caution on the assessment of intestinal parasitic load in studying parasite-mediated sexual selection: the case of blackbirds coccidiosis.the parasite-mediated sexual selection (pmss) theory has led to an increasing number of experimental studies essentially focussed on blood parasites. currently, more research is being carried out on intestinal parasites in relationship to this theory. before testing the theory with gastrointestinal parasites, it is important: (i) to determine an optimal research methodology to obtain an accurate assessment of parasite burden and (ii) to have information about life-history traits of the parasite ...200919100267
validity of the vaginal gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial determine the sensitivity and specificity of vaginal gram stain as interpreted by the nugent criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, and to consider the use of gram stain as the criterion standard for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.19968841221
persistence and the importance of nonreward: some applications of frustration theory and dmod.unfortunately our world does not always reward us when we expect it, and we must learn to deal with nonreward. how do these experiences influence our behaviors and how can we use them to help us? infrustration theory: an analysis of dispositional learning and memory (1992), abram amsel has answered these questions; he has summarized over 40 years of exciting research and the development of an elegant theory. he has also reviewed recent applications of frustration theory in such areas as fetal al ...199424203514
a study of sleep in the european blackbird.sleep states in the blackbird, turdus merula, were determined by recording the electroencephalogram (eeg), electrooculogram (eog), electromyogram (emg), and heart rate (hr), and from behavioral observations and responses to auditory stimulation by natural calls. the presence of changes in slow wave activity was determined from the power spectra of the eeg. spectral power density in the 0.5-4.0 hz band during slow wave sleep (sws) attained highest values in the first part of the night, then decli ...19968884941
electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of sleep in the blackbird (turdus merula).sleep in five blackbirds was investigated by continuous 24-h recordings of eeg, eog, emg, hr, and behavior. because these recordings were similar in many respects to those obtained previously in other species, it was possible to define the electrophysiological correlates of active wakefulness (aw), quiet wakefulness (qw), slow wave sleep (sws), and paradoxical sleep (ps). the time spent in sws and ps was 32.2% and 5.7% of the 24-h period, respectively. the amount of sws decreased during the cour ...19938346306
[benefits of affirm vpiii and l-pap in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].bacterial vaginosis is a syndrome occurring in women of reproductive age, characterized by abnormal vaginal discharge and associated with gynecological and obstetric problems during pregnancy.200818588815
investigation of the significance of heavy metal contents of blackbird feathers.the lead, cadmium and zinc in untreated blackbird (turdus merula l.) feathers is predominantly of exogenous origin. the endogenous concentration is of minor importance. the degree of surface metal pollution depends on exposure time. the exogenous fraction of heavy metals cannot be completely removed by washing procedures. the difference between washed and unwashed feathers is demonstrated by sem micrographs.19883232078
vaginitis: a common malady.approximately 90 per cent of all the vaginitides are caused by bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or trichomoniasis. bacterial vaginosis is the most frequent, causing approximately 50 per cent of vaginal infections. as described by amsel and colleagues, three of four findings indicate bacterial vaginosis: amine odor, ph greater than 4.5, clue cells, and a thin homogeneous discharge. because g. vaginalis colonizes the vagina, treatment should not be instituted in an asymptomatic woman on the basis ...19883054961
seed trait changes in dispersers' guts and consequences for germination and seedling growth.the effectiveness of a frugivore as a disperser of a plant is greatly determined by how fruits and seeds are handled in its mouth and its digestive tract. although a number of studies have investigated the effect of avian ingestion on germination, we still know very little about the modifications to seeds during ingestion and the specific consequences on plant fitness. here we investigate for the first time the different mechanisms by which germination patterns of seeds are modified following in ...200818376551
seasonal differences in resting metabolic rate of turdus merula. 19751196402
[differential accumulation of chlorinated pesticides in the tissues of turdus merula]. 19744464006
blackbird, turdus merula l., and tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus. 19734148119
[the development of pollen grains and formation of pollen tubes in higher plants : iii. dna-replication of vegetative and sperm nuclei in mature pollen grains of barley].the dna-content of vegetative and sperm nuclei in mature pollen grains of the barley varieties amsel and wisa and the f1-plants of crossings of the barley varieties impala x wisa and union x wisa was determined by cytophotometry. in addition, the dna-content of nuclei of root tips of amsel and wisa was cytophotometrically measured.the dna contents of the nuclei in root tips of amsel and wisa differed significantly.the data obtained from the measurements of the vegetative and sperm nuclei of the ...197324425075
[sequence of verses in the song of the black-bird turdus merula]. 19674385032
carotenoid trade-off between parasitic resistance and sexual display: an experimental study in the blackbird (turdus merula).many parasites depress the expression of the carotenoid-based colour displays of their hosts, and it has been hypothesized that animals face a trade-off in carotenoid allocation between immune functions and 'degree of ornamentation'. while numerous correlative studies suggest that parasite infection decreases the intensity of carotenoid-based colour displays, the existence of this trade-off has never been demonstrated experimentally in a host-parasite model. in this study, we used the blackbird ...200818055388
[the neurosecretory system of the diencephalon of the european blackbird (turdus merula l.). after one year expiration and following water deprivation]. 19665990090
tuberculosis in a blackbird (turdus merula). 193219988904
abram amsel (1922-2006) in memoriam. 200717557386
increased sedentariness in european blackbirds following urbanization: a consequence of local adaptation?urbanization changes local environmental conditions and may lead to altered selection regimes for life history traits of organisms thriving in cities. previous studies have reported changes in breeding phenology and even trends toward increased sedentariness in migratory bird species colonizing urban areas. however, does the change in migratory propensity simply represent a phenotypic adjustment to local urban environment, or is it genetically based and hence the result of local adaptation? to t ...200717536705
a randomized trial of the duration of therapy with metronidazole plus or minus azithromycin for treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the most common cause of vaginitis worldwide. currently recommended treatments have poor efficacy and are associated with high rates of bv recurrence. we examined whether a longer duration of treatment with metronidazole or combination therapy with metronidazole and azithromycin would enhance the cure rates for bv. in addition, we examined factors other than drug therapy associated with cure.200717173219
lead concentrations in feathers and blood of common blackbirds (turdus merula) and in earthworms inhabiting unpolluted and moderately polluted urban areas.despite the dramatic decrease of atmospheric lead (pb) concentrations in urban areas of most industrialised countries, we hypothesised that urban common blackbirds (turdus merula) may still be contaminated by pb concentrations of toxicological concern due to transfer from soil through the food chain. we sampled blackbirds and earthworms, one of their main preys, in besançon, a middle-size city of eastern france (where atmospheric pb concentrations decreased from 0.5 microg/m(3) in 1987 to nearly ...200617055037
association of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis with endometrial microbial colonization and plasma cell endometritis in nonpregnant women.this study was undertaken to determine whether asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (bv) is associated with an increased risk of endometrial microbial colonization or plasma cell endometritis in nonpregnant women.200616769017
high recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis over the course of 12 months after oral metronidazole therapy and factors associated with recurrence.we wished to determine recurrences of bacterial vaginosis (bv) after treatment over the course of 12 months and to establish factors associated with recurrence.200616652274
bacterial vaginosis--a laboratory and clinical diagnostics enigma.diagnosing bacterial vaginosis (bv) has long been based on the clinical criteria of amsel et al., whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. though there are other criteria and scoring methods which function well in comparison (i.e. nugent scoring), it is not certain that they will always identify the same category of patients. point-of-care methods based on various combinations of microbial products, presence of rna, or more complex laboratory instrumentations such as sensor arra ...200515799757
intravaginal metronidazole gel versus metronidazole plus nystatin ovules for bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.we compared metronidazole 0.75% gel (containing 37.5 mg metronidazole per dose) with ovules containing metronidazole 500 mg and nystatin 100,000 u, for intravaginal treatment of bacterial vaginosis (bv).200415592270
[factors of risk of bacterial vaginosis].to recognise factors in the host that might condition the appearance of the bacterial vaginosis (bv) syndrome, whether gynae-obstetrical factors, habits of sexual conduct, hygiene, or other factors.200415511357
differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest european blackbirds (turdus merula): result of phenotypic flexibility or genetic differences?species which have settled in urban environments are exposed to different conditions from their wild conspecifics. a previous comparative study of an urban and a forest-living european blackbird population had revealed a three weeks earlier onset of gonadal growth in urban individuals. these physiological adjustments are either the result of genetic differences that have evolved during the urbanization process, or of phenotypic flexibility resulting from the bird's exposure to the different envi ...200415451688
stabilizing natural selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual trait in a passerine bird.natural selection is a central tenet of evolutionary theory, yet the estimation of the direction and intensity of selection remains problematic. here, we assess the strength of selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual ornament, bill colour, in male european blackbirds (turdus merula) using 5 years of capture-mark-recapture (cmr) data. the best-fitting model consisted of a quadratic relationship between survival rate and bill colour, indicating stabilizing natural selection on the ...200415312087
evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (femexam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in the gambia.diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) in resource-poor primary health care settings is often overlooked; there is a need for a cheap, rapid, objective point-of-care diagnostic test.200312782948
evaluation of a novel diagnostic test for bacterial vaginosis: 'the electronic nose'.the objectives were, first, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the osmetech microbial analyser (oma) for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) and, secondly, to determine the factors that interfere with the performance of the test. women presenting to a genitourinary medicine clinic underwent routine screening for genital infections. additional swabs were tested on the oma, and by nugent scoring. the optimum method for sampling was determined on the first 372 samples. bv was dia ...200312662390
[is the papanicolaou smear useful as aid for diagnosing some sexually transmitted infections?].we undertook this study to assess the validity of cytologic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections like: bacterial vaginosis (bv), tricomoniasis and candidiasis using the papanicolaou (pap) smear.200111262330
[evaluation of nugent and amsel criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a common disease in reproductive-age women and is associated to important gynecologic and obstetric complications.200011050838
[evaluation of microscopy methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis has always been controversial. during many years, the laboratory diagnosis of this syndrome was based on the criteria of amsel et al (1983). this includes many factors, such us aqueous vaginal discharge, positive koh test and the presence of clue-cells in a wet mount or gram stain. lately, a new diagnostic method only based on laboratory findings was performed by nugent et al (1991), which has the advantage of being more objective and rapid. it is also easy t ...200611026143
prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and correlation of clinical to gram stain diagnostic criteria in low risk pregnant women.the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, and the correlation of clinical amsel criteria with gram nugent criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a low risk population of pregnant women. pregnant women under 28 weeks of gestation who were followed in the low risk clinics at two centers were evaluated for the presence of bacterial vaginosis using the amsel clinical criteria, and underwent vaginal samples for gram staining. gram smears were examined fo ...199910669125
female mate guarding: no evidence in a socially monogamous understand the behavioural aspects of sperm competition, the costs and benefits to both sexes should be considered. however, few studies have addressed the costs to females of their social mate engaging in extrapair copulations (epcs). measures of female mate guarding have concentrated on female solicitation and copulation; however, females may also control access to their mate by maintaining close proximity, as is common in males. i recorded the maintenance of pair proximity behaviour of an ...200010640382
travel distance and mass gain in wintering blackbirds.birds that range over a large area will have a greater mass-dependent risk of predation than more sedentary birds. birds that travel more may then reduce winter mass gain to compensate for the increased predation risk that greater travelling entails. i tested whether european blackbirds, turdus merula, that travelled more in winter had a lower mass than more sedentary birds, independently of any confounding effects of food supply on both ranging behaviour and mass gain. i measured change in wint ...199910564614
relative competitive ability changes with competitor density: evidence from feeding individual competitive ability varies with competitor density in systems where interference competition occurs has been studied in few systems, despite its importance in determining the fundamental predictions of influential phenotype-limited ideal free distribution models. i measured individual variation in competitive ability in wild wintering blackbirds, turdus merula. variation in feeding rate of single birds, and the decline in their feeding rate in the presence of competitors, were mea ...19989933532
statistical evaluation of diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis in women of reproductive age. in an attempt to clarify diagnosis of this condition, various parameters of signs and symptoms and groups of parameters were compared with classical diagnostic criteria in 310 patients. there was no significant difference in positive diagnosis rates between the amsel et al. criteria and those of thomason et al. (p = 0.25). the single most reliable indicator of bacterial vaginosis was the presence of clue cell ...19901689107
a radiotelemetry system for analyzing heart rate responses during playback experiments in blackbirds (turdus merula ).in acoustical stimulus-response tests on european blackbirds (turdus merula ) in cages and an outdoor aviary, alteration in heart rate (hr) was used to measure reaction strenght. hr was measured by radiotelemetry. the miniature transmitters newly developed for this task had to fulfill the following requirements: simultaneous recordings of hr in several interacting animals; uninterrupted transmission of hr signals, sufficient range and battery life combined with low weight and easy handling prope ...198624925184
[periodic recurrence of verses in the song of the black-bird turdus merula]. 19674385031
the relation between memory and expectancy as revealed by percentage and sequence of reward investigations.there is growing agreement that to explain instrumental learning properly, one should emphasize memory as well as expectancy. i call this approachmemory-expectancy theory. amsel's (1992) frustration theory is one variety of memory-expectancy theory. capaldi's (1994) sequential theory is another. in this report, i examine in considerable detail the effects of percentage and sequence of reward on extinction following different levels of acquisition training. these extinction findings, taken togeth ...199424203513
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