the importance of ixodes arboricola in transmission of rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the czech republic, central europe.abstract wild birds are known to be a reservoir of infectious disease agents and disseminatory hosts of ticks. the purpose of this work was to obtain information about the occurrence of rickettsial, anaplasmal, and borrelial infections in some ticks that parasitize wild birds in the czech republic. a total of 549 subadult ticks of three species ixodes arboricola (75.0%), ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and haemaphysalis concinna (1.8%) were collected from 20 species of birds (passeriformes). rickettsiae ...201121612531
low haemosporidian diversity and one key-host species in a bird malaria community on a mid-atlantic island (são miguel, azores).when host species colonize new areas, the parasite assemblage infecting the hosts might change, with some parasite species being lost and others newly acquired. these changes would likely lead to novel selective forces on both host and its parasites. we investigated the avian blood parasites in the passerine bird community on the mid-atlantic island of são miguel, azores, a bird community originating from continental europe. the presence of haemosporidian blood parasites belonging to the genera ...201122102655
[short - term combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment in vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species].the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of short-term, combined 5-nitroimidazole treatment in vaginal dysbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species. the presence of infection was proven by microscopic examination of vaginal fluid (nugent, modified by ison-hay-keane scale), microbiological culture, and by clinical symptoms (amsel). 179 patients were included in our study. clinical and microbiological examinations were performed prior to the treatment and at the end of the study ...201121916313
Extended antimicrobial treatment of bacterial vaginosis combined with human lactobacilli to find the best treatment and minimize the risk of relapses.The primary objective of this study was to investigate if extended antibiotic treatment against bacterial vaginosis (BV) together with adjuvant lactobacilli treatment could cure BV and, furthermore, to investigate factors that could cause relapse.201121854593
the association of hiv status with bacterial vaginosis and vitamin d in the united estimate the association between vitamin d deficiency and bacterial vaginosis (bv) among nonpregnant hiv-infected and uninfected women.201121875343
transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like borrelia spp., babesia spp., anaplasma, rickettsia/coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. the prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. the prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. in europe, the turdus spp., especially the blackbird, turdus merula, appears to be mo ...201324058903
long-term study of the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (turdus merula) in ne poland.seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern poland. we examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. the tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). amon ...201627631764
development and validation of a semiquantitative, multitarget pcr assay for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.quantitative pcr assays were developed for 4 organisms reported previously to be useful positive indicators for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv)--atopobium vaginae, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 2 (bvab-2), gardnerella vaginalis, and megasphaera-1--and a single organism (lactobacillus crispatus) that has been implicated as a negative indicator for bv. vaginal samples (n = 169), classified as positive (n = 108) or negative (n = 61) for bv based on a combination of the nugent g ...201222535982
campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild birds on danish livestock farms.reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the eu. livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of campylobacter spp. the farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic campylobacter spp. we investigated the campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird s ...201626842400
campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in blackbirds.the zoonotic bacterium campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus turdus in europe to be frequently colonized with c. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. the european blackbird turdus merula has a large distribution in europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to australia by european immigrants in the 1850s.201526634844
tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in germany.the importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. for their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. in this study, tick infestation of birds in germany was examined. eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (turdus merula) and song thrushes (turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. ground ...201627048511
analysis of vaginal acetic acid in patients undergoing treatment for bacterial vaginosis.a "gold standard" method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) is lacking. the clinical criteria described by the amsel technique are subjective and difficult to quantify. alternatively, the reading of gram-stained vaginal smears by scoring techniques such as those that use the nugent or hay-ison scoring systems is again subjective, requires expert personnel to perform the reading, and is infrequently used clinically. recently, a new diagnostic device, the osmetech microbial analyzer--ba ...200415528711
prevalence and risks for bacterial vaginosis in women who have sex with women.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a common cause of vaginitis and, for unknown reasons, is common in lesbian and bisexual women. we defined risks for prevalent bv in lesbian and bisexual women with attention to detailed sexual risk history.201020429087
comparison of nucleic acid amplification assays with bd affirm vpiii for diagnosis of vaginitis in symptomatic women.a commercially available, nonamplified, nucleic acid probe-based test system (bd affirm vpiii) was compared with nucleic acid amplification (naa)-based assays for determining the etiology of vaginitis in a cohort of 323 symptomatic women. first, a semiquantitative, multiplexed pcr assay (bv-pcr) and the affirm vpiii gardnerellavaginalis test were compared with a unified bacterial-vaginosis (bv) reference standard incorporating both nugent gram stain scores and amsel clinical criteria. in the eva ...201323985917
bacterial vaginosis, race, and sexually transmitted infections: does race modify the association?there are significant racial disparities in the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (stis) in the united states. the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the association of bacterial vaginosis and incident sti is modified by race even after adjustment for sexual practices and other potential confounding variables.200818360319
bacterial vaginosis - more questions than answers.bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age and is associated with serious pregnancy related sequelae and increased transmission of sexually transmissible infections, including hiv. the aetiology, pathology, microbiology and transmission of bacterial vaginosis remain poorly understood.200919521581
[co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with chlamydia trachomatis].the aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by chlamydia trachomatis (c. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (av) and bacterial vaginosis (bv). indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by c. trachomatis.200718050609
evaluation of vaginal ph for detection of bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is highly prevalent among women in reproductive age group. little information exists on routine vaginal p h measurement in women with bv. we undertook this study to assess the utility of vaginal p h determination for initial evaluation of bacterial vaginosis.201324135180
composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. this study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with bv), with the view of developing molecular criteria for bv diagnosis.201323585843
machine learning techniques accurately classify microbial communities by bacterial vaginosis characteristics.microbial communities are important to human health. bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a disease associated with the vagina microbiome. while the causes of bv are unknown, the microbial community in the vagina appears to play a role. we use three different machine-learning techniques to classify microbial communities into bv categories. these three techniques include genetic programming (gp), random forests (rf), and logistic regression (lr). we evaluate the classification accuracy of each of these te ...201424498380
basic study: is intravaginal boric acid non-inferior to metronidazole in symptomatic bacterial vaginosis? study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.bacterial vaginosis is associated with increased transmission of sexually transmitted infections, preterm labor, post-surgical infections, and endometritis. current treatment for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis includes antibiotics, such as metronidazole, which are 70-80 % effective at one month after treatment and result in high recurrence rates and secondary candida infections. intravaginal boric acid has been used for over a hundred years to treat vaginal infections, such as bacterial vaginos ...201526210791
metabolic signatures of bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is characterized by shifts in the vaginal microbiota from lactobacillus dominant to a microbiota with diverse anaerobic bacteria. few studies have linked specific metabolites with bacteria found in the human vagina. here, we report dramatic differences in metabolite compositions and concentrations associated with bv using a global metabolomics approach. we further validated important metabolites using samples from a second cohort of women and a different platform to meas ...201525873373
molecular assessment of bacterial vaginosis by lactobacillus abundance and species date, women are most often diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (bv) using microscopy based nugent scoring or amsel criteria. however, the accuracy is less than optimal. the aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of known bv-associated composition profiles and evaluate indicators for bv using three molecular methods.201627107961
understanding west nile virus ecology in europe: culex pipiens host feeding preference in a hotspot of virus emergence.understanding wildlife disease ecology is becoming an urgent need due to the continuous emergence and spread of several wildlife zoonotic diseases. west nile virus (wnv) is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus in the world, and in recent decades there has been an increase both in geographic range, and in the frequency of symptomatic infections in humans and wildlife. the principal vector for wnv in europe is the common house culex pipiens mosquito, which feeds on a wide variety of vertebrat ...201525888754
usutu virus: an emerging flavivirus in europe.usutu virus (usuv) is an african mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. usuv is closely related to murray valley encephalitis virus, japanese encephalitis virus, and west nile virus. usuv was discovered in south africa in 1959. in europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of usuv was reported in austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of eurasian blackbirds. in the subsequent years, usuv expanded to neighboring countries, including italy, ...201525606971
feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in a region of high hybridization.two biological forms of the mosquito culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. in this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in comporta (portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded.201323578139
epizootic emergence of usutu virus in wild and captive birds in germany.this study aimed to identify the causative agent of mass mortality in wild and captive birds in southwest germany and to gather insights into the phylogenetic relationship and spatial distribution of the pathogen. since june 2011, 223 dead birds were collected and tested for the presence of viral pathogens. usutu virus (usuv) rna was detected by real-time rt-pcr in 86 birds representing 6 species. the virus was isolated in cell culture from the heart of 18 blackbirds (turdus merula). usuv-specif ...201222389712
dual emergence of usutu virus in common blackbirds, eastern france, 2015. 027869608
drowning is an apparent and unexpected recurrent cause of mass mortality of common starlings (sturnus vulgaris).drowning is infrequently reported as a cause of death of wild birds and such incidents typically involve individual, rather than multiple, birds. over a 21-year period (1993 to 2013 inclusive), we investigated 12 incidents of mortality of multiple (2 - 80+) common starlings (sturnus vulgaris) in great britain that appeared to be due to drowning. more than ten birds were affected in ten of these reported incidents. these incidents always occurred during the spring and early summer months and usua ...201526601771
deadly outbreak of iron storage disease (isd) in italian birds of the family turdidae.a widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family turdidae in italy. the present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central italy. only turdus pilaris, turdus iliacus, turdus philomelos and turdus merula were affected. no other species of bird held by these breeders died. a change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative ...201424920545
widespread usutu virus outbreak in birds in the netherlands, 2016.we report a widespread usutu virus outbreak in birds in the netherlands. viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as april 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from august 2016 onwards. usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and rt-pcr. extensive usutu virus activity in the netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond ...027918257
bloodmeal analysis reveals avian plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) vectors.changing environmental conditions and human encroachment on natural habitats bring human populations closer to novel sources of parasites, which might then develop into new emerging diseases. diseases transmitted by host generalist vectors are of special interest due to their capacity to move pathogens into novel hosts. we hypothesize that humans using forests for recreation are exposed to a broad range of parasites from wild animals and their vectors. a corollary of this is that new vector-host ...201222363557
inefficient co-feeding transmission of borrelia afzelii in two common european songbirds.the spirochete bacterium borrelia afzelii is the most common cause of lyme borreliosis in europe. this tick-borne pathogen can establish systemic infections in rodents but not in birds. however, several field studies have recovered larval ixodes ricinus ticks infected with b. afzelii from songbirds suggesting successful transmission of b. afzelii. we reviewed the literature to determine which songbird species were the most frequent carriers of b. afzelii-infected i. ricinus larvae and nymphs. we ...201728054584
fecal sacs attract insects to the nest and provoke an activation of the immune system of nestlings.nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. the most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures determine this behavior. the parasitism hypothesis, which states that nestling fecal sacs attract parasites that negatively affect breeding birds, was proposed 40 years ago and is frequently cited as a demonstrated fact. but, to our knowledge, there is no previous experimental test of this ...201626793266
tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from breeding and migratory birds in switzerland.from 2007 to 2010, 4558 migrating and breeding birds of 71 species were caught and examined for ticks in switzerland. a total of 1205 specimens were collected; all were ixodes ricinus ticks except one ixodes frontalis female, which was found on a common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) for the first time in switzerland. each tick was analysed individually for the presence of borrelia spp., rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev). altogether, 11.4% of bird ...201425113989
evaluation and subsequent optimizations of the quantitative amplisens florocenosis/bacterial vaginosis-frt multiplex real-time pcr assay for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.traditional microscopy-based methods for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) are underutilized in many settings, and molecular techniques may provide opportunities for rapid, objective, and accurate bv diagnosis. this study evaluated the quantitative amplisens florocenosis/bacterial vaginosis-frt multiplex real-time pcr (florocenosis-bv) assay. vaginal samples from a previous study including unselected female subjects (n = 163) and using amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for bv diagnosis w ...201627714844
utilization of molecular methods to identify prognostic markers for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.recurrent bacterial vaginosis (bv) after antimicrobial therapy is a major problem, affecting >50% of patients within 1 year. the objective of this study was to determine if prospective identification of patients at risk for recurrence using molecular methods is feasible.201627431434
quantification of atopobium vaginae loads may be a new method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.traditional methods for the diagnosis of bv is either with poor sensitivity or poor specificity. thus, establishing a new method based on the vaginal flora is vital for the diagnosis of bv.201425291946
characterization of the vaginal microflora in health and disease.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is an imbalance of the vaginal bacterial microbiota and its aetiology is still unknown. our aims were to investigate the diagnostic potential of species/genus specific quantitative pcr (qpcr) for bacteria present in swabs and first-void urine (fvu) samples using nugent's and claeys' criteria and 454 sequencing of the vaginal microbiome as reference.201424814599
[diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. when symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal h2o2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and gardnerella vaginalis, atopobium v ...201324073569
correlation of atopobium vaginae amount with bacterial vaginosis markers.the purpose of this study was to test the correlation of the amount of atopobium vaginae with the most commonly used markers for bacterial vaginosis (bv).201222371042
patterns of tick infestation and their borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in portugal.wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. the aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using pcr techniques. seven tick species were collected from birds including haemaphysalis punctata, hyalomma spp., ixodes acuminatus, ixodes arboricola, ixodes frontalis, ixodes ricinus an ...201526159798
characterization through multilocus sequence analysis of borrelia turdi isolates from portugal.borrelia turdi is a spirochete from the borrelia burgdorferi complex, first reported in japan, that has been increasingly detected in europe. this genospecies is mostly associated with avian hosts and their ornithophilic ticks such as ixodes frontalis. in this study, we isolated b. turdi from five i. frontalis feeding on turdus merula, turdus philomelos, parus major and troglodytes troglodytes, and one ixodes ricinus feeding on a t. merula in portugal. these isolates were genetically characteris ...201626311126
do ticks and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. constitute a burden to birds?ticks consume resources from their hosts shaping their life-history traits and are vectors of many zoonotic pathogens. several studies have focused on the health effects of blood-sucking ectoparasites on avian hosts, but there is limited information on the effects of ticks on adult and sub-adult birds, which may actively avoid ticks and are likely to present low infestation intensities. we evaluated the effects of the presence of feeding ticks and intensity of infestation on health variables of ...201323430359
birds as reservoirs for borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in western europe: circulation of b. turdi and other genospecies in bird-tick cycles in portugal.birds are important in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) because they are important hosts for vector tick immature stages and are known reservoirs for some borrelia genospecies. the aim of our study was to assess the role of common passerine bird species as reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l. in western europe. we surveyed birds in enzootic areas in portugal, where no information is available for birds as reservoirs for this aetiologic agent and where b. lusitaniae, for which ...201322882497
which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, ixodes ricinus, the vector of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season?wild birds are important hosts for vector-borne pathogens, especially those borne by ticks. however, few studies have been conducted on the role of different bird species within a community as hosts of vector-borne pathogens. this study addressed individual and species factors that could explain the burden of ixodes ricinus on forest birds during the reproductive periods of both vectors and hosts. the goal was to identify which bird species contribute the most to the tick population at the commu ...201222732161
blackbirds turdus merula as competent reservoirs for borrelia turdi and borrelia valaisiana in portugal: evidence from a xenodiagnostic confirm that thrushes, such as blackbirds turdus merula, play a role as reservoir for some borrelia genospecies, we performed a xenodiagnostic experiment with blackbirds captured in a mixed wood located in western portugal where borrelia turdi, an uncommon genospecies in europe, was the most prevalent genospecies associated with birds. two out of five birds harboured b. turdi infected ixodes frontalis at the time of capture. four out of five birds transmitted spirochaetes to ixodes ricinus xe ...201323864576
rickettsiae of spotted fever group, borrelia valaisiana, and coxiella burnetii in ticks on passerine birds and mammals from the camargue in the south of france.ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that have a limited mobility, but can be transported over large geographical distances by wild and domestic mammals and birds. in this study, we analyze the presence of emerging zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from passerine birds and mammals present in the camargue, in the south of france, which is a major rallying point for birds migrating from eurasia and africa. the presence of coxiella burnetii, rickettsia, borrelia, and bartonella was examin ...201223141104
ctx-m-15-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing escherichia coli from wild birds in germany.the isolation of escherichia coli from wild birds in germany revealed the occurrence of four ctx-m-15-producing strains from four different birds (2.3% of 172 isolates). ctx-m producers were recovered from two eurasian blackbirds, one rock pigeon and a greater white-fronted goose. all ctx-m-producing e. coli revealed a clonal relationship as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and were assigned to multilocus sequence type (st) 648. our findings suggest the emergence of a new cl ...201023766249
gardnerella vaginalis population dynamics in bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the leading cause of vaginal discharge and is associated with the facultative gram-variable bacterium gardnerella vaginalis, whose population structure consists of four clades. our goal was to determine if these clades differ with regard to abundance during bv. we performed a short-term longitudinal study of bv. patients were evaluated according to the amsel criteria and nugent scoring at initial diagnosis, immediately after treatment and at a 40- to 45-day follow-up ...201728197729
[bacterial vaginosis].bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. it is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. this is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic ...201627474242
prevalence of gardnerella vaginalis among women with lactobacillus-predominant vaginal determine the prevalence of gardnerella vaginalis in women with normal vaginal flora.201424259188
haemoproteus minutus and haemoproteus belopolskyi (haemoproteidae): complete sporogony in the biting midge culicoides impunctatus (ceratopogonidae), with implications on epidemiology of haemoproteosis.species of haemoproteus (haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan haemosporidian parasites, some of which cause severe diseases in birds. numerous recent studies address molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of haemoproteids. however, the information about their vectors is scarce. we investigated sporogonic development of two widespread species of haemoproteus (haemoproteus minutus and haemoproteus belopolskyi) in the experimentally infected biting midge culicoides impunctatus. ...201425102434
molecular characterization and distribution of haemoproteus minutus (haemosporida, haemoproteidae): a pathogenic avian parasite.recently, the lineage hturdus2 of haemoproteus minutus (haemosporida, haemoproteidae) was reported to cause mortality in captive parrots. this parasite lineage is widespread and prevalent in the blackbird turdus merula throughout its entire distribution range. species identity of other closely related lineages recently reported in dead parrots remains unclear, but will be important to determine for a better understanding of the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr ...201323557683
the vaginal microbiota: what have we learned after a decade of molecular characterization?we conducted a systematic review of the medline database (u.s. national library of medicine, national institutes of health, bethesda, md, u.s.a) to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (vmb) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of vmb compositions. studies were eligible when published between 1 january 2008 and 15 november 2013, and if at least one molecular technique (sequenci ...201425148517
epidemic spread of usutu virus in southwest germany in 2011 to 2013 and monitoring of wild birds for usutu and west nile viruses.mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for europe. one of these viruses is usutu virus (usuv), a single-stranded rna virus belonging to the japanese encephalitis virus group within the family flaviviridae. since the occurrence of usuv among wild birds in june, 2011, infected blackbirds (turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. moreover, other bird species (strigiformes) in this region have been affected. in a first st ...201526273809
[probiotic monotherapy of bacterial vaginosis: a open, randomized trial].the aim of the current research is to establish the clinical and microbiological efficacy of the therapy with local probiotics in the treatment of anaerobic vaginal infections and the therapy's effect upon vaginal flora.201324294744
[efficacy of combined 5-nitroimidazole and probiotic therapy of bacterial vaginosis: randomized open trial].the aim of the current research is to identify the clinical and microbiological effect of 5-nitroimidazol therapy for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis and in combination with probiotics and the influence of such therapy upon vaginal flora.201324283058
[effect of lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus (gynophilus) in restoring the vaginal flora by female patients with bacterial vaginosis--randomized, open clinical trial].the vaginal probiotics can increase the clinical and microbiological efficacy of the therapeutic regimens used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the application of lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus (gynophilus--probiotic species lcr 35) in restoring the vaginal flora and prevention of relapses by female patients with anaerobic vaginal infection undergoing conventional (nitroimidazole) local and main therapy.201324294746
molecular analysis of the relationship between specific vaginal bacteria and bacterial vaginosis metronidazole therapy failure.bacterial vaginosis frequently persists, even after treatment. the role of some strains of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis treatment failure remains poorly defined. the aim of our study was to define the risk of bacterial vaginosis treatment failure, including pre-treatment detection of specific vaginal bacteria. bacterial vaginosis is present when the nugent score is ≥7 and the modified amsel criteria is positive. women with bacterial vaginosis were treated with intravaginal metron ...201424816815
bacterial communities in women with bacterial vaginosis: high resolution phylogenetic analyses reveal relationships of microbiota to clinical criteria.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. we sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with bv using deep sequencing of the 16s rrna gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. we investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristi ...201222719852
phylogenetic characterization and virulence of two newcastle disease viruses isolated from wild birds in china.wild birds are considered as a natural reservoir of newcastle disease virus (ndv). however, there is no information about genotype ix ndv from wild birds, especially from columbiformes. in this study, two genotype ix ndv viruses were isolated from wild birds. one was from eurasian blackbird, while the other was from spotted-necked dove. after purification by plaque technique, complete genomes of both viruses were sequenced. phylogenetic analysis of partial fusion (f) gene and complete genome ind ...201323999544
integrative taxonomy of central european parasitic flatworms of the family prosthogonimidae lühe, 1909 (trematoda: plagiorchiida).species of the family prosthogonimidae are considered the most pathogenic poultry trematodes worldwide, affecting particularly low intensity farming in rural areas. adults of prosthogonimus occur mainly in the bursa of fabricius, oviduct and cloaca of ducks, geese, fowl and other birds feeding at least occasionally on dragonflies or damselflies (odonata). we analyzed the central european species of the prosthogonimidae, namely prosthogonimus cuneatus, prosthogonimus ovatus, prosthogonimus pelluc ...201525724855
vulvovaginitis: screening for and management of trichomoniasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial review the evidence and provide recommendations on screening for and management of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis.201526001874
accuracy and trust of self-testing for bacterial vaginosis.two point-of-care tests are available to detect bacterial vaginosis (bv), a common vaginal condition. this study aimed to (1) compare the accuracy of two self-performed bv tests with clinician-performed bv tests and with clinical diagnosis of bv; and (2) compare trust of results for self-performed bv testing with clinician-performed bv testing.201222999842
evidence for an independent third usutu virus introduction into germany.usutu virus (usuv) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to southern europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. in germany usuv was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly common blackbirds (turdus merula), in the upper rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing usuv epidemic is caused by two different usuv strains, ...201627527765
west nile virus-neutralizing antibodies in wild birds from southern spain.west nile virus (wnv) is an emerging vector-borne arbovirus with a zoonotic life-cycle whose main reservoir hosts are birds. in humans and horses, wnv infections rarely result in clinical disease but on occasions - depending on factors such as climatic conditions, insect communities and background immunity levels in local populations - they can lead to outbreaks that threaten public and animal health. we tested for the presence of wnv antibodies in 149 birds belonging to 32 different species. sa ...201626846720
lack of usutu virus rna in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology, tuscany, italy.usutu virus (usuv) is an african mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with human neurological disorders in europe. recently, usuv introduction in europe has been traced back to eurasian blackbirds deaths in the tuscany region of italy in 1996. ninety-six cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology diagnosed in 2010-2013 were screened to determine whether usuv circulates in humans in tuscany. using real-time polymerase chain reaction, no positive patient ...201525712912
usutu virus in blackbirds (turdus merula), czech republic, 2011-2012.the central european lineage of usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of brno, czech republic, in 2011. the virus rna was detected in two other dead blackbirds in brno during 2012.201423095331
blood meal analysis, flavivirus screening, and influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in northern extended area of northern italy has experienced several west nile virus (wnv) outbreaks and the emergence of usutu virus (usuv) during previous years. our aim was to study some of the factors that could explain disease patterns in the trentino region, where circulation was detected in human sera and sentinel chickens, but no human or equine cases were reported. we collected culex species (diptera: culicidae) in peridomestic environments. the collected specimens were analyzed for feeding behav ...201222548533
goshawk prey have more bacteria than non-prey.1. predators often prey on individuals that are sick or otherwise weakened. although previous studies have shown higher abundance of parasites in prey, whether prey have elevated loads of micro-organisms remains to be determined. 2. we quantified the abundance of bacteria and fungi on feathers of woodpigeons columba palumbus l., jays garrulus glandarius l. and blackbirds turdus merula l. that either fell prey to goshawks accipiter gentilis l. or were not depredated. 3. we found an almost three-f ...201222039986
description of sarcocystis turdusi sp. nov. from the common blackbird (turdus merula).cysts of sarcocystis species were found in 24 of 44 (54·5%) examined blackbirds (turdus merula). under the light microscope, only 1 morphological type of cyst was found in all birds investigated. ribbon-shaped cysts were long (the largest fragment found amounted to 7 mm) and of different thickness (25-206 μm). a cyst wall reached up to 3·5 μm and had finger-like protrusions. under the transmission electron microscope, a single cyst isolated from 1 blackbird was studied. the cyst wall was 2·5-4·4 ...201222814103
is it benign or is it a pariah? empirical evidence for the impact of the common myna (acridotheres tristis) on australian birds.there is widespread concern over the impact of introduced species on biodiversity, but the magnitude of these impacts can be variable. understanding the impact of an introduced species is essential for effective management. however, empirical evidence of the impact of an introduced species can be difficult to obtain, especially when the impact is through competition. change in species abundance is often slow and gradual, coinciding with environmental change. as a result, negative impacts on nati ...201222808210
malarial infections in sedentary and migratory passerine birds in israel: description of new species.our objective was to investigate the diversity of plasmodium species in birds of the rift valley section in israel. plasmodium merulae corradetti & scanga, 1973 was previously reported in blackbirds (turdus merula linnaeus, 1758), that are resident. we also report and describe three other species and seven new species of plasmodium from migratory birds in the north, and from eilat at the southernmost tip of the jordan valley. new species are: plasmodium lusciniae sp. n., plasmodium alloreticulat ...201022320017
how selfish is a cuckoo chick?we studied the begging display of nestling cuckoos, cuculus canorus, reared by reed warbler, acrocephalus scirpaceus, hosts, to test various hypotheses for the cuckoo's unusually rapid begging call. the hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but focus on different parts of the chain: chick need-begging signals-provisioning by hosts. we reject two hypotheses. (1) cuckoo chicks do not use their exaggerated begging to counteract host rejection: begging displays varied with hunger and functioned enti ...199910512653
influences of population size and woodland area on bird species distributions in small woods.distributions of individual bird species in 151 small woods (size range 0.02-30 ha) were investigated in 3 consecutive years during which the abundance of certain species varied markedly. relationships between the probabilities of certain bird species breeding and woodland area were described using incidence functions derived from logistic regression analysis. in general, for species which were largely dependent on woodland and seldom occurred in other habitats (such as hedgerows and gardens), t ...199628307128
behavioural and physiological responses of wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) to experimental manipulations of predation and starvation risk.body weight and the levels of stored body fat have fitness consequences. greater levels of fat may provide protection against catastrophic failures in the food supply, but they may also increase the risk of predation. animals may therefore regulate their fatness according to their perceived risks of predation and starvation: the starvation-predation trade-off model. we tested the predictions of this model in wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) by experimentally manipulating predation risk and starva ...201526143188
bioenergy and biodiversity: intensified biomass extraction from hedges impairs habitat conditions for birds.biomass is increasingly used as an alternative source for energy in europe. woody material cut from hedges is considered to provide a suitable complement to maize and oilseed rape, which are currently the dominant biomass sources. since shrubs and trees are also important habitats for birds, however, coppicing of hedges at the landscape scale may adversely affect the diversity of the avifauna. to evaluate this risk, we estimated the response of hedge birds to three management scenarios differing ...201727915181
feather mites (acari, astigmata) from azorean passerines (aves, passeriformes): lower species richness compared to european mainland.ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the azores (north atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. we recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily analgoidea (analgidae, proctophyllodidae, psoroptoididae and trouessartiidae). a high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. only three passerine species (sylvia atricapilla, regulus regulus and serinus ca ...201525665827
the seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the north island of new zealand.blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern north island of new zealand. sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (apv) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for plasmodium spp. by pcr. forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to apv. song thrushes (turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by eurasian blackbirds (turdus m ...201323678738
avian malaria in new zealand.avian malaria parasites of the genus plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in new zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. to date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in new zea ...201424313228
egg rejection in blackbirds turdus merula: a by-product of conspecific parasitism or successful resistance against interspecific brood parasites?traditional theory assumes that egg recognition and rejection abilities arise as a response against interspecific brood parasitism (ibp). however, rejection also appears in some species that are currently not exploited by interspecific parasites, such as turdus thrushes. recent evidences suggest that rejection abilities evolved in these species as a response to conspecific brood parasitism (cbp). to test these two alternative hypotheses, we performed an experimental study by parasitizing nests o ...201627073406
diversity and seasonal patterns of ticks parasitizing wild birds in western portugal.the diversity and abundance of questing ticks and ticks parasitizing birds was assessed during 1 year in two recreational forests in western portugal, a suburban forest and an enclosed game area. the aim of this study was to assess the distribution and seasonality of tick species and to understand the role of bird species as hosts for ticks. ixodes ricinus was the most abundant questing tick collected in the enclosed game area, whereas in the suburban forest, only three ticks were collected by b ...201222669280
testing hypotheses in evolutionary ecology with imperfect detection: capture-recapture structural equation modeling.studying evolutionary mechanisms in natural populations often requires testing multifactorial scenarios of causality involving direct and indirect relationships among individual and environmental variables. it is also essential to account for the imperfect detection of individuals to provide unbiased demographic parameter estimates. to cope with these issues, we developed a new approach combining structural equation models with capture-recapture models (cr-sem) that allows the investigation of c ...201222624306
seasonal changes in colour: a comparison of structural, melanin- and carotenoid-based plumage colours.plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. after moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed.201020644723
visual pigments, oil droplets, ocular media and cone photoreceptor distribution in two species of passerine bird: the blue tit (parus caeruleus l.) and the blackbird (turdus merula l.).the spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors of the blue tit (parus caeruleus) and blackbird (turdus merula) were investigated using microspectrophotometry. the retinae of both species contained rods, double cones and four spectrally distinct types of single cone. whilst the visual pigments and cone oil droplets in the other receptor types are very similar in both species, the wavelength of maximum sensitivity (lambda(max)) of long-wavelength-sensitive single and double ...200010798725
keypeck conditioning with reinforcements in two different locations in thrush, tit and sparrow species.twenty-one individuals each of the species great tits (parus major), blue tits (parus caeruleus), marsh tits (parus palustris), blackbirds (turdus merula), songthrushes (turdus philomelos), tree sparrows (passer montanus) and house sparrows (passer domesticus) were conditioned to a keypeck response by means of food reinforcement. the site where the reward was given was then changed. the number of reinforcements were then counted until the keypeck response followed immediately (within 10 seconds) ...198524896449
a preliminary investigation on ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting birds in kızılırmak delta, turkey.ticks are mandatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even amphibians. turkey has a rich bird fauna and is located on the main migration route for many birds. however, information on ticks infesting birds is very limited. in the present study, we aimed to determine ticks infesting birds in kızılırmak delta, turkey. in 2014 autumn bird migration season, a total of 7,452 birds belonging to 79 species, 52 genera, 35 families, and 14 orders were examined for tick infestati ...201626487249
effects of air pollution on hematological parameters in passerine birds.the effects of atmospheric air pollution on some hematological, and bioquimic parameters, of passerine birds were analyzed. the studies were undertaken in the area of cercs (polluted area in spain), where there is a coal-fired power plant that emanates so2, nox, and particles, and the area of st. jaume de frontanya (nonpolluted area) located 40 km from the area of cercs with similar climatology, relief, and altitude, but without air pollution. the results showed that there was a significant decr ...19968688002
ticks on passerines from the archipelago of the azores as hosts of borreliae and rickettsiae.we examined the presence of borreliae and rickettsiae bacteria in ticks from wild passerine birds on three islands of the archipelago of the azores, the westernmost region of palearctic. a total of 266 birds belonging to eight species from seven families were examined on são miguel, santa maria and graciosa islands in 2013. ticks collected from these birds consisted of 55 ixodes frontalis (22 larvae, 32 nymphs, 1 adult female) and 16 haemaphysalis punctata nymphs. turdus merula and erithacus rub ...201526013915
microfilariae in birds in the czech republic, including a note on adult nematodes eufilaria delicata in a song thrush turdus philomelos.blood samples of more than 1,100 passerineform birds of 40 species were investigated for the occurrence of microfilariae. in the year 2005, 3 out of 677 birds of 31 species (prevalence 0.4%) were infected with microfilariae during the post-nesting period. during the pre-nesting period in the year 2007, 11 out of 438 birds of 31 species were infected with microfilariae (prevalence 2.5%). both the pre-nesting and post-nesting examinations were conducted at the same location in the northeastern par ...201121400118
effects of introducing threatened falcons into vineyards on abundance of passeriformes and bird damage to grapes.agricultural landscapes are becoming an important focus of animal conservation, although initiatives to conserve predators to date have rarely provided economic benefits to agricultural producers. we examined whether introduction to vineyards of the new zealand falcon (falco novaeseelandiae), a species listed as threatened by the new zealand department of conservation, affected the abundance of 4 species of passeriformes that are considered vineyard pests or affected the amount of economic loss ...201222010952
a review of the genus nothris hübner, 1825, with description of new species (lepidoptera: gelechiidae).the west palaearctic genus nothris is reviewed. eight species are distinguished, and adults and genitalia are described and figured. two species are described as new for science: nothris gregerseni sp. n. and n. skyvai sp. n. new synonymies are established: nothris discretella rebel, 1889 syn. n. and n. verbascella clarella amsel, 1935 stat. n. are considered synonyms of n. verbascella ([denis & schiffermüller], 1775); and n. magna nel & peslier, 2007 syn. n. is synonymized with n. sulcella stau ...201526701574
characterisation of isospora lusitanensis n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the eurasian blackbird turdus merula linnaeus (passeriformes: turdidae) in mainland portugal.a new coccidian species (protozoa: apicomplexa: eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the eurasian blackbird turdus merula linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in quinta de marim, olhão, portugal. isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 26.4 × 23.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is p ...201526358076
a taxonomic study of the genus bagdadia amsel, 1949 from hainan island of china (lepidoptera: gelechiidae).five species of the genus bagdadia amsel are recognized from hainan island of china in this paper, of these, bagdadia khaoensis (park & ponomarenko) comb. nov. is proposed, and it is reported for the first time from this country. one new species, bagdadia tricornis sp. nov. is described and one possibly new species is discussed but not formally named for lack of material. adults and genitalia of the new and the unnamed species are illustrated and a key to known species of the genus from china is ...201526249514
proposal of a new cutoff for nugent criteria in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.treatment for lower genital tract infections is the major demand for gynecological services in public and private health centers in brazil. the aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic resources proposed by amsel, comparing them with the microflora evaluation by the nugent score and thus propose a new cutoff point in this rating score, showing the complementarity of both diagnostic criteria.201525957514
phylogenetic systematics of schacontia dyar with descriptions of eight new species (lepidoptera, crambidae).the neotropical genus schacontiadyar (1914) is reviewed and revised to include eleven species. schacontia replica dyar, 1914, syn. n. and schacontia pfeifferi amsel, 1956, syn. n. are synonymized with schacontia chanesalis (druce, 1899) and eight new species are described: schacontia umbra,sp. n., schacontia speciosa,sp. n., schacontia themis, sp. n., schacontia rasa, sp. n., schacontia nyx,sp. n., schacontia clotho, sp. n., schacontia lachesis, sp. n., and schacontia atropos, sp. n. three speci ...201323794861
recent records of scythridids from the islands of socotra and maldives in the indian ocean, with descriptions of two new species (lepidoptera: gelechioidea, scythrididae).records of five species embracing 211 specimens of the family scythrididae from the islands of socotra and maldives in the indian ocean are presented. the material was collected during four trips in 2008-2010 on socotra, and in december 2011 on the maldives. two new species are described: scythris digitibasella nupponen & saldaitis sp. nov. from socotra and s. atollicola nupponen, saldaitis & fischer sp. nov. from the maldives. catascythris kebirella amsel, 1935 and scythris paralogella bengtsso ...201326176138
[tinidazole versus cefazolin in antibiotic prophylaxis of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy].to compare the efficacy of tinidazole and cephazolin on the febrile and infectious morbidity of post vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy antibiotic prophylaxis.200819148431
eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of turdus thrushes.the striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. it has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. we use the known properties of the th ...200818401571
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