effects of cabergoline on reproduction in three families of australian marsupials.the effects of the prolactin inhibiting drug, cabergoline, on pregnant and lactating marsupials were investigated in four species from three diverse families: the tammar wallaby, macropus eugenii, the quokka, setonix brachyurus, the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, and the fat-tailed dunnart, sminthopsis crassicaudata. in tammar wallabies, 20 micrograms cabergoline kg-1 injected intramuscularly 1 day before expected birth did not alter the timing of parturition but neonates died within a ...19989713388
sequence and analysis of zona pellucida 2 cdna (zp2) from a marsupial, the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula.all mammalian eggs are surrounded by the zona pellucida, an extracellular coat involved in vital functions during fertilization and early development. the zona pellucida glycoproteins are promising antigenic targets for development of contraceptive vaccines to control pest populations of marsupials in australia and new zealand. our current understanding of the function of the zona pellucida glycoproteins is based almost entirely on the mouse and may not be representative of gamete interactions i ...19989771653
developmentally-regulated expression of a putative protease inhibitor gene in the lactating mammary gland of the tammar wallaby, macropus eugenii.a novel milk protein, which is secreted only in the early stage of lactation, has been identified in the whey fraction of milk from the tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii). the amino acid sequence currently available suggests the protein comprises 71 amino acids. the protein migrates at 18 kda when analysed by sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but has a calculated molecular weight of 8 kda. a partial cdna clone of 153 bp has been isolated by reverse transcriptase pcr. northern analysis of mam ...19989787813
timing of zona pellucida formation in the tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii) and brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the zona pellucida (zp) is an extracellular coat that surrounds the mammalian egg, and serves as the primary recognition site for fertilizing spermatozoa. the timetable of zp formation was examined in two marsupials, the tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii) and the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) using conventional histological methods, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. ovaries from tammar wallaby pouch young less than 80 days of age contained only primordial follicles with a sin ...19989835379
microsatellite markers for the phalangerid marsupial, the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). 19989859208
improved method of superovulation in monovulatory brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) using pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin-luteinizing hormone.a new superovulation regimen for the monovulatory brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) has been devised. it reduces the number of hormone treatments required and elicits a better rate of ovulation than the established pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (pmsg)-gnrh method. ovarian stimulation was achieved by a single intramuscular injection of 15 iu pmsg. this treatment resulted in the recruitment and development of a large number (9-12) of graafian follicles on the ovaries. induction of ovu ...19989861159
protein synthesis and secretion by the epididymis of the brushtail possum, trichosurus this study of brushtail possums, proteins present in epididymal fluid and not present in blood plasma and those that become associated with spermatozoa as they pass along the tract were investigated. at least 19 proteins were present in epididymal fluid in the various regions of the tract that were not detected in serum. some of these may be present on the sperm plasmalemma. six proteins were extracted from caput spermatozoa (m(r) 117,000, 103,000, 87,500, 85,000, 62,000 and 33,000) that did ...19989875170
isolation and characterisation of a cdna encoding a zona pellucida protein (zpb) from the marsupial trichosurus vulpecula (brushtail possum).we have cloned a cdna containing the entire coding sequence of a marsupial (the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula) zona pellucida protein (zpb). the open reading frame of 1,581 nt is predicted to encode a zpb polypeptide of 527 amino acids which contains 20 cysteine residues, 7 potential n-linked glycosylation sites, a potential n-terminal signal peptide and a potential c-terminal trans-membrane domain, preceded by a furin proteolytic processing signal. sequence comparisons between possum ...19999890748
the role of maternal thyroid hormones on the development of the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula.thyroxine (t4) is a vital hormone for the development of mammals. to determine the role of maternal thyroid hormones on organ development, methimazole, an inhibitor of t4, was first administered via a minipump to 13 mothers with pouch young between days 10 and 80 post partum for 28 days. three young survived and 10 of the young died at 104.0 +/- 10.8 days post partum (mean, sem). methimazole was then administered for 28 days to 6 lactating adult possums with pouch young at day 20 post partum. th ...19989894169
time of ovulation in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) following pmsg/lh induced ovulation.this study aimed to determine the timing of ovulation in response to a new induced ovulation regime for the monovulatory brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). ovarian stimulation was achieved by a single subcutaneous injection of 15 i.u. pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (pmsg). this treatment resulted in promotion of a large number (9-16) of graafian follicles > 2 mm diameter on the ovaries. seventy-two hours later a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg porcine luteinizing hormone (lh) wa ...199910194867
cloning and characterisation of a zona pellucida 3 cdna from a marsupial, the brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula.the mammalian zona pellucida (zp) is an extracellular glycoprotein coat that plays vital roles throughout fertilisation and preimplantation development. like that of eutherian mammals the brushtail possum zp is composed of three glycosylated proteins of 137 kda, 92 kda and 62 kda. the 62 kda protein is a zp3 orthologue based on its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence. the brushtail possum zp3 cdna isolated in this study is 1305 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a 422 amino a ...199910216911
the prolactin receptor from the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula): cdna cloning, expression and functional analysis.a full length, prolactin receptor cdna clone has been isolated from the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). this clone encodes a 625 amino acid protein which shares 60-70 and 54% sequence identity with prolactin receptor (long form) sequences from mammalian and avian species, respectively. sequence similarity was highest in the extra-cellular, hormone-binding domain and in specific regions of the intracellular domain which regulates prolactin receptor signalling in cells. prolactin recepto ...199910221777
organization of somatosensory areas i and ii in marsupial cerebral cortex: parallel processing in the possum sensory cortex.organization of somatosensory areas i and ii in marsupial cerebral cortex: parallel processing in the possum sensory cortex. controversy exists over the organization of mammalian thalamocortical somatosensory networks. an issue of particular contention is whether the primary and secondary somatosensory areas of cortex (si and sii) are organized in a parallel or serial scheme for processing tactile information. the current experiments were conducted in the anesthetized brush-tail possum (trichosu ...199910322068
vimentin localisation in tooth germ cells of two marsupial species, the northern brown bandicoot, isoodon macrourus, and the brushtail possum, trichosurus marsupial teeth, long cellular processes from ameloblasts and odontoblasts are found in the developing enamel and dentinal tubules, respectively. it has been suggested that the odontoblast cytoskeleton plays a role in the dentinal tubule formation of rat. to understand the role of the cytoskeleton in the blast cells, the location of vimentin and cytokeratin in the tooth germ of the bandicoot and the possum was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. vimentin was detected in differentia ...199910361405
nucleotide sequence of a marsupial interleukin-10 cdna from the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).a cdna encoding a marsupial interleukin-10 (il-10), was isolated from australian brushtail possum alveolar macrophages. the cdna of 1604 bp had an open reading frame of 522 bp coding for a protein of 174 amino acids. its deduced amino acid sequence had an identity of 60% with cat, 58% with pig, 56% with human and cow, 52% with mouse and 53% with rat il-10. the expression of il-10 was up-regulated in both lps-stimulated and mycobacterium bovis-infected possum alveolar macrophages.199810520755
isolation and comparison of the igm heavy chain constant regions from australian (trichosurus vulpecula) and american (monodelphis domestica) marsupials.cdnas encoding igm heavy chain constant region (cmu) were isolated from two metatherians (marsupials)--the australian common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and the south american grey short-tailed opossum (monodelphis domestica). analysis of the sequences suggested that they correspond to the secreted form of cmu in both species. the domain size and structure of the marsupial cmu sequences were compared with other cmu sequences and a high degree of conservation throughout vertebrate ev ...199910579393
seasonal variation in ovarian response to pregnant mares serum gonadotrophin in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).this study examined the seasonal variation in ovarian response to the exogenous hormone pregnant mares serum gonadotrophin (pmsg) in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). ovarian stimulation was achieved by administration of a single intramuscular injection of 15 iu pmsg. animals (n = 165) responded to this treatment in a variable manner depending on the month of the year. the maximum response (measured by the total number of large (>2 mm) follicles) was 15.8 +/- 1.5 follicles per animal ...199810588381
the organization and connections of somatosensory cortex in the brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula): evidence for multiple, topographically organized and interconnected representations in an australian marsupial.microelectrode mapping techniques were used to determine the organization of somatosensory cortex in the australian brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula). the results of electrophysiological mapping were combined with data on the cyto- and myeloarchitecture, and patterns of corticocortical connections, using sections cut tangential to the pial surface. we found evidence for three topographically organized representations of the body surface that were coextensive with architectonic subdivis ...199910632029
induction of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, by eucalyptus terpenes.the mixed function oxidase (mfo) activity and content was studied in the liver of common brushtail possums fed for 10 days on a diet containing a mixture of terpenes found in eucalyptus leaves on which possums commonly browse. the mfos were compared to the mfos in possums fed a control diet of fruits and cereals only. the terpenes chosen were 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, alpha-pinene and limonene. the selected terpenes caused induction of p450 enzymes, as shown by a 53% higher cytochrome p450 content ...199910661715
ultrastructural observations on in vivo fertilisation in the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, following pmsg/lh superovulation and artificial insemination.information on the dynamics of gamete interaction in marsupials is very limited and not available for any species from the major australian order diprotodontia which includes most of the more familiar animals such as kangaroos, possums and the koala. this study addressed this deficiency by examining the ultrastructure of in vivo fertilised eggs from common brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula). females were superovulated by treatment with 15 iu pmsg and then 4 mg porcine lh 3 days later, and ...199910717949
cloning of marsupial t cell receptor alpha and beta constant region cdnas.partial cdnas encoding the tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii) t cell receptor alpha constant region (tcralphac) and t cell receptor beta constant region (tcrbetac) were obtained using reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). these pcr products were used to screen a brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) lymph node cdna library, resulting in the isolation of clones containing the complete coding regions for tcralphac and tcrbetac. these constitute the first marsupial t c ...200010762409
cloning and expression, pharmacological characterization, and internalization kinetics of the pituitary gnrh receptor in a metatherian species of mammal.gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (gnrh-rs) expressed in the pituitary of eutherian species of mammal are unique in lacking the cytoplasmic c-terminal tail characteristic of gnrh-rs of nonmammalian vertebrates and other g protein-coupled receptors. to further investigate evolutionary relationships among vertebrate gnrh-rs, a full-coding region cdna of the pituitary gnrh-r was cloned from a metatherian marsupial mammal, the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). we have deter ...200010764554
immunobiology of mycobacterial infections in marsupials.mycobacterial infections of marsupials are important for two reasons. firstly, the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) serves as the major wildlife reservoir for mycobacterium bovis in new zealand and secondly, m. avium is a significant cause of disease in endangered marsupial species held in captivity. marsupials are highly susceptible to specific mycobacterial infections which may be linked to deficiencies in their cellular immunity. histopathological inspection of affected tis ...200010785276
genetic analysis of the mating system of the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand farmland.we examined male reproductive success in a common brushtail possum population in new zealand farmland. paternity was assigned to 66 of 91 pouch young (maternity known), using a likelihood approach applied to genotypes at six microsatellite loci having an overall average exclusion probability of around 99%. the distribution of number of offspring per male was l-shaped with a standardized variance of 1.52. at least 46% of the 76 sampled reproductively mature males, bred, siring between one and fou ...200010886650
sperm binding and penetration of the zona pellucida in vitro but not sperm-egg fusion in an australian marsupial, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilisation (ivf) have been achieved in most eutherian mammals and american marsupials under relatively simple culture conditions. in contrast sperm capacitation in australian marsupials has not been achieved in vitro and attempts at ivf have previously been characterised by a complete lack of sperm-zona pellucida (zp) binding. recently, co-culture of sperm with oviduct epithelial cell monolayers or with oviductal explant conditioned media has been shown to prol ...200011014497
expression of the fc receptor in the mammary gland during lactation in the marsupial trichosurus vulpecula (brushtail possum).one of several functions described for the fc receptor is regulation of igg isotype transport into milk. the first marsupial homologues of the fc receptor heavy and light chains, fcrn and beta-2 microglobulin, from the brushtail possum have been cloned and characterised. the level of fcrn mrna in the possum mammary gland was highest at the start of lactation, and decreased slowly thereafter. expression of fcrn mrna did not increase during the switch phase when the concentration of igg in milk is ...200011090878
endogenous type d retrovirus in a marsupial, the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).we have sequenced and characterized an endogenous type d retrovirus, which we have named tverv(d), from the genome of an australian marsupial, the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). intact tverv(d) gag, pro, pol, and env open reading frames were detected in the possum genome. tverv(d) was classified as a type d retrovirus, most closely related to those of old world monkeys, new world monkeys, and mice, based on phylogenetic analyses and genetic organization. approximately 30 tverv( ...200111160757
insulin-like growth factor 2 cdna cloning and ontogeny of gene expression in the liver of the marsupial brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the cdna sequence for insulin-like growth factor 2 (igf-2) was determined from the liver of the marsupial brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) using reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with gene-specific primers. the 359 bp of possum sequence encompassed the mature peptide, 27 bp of the signal peptide, and 125 bp of the e-peptide. alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with those from other species indicated that the mature peptide was 71 amino acids in ...200111161776
identification of a homologue of pou5f1 (oct3/4) in a marsupial, the brushtail possum.several morphological features of early development differ between marsupials and eutherians. these include early overt conceptus polarity, the mode of segregation of pluriblast and trophoblast lineages, and the superficial position of the pluriblast within the unilaminar blastocyst epithelium. knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of early development is lacking in marsupials. we have cloned from the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, the partial cdna of a marsupial homologue of mammalian ...200111170265
cloning of the mhc class ii drb cdna from the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the cell-surface glycoproteins encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) bind to processed foreign antigens and present them to t lymphocytes. two classes of mhc molecules and their corresponding gene sequences have been extensively studied in eutherian mammals and birds, but data on the marsupial mhc are limited. marsupials split from eutherian mammals about 125 million years ago and represent a distinct branch in mammalian evolution. here the cdna cloning of mhc class ii genes of t ...200111222910
isolation and partial characterization of the outer dense fibres and fibrous sheath from the sperm tail of a marsupial: the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the flagellum of a mammalian spermatozoon consists of a central axoneme surrounded by two cytoskeletal structures, the outer dense fibres and the fibrous sheath, which may aid in sperm motility or stability. in this study the outer dense fibres and fibrous sheath were isolated and partially characterized in a marsupial species, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis were decapitated by sonication, and the head and tail fractions were separated by ce ...200111226063
characterisation of tolbutamide hydroxylase activity in the common brushtail possum, (trichosurus vulpecula) and koala (phascolarctos cinereus): inhibition by the eucalyptus terpene 1,8-cineole.plant constituents such as terpenes are major constituents of the essential oil in eucalyptus sp. 1,8-cineole and p-cymene (terpenes present in high amounts in eucalyptus leaves) are potential substrates for the cyp family of enzymes. we have investigated tolbutamide hydroxylase as a probe substrate reaction in both koala and terpene pretreated and control brushtail possum liver microsomes and examined inhibition of this reaction by eucalyptus terpenes. the specific activity determined for tolbu ...200011246507
xenobiotic metabolism in australian marsupials.the australian marsupials are significant and unique australian fauna. xenobiotic metabolism is the process of enzymatic modification of xenobiotics, which include the chemicals, such as agricultural chemicals and natural dietary toxins, that these animals may be exposed to. very little is known about the enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in this unique group of animals. folivore marsupials such as the koala (phascolarctos cinereus and the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) represe ...200111255110
mycobacterium bovis in free-living and captive wildlife, including farmed deer.mycobacterium bovis has been isolated from a wide range of wildlife species, in addition to domestic animals. this review examines the role played by various species in the maintenance of m. bovis in wildlife communities and the spread to domestic animals. badgers (meles meles), brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), deer (odocoileus virginianus), bison (bison bison) and african buffalo (syncerus caffer) are examples of wildlife that are maintenance hosts of m. bovis. the importance of these ...200111288522
characterisation of the kappa light chain of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).two full length cdna sequences encoding the kappa light chain of the australian marsupial, trichosurus vulpecula, the brushtail possum, were isolated from a mesenteric lymph node cdna library. the constant regions (ckappa) of the two light chains were identical, but the variable (vkappa) and joining (jkappa) regions were different. at the amino acid level, possum ckappa was most similar to ckappa of an american marsupial, monodelphis domestica (75%), with similarity to eutherian ckappa ranging f ...200111292532
cloning of a marsupial kappa-casein cdna from the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the main role of kappa-casein in milk is to stabilize the formation of casein micelles. although marsupial milk contains casein micelles, kappa-casein had not been identified in any species. in these experiments, the first marsupial kappa-casein has been prepared as enriched casein fractions and the cdna cloned from the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). possum kappa-casein is a 158 amino acid peptide that shares low amino acid sequence identity (20-30%) with that of eutherian kappa-casei ...200011302432
aerosol vaccination of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) with bacille calmette-guérin: the duration of protection.bovine tuberculosis is endemic in wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand. the disease is controlled by reducing or eliminating infected possum populations, but control methods do not kill all possums in the targeted area, leaving some tuberculous possums to maintain the disease. vaccination with bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) has been shown to provide significant levels of protection. vaccination is a potential alternative or complementary control strategy if protection is ...200111376961
karyotype relationships between distantly related marsupials from south america and australia.reciprocal chromosome painting and g-banding were used to compare the karyotypes of three australian marsupials (sminthopsis crassicaudata, macropus eugenii, trichosurus vulpecula) and one south american marsupial (monodelphis domestica). the results revealed only a limited number of rearrangements between these species and that the four karyotypes can be described as different combinations of fifteen conserved segments. five chromosomes are totally conserved between m. domestica (pairs 1, 2, 5, ...200111419794
wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infection in the european badger (meles meles) and other british mammals.mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. the european badger (meles meles) and the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the uk and new zealand respectively. the risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. in the uk, surveys by the ...200111463223
microsomal metabolism of the terpene 1,8-cineole in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), koala (phascolarctos cinereus), rat and human.1. this study reports on the pathways of metabolism and enzyme kinetics of the eucalyptus terpene, 1,8-cineole, by liver microsomes from the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and koala (phascolarctos cinereus) (animals that normally include this terpene in their diet), rat and human. 2. the rank order of the ability to metabolize 1,8-cineole with respect to overall 1,8-cineole intrinsic clearance (cl'int = vmax/kmax in microl mg protein(-1) min(-1)) was koala (188) > possum (181)>> rat (2 ...200111465406
laboratory and field evaluation of predator odors as repellents for kiore (rattus exulans) and ship rats (r. rattus).predator odors may serve to stop rats from entering conservation areas or to decrease predation, food consumption, and other damage by rats in areas tainted with predator odor. we compared the efficacy of real predator odors and synthetic odors (derived from the urine and feces of carnivores) as rat repellents with real herbivore odors as controls in a y maze. we tested six predator odors: cat (felis catus) urine and feces, mongoose (herpestes auropunctatus) feces, n-propylthietane, s-methyl, me ...200111471938
cloning of the red kangaroo (macropus rufus) follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit.the cdna encoding the follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit (fsh-beta) was isolated from a red kangaroo pituitary cdna library by using a porcine probe and the nucleotide sequence for the coding region was determined. the highest degree of deduced amino acid sequence identity (91%) was observed between the red kangaroo and another marsupial, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), followed by eutherian species (76%, 75% and 74%, respectively, for pig, mouse and sheep). based on the ded ...199811596876
vaccination of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) against mycobacterium bovis infection with bacille calmette-guérin: the response to multiple new zealand, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the principal wildlife vector of bovine tuberculosis. control of infected possum populations contributes to the control of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. vaccination is potentially a complementary strategy to population control, but to be cost-effective, administration of the vaccine to possums would need to be from an appropriately designed automatic vaccinator. possums themselves would activate the vaccinator so that it would ...200211750141
experimental infection of australian brushtail possums, trichosurus vulpecula (phalangeridae: marsupialia), with ross river and barmah forest viruses by use of a natural mosquito vector system.brushtail possums, trichosurus vulpecula kerr, were experimentally infected with ross river (rr) or barmah forest (bf) virus by aedes vigilax (skuse) mosquitoes. eight of 10 animals exposed to rr virus developed neutralizing antibody, and 3 possums developed high viremia for < 48 hr after infection, sufficient to infect recipient mosquitoes. two of 10 animals exposed to bf virus developed neutralizing antibody. both infected possums maintained detectable neutralizing antibody to bf for at least ...200111791974
molecular confirmation of an adenovirus in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).partial genome characterisation of a non-cultivable marsupial adenovirus is described. adenovirus-like particles were found by electron microscopy (em) in the intestinal contents of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand. using degenerate pcr primers complementary to the most conserved genome regions of adenoviruses, the complete nucleotide sequence of the penton base gene, and partial nucleotide sequences of the dna polymerase, hexon, and pvii genes were obtained. phylogenetic ...200211864751
increased protection against bovine tuberculosis in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) when bcg is administered with killed mycobacterium vaccae.the australian brushtail possum is the major wildlife reservoir for mycobacterium bovis infection in new zealand. development of an effective tuberculosis vaccine for possums will reduce the spread of infection to cattle and farmed deer.200211914058
cdna cloning of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor of the marsupial macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby).cdna encoding a marsupial polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pigr) was isolated from macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby) mammary lymph node primarily by reverse transcriptase coupled polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) pcr. this resulted in a 5' truncated clone and, in order to obtain the full-length sequence, genomic walking pcr was utilized. the complete sequence consists of 2696 bp of cdna and encodes a predicted polypeptide of 732 amino acids. the wal ...200211918632
bait-delivered cabergoline for the reproductive control of the red fox (vulpes vulpes): estimating mammalian non-target risk in south-eastern australia.cabergoline (cab) is a potent dopamine agonist and an inhibitor of prolactin (prl). in red foxes (vulpes vulpes), a single oral dose of 100 microg kg(-1) cab can cause abortions and postnatal cub mortality from at least day 21 of the 52-day pregnancy. the abortifacient activity of cab is owing to the suppression of prl, which is essential for luteotrophic support in some eutherian species. postnatal cub mortality probably results from a reduction in the development of the mammary ductile system, ...200111999299
microsomal metabolism and enzyme kinetics of the terpene p-cymene in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), koala (phascolarctos cinereus) and rat.1. p-cymene is an aromatic monoterpene found in the leaves of eucalyptus spp. and is ingested in the diet of two marsupial folivores, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and koala (phascolarctos cinereus). the metabolism of p-cymene by liver microsomes from the possum, koala and rat (an animal whose diet is not terpene-rich) was examined. 2. the major p-cymene metabolite in each species was cuminyl alcohol, with smaller amounts of other side-chain alcohols being formed. no phenolic meta ...200212065061
plasma growth hormone and growth hormone-binding protein during development in the marsupial brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).plasma concentrations of growth hormone (gh) were measured in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) pouch young from 25 through to 198 days post-partum (n=71). gh concentrations were highest early in pouch life (around 100 ng/ml), and thereafter declined in an exponential fashion to reach adult concentrations (10.8+/-1.8 ng/ml; n=21) by approximately 121-145 days post-partum, one to two months before the young is weaned. growth hormone-binding protein (ghbp), which has been shown to modif ...200212065240
expression of mrna encoding growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 during follicular formation and growth in a marsupial, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the oocyte derived growth differentiation factor (gdf) 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15; also known as gdf9b) are essential for normal follicular growth. however, little is known about expression of these factors during ovarian development. therefore, we determined the ontogeny of expression of gdf9 and bmp15 mrna in the developing ovary of the brushtail possum. ovaries were collected from pouch young (n=3-5 per group) around times of key developmental events namely: (1) morphological ...200212088873
putative osmolytes in the kidney of the australian brush-tailed possum, trichosurus vulpecula.the australian brush-tailed possum, trichosurus vulpecula, is capable of producing a moderately concentrated urine, at least up to 1300 mosm l(-1). kidneys of adult animals fed in captivity on a normal diet with ready access to water were analysed. the inner medullary regions were found to have moderately high concentrations of sodium (outer medulla, 367+/-37; inner medulla 975+/-93 mmol kg(-1) dry wt.), chloride (outer medulla 240+/-21; inner medulla 701+/-23 mmol kg(-1) dry wt.) and urea (oute ...200212091109
mucosal immunity in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula): detection of antibody in serum and at female reproductive sites after intranasal immunization.vaccination strategies for the brushtail possum, which rely upon stimulation of mucosal immunity, are being developed for biocontrol purposes. as little is known about how to stimulate possum immune responses via a mucosal site, groups of possums were immunized intranasally with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (klh) alone or in combination with known or novel mucosal adjuvants. antigen-specific antibody titres in female reproductive secretions were measured by elisa and compared with antibody titres ...200212121225
the efficacy of bacille calmette-guérin vaccine in wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).a population of wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in which bovine tuberculosis was endemic was vaccinated with live bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) to determine the efficacy of vaccination. the population on the 56 hectare site was monitored bimonthly over 2 years using a capture-release regime. during the study tuberculosis was diagnosed by clinical and post mortem examination. possums were vaccinated with bcg by both intranasal aerosol and conjunctival instillation. possums were rev ...200212204633
protein and peptide degradation in the intestine of the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).a protein (bovine serum albumin: bsa) and a peptide (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone: lhrh) were used to evaluate proteolytic activity in the intestine of common brushtail possums (marsupiala, trichosurus vulpecula). luminal and mucosal extracts were isolated from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon, their protein content assessed and specific activities in metabolising lhrh and bsa determined in vitro. the degradation of lhrh by luminal extracts was compa ...200212355223
enzymatic degradation of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (lhrh) by mucosal homogenates from the intestine of the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the peptidolytic activity of fresh and frozen mucosal homogenates from five regions (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon) of possum intestine from trichosurus vulpecula towards human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (lhrh) was investigated. the rank of order of specific peptidolytic activity of the mucosal homogenates was jejunum > ileum > caecum> duodenum = colon, with a 3 to 4 fold difference between the least and the most active segment in both frozen and fresh samples. the format ...200212384185
production of a biologically active recombinant marsupial growth factor using the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris.the cytokine stem cell factor (scf) and its interaction with its receptor c-kit plays an important role in the development of germ cells in eutherians. to investigate the putative roles of the scf/c-kit system in marsupials, recombinant australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) scf was purified after secretion by the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the purification procedure utilized ni2+ affinity chromatography with a poly-histidine tag engineered onto the c-terminus of the reco ...200212467357
expression in escherichia coli and immunological characterization of three zona pellucida proteins (zp1, zp2, and zp3) from a marsupial, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) zona pellucida (zp) is composed of three major glycoproteins, designated zp1, zp2, and zp3 based on their size and homology with eutherian zp proteins. these proteins are candidate antigens for the development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine to control the fertility of the brushtail possum in new zealand, where it is an introduced pest. in order to further their immunological and functional characterization, recombinant possum zp proteins were produ ...200312506345
use of released pigs as sentinels for mycobacterium bovis.identifying the presence of bovine tuberculosis (tb; mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife is crucial in guiding management aimed at eradicating the disease from new zealand. unfortunately, surveys of the principal wildlife host, the introduced brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), require large samples (> 95% of the population) before they can provide reasonable confidence that the disease is absent. in this study, we tested the feasibility of using a more wide-ranging species, feral pig (sus sc ...200212528431
inhibition of the microsomal metabolism of 1,8-cineole in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) by terpenes and other chemicals.1. brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) ingest large amounts of terpenes in their diet of eucalyptus leaf. previously, we showed that dietary terpenes induce the cytochrome p450 enzymes (cyps) responsible for their metabolism. the present study examined the effects of various cyp inhibitors on the metabolism of 1,8-cineole, the major dietary terpene, by liver microsomes from the possum and rat. 2. ketoconazole inhibited the major reactions of terpene-induced microsomes in both species: 9-hy ...200212593759
development of a porcine follicle-stimulating hormone and porcine luteinizing hormone induced ovulation protocol in the seasonally anoestrus brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).monovulatory brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) were stimulated with exogenous hormones during seasonal anoestrus to overcome ovarian insensitivity and induce ovulation. seasonal ovarian insensitivity to pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (pmsg) was overcome by a new porcine follicle-stimulating hormone/porcine luteinizing hormone (pfsh/plh) protocol. this protocol was refined because the original treatment produced oocytes with abnormal morphology. possums (n = 12 per group) received eigh ...200212617789
species differences in the ovarian distribution of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-->4 isomerase (3beta-hsd) in two marsupials: the brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula and the grey, short-tailed opossum monodelphis domestica.the ovarian distribution of the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta(5-->4) isomerase (3beta-hsd) was investigated by immunocytochemistry in two marsupial species throughout the reproductive cycle, using a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against human placental 3beta-hsd. in the polyoestrous and polyovular south american opossum monodelphis domestica, immunostaining was positive for 3beta-hsd in the adrenal cortex, the ovarian interstitial tissue, the corpus luteum and ...200312622697
social-network analysis of mycobacterium bovis transmission among captive brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) are the main source of mycobacterium bovis infection for new zealand livestock. the disease is spread principally by infectious aerosol; therefore, social interactions determine disease transmission. in captive possums, den-sharing behaviour provided the greatest risk of tuberculosis transmission between animals. den sharing between individual possums was used as the basic measurement for quantifying close proximity between animals over extended per ...200312809760
experimental infection of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with mycobacterium bovis by conjunctival new zealand, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the major wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis. procedures for experimentally infecting possums are required to study the pathogenesis of the disease and to challenge possums in vaccine efficacy studies. conjunctival instillation of a suspension of m. bovis was effective in producing bovine tuberculosis in captive possums. the experimental disease progressed slowly with the development of palpable lesions in superficial lymph n ...200312902183
properties of the erythrocytes of two marsupials: the brush-tail possum, trichosurus vulpecula (kerr) and the quokka, setonix brachyurus (quoy & gaimard). 196113687012
the effects of eucalyptus terpenes on hepatic cytochrome p450 cyp4a, peroxisomal acyl coa oxidase (aox) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (pparalpha) in the common brush tail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).eucalyptus leaves contain a high proportion of essential oils comprising of a complex mixture of monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, d-limonene and p-cymene. in this study, hepatic levels of microsomal lauric acid hydroxylase and peroxisomal cyanide-intensive palmitoyl coenzyme a oxidative activities were examined in livers of possums given an artificial diet consisting of the above monoterpenes for 10 days. these values were compared with those of possums fed a control diet containi ...200314559298
different susceptibility of two animal species infected with isogenic mutants of mycobacterium bovis identifies phot as having roles in tuberculosis virulence and phosphate transport.the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes mycobacterium bovis, which causes tuberculosis in most mammals, including humans. in previous work, it was shown that m. bovis atcc 35721 has a mutation in its principal sigma factor gene, siga, causing a single amino acid change affecting binding of siga with the accessory transcription factor whib3. atcc 35721 is avirulent when inoculated subcutaneously into guinea pigs but can be restored to virulence by integration of wild-type siga to produce ...200314600232
characterisation of and immunity to the aerobic bacteria found in the pouch of the brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula.the bacterial composition of the brustail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) pouch was characterized throughout the reproductive cycle using brushtails from an australian captive breeding colony (45 swabs) and a wild population in new zealand (26 swabs). gram-positive coccal species predominate throughout the reproductive cycle. enteric gram-negative rods, particularly escherichia coli, were most prevalent when a pouch young was present and was most likely the result of faecal contamination from the ...200414656540
a flow cytometric assay for global estimation of tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation of spermatozoa from two marsupial species, the tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii) and the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in cellular proteins is a major signal transduction event during sperm capacitation. in this study protein phosphorylation was monitored using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc)-labeled antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody and a flow cytometric procedure optimized for sperm. using this technique, the correlation between tyrosine phosphorylation and sperm capacitation was examined in two marsupial species, the brushtail possum and the tammar wallaby an ...200415056774
normal levels of immunocompetence in possums (trichosurus vulpecula) exposed to different laboratory housing conditions post capture.specific and non-specific immunological tests were used to monitor aspects of the immune response in captive possums. the tests included total and differential white blood cell counts, lymphocyte transformation assay, and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. the level of free cortisol present in possum plasma samples was evaluated as an endocrine marker for stress. four different housing conditions were used to test whether stress could be managed or avoided in captive animals. animals were caged ...200415186255
high microsatellite diversity and differential structuring among populations of the introduced common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, in new understanding of genetic variation and structure of pest populations has the potential to improve the efficiency of measures to control them. genetic analysis was undertaken at five microsatellite loci in four native australian and 14 introduced new zealand populations of the common brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula in order to document these parameters. genetic variation in new zealand populations, and phylogenetic relationships among australian and new zealand populations, were largely ...200415219155
assessment of anti-bovine il4 and ifn gamma antibodies to label il4 and ifn gamma in lymphocytes of the koala and brushtail possum.we assess anti-bovine il4 and ifn gamma (ifng) antibodies for their ability to label il4 and ifng in koala (phascolarctos cinereus), common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and mountain brushtail possum (trichosurus caninus) lymphocytes using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to determine their applicability to studies of host response to intracellular pathogens. anti-ifng labelled a product of pma-ionomycin stimulated sheep, koala and possum lymphocytes. high intensity labelling w ...200415350745
seasonal changes in mesotocin and localization of its receptor in the prostate of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).the prostate gland in the brushtail possum grows and regresses seasonally. it has similarities to the human prostate and may therefore provide a unique model for investigating prostatic hyperplasia. oxytocin has been implicated in the regulation of prostate growth in eutherian mammals, and the initial aim of this study was to identify and localize the marsupial equivalent, mesotocin, and its receptor in the prostate of the brushtail possum. seasonal changes in prostatic mesotocin concentrations ...200515496513
vaccination of brushtail possums, trichosurus vulpecula, with bacille calmette-guerin induces t lymphocytes that reduce mycobacterium bovis replication in alveolar macrophages via a contact-dependent/nitric oxide-independent mechanism.the permissiveness of alveolar macrophages from brushtail possums for the replication of mycobacterium bovis was examined. mycobacterium bovis replication was indirectly measured by assessing bacterial metabolism via the incorporation of [3-h]-uracil by bacilli released from lysed macrophages previously infected with mycobacteria. alveolar macrophages allowed substantial replication of virulent m. bovis, in contrast to bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) pasteur, which replicated poorly. the addition ...200515661042
plant-based immunocontraceptive control of wildlife--"potentials, limitations, and possums".possums (trichosurus vulpecula), originally introduced from australia, are spread over 90% of new zealand and cause major economic and environmental damage. immunocontraception has been suggested as a humane means to control them. marsupial-specific reproductive antigens expressed at high levels in edible transgenic plant tissue might provide a safe, effective, and cheap oral delivery bait for immunocontraceptive control. as proof of concept, female possums vaccinated with immunocontraceptive an ...200515734054
vap1, with cystatin c motif, an oocyte protein encoded by a novel ovarian-specific gene during oogenesis in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).in the brushtail possum oocyte, vesicles accumulate in a polarized fashion at the vegetal pole and cytoplasm rich in mitochondria and containing the germinal vesicle comprise the animal pole. during cleavage to early blastocyst stages, animal pole cytoplasm locates to the cells of the embryonic hemisphere (pluriblast) and vegetal pole vesicular cytoplasm to cells of the abembryonic hemisphere (trophoblast). previously identified 16 amino acid residues, associated with the vesicle-rich cytoplasm ...200515736124
experimental infection of possums with macropodid herpesvirus determine whether macropodid herpesvirus 1 (mahv-1) could infect brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) and whether such infection would lead to latency in possums.200415768078
brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) may pose a threat to public health in new zealand. 200515782879
use of an electronic nose to diagnose mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. current diagnosis of tuberculosis (tb) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine tb. the failure to eradicate bovine tb in great britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (meles meles). accurate and reliable d ...200515814995
conjunctival vaccination of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) with bacille calmette-gué determine the efficacy of conjunctival vaccination of captive brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with bacille calmette-guérin (bcg), as measured by immunological responses to vaccination and response to intratracheal challenge with mycobacterium bovis.200515846397
prolactin in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula): development of homologous radioimmunoassay using recombinant possum prolactin.we report the production of recombinant possum prolactin (posprl), and its use in the development and validation of a highly specific homologous radioimmunoassay for the measurement of prolactin (prl) in brushtail possums. this enabled the subsequent investigation of some basic mechanisms involved in the regulation of prl secretion in this species. recombinant posprl spanning the entire coding region was expressed in escherichia coli, resulting in a 199 amino acid protein with a molecular weight ...200515935156
susceptibility of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) infected with mycobacterium bovis is associated with a transient macrophage activation profile.the australian brushtail possums are highly susceptible to mycobacterium bovis and are the principal wildlife reservoir of m. bovis in new zealand. to better understand the disease process in these animals, brushtail possums were infected by the aerosol route with a virulent strain of m. bovis, and immune parameters measured. m. bovis replicated actively in the lungs of infected animals. animals began developing macroscopic lung lesions at 4 and 5 weeks following infection, with some lesions app ...200515958259
histology of the pouch epithelium and the mammary glands during chemically induced oestrus in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).changes in the epithelium of the maternal pouch and the mammary gland of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) were examined after animals were treated to induce ovulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh), luteinizing hormone (lh), pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (pmsg) and oestradiol. the mammary glands were similar in appearance to those described in eutherian mammals and in previous studies on other marsupials. exposure of possums to these compounds, particularly pmsg, appeared ...200516011549
possums (trichosurus vulpecula) sharing dens: a potential infection route for bovine tuberculosis. 198716031324
adenovirus precipitating antibodies in the sera of brush-tailed possums in new zealand.sera collected from the australian brush-tailed possum trichosurus vulpecula in new zealand in 1975 and 1989 were tested for the presence of antibodies to adenovirus. of the 231 sera tested in an agar gel diffusion test, eight (3.5%) had precipitating antibodies to the group specific antigen of mammalian adenoviruses. available data allowed 99/231 sera to be classified as being obtained from either adult (total 62) or sexually immature (total 37) possums. from the adult animals, 4/62 (6.5%) sera ...199116031621
giardia intestinalis in north island possums, house mice and ship rats.giardia intestinalis cysts were detected in faeces from 12.9% of 124 brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) trapped in auckland, hawke's bay, the wairarapa and wellington; in faecal material from 61.0% of 77 ship rats (rattus rattus) from areas of auckland, hawke's bay and wellington; and in faecal material from 25.3% of 182 house mice (mus musculus) from the north island. possums and rodents in forested areas of auckland and wellington city water catchments were infected. the role of wild an ...199216031653
adiaspiromycosis in suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).pulmonary adiaspiromycosis was diagnosed in 15 of 17 common brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) examined for bovine tuberculosis. emmonsia crescens was isolated from two of the affected animals. this is the first reported isolation of this dimorphic fungus in new zealand. the infections varied from light to heavy with sparsely distributed, focal, 1-2 mm diameter, grey-white spherical granulomas in the lightly infected cases to innumerable foci throughout the lungs in the heavily infected c ...199316031725
prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine tuberculosis in brushtail possums on a forest-scrub margin.tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in 36 of 68 (53%) brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) trapped in august 1992 from a population of exceptionally low density (trap catch <3%) on a forest-scrub margin in westland, new zealand. the prevalence of tuberculosis in possums, based solely on gross lesions, was at least twice that previously recorded in new zealand, and was about seven times that recorded from the same population in 1980. more male (66%) than female (33%) pos ...199416031762
secondary phosphorus poisoning in dogs.subsequent to a possum (trichosurus vulpecula) poisoning operation purportedly using 1% phosphorus baits, six dogs with access to poisoned possums died of phosphorus poisoning. two dogs survived, following treatment with oral copper sulphate and parenteral vitamin k. clinical signs included depression, jaundice, vomiting and bloody diarrhoea. post-mortem lesions included large areas of subcutaneous, interstitial and intermuscular haemorrhage, subserosal haemorrhage and liver degeneration. free p ...199516031797
evaluation of three serological assays for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums.three serological tests for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection were evaluated on 29 possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with tuberculosis and on 100 possums from a tuberculosis-free area. an indirect elisa using m. bovis culture filtrate as the antigen had a sensitivity of 45% and a specificity of 96%, while an indirect elisa using a m. bovis specific antigen (mpb70) had a sensitivity of 21% and a specificity of 98%. a blocking elisa which utilised a monoclonal antibody against mpb70 had ...199516031820
the control of bovine tuberculosis in new zealand.mycobacterium bovis was probably introduced into new zealand with cattle imported in the early 19th century. a tuberculosis control programme was introduced for cattle in 1945. however, the control of tuberculosis in cattle and deer in new zealand over the past two decades has been hampered by the presence of an important wildlife reservoir, the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). while the importance of this source of infection has been suspected by the ministry of agriculture ...199516031863
the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr) in the hauhungaroa ranges, new zealand.the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in the wild possum population around the perimeter of the hauhungaroa ranges, new zealand, was determined by a cross-sectional study, and risk factors associated with tuberculosis were identified. of 6083 possums necropsied, 128 (2.1%) showed gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis infection, and 76 (1.25%) were subsequently confirmed as tuberculous on histopathological examination. considering only traplines where tuberculosis was detected, adult ...199516031866
foraging and denning patterns of brushtail possums, and their possible relationship to contact with cattle and the transmission of bovine and direct observation were used over 18 months in 1990-92 to investigate both the use of sleeping dens and foraging activity by possums (trichosurus vulpecula) on a 21 ha site in the wairarapa used for a longitudinal study of bovine tuberculosis. males had larger home ranges than females, and both sexes had larger activity areas during the autumn mating season than at other times of the year. possums typically foraged in only a small area of their home ranges (termed an activity ...199516031867
interactions between beef cattle and simulated tuberculous possums on pasture.brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) were sedated with ketamine and placed within a fenced observation area with 17 hereford cross steers. the behaviour of the sedated possums simulated that of terminally ill possums. behavioural analysis was carried out during eight observation periods in which sedated possums were successfully released and interactions occurred. cattle were attracted from over 50 m away by the movements of the possums, and for 34% of observation time cattle investigated t ...199516031868
behavioural studies on the potential for direct transmission of tuberculosis from feral ferrets (mustela furo) and possums (trichosurus vulpecula) to farmed livestock.studies were conducted to evaluate the response of cattle and deer to ferrets which were sedated so they behaved like terminally tuberculous animals, and to compare this with the response of cattle, deer and sheep to sedated possums. six groups of deer and two groups of cattle were exposed to a sedated ferret and to a sedated possum. both livestock species showed interest in the possum by sniffing and licking it, but they only briefly touched the ferret and no licking or extended investigation w ...199516031869
naturally occurring tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula): i. an epidemiological analysis of lesion distribution.gross and microscopic lesion distributions and culture test results are described for 73 tuberculous possums recovered from a series of cross-sectional studies involving about 500 detailed necropsies. pathological findings from 11 terminally ill tuberculous possums are also described. quantitative epidemiological techniques were applied to lesion site data to assess factors influencing the pathogenesis of the disease. in possums with gross lesions, the number of distinct body sites affected vari ...199516031871
naturally occurring tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula): ii. pathology.the gross and microscopic lesions due to mycobacterium bovis infection are described in 73 brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpeculu) from population studies and from 11 terminally ill possums. subcutaneous lesions were suppurative in nature, often discharging through sinuses to the exterior. histologically, the smallest lesions comprised focal aggregations of macrophages with angulated cytoplasmic boundaries occasionally containing acid-fast organisms. larger lesions were pyogranulomatous, with ...199516031872
naturally occurring tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula): iii. routes of infection and excretion.mycobacterium bovis was cultured from nine of 25 (36%) tracheal washings but not from any of 38 urine and 38 faecal samples from tuberculous possums cross-sectionally sampled from the wild. one of three tracheal washings, one of three urine samples and one of three faecal samples from terminally ill possums were culture-positive. the respiratory route is implicated as the major route of excretion of mycobacterium bovis from naturally infected possums in horizontal transmission. tuberculosis was ...199516031873
effects of air temperature, air movement and artificial rain on the heat production of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula): an exploratory study.two groups of six mature brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpeculu) were housed in two respiration chambers, and their heat production, whole body conductance and lower critical temperatures were measured under a variety of simulated weather patterns. the possums were subjected to ambient temperatures of 30, 20 and 3 degrees c. at 20 and 3 degrees c, the animals were exposed to near still air and light winds (wind speed 0.8 and 6.7 km/h), both with, and without, simulated rain every 8 hours. the ...199516031874
the distribution of gross lesions of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in feral ferrets (mustela furo) from otago, new zealand.the distribution of gross lesions of mycobacterium bovis was examined in 94 tuberculous feral ferrets (mustela furo) collected from 1992 to 1995 from areas of otago endemic for bovine tuberculosis. overall, 56.4% of tuberculous ferrets had single-site lesions, 24.5% had multiple infections and 19.1% had generalised infections. the mesenteric lymph node was the most common site of infection (34.5% of all lesions), with the retropharyngeal (17%) and the prescapular lymph nodes (16.4%) also frequen ...199516031876
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