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chromosomal evolution in malagasy lemurs. iii. chromosome banding studies in the genus hapalemur and the species lemur catta.the karyotypes of five malagasy lemurs are described and compared after the successive use of various banding methods. phylogenic relationships appear to exist between the respective ancestors of lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus occidentalis, h. griseus ssp, and h. griseus griseus. their karyotypes can be derived from that of l. fulvus fulvus by chromosomal rearrangements affecting mainly chromosomes 1 and x. intense staining of juxtacentromeric heterochromatin was detected among the dif ...197897055
radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone (lh) in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) with antiovine lh and ovine 125i-lh. 1978105771
population and territory stability of the lemur catta at berenty, madagascar.several lemur catta troops at berenty, madagascar have been censused repeatedly since 1963. in 1972, the entire reserve was censused. a recensus in 1975 showed that although some minor changes have occurred in the number of animals in individual troops, the population of the reserve as a whole, the core areas of the lemurs' territories, and their home range boundaries have all remained stable ever since the first complete census 3 years earlier.1979114464
antigenic properties of human and animal bloodstains studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using various antisera against specific plasma proteins.antigenic properties of bloodstains of human and non-human primates as well as other animal bloodstains were investigated by the inhibition elisa using commercially available anti-human albumin (alb), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-m), fibrinogen, transferrin, and immunoglobulin g. in general, chimpanzee bloodstains showed strong cross-reactions with these antisera, and the extent of the cross-reactions of other animal bloodstains decreased largely with the phylogenic order, i.e., agile gibbon ( ...19872448970
population ecology of the ring-tailed lemur, lemur catta, and the white sifaka, propithecus verreauxi verreauxi, at berenty, madagascar, 1981.the diurnal lemurs propithecus verreauxi verreauxi and lemur catta at berenty in southern madagascar, have been studied for the last 30 years. the august 1981 census indicates that the population size of l. catta remains stable at 150 adults but that p. v. verreauxi troops have become fragmented and scattered and the population is apparently increasing. eight different vegetation types were classified within the reserve and their influence on the distribution of l. catta and p. v. verreauxi inve ...19863557229
acute death associated with toxoplasma gondii in ring-tailed lemurs. 19854077665
troop continuity and troop spacing in propithecus verreauxi and lemur catta at berenty (madagascar). 19724673322
histopathological observations on two spontaneous cases of toxoplasmosis in the monkey (lemur catta). 19685753271
phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. first, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated dna fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between lemur catta and the genus hapalemur. moreover, our results indicate that l. catta is nested within the hapalemur clade as the ...19947813970
evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii gene.we examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii (coii) gene from 25 primates (4 hominoids, 8 old world monkeys, 2 new world monkeys, 2 tarsiers, 7 lemuriforms, 2 lorisiforms). marginal support was found for three phylogenetic conclusions: (1) sister-group relationship between tarsiers and a monkey/ape clade, (2) placement of the aye-aye (daubentonia) sister to all other strepsirhine primates, and (3) rejection of a sister-group relationship of ...19948006990
alveolar hydatidosis in a gorilla and a ring-tailed lemur in japan.alveolar hydatidosis by echinococcus multilocularis (em) infection occurred on a 22-year-old (approx.) male gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and a 4-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in a zoo, in hokkaido, japan. case 1: the gorilla presented neurologic signs in course of nine months and died. pathologically, alveolar hydatid lesions were found in the liver, the liver-associated lymph nodes, the cerebrum, and the lungs. a protoscolex was found only in one hepatic cyst. case 2: in the lemu ...19968741606
trypanosoma cruzi infection of free-ranging lion-tailed macaques (macaca silenus) and ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) on st. catherine's island, georgia, usa.free-ranging old world primates released on st. catherine's island, georgia (usa), were tested for infection with trypanosoma cruzi as part of a study of the epizootiology of sylvatic t. cruzi in the southeastern usa. the parasite was observed in liver infusion tryptose medium cultures of blood from seven of 11 lion-tailed macaques (macaca silenus) and one of 19 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). cultures of blood from 10 black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata) were all negative. analys ...19989638621
changes in behavior in free-ranging lemur catta following release in a natural habitat.the adjustment of captive-reared and developmentally deprived ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) to supported release on st. catherine's island, georgia, was studied over 7 years to examine if these animals developed behavior comparable to wild populations. initial changes after release included decreased obesity and increased agility as well as foraging for appropriate novel plants. ranging, daily behavior cycles, and vocalizations developed more slowly over 1-3 years, but eventually the behavior ...19999888718
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
t-cell-rich b-cell lymphoma in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a 13-yr-old ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) was evaluated for depression, anorexia, polyuria, and polydipsia. the lemur was in poor body condition and was anemic, hypoalbuminemic, and hyponatremic. cytologic examination of aspirates of the spleen, liver, and bone marrow and histopathologic examination of liver and bone marrow biopsies revealed a disseminated round cell tumor. after euthanasia, necropsy revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and mesenteric lymphadenomegaly. neoplastic cells were pr ...200011558462
telomere biology and cellular aging in nonhuman primate cells.to determine how cellular aging is conserved among primates, we analyzed the replicative potential and telomere shortening in skin fibroblasts of anthropoids and prosimians. the average telomere length of the new world primates ateles geoffroyi (spider monkey) and saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey) and the old world primates macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), pongo pygmaeus (orangutan), and pan paniscus (pigmy chimpanzee) ranged from 4 to 16 kb. we found that telomere shortening limits the replicat ...200211777339
[primate foot evolution: a new approach to the old problem].functional reasons for specific changes in mammal foot skeleton occurring in course of formation and progressive evolution of locomotion on the parasagittal extremities are formulated for the first time. the paper establishes the base of the study of highly parasagittal forms (terrestrial catarhine monkeys, man and his ancestors), that evolved in primate history much later then their counterparts in other orders. the foot of primitive primate (lemur catta) is scrutinized as a model of a primitiv ...200212298178
characterization and phylogenetic relationship of prosimian mhc class i genes.mhc class i cdna sequences from the most divergent primate group of extant primates compared to human, the suborder strepsirrhini (prosimians), are described. the sequences are derived from the gray mouse lemur (microcebus murinus) and the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), which are members of the malagasy lemuriformes, as well as from the pygmy slow loris (nycticebus pygmaeus), a prosimian from east asia. the m. murinus sequences have been analyzed in detail. analysis of the expression level, g/ ...200212486535
naturally occurring ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata).a naturally occurring infection of ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. dna of ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with e. chaffeensis.200212498671
host range of poliovirus is restricted to simians because of a rapid sequence change of the poliovirus receptor gene during evolution.the host range of most poliovirus (pv) strains is restricted to simians. this host range specificity is believed to be determined by the interaction between pv and its receptor molecule. to elucidate the molecular basis of this species-specific infection of pv, we cloned orthologs of the pv receptor (pvr) gene ( pvr) as well as those of pv receptor-related genes 1 and 2 ( prr1 and prr2) from various mammalian species. these three genes are widely present in mammalian genomes including those of n ...200312536294
seasonal variation in the testicular volume of capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) in captivity.the study of the reproductive strategy developed by different species in order to adapt to their environmental conditions and their meaning in an evolutionary perspective is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the process of reproduction. non-human primates are very interesting models for this purpose. some species show a typical seasonal reproductive pattern, such as rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) [sade, 1964; conaway and sade, 1965] and ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) [zu ...200312606852
analysis of dentition of a living wild population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from beza mahafaly, madagascar.detailed descriptions of the dentition of many strepsirhine primate taxa are rare, despite their importance in understanding primate evolutionary biology. while several researchers have provided detailed morphological descriptions of ring-tailed lemur dentition (e.g., schwartz and tattersall [1985] am. mus. nat. hist. anthropol. pap. 60:1-100; tattersall and schwartz [1991] am. mus. nat. hist. anthropol. pap. 69:2-18), there are few studies (e.g., eaglen [1986] am. j. phys. anthropol. 71:185-201 ...200111241187
diurnality and cone photopigment polymorphism in strepsirrhines: examination of linkage in lemur catta.trichromatic color vision is routine among catarrhine primates, but occurs only as a variant form of color vision in some individuals in most platyrrhine genera. this arises from a fundamental difference in the organization of x-chromosome cone opsin genes in these two lineages: catarrhines have two opsin genes specifying middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cone pigments, while platyrrhines have only a single gene. some female platyrrhine monkeys achieve trichromacy because of a species polymo ...200312923905
description of the gastrointestinal tract of five lemur species: propithecus tattersalli, propithecus verreauxi coquereli, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, and lemur catta.the objective of this project was to better define the similarities and differences in gastrointestinal morphology present in lemur species. measurements of the gastrointestinal tract of lemurs were obtained at necropsy from the captive population at duke university primate center. measurements of body length and weight, as well as gastrointestinal length, were recorded from five prosimian species: propithecus tattersalli, propithecus verreauxi, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, and lemur ca ...200011078027
microsatellite structures in the context of human evolution.six microsatellite - or short tandem repeat (str) - systems with uniform repetitive sequences (humth01, humcd4, humfes/fps, humf13b, humtpo, humlpl) and three compound repeat systems (humvwa, humfibra, d21s11) were used, including data from the literature, to determine genetic distances among eight populations worldwide. the th01- and vwa homologous loci in nonhuman primates (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, rhesus monkeys, ring-tailed lemurs) were compared and found to be shorter than in huma ...200010768773
temporalis function in anthropoids and strepsirrhines: an emg study.the major purpose of this study is to analyze anterior and posterior temporalis muscle force recruitment and firing patterns in various anthropoid and strepsirrhine primates. there are two specific goals for this project. first, we test the hypothesis that in addition to transversely directed muscle force, the evolution of symphyseal fusion in primates may also be linked to vertically directed balancing-side muscle force during chewing (hylander et al. [2000] am. j. phys. anthropol. 112:469-492) ...200515714512
expectations about numerical events in four lemur species (eulemur fulvus, eulemur mongoz, lemur catta and varecia rubra).although much is known about how some primates--in particular, monkeys and apes--represent and enumerate different numbers of objects, very little is known about the numerical abilities of prosimian primates. here, we explore how four lemur species (eulemur fulvus, e. mongoz, lemur catta, and varecia rubra) represent small numbers of objects. specifically, we presented lemurs with three expectancy violation looking time experiments aimed at exploring their expectations about a simple 1+1 additio ...200515729569
molecular and serologic evidence of tick-borne ehrlichiae in three species of lemurs from st. catherines island, georgia, usa.in recent years, several species of ehrlichiae have been recognized as tick-borne disease agents of veterinary and medical importance. clinically normal free-ranging or previously free-ranging lemurs, including 46 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) from st. catherines island, georgia, were tested for evidence of exposure to tick-borne ehrlichiae. all 52 adult lemurs were se ...200415732591
[preference for high frequency sounds of contact calls in primates: japanese macaques and ringtailed lemurs].preference for high frequency sounds in human infants are found by other researchers. the purpose of this study is to examine whether nonhuman primates also have the same tendency as human infants. it is important to consider language origins. two types of tape recorded coo calls, contact calls, with high and low fundamental frequencies were played back as stimuli for two groups of japanese macaques (macaca fuscata). the result showed that the animals of both groups preferred high frequency soun ...19989755467
chromosome painting: a method for testing chromosomal changes in lemur evolution.chromosome painting using commercially available human chromosome-specific dna libraries was performed to elucidate chromosomal rearrangements in lemur evolution. human-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 14, 15, and 21 were used to paint chromosomes of six species: eulemur fulvus mayottensis, varecia variegata, lemur catta, hapalemur simus, h. griseus griseus, and h. aureus. all human chromosome libraries hybridized specifically to chromosome segments of varying length or to whole arms of lemur ...19979371411
encephalomyocarditis virus infections in an australian zoo.fatal encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) infections in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), a squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), three mandrills (mandrillus sphinx), a chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), a pygmy hippopotamus (choeropsis liberiensis), and two goodfellows tree kangaroos (dendrolagus goodfellowi) occurred at taronga zoo. this is the first description of emcv in a zoological collection outside of the united states. regardless of species, the most common clinical presentation was sudden deat ...19979279403
affiliative relationships between adult males and immature group members in naturally occurring ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta).affiliative relations between adult males and immature group members were studied in three naturally occurring groups of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) over a 12-month period at beza-mahafaly reserve, southwestern madagascar. no statistically significant difference was found in rates of affiliative interactions between adult males and older immatures (juveniles and adolescents) over reproductive seasons. however, some of the adult males in two focal groups increased their rates of affiliative b ...19979209574
the evolution of cathemerality in primates and other mammals: a comparative and chronoecological approach.non-primate mammalian activity cycles are highly variable across and within taxonomic groups. in contrast, the order primates has historically been recognized as displaying a diurnal-nocturnal dichotomy that mapped, for the most part, onto the taxonomic division between haplorhines and strepsirhines. however, it has become clear over the past two decades that activity cycles in primates are not quite so clear cut. some primate species--like many large herbivorous mammals, mustelids, microtine ro ...200616415585
milk composition reflects pattern of maternal care in prosimian primates.hypothesized relationships between milk composition and life history traits were examined by analyzing mid-lactation milks of seven lemurs (eulemur fulvus, e. macaco, e. rubriventer, e. mongoz, varecia variegata, hapalemur griseus, lemur catta), three bushbabies (otolemur crassicaudatus, o. garnettii, galago moholi), and two lorises (nycticebus coucang, loris tardigradus); partial data were also obtained for the lemuroid cheirogaleus medius. there were no significant differences in milk composit ...19979057965
demonstration of homoeologies between human and lemur chromosomes by chromosome painting.human-specific probes for chromosomes 3, 7, 9, 14, 19, and 21 were used to paint chromosomes of three lemur species: eulemur fulvus mayottensis, e. macaco macaco, and lemur catta. chromosomes 1 and 3 of e. f. mayottensis are homoeologous to human chromosomes 3, 9, 14, and 21, as previously suggested by chromosome banding. probes for human chromosomes 7 and 19 produced unexpectedly strong signals in the centromeric regions of all lemur chromosomes, suggesting that sequences homologous to nonrepea ...19968565634
ancient positive selection on cd155 as a possible cause for susceptibility to poliovirus infection in simians.poliovirus is the etiological agent of poliomyelitis. from the observations that only simians are susceptible to poliovirus infection and that 37 amino acid sites (the poliovirus-binding associated [pba] sites) in the domain d1 of cd155 are involved in the binding to poliovirus, it is considered that the susceptibility to poliovirus infection evolved through amino acid substitutions that occurred at the pba sites on the ancestral branch of simians. here it is shown that positive selection has op ...200616500041
comparison of highly repeated dna sequences in some lemuridae and taxonomic implications.highly repeated dna sequences of eulemur fulvus mayottensis, e. coronatus, lemur catta, and hapalemur griseus griseus have been identified and compared. sequence analysis of highly repeated dna fragments isolated from l. catta and hapalemur showed a high percentage of similarity (nearly 95%), as did fragments isolated from the two very close eulemur species, whereas comparison of the dna fragments isolated from the two eulemur species and the l. catta/hapalemur group showed a very low percentage ...19938467713
the origin of the primate mhc-drb genes and allelic lineages as deduced from the study of prosimians.mhc class ii genes of the drb family were partially sequenced from 10 individuals representing six species of prosimians: galago senegalensis, g. moholi, otolemur garnetti, loris tardigradus, petterus (lemur) fulvus, and lemur catta. altogether, 41 different genes were discerned, all distinct from genes identified previously. comparative analysis of the sequences has led to the following conclusions. first, the drb loci present in human populations diverged from one another before the divergence ...19948157963
evolution of an intronic microsatellite polymorphism in toll-like receptor 2 among primates.nonhuman primates express varying responses to mycobacterium tuberculosis: new world monkeys appear to be resistant to tuberculosis (tb) while old world monkeys seem to be particularly susceptible. the aim of this study was to elucidate the presence of the regulatory guanine-thymine (gt) repeat polymorphisms in intron 2 of toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) associated with the development of tb in humans and to determine any variations in these microsatellite polymorphisms in primates. we sequenced the ...200616912902
human eccrine hamartoma of the forearm-antebrachial organ of the ringtailed lemur (lemur catta). a possible phylogenetic relationship?a 31-year-old woman presented with a clinically otherwise unsuspicious area of profuse sweating on her right forearm. without triggering agents, sweating attacks producing a clear, serous fluid were observed daily. histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen showed hyperplastic eccrine glands with pale, stippled cytoplasm characteristic of eccrine hamartoma. no explanation, however, has been given for the fact that several authors observed eccrine hamartomas in the same anatomical location. ...19947943634
enamel microstructure in lemuridae (mammalia, primates): assessment of variability.this study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: hapalemur griseus, varecia variegata, lemur catta, lemur macaco, lemur fulvus rufus, lemur fulvus fulvus, and lemur fulvus albifrons. contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both lemur and varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (hunter-schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surfac ...19947802097
propithecus verreauxi population and ranging at berenty, madagascar, 1975 and 1980.propithecus verreauxi have been repeatedly censused in parts of the 200-ha reserve at berenty between 1963 and 1975. troop rearrangements in 1963 and 1975 showed that both males and females can change troop outside the breeding season. group sex ratio varies from 0.3 female/male to 5.0 female/male. usually, at berenty, groups defend highly exclusive territories, in contrast to ranging patterns elsewhere. in 1980 troops were censused during 2 weeks in november at a different season from earlier s ...19827141349
population and troop ranges of lemur catta and lemur fulvus at berenty, madagascar: 1980 census.the november 1980 census suggests that population size and troop ranges have remained stable since 1972 and in a small area since 1963. this prolongs the apparent stability described by some authors, remarkable in a 200-ha reserve containing a maximum of 300 lemur catta. however, inadvertent introduction of lemur fulvus rufus and apparent loss of tamarind trees, as well as general genetic and biogeographic considerations, imply this stability may not continue. berently underlines the need for lo ...19827141348
prosimian hemoglobins i. the primary structure of the beta-globin chain of lemur catta.the primary structure of the beta chain from the hemoglobin of a prosimian primate, lemur catta, has been determined by automated edman degradation of intact polypeptide chain and fragments produced by tryptic, cyanogen bromide and acid cleavage, and by homology with the sequence of lemur fulvus. the sequence presented here differs from the human beta-globin sequence at 26 sites. this is the same degree of divergence previously reported for the beta-globin chain of lemur fulvus. the sequences of ...19836841124
assessing flavivirus, lentivirus, and herpesvirus exposure in free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs in southwestern madagascar.the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) is an endangered species found in southwestern madagascar, and understanding infectious disease susceptibility is an essential step towards the preservation of wild and captive lemur populations. lemurs are primates that are widely dispersed throughout the island of madagascar and may serve as hosts or reservoirs for zoonotic infections. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to west nile virus (wnv), simian immunodeficiency virus ...200717347392
trypanosoma cruzi prevalence and epidemiologic trends in lemurs on st. catherines island, georgia.lemurs on st. catherines island, georgia were tested for trypanosoma cruzi infection to develop a better understanding of the epizootiology of the parasite in nonhuman primates in the southeastern united states. fifty-six ring-tailed (lemur catta), blue-eyed black (eulemur macaco flavifrons), and black-and-white ruffed (varecia variegata variegata) lemurs were tested by hemoculture and serology to determine the prevalence of t. cruzi in the population. of those tested 3 (5%) were identified as c ...200717436947
color vision in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).behavioral discrimination tests were used to examine spectral sensitivity and color vision in a pair of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). sensitivity tests revealed the presence of a purkinje shift and a photopic visual system. as measured at increment-threshold, the photopic spectral sensitivity function for the lemur has multiple peaks (at ca. 440-460, 540, and 620 nm). in color vision tests lemurs behave trichromatically in that (a) they show no evidence for a neutral point in the spectral ra ...19854084762
multiple measures of hand-use lateralization in the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).evaluated a free-ranging matriline of 13 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from videotaped records for lateralized hand use with 2 tasks and 4 measures: food reaching, feeding posture, duration of food holding, and manipulation of food between mouth and hand while eating. binomial z scores determined 7 lemurs to be left preferent in reaching, 3 right, and 3 ambipreferent. ideographic analyses suggested possible sex-linked and early experience twin effects. when compared to right and ambipreferent ...19892776422
biomedical evaluation of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in three habitats at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.complete physical examinations and biomedical sample collection were performed on 70 free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) from three different habitats in the beza mahfaly special reserve (bmsr), in southern madagascar, to assess the impact of humans and habitat on lemur health. lemurs were chemically immobilized with ketamine and diazepam administered via blow darts for concurrent biomedical, morphometric, and behavioral studies. subsets of the animals had blood analyzed for hematology ...200717679503
[comparative anatomic studies of the tongue of pan troglodytes (blumenbach, 1799) and other primates. i. the chimpanzee tongue].this study was carried out on a comprehensive collection of tongues of pan troglodytes. material of tongues of tupaia glis, microcebus murinus, chirogaleus major, lemur catta, galago crassicaudatus, cebus apella, and macaca mulatta were used for comparison of the different stages of the development of the papilla foliata. the tongue of pan exhibits longitudinal growth correlated with the growth of length of the jaws and individual age. a typical foramen caecum as it occurs in man was gross anato ...19902242823
the jump as a fast mode of locomotion in arboreal and terrestrial biotopes.the jump is always used for locomotion. for its execution in arboreal and terrestrial biotopes the requirements are of somewhat different nature. in an arboreal biotope the jump is characterized by a rapid progression through discontinuous substrates and the ability to take off from a small area and a secure landing on a spot. this requires well coordinated movements in all phases of the jump. on the ground, the jump is less frequent and often used for crossing obstacles or gaps. in primates bot ...19911887664
new hand bones of hadropithecus stenognathus: implications for the paleobiology of the archaeolemuridae.a partial, associated skeleton of hadropithecus stenognathus (aha-i) was discovered in 2003 at andrahomana cave in southeastern madagascar. among the postcranial elements found were the first hand bones (right scaphoid, right hamate, left first metacarpal, and right and left fifth metacarpals) attributed to this rare subfossil lemur. these hand bones were compared to those of extant strepsirrhines and catarrhines in order to infer the positional adaptations of hadropithecus, and they were compar ...200818068213
a comparative analysis of serial ordering in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta).research over the last 25 years has demonstrated that animals are able to organize sequences in memory and retrieve ordered sequences without language. qualitative differences have been found between the serial organization of behavior in pigeons and monkeys. here the authors test serial ordering abilities in ring-tailed lemurs, a strepsirrhine primate whose ancestral lineage diverged from that of monkeys, apes, and humans approximately 63 million years ago. lemurs' accuracy and response times w ...200718085919
crystalloid configuration in the adrenal cortex of the siamese tree shrew (tupaia glis).crystalloids of what appear to be smooth reticulum have been observed in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis in both the stressed and nonstressed adrenal gland of the siamese tree shrew (tupaia glis). no crystalloids are observed in the zona glomerulosa. similar crystalloids have been described in other steroid-secreting organs, including the antebrachial organ of the lemur (lemur catta), the parotoid gland of bufo alvarius and in sebaceous gland cells of the galagos and macaques. moreover ...1976820215
codominant autosomal inheritance of polymorphic red cell acid phosphates of lemurs and some properties of the enzymes.red cell acid phosphatase phenotypes of 207 captive animals of the genera lemur, hapalemur, and prophithecus were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and phosphatase-specific staining. in lemur fulvus, three phenotypes, designated a, b, and ab, were observed. in each of the species l. catta, l. macaco, l. mongoz, and l. variegatus, a single phenotype was observed, in hapalemur griseus, three phenotypes were found: a,b, and ab. in propithecus verreauxi, a single phenotype was found. examinat ...1977406895
biomedical evaluation of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in tsimanampetsotsa strict nature reserve, madagascar.complete health assessments were performed on 20 adult ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), 10 males and 10 females, free ranging within the tsimanampetsotsa strict nature reserve in southwest madagascar. each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam, weighed, and given a thorough physical examination. blood was collected for hematology, determination of plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistry, determination of fat-soluble vitamin and trace mineral concentrations, assessme ...200312723796
the asymmetric scent: ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) have distinct chemical signatures in left and right brachial glands.distinctive cues are predicted to evolve when the benefits obtained by the recognition process overcome its costs. when individual recognition is particularly beneficial for both senders and receivers, the expression of strongly distinctive signals is predicted to evolve. on the other hand, it could be predicted that each individual should show a very stable individual signature. in the same perspective, a great stability of the individual signatures could be expected. lemur catta is the first n ...200818542901
demographic and life-history patterns in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly reserve, madagascar: a 15-year perspective.over 15 field seasons (1987-2001), we collected census and life-history data on a population of individually identified ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly reserve, madagascar. no significant difference was found in population size over the study period, though a marked decline in the population occurred following a 2-year drought. the population rebounded rapidly after the immediate postdrought period. there was nearly a complete replacement of individuals over the study period. average gro ...200312541335
dominance rank reversals and rank instability among male lemur catta: the effects of female behavior and ejaculation.in this study, dominance rank instability among male lemur catta during mating was investigated. also, data on agonism and sexual behavior across five consecutive mating seasons in a population of l. catta on st. catherines island, usa, were collected. instances of male rank instability were categorized into three types. type 1 consisted of a temporary switch in the dominance ranks of two males, which lasted for a period of minutes or hours. type 2 dyadic male agonistic interactions showed highl ...200918785630
analysis of chromosome conservation in lemur catta studied by chromosome paints and bac/pac probes.a panel of human chromosome painting probes and bacterial and p1 artificial chromosome (bac/pac) clones were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) experiments to investigate the chromosome conservation of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta, lca) with respect to human. whole chromosome paints specific for human chromosomes 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, and x were found to identify a single chromosome or an uninterrupted chromosomal region in lca. a large set of partial chromosome ...200212474064
[1st isolation of toxoplasma gondii in madagascar. spontaneous and experimental toxoplasmosis in lemur catta]. 196213979332
coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta, at berenty reserve, madagascar: ii. coat and tail alopecia associated with leucaena leucocepahala, 2001-2006.fur condition in wild ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta, was recorded during september-november birth seasons 2001-2006 at berenty reserve, madagascar. body coat condition was scored on a scale from bs 0: full, smooth coat with guard hairs, to bs5: half or more of back and limbs hairless. tail condition was scored from ts 0: full, to ts 5: half or more hairless. where troop core areas included stands of leucaena leucocephala, alopecia was dramatically more frequent than in similar areas without leu ...200919051314
coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta at berenty reserve, madagascar: i. differences by age, sex, density and tourism, 1996-2006.an index of coat condition can be a non-invasive tool for tracking health and stress at population level. coat condition in ringtailed lemurs, lemur catta, was recorded during september-november birth seasons of 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2001-2006 at berenty reserve, madagascar. condition was scored on a scale from 0: full, fluffy coat with guard hairs present, to 5: half or more of body hairless. adult males did not differ overall from adult females. coats were worse in adults than in 2-year-old su ...200919051320
disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).a 3-yr-old secundiparous female ring-tailed lemur presented to the auburn university small animal clinic with signs of dyspnea, lethargy, and anorexia. the animal died before she could be examined, and a full necropsy was immediately performed. provisional necropsy findings included moderate pneumonia and hepatopathy. acute interstitial pneumonia and focal hepatocellular necrosis were confirmed histologically. lung impression smears, histopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and ...200415357101
does female dominance facilitate feeding priority in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata) in southeastern madagascar?although many malagasy lemurs are thought to be female dominant and to have female feeding priority, to date the relationship between these behaviors has been rigorously established only in lemur catta, and other ways that females might achieve feeding priority have not been examined closely. erhart and overdorff [international journal of primatology 20:927-940, 1999] suggested that one way female primates achieve feeding priority is to initiate and lead groups to food, thereby gaining access to ...200515898069
long-term changes in dominance ranks among ring-tailed lemurs at berenty reserve, madagascar.a study was conducted between 1989 and 2001 to monitor changes in the dominance ranks among adult ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty reserve, madagascar. adult females were observed to be dominant over adult males. their rank fluctuated greatly. however, in some troops, female rank orders were fairly stable over a period of several years. in general, male ranks were more unstable than female ranks. most young females aged 3 years occupied the lowest ranks among adult females. however, s ...200516142423
effects of reproductive and social variables on fecal glucocorticoid levels in a sample of adult male ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly reserve, madagascar.glucocorticoids, a group of adrenal hormones, are secreted in response to stress. in male primates, variables such as breeding seasonality, dominance hierarchy stability, and aggressive and affiliative interactions can affect glucocorticoid levels. in this study, we examined interindividual differences in mean fecal glucocorticoid (fgc) levels among males in three groups of wild ring-tailed lemurs to better understand the physiological costs of group living for males in a female-dominant species ...200516163722
social complexity predicts transitive reasoning in prosimian primates.transitive inference is a form of deductive reasoning that has been suggested as one cognitive mechanism by which animals could learn the many relationships within their group's dominance hierarchy. this process thus bears relevance to the social intelligence hypothesis which posits evolutionary links between various forms of social and nonsocial cognition. recent evidence corroborates the link between social complexity and transitive inference and indicates that highly social animals may show s ...200819649139
attacks on a wild infant ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) by immigrant males at berenty, madagascar: interpreting infanticide by males.an orphaned infant ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) was attacked persistently by immigrant males and disappeared with severe wounds at berenty reserve, madagascar. prior to the attacks, two troop members disappeared. on 20 november 1998, the only resident male in troop c2b disappeared suddenly. after the disappearance, nine males from three neighboring troops approached, but only six males continued to shadow the troop. of the females, the one lactating female attacked the males the most frequent ...200516229008
troop fission in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at berenty, madagascar.a detailed fission process in a wild ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) troop was observed at berenty reserve, madagascar. the troop fission occurred as follows: 1) during the birth season in 2000, two adult females (mother and daughter) were evicted as a result of "targeted aggression" (i.e., intense and persistent aggressive behavior toward particular individuals). 2) two adult and three immature females in the same kin group as the evicted females spontaneously immigrated into the new group. 3) ...200616419123
natural history of ehrlichia chaffeensis: vertebrate hosts and tick vectors from the united states and evidence for endemic transmission in other countries.ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular gram-negative zoonotic bacterium, is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme). in humans, the disease can range from a mild, non-specific illness with few to no clinical signs to a moderately severe to fatal disease, especially those with compromised immune systems. e. chaffeensis is maintained in a complex cycle involving white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) as a primary reservoir and the lone star tick (lst; amblyomma ame ...201019819631
cutting corners: the dynamics of turning behaviors in two primate species.in an attempt to characterize more fully the variation in substrate reaction forces in the locomotor repertoire of primates, we recorded the forces involved in directional changes for two species. these are the first records of turning forces for vertebrate quadrupeds, much less primates. three ring-tailed lemurs and two patas monkeys performed turns of approximately 30 degrees as they crossed a force platform. the ring-tailed lemurs also turned on a horizontal branch-like support with a segment ...200616481581
the value of small size: loss of forest patches and ecological thresholds in southern madagascar.many services generated by forest ecosystems provide essential support for human well-being. however, the vulnerability of these services to environmental change such as forest fragmentation are still poorly understood. we present spatial modeling of the generation of ecosystem services in a human-dominated landscape where forest habitat patches, protected by local taboos, are located in a matrix of cultivated land in southern madagascar. two ecosystem services dependent on the forest habitats w ...200616711035
olfactory signals and the mhc: a review and a case study in lemur catta.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is the most polymorphic genetic system known in vertebrates. decades of research demonstrate that it plays a critical role in immune response and disease resistance. it has also been suggested that mhc genes influence social behavior and reproductive phenomena. studies in laboratory mice and rats report that kin recognition and mate choice are influenced by olfactory cues determined at least in part by an individual's mhc genes. this issue has stimulate ...200616715507
taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) in the madrid zoo-aquarium (madrid, spain). under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. th ...201020597227
severe wear and tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta): a function of feeding ecology, dental structure, and individual life history.the ring-tailed lemurs at beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, exhibit a high frequency of severe wear and antemortem tooth loss. as part of a long-term study, we collected dental data on 83 living adult ring-tailed lemurs during 2003 and 2004. among these individuals, 192 teeth were scored as absent. the most frequently missing tooth position is m1 (24%). as m1 is the first tooth to erupt, its high frequency of absence (primarily a result of wear) is not remarkable. however, the remaining ...200616962643
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, sarcocystis neurona, and encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from st. catherines island, ga, usa.in the current study, we determined the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, sarcocystis neurona, and encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from st. catherines island, georgia. serum samples were tested from 52 ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata variegata) using an agglutination assay. three ring-tailed lemurs (5.8%) were positive for t. gondii (titer of 1:50); one ring- ...200717052854
lateral bias to the leading limb in an olfactory social signal by male ring-tailed lemurs.because ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) show handedness during feeding, i investigated whether they also show lateral preference in the limbs used by males during scent marking. during a bout of marking, a male alternates a variable number of shoulder rubs and arm marks. it is a complex social signal that has both olfactory and visual components and is frequently part of intrasexual agonistic interactions. i used all-occurrences behavior sampling, manually recorded all totally visible bouts, an ...200717245755
Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection.Localized, myocardial toxoplasmosis contributed to the death of a female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) 1 week after the delivery of 4 stillborn offspring with disseminated toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in all 5 lemurs. Varying degrees of placentitis and placental edema with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii immunolabeling were observed in the 3 available placentas. The dam had severe myocarditis, and T. gondii antigen was only detected in th ...201121908372
coprophagy by wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) in human-disturbed locations adjacent to the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.coprophagy occurs in a number of animal species, including nonhuman primates. during the 2003-2004 dry seasons at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar, we observed wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) consuming dried fecal matter from three different species. ring-tailed lemurs consumed human feces on 12 occasions, cattle feces twice, and feral dog feces once. coprophagy in this population may be a behavioral adaptation that provides animals access to energy and nutrients and may be an ...200717253614
giardia duodenalis assemblages and entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits.giardia duodenalis and entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (nhp). from a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. in this study we carried out the molecular identification of g. duodenalis and entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of rome, to better ascertain their occurrence an ...201121988762
testing the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging in primate fibroblasts: is there a correlation between species longevity and cellular ros production?the present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. we assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four old world monkeys (baboon, rhesus ...201222219516
habitat use and social structure of a brown lemur hybrid population in the berenty reserve, madagascar.the population of brown lemurs has rapidly grown since their founders were introduced to the berenty reserve. the founders consist of two species (eulemur fulvus rufus and e. collaris). to characterize the behavior of the population and to examine whether these characteristics affect population growth, i investigated the habitat use and social structure of the population of brown lemurs at berenty (berenty eulemur). behavior data were collected focusing on horizontal and vertical habitat use, ac ...200717294429
dietary and dental variations in the genus lemur, with comments concerning dietary-dental correlations among malagasy primates.field studies of feeding in the lemur subspecies lemur fulvus rufus and l. f. mayottensis have revealed that feeding patterns within a single species can be markedly different, both regionally and seasonally. thus l. f. rufus is a dietary specialist (3 plant species accounting for 80-90% of feeding time), and is highly folivorous, especially during the dry season (90% of feeding time spent eating leaves during the dry season, and 53% during the wet season). on the other hand, l. f. mayottensis i ...200198050
spontaneous social orienting and gaze following in ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta).both human and nonhuman primates preferentially orient toward other individuals and follow gaze in controlled environments. precisely where any animal looks during natural behavior, however, remains unknown. we used a novel telemetric gaze-tracking system to record orienting behavior of ringtailed lemurs (lemur catta) interacting with a naturalistic environment. we here provide the first evidence that ringtailed lemurs, group-living prosimian primates, preferentially gaze towards other individua ...200817492318
body mass of wild ring-tailed lemurs in berenty reserve, madagascar, with reference to tick infestation: a preliminary analysis.in 1999, we measured the body mass of 101 wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) inhabiting the berenty reserve, madagascar. in addition, we counted the number of ticks [haemaphysalis (rhipistoma) lemuris hoogstraal, 1953] infesting their facial skin and external auditory meatuses. for both males and females, the body mass appeared to increase until the age of 3 years. with the apparent exception of infants, there were no sexual differences in body mass. within a group, higher-ranked adult males ...200817632687
survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) populations.a survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta). samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the united states. in madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were ...200817854057
species-specific transmission of novel picornaviruses in lemurs.the roles of host genetics versus exposure and contact frequency in driving cross-species transmission remain the subject of debate. here, we used a multitaxon lemur collection at the saint louis zoo in the united states as a model to gain insight into viral transmission in a setting of high interspecies contact. lemurs are a diverse and understudied group of primates that are highly endangered. the speciation of lemurs, which are endemic to the island of madagascar, occurred in geographic isola ...201525631076
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
object permanence in lemurs.object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. the objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (eulemur fulvus rufus, eulemur mongoz, lemur catta and hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus on ...200918936991
bifidobacterium lemurum sp. nov., from faeces of the ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).four gram-positive-staining, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains were isolated from a faecal sample of a 5-year-old ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta). the strains showed a peculiar morphology, resembling a small coiled snake, a ring shape, or forming a little 'y' shape. the isolated strains appeared identical, and lmc 13t was chosen as a representative strain and characterized further. strain lmc 13t showed an a3β peptidoglycan type, ...201525736415
multimodal signaling in wild lemur catta: economic design and territorial function of urine marking.urine marking has been neglected in prosimian primates. captive studies showed that the malagasy prosimian lemur catta scent marks with urine, as well as via specialized depositions. l. catta urine mark, a multimodal signal, differs from simple urination in terms of different design features, including tail configuration: the tail is held up during marking (ut-up) and down during urination (ut-down). we explore economy and function of ut-up in the female dominant l. catta. we collected 240 h of ...200919051254
fatal echinococcosis in three lemurs in the united kingdom--a case series.tapeworms of the genus echinococcus reside in the small intestine of a number of carnivorous species, predominantly canids. in enzootic areas, hydatidosis caused by taeniid metacestodes can present a significant problem in accidental intermediate hosts, including humans. whereas the united kingdom is currently considered free of echinococcus multilocularis, echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and echinococcus equinus are endemic in the uk and have been reported in a variety of captive m ...201626872922
surveillance and management of echinococcus multilocularis in a wildlife park.the fox tapeworm echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease that may be fatal if untreated. a broad spectrum of mammalian species may be accidentally infected even in captivity. in april 2011, liver lesions due to e. multilocularis were observed during the necropsy of a captive-born nutria (myocastor coypus) in a french wildlife park, leading to initiation of a study to survey the parasite's presence in the park. a comparable environm ...201626780546
blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism.almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. the blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. recent work on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene herc2, which likely regulates expression of the neighbo ...200919278018
behavioral responses to tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.severe dental wear and tooth loss is often assumed to impede the processing, breakdown, and energetic conversion of food items, thereby negatively impacting individual health, reproduction, and survival. ring-tailed lemurs at the beza mahafaly special reserve demonstrate exceptionally high frequencies of severe dental wear and antemortem tooth loss, yet often survive multiple years with these impairments. to test the hypothesis that these lemurs mitigate tooth loss through behavioral adjustments ...200919373842
primate phylogenomics: developing numerous nuclear non-coding, non-repetitive markers for ecological and phylogenetic applications and analysis of evolutionary rate variation.genetic analyses are often limited by the availability of appropriate molecular markers. markers from neutrally evolving genomic regions may be particularly useful for inferring evolutionary histories because they escape the constraints of natural selection. for the majority of taxa however, obtaining such markers is challenging. advances in genomics have the potential to alleviate the shortage of neutral markers. here we present a method to develop numerous markers from putatively neutral regio ...200919470178
[animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].the main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis, e. hellem, e. cuniculi, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in poland in animal faecal using the fish (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and multiplex fish techniques. additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite i ...200919579789
assessment of organochlorine pesticides and metals in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) at beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.like most of madagascar's endemic primates, ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) face a number of threats to their survival. although habitat loss is of greatest concern, other anthropogenic factors including environmental contamination may also affect lemur health and survival. in this study, we examined ring-tailed lemurs from the beza mahafaly special reserve (bmsr), southern madagascar for exposure to organochlorine (oc) pesticides and metals and examined differences in contaminant concentration ...200919746443
feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) following a cyclone at the beza mahafaly special reserve, madagascar.in january 2005, a cyclone hit southern madagascar, including the beza mahafaly special reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of tamarindus indica, leaving lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. we studied two adjacent groups of l. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. the red group (rg) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leav ...200919776607
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