (90% of feeding time spent eating leaves during the dry season, and 53% during the wet season). on the other hand, l. f. mayottensis i ...200198050
adaptive and phylogenetic significance of ontogenetic sequences in archaeolemur, subfossil lemur from madagascar.among the best known of recently extinct malagasy lemurs is archaeolemur, which is represented by many hundreds of specimens. the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon are unclear, especially in light of recent preliminary analysis of ancient dna which does not support its previously accepted close relationship with the living indridae. we examined the nearly complete skeletons of two adults and one juvenile and other less complete specimens to reconstruct aspects of the ontogeny of archaeolemur ...200111782109
analysis of dentition of a living wild population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from beza mahafaly, madagascar.detailed descriptions of the dentition of many strepsirhine primate taxa are rare, despite their importance in understanding primate evolutionary biology. while several researchers have provided detailed morphological descriptions of ring-tailed lemur dentition (e.g., schwartz and tattersall [1985] am. mus. nat. hist. anthropol. pap. 60:1-100; tattersall and schwartz [1991] am. mus. nat. hist. anthropol. pap. 69:2-18), there are few studies (e.g., eaglen [1986] am. j. phys. anthropol. 71:185-201 ...200111241187
telomere biology and cellular aging in nonhuman primate cells.to determine how cellular aging is conserved among primates, we analyzed the replicative potential and telomere shortening in skin fibroblasts of anthropoids and prosimians. the average telomere length of the new world primates ateles geoffroyi (spider monkey) and saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey) and the old world primates macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), pongo pygmaeus (orangutan), and pan paniscus (pigmy chimpanzee) ranged from 4 to 16 kb. we found that telomere shortening limits the replicat ...200211777339
[primate foot evolution: a new approach to the old problem].functional reasons for specific changes in mammal foot skeleton occurring in course of formation and progressive evolution of locomotion on the parasagittal extremities are formulated for the first time. the paper establishes the base of the study of highly parasagittal forms (terrestrial catarhine monkeys, man and his ancestors), that evolved in primate history much later then their counterparts in other orders. the foot of primitive primate (lemur catta) is scrutinized as a model of a primitiv ...200212298178
analysis of chromosome conservation in lemur catta studied by chromosome paints and bac/pac probes.a panel of human chromosome painting probes and bacterial and p1 artificial chromosome (bac/pac) clones were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) experiments to investigate the chromosome conservation of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta, lca) with respect to human. whole chromosome paints specific for human chromosomes 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, and x were found to identify a single chromosome or an uninterrupted chromosomal region in lca. a large set of partial chromosome ...200212474064
characterization and phylogenetic relationship of prosimian mhc class i genes.mhc class i cdna sequences from the most divergent primate group of extant primates compared to human, the suborder strepsirrhini (prosimians), are described. the sequences are derived from the gray mouse lemur (microcebus murinus) and the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), which are members of the malagasy lemuriformes, as well as from the pygmy slow loris (nycticebus pygmaeus), a prosimian from east asia. the m. murinus sequences have been analyzed in detail. analysis of the expression level, g/ ...200212486535
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