PMID(sorted descending)
cognition in ring-tailed order to better understand the evolution of cognitive abilities in primates, information on cognitive traits of the most basal living primates can provide important comparative baseline data. compared to haplorhine primates, lemurs have relatively smaller brains and reduced abilities to solve problems in the technical and social domain. however, recent studies have suggested that some cognitive abilities of lemurs are qualitatively equal to those of haplorhines. here, we review studies invest ...201526022306
ecological risk aversion and juvenile ring-tailed lemur feeding and foraging.the extended primate juvenile period has been linked to interactions between feeding ecology and sociality. however, accumulating field data on juvenile primates suggest variation in the linkages between foraging efficiency, group foraging and social behaviour. in many non-human primates, juvenile ability (strength, coordination and motor skills) does not limit foraging success. if predicted limitations in feeding are not found in juvenile monkeys, it is possible that the gregarious strepsirrhin ...201526022305
the gut microbiome of wild lemurs: a comparison of sympatric lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi.mammalian gut microbes are invaluable to the host's metabolism, but few researchers have examined gut microbial dynamics under natural conditions in wild mammals. this study aims to help fill this knowledge gap with a survey of the natural variation of the gut microbiome in 2 wild lemur species, lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi. the wild l. catta were also compared to a captive population to discern the effect of habitat within a species. gut microbial dna was extracted from fecal samples c ...201526022304
genetic diversity of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in south-central madagascar.madagascar's lemurs, now deemed the most endangered group of mammals, represent the highest primate conservation priority in the world. due to anthropogenic disturbances, an estimated 10% of malagasy forest cover remains. the endangered lemur catta is endemic to the southern regions of madagascar and now occupies primarily fragmented forest habitats. we examined the influence of habitat fragmentation and isolation on the genetic diversity of l. catta across 3 different forest fragments in south- ...201526022303
genetic evidence for male and female dispersal in wild lemur catta.lemur catta has traditionally been considered a species with male-biased dispersal; however, occasional female dispersal occurs. using molecular data, we evaluated dispersal patterns in 2 l. catta populations in southwestern madagascar: tsimanampesotse national park (tnp) and bezà mahafaly special reserve (bmsr). we also investigated the genetic differentiation between the populations and dispersal partner relatedness. results showed minor genetic differentiation between the populations (θ(st) = ...201526022302
ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) health parameters across two habitats with varied levels of human disturbance at the bezà mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.the health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the bezà mahafaly special reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. while there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or differential between habitats, female lemurs in the reserve gallery forest had significantly higher percentages of monocytes and eosinophils than male ...201526022301
examining visual measures of coat and body condition in wild ring-tailed lemurs at the bezà mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.coat and body mass status provide a potential noninvasive way to assess primate health status as well as the effects of seasonality, resource use and reproductive state. coat and body condition were scored visually for 36 wild lemur catta at the bezà mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, from july 2012 to march 2013. coat quality generally increased during the wet season when resource availability increased, in contrast to that observed during the resource-depleted dry season. alopecia frequency ...201526022300
beyond the gallery forest: contrasting habitat and diet in lemur catta troops at bezà mahafaly special reserve.ring-tailed lemurs have been studied intensively in the parcel 1 gallery forest of bezà mahafaly special reserve. here, we report on lemur groups in a mixture of deciduous dry forest and spiny forest just 5 km to the west. compared to parcel 1, parcel 2 (p2) has a lower density of tamarindus indica, a major dietary plant species for gallery forest lemurs. recent studies in drier habitats have called into question the association of lemur density and tamarind presence. in order to address this qu ...201526022299
seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.although lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. we compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (september to march) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. we found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of solu ...201526022298
reproductive female feeding strategies in spiny forest-dwelling lemur catta in southern and southwestern madagascar: how do females meet the challenges of reproduction in this harsh habitat?the spiny forest ecoregion of southern and southwestern madagascar is characterized by low annual rainfall, high temperatures, short-stature xeric vegetation and lack of canopy. lemur catta is often the only diurnal primate persisting in this habitat. for reproductive females living in spiny forests, gestation and early-to-mid lactation periods occur during the dry season when food resources are limited. we conducted a between-site comparison of variables important to the feeding ecology of repr ...201526022297
ring-tailed lemurs: a species re-imagined.for over 50 years, ring-tailed lemurs have been studied continuously in the wild. as one of the most long-studied primate species, the length and breadth of their study is comparable to research on japanese macaques, baboons and chimpanzees. they are also one of the most broadly observed of all primates, with comprehensive research conducted on their behaviour, biology, ecology, genetics, palaeobiology and life history. however, over the last decade, a new generation of lemur scholars, working i ...201526022295
patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. during development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. however, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. in this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characte ...201525970595
the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).201625929742
social inhibitory control in five lemur species.we tested five lemur species-ring-tailed lemurs, ruffed lemurs, mongoose lemurs, black lemurs, and coquerel's sifakas-(n = 52) in an experiment that evaluated skills for inhibitory control in a social context. first, two human experimenters presented identical food rewards; the "generous" experimenter allowed the subject to eat from her hand, whereas the "competitive" experimenter always withheld the reward. lemurs quickly learned to approach the generous experimenter and avoid the competitive o ...201525822664
systemic effects of leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty reserve, madagascar.leucaena (leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. originally native to mexico and central america, leucaena has been introduced throughout th ...201525809223
bifidobacterium lemurum sp. nov., from faeces of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).four gram-positive-staining, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains were isolated from a faecal sample of a 5-year-old ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). the strains showed a peculiar morphology, resembling a small coiled snake, a ring shape, or forming a little 'y' shape. the isolated strains appeared identical, and lmc 13t was chosen as a representative strain and characterized further. strain lmc 13t showed an a3β peptidoglycan type, ...201525736415
baby on board: olfactory cues indicate pregnancy and fetal sex in a non-human primate.olfactory cues play an integral, albeit underappreciated, role in mediating vertebrate social and reproductive behaviour. these cues fluctuate with the signaller's hormonal condition, coincident with and informative about relevant aspects of its reproductive state, such as pubertal onset, change in season and, in females, timing of ovulation. although pregnancy dramatically alters a female's endocrine profiles, which can be further influenced by fetal sex, the relationship between gestation and ...201525716086
the socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs.dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. however, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. we applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: lemur catta, propithecus ...201525653908
a complex sensory organ in the nose skin of the prosimian primate lemur catta.most mammals have nose tips covered by glabrous skin, a labronasal area, or rhinarium. the surface of the rhinarium of lemur catta has a dermatoglyphic pattern consisting of epidermal domes. below the domes, epidermal pegs dip down into the dermis. in and below the tip of the epidermal peg, a complex sensory organ is found. it consists of an association of innervated merkel cells, lamellate (pacini-like) bodies with a central nerve, and a ring of unmyelinated nerve endings in the epidermis. the ...201525645577
species-specific transmission of novel picornaviruses in lemurs.the roles of host genetics versus exposure and contact frequency in driving cross-species transmission remain the subject of debate. here, we used a multitaxon lemur collection at the saint louis zoo in the united states as a model to gain insight into viral transmission in a setting of high interspecies contact. lemurs are a diverse and understudied group of primates that are highly endangered. the speciation of lemurs, which are endemic to the island of madagascar, occurred in geographic isola ...201525631076
multi-locus analysis of giardia duodenalis from nonhuman primates kept in zoos in china: geographical segregation and host-adaptation of assemblage b isolates.only a few studies based on single locus characterization have been conducted on the molecular epidemiology of giardia duodenalis in nonhuman primates (nhps). the present study was conducted to examine the occurrence and genotype identity of g. duodenalis in nhps based on multi-locus analysis of the small-subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and beta-giardin (bg) genes. fecal specimens were collected from 496 animals of 36 nhp species ...201525530435
the vomeronasal organ of lemur catta.the vomeronasal organ (vno), also known as the jacobson's organ, is a bilateral chemosensory organ found at the base of the nasal cavity specialized for the detection of higher-molecular weight (non-volatile) chemostimuli. it has been linked to pheromone detection. the vno has been well studied in nocturnal lemurs and lorises, but poorly studied in diurnal/cathemeral species despite the large repertoire of olfactory behaviors noted in species such as lemur catta. here, the vno and associated str ...201525220179
male-specific use of the purr in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).in mammals, purring has been described in mostly affiliative contexts. in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), both males and females purr, but only males were observed purring in agonistic contexts. in order to determine whether male ring-tailed lemurs purr as aggressive displays during intrasexual agonistic encounters, 480 h of focal data were collected on 25 adult males from beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, from march to july 2010. the male purring rate increased during periods of m ...201425139722
thoracic limb morphology of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) evidenced by gross osteology and radiography.there is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). this study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. the clavicle is well developed. the scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. the cora ...201525105809
sources of tooth wear variation early in life among known-aged wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the bezà mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the bezà mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), madagascar display a high frequency of individuals with notable and sometimes extreme tooth wear. adult lemurs display a range of tooth wear even among individuals of the same age, but we do not know at what age this variation first appears. this study's goal was to determine whether wear variation occurs in younger wild lemurs. based on the decade-long study of ring-tailed lemur feeding and dental ecology at bmsr, we ...201424953664
fatal infection with taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) living in an italian zoological garden.a case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) living in the rome zoological garden is described. the animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the istituto zooprofilattico of rome for post-mortem examination. the anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. a se ...201424928170
relaxed open mouth as a playful signal in wild ring-tailed signals are commonly used by animals to communicate their playful motivation and to limit the risk that rough acts are misunderstood by playmates. the relaxed open mouth is the most common facial expression performed during play in many mammals and represents the ritualized version of the movement anticipating a play bite. the signaling nature of this expression has been proven in many haplorrhine species but never demonstrated in strepsirrhines. our purpose was assessing whether, also in s ...201424810169
the anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of lemur catta and propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms lemur catta (lemuridae) and propithecus coquereli (indriidae). these two species belong to the suborder strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features wit ...201424757163
individual recognition through olfactory-auditory matching in lemurs.individual recognition can be facilitated by creating representations of familiar individuals, whereby information from signals in multiple sensory modalities become linked. many vertebrate species use auditory-visual matching to recognize familiar conspecifics and heterospecifics, but we currently do not know whether representations of familiar individuals incorporate information from other modalities. ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) are highly visual, but also communicate via scents and vocal ...201424741013
surgical correction of an arteriovenous fistula in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. the lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. a diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography ...201424672831
iron deficiency anemia in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) with concurrent chronic renal failure.a 16-year-old vasectomized male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) with a history of suspected chronic renal failure was evaluated because of extreme lethargy, hyperpnea, and abscess of the right pectoral scent gland.201424479462
the ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species.evolutionary theories suggest that ecology is a major factor shaping cognition in primates. however, there have been few systematic tests of spatial memory abilities involving multiple primate species. here, we examine spatial memory skills in four strepsirrhine primates that vary in level of frugivory: ruffed lemurs (varecia sp.), ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), mongoose lemurs (eulemur mongoz), and coquerel's sifakas (propithecus coquereli). we compare these species across three studies targ ...201424469310
radiographic thoracic anatomy of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) is a quadruped arboreal primate primarily distributed in south and south-western madagascar. this study was carried out to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the ring-tailed lemur as a reference for clinical use.201424444331
sex ratios provide evidence for monozygotic twinning in the ring-tailed lemur, lemur catta.monozygotic (mz) twinning is generally considered to be rare in species other than human. we inspected sex ratios in european zoo-bred ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), revealing a significant excess of same-sex twins. of 94 pairs, 60 (64%) were either both males or both females (p = .004). application of the weinberg differential rule argues that 27% of all twins in this species are mz pairs. in this protected species, where twinning is commonplace (~50% of newborns are twins), the probable exi ...201424384029
victims of infanticide and conspecific bite wounding in a female-dominant primate: a long-term study.the aggression animals receive from conspecifics varies between individuals across their lifetime. as poignantly evidenced by infanticide, for example, aggression can have dramatic fitness consequences. nevertheless, we understand little about the sources of variation in received aggression, particularly in females. using a female-dominant species renowned for aggressivity in both sexes, we tested for potential social, demographic, and genetic patterns in the frequency with which animals were wo ...201324367560
daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center.light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the duke lemur center (eulemur mongoz, lemur catta, propithecus coquereli, ...201424318943
ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) exploit information about what others can see but not what they can hear.studies suggest that haplorhine primates are sensitive to what others can see and hear. using two experimental designs, we tested the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs (n = 16) are also sensitive to the visual and auditory perception of others. in the first task, we used a go/no-go design that required lemurs to exploit only auditory information. in the second task, we used a forced-choice design where lemurs competed against a human who would prevent them from obtaining food if their approache ...201424218121
cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in the spiny forest of tsimanampetsotsa national park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. though uncommon within primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as eulemur, hapalemur, and prolemur. several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". we used behavioral observations and camera traps to examine cathemerality of l. catta at the tsimanampetsotsa national park, madagascar. nighttime activit ...201424165866
lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity.we investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ans) in three lemur species (lemur catta, eulemur mongoz, and eulemur macaco flavifrons), one old world monkey species (macaca mulatta) and humans (homo sapiens). in experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. we estimated numerical acuity by modeling weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all f ...201424068469
echinococcus multilocularis infection of a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) and a nutria (myocastor coypus) in a french zoo.echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm responsible in its larval stage for alveolar echinococcosis, a disease which is lethal when left untreated. multivesiculated parasitic lesions in the liver were diagnosed at necropsy in a captive-born nutria (myocastor coypus) and in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) which had been in a french zoo for 16months. molecular analyses confirmed the diagnosis of e. multilocularis obtained by histological analyses. these were the first cases of infection by e. ...201323994606
comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of f. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.detection of the zoonotic pathogen francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (ef tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. the samples originated from 55 european brown hares (lepus europaeus), two red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), a european beaver (castor fiber), and a lemur (lemur catta). when comparing the growth of 28 f. ...201323901583
brief communication: effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.this study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (eulemur fulvus, hapalemur griseus, lemur catta, varecia variegata, galago senegalensis, otolemur crassicaudatus, nycticebus coucang, and tarsius syrichta). measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (cvs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess ...201323900852
squealing rate indicates dominance rank in the male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).squeals are sharp and forceful short-range vocalizations used as aggressive and submissive agonistic signals by many mammalian species. the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), a female-dominant strepsirhine primate, has a male-specific squeal call with proposed male-male agonistic functions and male-female courtship functions that have never been empirically tested. the goal of my study is to clarify why ring-tailed lemur males squeal at other males and females by applying the handicap hypothesis t ...201323868116
osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).in family lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. the radiographic findings were correlated ...201423651234
the estimated mechanical advantage of the prosimian ankle joint musculature, and implications for locomotor this study we compared the power arm lengths and mechanical advantages attributed to 12 lower leg muscles across three prosimian species. the origins and insertions of the lower leg muscles in garnett's galago, the ring-tailed lemur, and the slow loris were quantified and correlated with positional behaviour. the ankle joint of the galago has a speed-oriented mechanical system, in contrast to that of the slow loris, which exhibits more power-oriented mechanics. the lemur ankle joint exhibited ...201323489408
the ranging behavior of lemur catta in the region of cap sainte-marie, madagascar.large home ranges and extreme flexibility in ranging behaviors characterize most subarid dwelling haplorhines. however, the most comparable extant strepsirhine, lemur catta, is characterized as having small home ranges with consistent boundaries. since ranging studies on this species have been limited to gallery forest habitat, the author's goal is to identify ecological factors that affect range use of l. catta in one of the most resource-limited environments of its distribution. to conduct thi ...201323180618
(un-)expected nocturnal activity in "diurnal" lemur catta supports cathemerality as one of the key adaptations of the lemurid radiation.the ability to operate during the day and at night (i.e., cathemerality) is common among mammals but has rarely been identified in primates. adaptive hypotheses assume that cathemerality represents a stable adaptation in primates, while nonadaptive hypotheses propose that it is the result of an evolutionary disequilibrium arising from human impacts on natural habitats. madagascar offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of activity patterns as there we find a monophyletic primate radia ...201323180596
occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis in the red ruffed lemur (varecia rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) housed in the poznan zoological garden, poland.encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. the presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. the aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the poznan zoological garden, poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. a total of 339 fr ...201223094336
gait-specific metabolic costs and preferred speeds in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), with implications for the scaling of locomotor costs.metabolic costs of resting and locomotion have been used to gain novel insights into the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide range of primates; however, most previous studies have not considered gait-specific effects. here, metabolic costs of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) walking, cantering and galloping are used to test for gait-specific effects and a potential correspondence between costs and preferred speeds. metabolic costs, including the net cost of locomotion (col) and net cost o ...201222976581
cuterebrid myiasis (diptera: oestridae) in captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at a south carolina september 2008, two ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), comprising a mother-daughter pair, at the greenville zoo, greenville, south carolina, usa, were diagnosed with cuterebrid myiasis (diptera: oestridae) subsequent to sudden death of the adult lemur. on necropsy, a single bot warble was discovered in the subcutis of the axillary region. histopathology revealed a severe eosinophilic bronchopneumonia. the juvenile lemur was inspected and found to have warbles on three separate dates in late se ...201122950327
field anesthesia of wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) using tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and butorphanol.telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. variability in induction response has been seen between individuals that have received similar dosages, with young lemurs seeming to need more anesthetic than mature lemurs. this in ...201122946374
sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. in a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous coquerel's sifakas (propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). we us ...201222870229
well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a 16-year-old male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) was presented with severe cachexia and an abdominal mass. the encapsulated, multilobular mass replaced the right medial lobe of the liver and compressed the adjacent gall bladder. multiple haemorrhages and necrotic foci were found within the mass. microscopically, neoplastic cells formed cords of moderately pleomorphic, polygonal cells with mild to moderate anaplasia. immunohistochemical markers used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas in ...201322819017
hepatic capillariasis in captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).a female ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) and her two cubs held in a zoo in chile exhibited signs of severe hepatic insufficiency. in spite of supportive treatment, the three animals died a few days after the onset of signs. postmortem examination revealed ascites and fibrotic lesions in the liver of all the individuals. histologically, the liver of two of them showed a severe parasitic ova infection and lipidosis, the morphologic characteristics of the parasitic ovas were consistent with capilla ...201222779256
the pluripotency factor lin28 in monkey and human testes: a marker for spermatogonial stem cells?mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by spermatogonial stem cells (sscs). however, since evidentiary assays and unequivocal markers are still missing in non-human primates (nhps) and man, the identity of primate sscs is unknown. in contrast, in mice, germ cell transplantation studies have functionally demonstrated the presence of sscs. lin28 is an rna-binding pluripotent stem cell factor, which is also strongly expressed in undifferentiated mouse spermatogonia. by contrast, two recent reports ...201222689537
the impact of dental impairment on ring-tailed lemur food processing performance.during mastication, foods are reduced into particles suitable for swallowing and digestion. smaller particles possess a greater surface area per unit of volume on which digestive enzymes and bacteria may work than relatively larger particles, and are thus more readily digested. as dental morphology facilitates the breakdown of diets with specific mechanical properties, extensive dental wear and/or tooth loss may impede an individual's ability to break down and exploit foods. we present data demo ...201222610899
interpreting food processing through dietary mechanical properties: a lemur catta case study.knowledge of dietary mechanical properties can be informative about physical consequences to consumers during ingestion and mastication. in this article, we examine how tamarindus indica fruits can affect dental morphology in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly special reserve in southwestern madagascar. ring-tailed lemurs in tamarind dominated gallery forests exhibit extreme wear and tooth loss on their postcanine dentition that has been related to processing t. in ...201222610896
nanoindentation of lemur enamel: an ecological investigation of mechanical property variations within and between sympatric species.the common morphological metrics of size, shape, and enamel thickness of teeth are believed to reflect the functional requirements of a primate's diet. however, the mechanical and material properties of enamel also contribute to tooth function, yet are rarely studied. substantial wear and tooth loss previously documented in lemur catta at the beza mahafaly special reserve suggests that their dental morphology, structure, and possibly their enamel are not adapted for their current fallback food ( ...201222610894
what is dental ecology?teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. our study of lemur catta at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are ...201222610892
evidence that displacement activities facilitate behavioural transitions in ring-tailed lemurs.displacement activities are behavioural patterns defined by their apparent irrelevance to an animal's ongoing actions. despite being identified in diverse taxa, their function remains poorly understood. one hypothesis posits that displacement activities facilitate transitions between different behaviours by mediating changes in animals' motivational state. under this hypothesis, it is predicted that displacement activities will occur more frequently around changes in behaviour than at other time ...201222561968
the gaits of primates: center of mass mechanics in walking, cantering and galloping ring-tailed lemurs, lemur catta.most primates, including lemurs, have a broad range of locomotor capabilities, yet much of the time, they walk at slow speeds and amble, canter or gallop at intermediate and fast speeds. although numerous studies have investigated limb function during primate quadrupedalism, how the center of mass (com) moves is not well understood. here, we examined com energy, work and power during walking, cantering and galloping in ring-tailed lemurs, lemur catta (n=5), over a broad speed range (0.43-2.91 m ...201222539740
mebendazole in the treatment of hymenolepis nana infections in the captive ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), china.the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mebendazole in the treatment of hymenolepis nana infection in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). ten (l. catta) from the chengdu zoological garden in china, which were naturally infected with h. nana, were treated with mebendazole (10 mg/kg for 5 days). a posttreatment fecal examination was conducted 10 and 20 days after the start of treatment. all treatments resulted in a decrease in the number of eggs per gram in the posttreatment ...201222327317
scratching around mating: factors affecting anxiety in wild lemur catta.scratching has been successfully used to detect anxiety, a proxy for stress, in primates, from strepsirrhines to homo sapiens. here, we investigated the fluctuation of scratching in lemur catta during the mating season. in particular we evaluated whether scratching (1) varied according to sex and rank differences, (2) increased in the period of maximum stress (around the mating days), and (3) was reduced by grooming. at berenty (south madagascar), we followed two lemur groups (23 adult/subadult ...201222278710
testing the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging in primate fibroblasts: is there a correlation between species longevity and cellular ros production?the present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. we assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four old world monkeys (baboon, rhesus ...201222219516
evaluation of modified techniques for immobilization of wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) can be anesthetized with telazol via blow dart, but improved techniques are needed so that each lemur is reliably induced with a single dart. medetomidine-butorphanol (mb) is a good supplemental protocol to be administered once the lemurs are captured, but other protocols may provide longer periods of sedation and immobility. one possible way of increasing the efficacy of each dart is to increase the time it is retained in the leg. in this investigation, a " ...201122204057
Brown (Eulemur fulvus) and Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) Use Human Head Orientation as a Cue to Gaze Direction in a Food Choice Task.Whilst the ability to follow human gaze has been demonstrated in monkeys and apes, there is little evidence that prosimians share this ability. The current study used a food choice paradigm to assess whether captive brown (Eulemur fulvus) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) use human gaze direction as a cue when choosing between an attending or non-attending human. Four experiments assessed the use of body, head and eye cues by the lemurs. In experiment 1, the non-attending human stood with her ...201122123170
Evaluating ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from southwestern Madagascar for a genetic population bottleneck.In light of historical and recent anthropogenic influences on Malagasy primate populations, in this study ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) samples from two sites in southwestern Madagascar, Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) and Tsimanampetsotsa National Park (TNP), were evaluated for the genetic signature of a population bottleneck. A total of 45 individuals (20 from BMSR and 25 from TNP) were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Three methods were used to evaluate these populations for evi ...201222052208
giardia duodenalis assemblages and entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits.giardia duodenalis and entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (nhp). from a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. in this study we carried out the molecular identification of g. duodenalis and entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of rome, to better ascertain their occurrence an ...201121988762
Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection.Localized, myocardial toxoplasmosis contributed to the death of a female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) 1 week after the delivery of 4 stillborn offspring with disseminated toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in all 5 lemurs. Varying degrees of placentitis and placental edema with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii immunolabeling were observed in the 3 available placentas. The dam had severe myocarditis, and T. gondii antigen was only detected in th ...201121908372
nocturnal ranging by a diurnal primate: are ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) cathemeral?cathemerality, an activity pattern comprised of distinct periods of diurnal and nocturnal activity, is a trait found among several of the malagasy strepsirhines and one species of aotus. because occasional anecdotal reports suggest that some diurnal primates can be active at night, i investigated the possibility of nocturnal ranging behavior in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) by using global positioning system (gps) collars programmed to collect data across a 24-h period. five individuals in ...201121717291
numerical rule-learning in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).we investigated numerical discrimination and numerical rule-learning in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). two ring-tailed lemurs were trained to respond to two visual arrays, each of which contained between one and four elements, in numerically ascending order. in experiment 1, lemurs were trained with 36 exemplars of each of the numerosities 1-4 and then showed positive transfer to trial-unique novel exemplars of the values 1-4. in experiments 2a and 2b, lemurs were tested on their ability to t ...201121713071
can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? the case of the left-handed lemurs (lemur catta).most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. they have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (arks, the animal records keeping system, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left ...201221674604
tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. tamarind trees (tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). at berenty reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. ring-tailed lemurs are likely s ...201121629992
functional and evolutionary significance of the recruitment and firing patterns of the jaw adductors during chewing in verreaux's sifaka (propithecus verreauxi).jaw-muscle electromyographic (emg) patterns indicate that compared with thick-tailed galagos and ring-tailed lemurs, anthropoids recruit more relative emg from their balancing-side deep masseter, and that this muscle peaks late in the power stroke. these recruitment and firing patterns in anthropoids are thought to cause the mandibular symphysis to wishbone (lateral transverse bending), resulting in relatively high symphyseal stresses. we test the hypothesis that living strepsirrhines with robus ...201121590749
feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.strong resource seasonality in madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. for these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. female ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) residing ...201121541932
structural analysis of a repetitive protein sequence motif in strepsirrhine primate amelogenin.strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. amelogenin (amel), the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. although amel has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine amel sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in al ...201121437261
unique spectrum of activity of prosimian trim5alpha against exogenous and endogenous retroviruses.lentiviruses, the genus of retrovirus that includes hiv-1, rarely endogenize. some lemurs uniquely possess an endogenous lentivirus called psiv ("prosimian immunodeficiency virus"). thus, lemurs provide the opportunity to study the activity of host defense factors, such as trim5a, in the setting of germ line invasion. we characterized the activities of trim5a proteins from two distant lemurs against exogenous retroviruses and a chimeric psiv. trim5a from gray mouse lemur, which carries psiv in i ...201121345948
lemurs in a complex landscape: mapping species density in subtropical dry forests of southwestern madagascar using data at multiple levels.the study of southern dry forest lemurs has been largely restricted to small reserves; yet, the majority of the region's lemur populations reside outside protected areas. lemur catta and propithecus verreauxi occupy the same forests but have different dietary preferences. this study assessed l. catta and p. verreauxi population densities across a 3-km dry forest gradient (1,539 ha) in southern madagascar. the study was designed to allow lemur densities to be related to particular forest types. a ...201120954249
endocrine correlates of pregnancy in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta): implications for the masculinization of daughters.female ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) are malagasy primates that are size monomorphic with males, socially dominate males, and exhibit a long, pendulous clitoris, channeled by the urethra. these masculine traits evoke certain attributes of female spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and draw attention to the potential role of androgens in lemur sexual differentiation. here, hormonal correlates of prenatal development were assessed to explore the possibility that maternal androgens may shape the ma ...201120932838
variation in dental wear and tooth loss among known-aged, older ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta): a comparison between wild and captive individuals.tooth wear is generally an age-related phenomenon, often assumed to occur at similar rates within populations of primates and other mammals, and has been suggested as a correlate of reduced offspring survival among wild lemurs. few long-term wild studies have combined detailed study of primate behavior and ecology with dental analyses. here, we present data on dental wear and tooth loss in older (>10 years old) wild and captive ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). among older ring-tailed lemurs at ...201020872788
evaluation of male inter-troop transfer as a mating strategy among ring-tailed lemurs on st. catherines island, commonly cited function of dispersal is to increase mating opportunities. in this study, i evaluated the hypothesis that male inter-troop transfer is used as a mating strategy in ring-tailed lemurs, lemur catta, on st. catherines island (sci), ga., usa. i measured male mating success and inter-troop transfer behavior across 5 years in a population consisting of 4 lemur groups on sci. data strongly supported dispersal as a successful mating strategy of natal males, because these males did not ...201020720432
smelling wrong: hormonal contraception in lemurs alters critical female odour cues.animals, including humans, use olfaction to assess potential social and sexual partners. although hormones modulate olfactory cues, we know little about whether contraception affects semiochemical signals and, ultimately, mate choice. we examined the effects of a common contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (mpa), on the olfactory cues of female ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), and the behavioural response these cues generated in male conspecifics. the genital odorants of contracepted fema ...201120667870
evidence for social learning in wild lemurs (lemur catta).interest in social learning has been fueled by claims of culture in wild animals. these remain controversial because alternative explanations to social learning, such as asocial learning or ecological differences, remain difficult to refute. compared with laboratory-based research, the study of social learning in natural contexts is in its infancy. here, for the first time, we apply two new statistical methods, option-bias analysis and network-based diffusion analysis, to data from the wild, com ...201020628161
taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in the madrid zoo-aquarium (madrid, spain). under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. th ...201020597227
effects of food, proximity, and kinship on social behavior in ringtailed lemurs.efforts to understand the variation in primate social systems and their underlying interaction patterns have focused on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. in the socioecological model, food distribution and abundance have been argued to be the primary influences on the social behavior of primate species. we examined the relationship of food resources and two intrinsic factors-kinship and proximity-with patterns of affiliative and agonistic relationships in two semi-free ranging ringtailed lem ...201020549762
evolutionary roots of motor planning: the end-state comfort effect in lemurs.humans (homo sapiens) anticipate the consequences of their forthcoming actions. for example, they grasp objects with uncomfortable grasps to afford comfortable end positions-the end-state comfort (esc) effect. when did such sophisticated motor planning abilities emerge in evolution? we addressed this question by asking whether humans' most distant living primate relatives-lemurs-also exhibit the esc effect. we presented 6 species of lemurs (lemur catta, eulemur mongoz, eulemur coronatus, eulemur ...201020476823
total energy expenditure and body composition in two free-living sympatric lemurs.evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur ...201020360848
making progress in genetic kin recognition among vertebrates.a recent study in bmc evolutionary biology has shown that genetically similar individual ring-tailed lemurs are also more similar in their scent composition, suggesting a possible mechanism of kin recognition. theoretical and experimental studies reveal challenges ahead in achieving a true systems-level understanding of this process and its outcomes.201020236486
decoding an olfactory mechanism of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in a other vertebrates, primates recognize their relatives, primarily to minimize inbreeding, but also to facilitate nepotism. although associative, social learning is typically credited for discrimination of familiar kin, discrimination of unfamiliar kin remains unexplained. as sex-biased dispersal in long-lived species cannot consistently prevent encounters between unfamiliar kin, inbreeding remains a threat and mechanisms to avoid it beg explanation. using a molecular approach that combined a ...200919958525
a comparison of auditory brainstem responses and behavioral estimates of hearing sensitivity in lemur catta and nycticebus coucang.primates depend on acoustic signals and cues to avoid predators, locate food, and share information. accordingly, the structure and function of acoustic stimuli have long been emphasized in studies of primate behavioral and cognitive ecology. yet, few studies have addressed how well primates hear such stimuli; indeed, the auditory thresholds of most primate species are unknown. this empirical void is due in part to the logistic and economic challenges attendant on traditional behavioral testing ...201019938053
the impact of fallback foods on wild ring-tailed lemur biology: a comparison of intact and anthropogenically disturbed habitats.fallback foods are often viewed as central in shaping primate morphology, and influencing adaptive shifts in hominin and other primate evolution. here we argue that fruit of the tamarind tree (tamarindus indica) qualifies as a fallback food of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), madagascar. contrary to predictions that fallback foods may select for dental and masticatory morphologies adapted to processing these foods, consumption of tamarind fruit by the ...200919890872
condensed tannin intake in spiny-forest-dwelling lemur catta at berenty reserve, madagascar, during reproductive periods.primates vary in their choice or avoidance of plant foods high in condensed tannins (ct). our study focused on ct intake in two groups of lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during two reproductive periods. we examined whether l. catta in this habitat avoided plant foods high in ct, and whether reproductive females ingested lower concentrations of ct compared with males, since ct consumption compromises protein absorption. feeding data and plant food samples were collected during reprod ...200919864917
natural history of ehrlichia chaffeensis: vertebrate hosts and tick vectors from the united states and evidence for endemic transmission in other countries.ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular gram-negative zoonotic bacterium, is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme). in humans, the disease can range from a mild, non-specific illness with few to no clinical signs to a moderately severe to fatal disease, especially those with compromised immune systems. e. chaffeensis is maintained in a complex cycle involving white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) as a primary reservoir and the lone star tick (lst; amblyomma ame ...201019819631
seasonality, sociality, and reproduction: long-term stressors of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).fecal glucocorticoid (fgc) concentrations are reliable, non-invasive indices of physiological stress that provide insight into an animal's energetic and social demands. to better characterize the long-term stressors in adult members of a female-dominant, seasonally breeding species - the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) - we first validated fecal samples against serum samples and then examined the relationship between fgc concentrations and seasonal, social, demographic, genetic, and reproductive ...201019804779
feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) following a cyclone at the beza mahafaly special reserve, january 2005, a cyclone hit southern madagascar, including the beza mahafaly special reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of tamarindus indica, leaving lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. we studied two adjacent groups of l. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. the red group (rg) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leav ...200919776607
assessment of organochlorine pesticides and metals in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly special reserve, most of madagascar's endemic primates, ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) face a number of threats to their survival. although habitat loss is of greatest concern, other anthropogenic factors including environmental contamination may also affect lemur health and survival. in this study, we examined ring-tailed lemurs from the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), southern madagascar for exposure to organochlorine (oc) pesticides and metals and examined differences in contaminant concentration ...200919746443
social complexity predicts transitive reasoning in prosimian primates.transitive inference is a form of deductive reasoning that has been suggested as one cognitive mechanism by which animals could learn the many relationships within their group's dominance hierarchy. this process thus bears relevance to the social intelligence hypothesis which posits evolutionary links between various forms of social and nonsocial cognition. recent evidence corroborates the link between social complexity and transitive inference and indicates that highly social animals may show s ...200819649139
[animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].the main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis, e. hellem, e. cuniculi, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in poland in animal faecal using the fish (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and multiplex fish techniques. additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite i ...200919579789
primate phylogenomics: developing numerous nuclear non-coding, non-repetitive markers for ecological and phylogenetic applications and analysis of evolutionary rate variation.genetic analyses are often limited by the availability of appropriate molecular markers. markers from neutrally evolving genomic regions may be particularly useful for inferring evolutionary histories because they escape the constraints of natural selection. for the majority of taxa however, obtaining such markers is challenging. advances in genomics have the potential to alleviate the shortage of neutral markers. here we present a method to develop numerous markers from putatively neutral regio ...200919470178
behavioral responses to tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.severe dental wear and tooth loss is often assumed to impede the processing, breakdown, and energetic conversion of food items, thereby negatively impacting individual health, reproduction, and survival. ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly special reserve demonstrate exceptionally high frequencies of severe dental wear and antemortem tooth loss, yet often survive multiple years with these impairments. to test the hypothesis that these lemurs mitigate tooth loss through behavioral adjustments ...200919373842
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