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[nematoda of blackbird (turdus merula l.) and mavis (turdus philomelos br.) from the wroclaw district. ii. ecological study]. 1979516737
[nematoda of blackbird (turdus merula l.) and mavis (turdus philomelos br.) from the wroclaw region. i. faunistic studies]. 1979524890
[physaloptera (pseudophysaloptera) soricina (bayliss, 1934) in a blackbird turdus merula l]. 1979574688
effects of consistent to partial reinforcement or partial reinforcement in the amsel frustration effect. 1978663026
[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
seasonal differences in resting metabolic rate of turdus merula. 19751196402
statistical evaluation of diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis in women of reproductive age. in an attempt to clarify diagnosis of this condition, various parameters of signs and symptoms and groups of parameters were compared with classical diagnostic criteria in 310 patients. there was no significant difference in positive diagnosis rates between the amsel et al. criteria and those of thomason et al. (p = 0.25). the single most reliable indicator of bacterial vaginosis was the presence of clue cell ...19901689107
loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european blackbirds.to determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
[turdus merula l. as a proper host of capillaria ovopunctata (nematoda, capillariidae)].biometrical analysis of four morphometric characters of male and female specimens of capillaria ovopunctata parasitizing in sturnus vulgaris, erithacus rubecula, turdus philomelos and turdus merula, i.e. length of body, oesophagus, number of stichocytes or length of spicula and vulvar appendage respectively was carried out. it has been proved, that characters of females c. ovopunctata parasitizing in t. merula significantly differ from those of the nematodes found in other hosts. the present and ...19911822042
[a case of bringing along mediterranean ticks ixodes (ixodes) festai rondelli, 1926 (acari: ixodida: ixodidae) to poland by migrating birds].a partly fed female of i. festai was collected from turdus merula l. caught in hel peninsula (southern coast of baltic sea). this species (known only as females) is a parasite of birds, and inhabits western part of the mediterranean area. i. festai is a second species after hyalomma marginatum which probably every spring is transferred by migratory bird into territory of poland. this finding is the first recorded case of transfer of i. festai to poland, therefore the description of female is giv ...19911823490
[trematodes of birds from lower silesia. iii. urotocus rossitensis (mühling, 1898)--new for poland species of trematode parasitism in passeriform birds].during the studies on trematode fauna of birds from lower silesia, the rare species--urotocus rossitensis (mühling, 1898)--was found. it parasitized in the bursa fabricii of sylvia borin, erithacus rubecula and turdus philomelos, and in the cloaca of turdus merula. all these birds are new hosts for u. rossitensis which was recorded for the first time in poland. it is worth mentioning that the localization of this trematode in the cloaca of t. merula is nontypical, since the parasite has underdev ...19911844788
changes in learning about aversive nonreward accounts for ontogeny of paradoxical appetitive reward effects in the rat pup: a mathematical model (dmod) integrates results.baby rats do not show any paradoxical appetitive reward effects (e.g., faster extinction following partial than continuous reinforcement, contrast effects when large and small rewards are given) until they are at least 12-14 days old, but can learn to pattern when reward and nonreward are alternated (e.g., amsel, 1986). these results have been puzzling, but are now successfully integrated by dmod (daly modification of rescorla and wagner's [1972] mathematical model; daly & daly, 1982). it was as ...19912034754
resistance to extinction following habituation to behaviourally disruptive novel stimuli.three experiments tested the prediction, derived from generalized frustration theory (amsel, 1972), that habituation to behaviourally disruptive stimuli increases resistance to extinction in the runway. in each experiment, rats received initial consistent reinforcement (crf) training and then either continued crf (groups c), partial reinforcement (prf) training (groups p), or crf accompanied by presentations of a novel tactile, tone, or obstacle stimulus (groups d) in experiments 1-3, respective ...19892595008
[phoresy and hyperparasitism in ornithomya (diptera, hippoboscidae) in the federal republic of germany].243 louse-flies of the genus ornithomya were examined for mites and mallophaga. 12 out of 71 o. fringillina and 4 out of 153 o. avicularia were infested by microlichus avus. myialges uncus were found on 5 o. avicularia. one o. avicularia was infested by myialges pari. mallophaga were found on 8 o. avicularia. the following species were identified: allobruelia abluda, a. amsel, turdinirmus merulensis, trichodectes sp., brueelia sp.19892729647
the hemoglobins of the adult blackbird (turdus merula, passeriformes). the sequence of the major (hba) and minor component (hbd).the blood of the adult blackbird contains one major hemoglobin component (hba = alpha a2, beta 2, ca. 80%) and one minor one (hbd = alpha d2 beta 2, ca. 20%). the hb-components were separated by fplc on a tsk sp-5 pw column, and eluted with a linear nacl gradient, while the globin chains were purified on a cation exchange (cm-cellulose). tryptic peptides from the globin chains were separated by hplc on an rp-2 lichrosorb column. the complete amino acid sequence was determined by automatic edman ...19892757791
vaginitis: a common malady.approximately 90 per cent of all the vaginitides are caused by bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or trichomoniasis. bacterial vaginosis is the most frequent, causing approximately 50 per cent of vaginal infections. as described by amsel and colleagues, three of four findings indicate bacterial vaginosis: amine odor, ph greater than 4.5, clue cells, and a thin homogeneous discharge. because g. vaginalis colonizes the vagina, treatment should not be instituted in an asymptomatic woman on the basis ...19883054961
investigation of the significance of heavy metal contents of blackbird feathers.the lead, cadmium and zinc in untreated blackbird (turdus merula l.) feathers is predominantly of exogenous origin. the endogenous concentration is of minor importance. the degree of surface metal pollution depends on exposure time. the exogenous fraction of heavy metals cannot be completely removed by washing procedures. the difference between washed and unwashed feathers is demonstrated by sem micrographs.19883232078
sparing of patterned alternation but not partial reinforcement extinction effect after prenatal chronic exposure to ethanol in infant rats.the effects of in utero administration of ethanol on single patterned alternation (pa) and the partial reinforcement extinction effect (pree) were studied in 15-day-old rat pups. this fetal-alcohol treatment had no effect on pa but eliminated the pree by reducing persistence in extinction after partial reinforcement (prf) training to its level after continuous reinforcement (crf) training, which was not affected by the treatment. the results are discussed in terms of prenatal damage to the hippo ...19883355656
blackbird, turdus merula l., and tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus. 19734148119
the amsel frustration effect: interpretations and research. 19734196467
[periodic recurrence of verses in the song of the black-bird turdus merula]. 19674385031
[sequence of verses in the song of the black-bird turdus merula]. 19674385032
[differential accumulation of chlorinated pesticides in the tissues of turdus merula]. 19744464006
[the neurosecretory system of the diencephalon of the european blackbird (turdus merula l.). after one year expiration and following water deprivation]. 19665990090
amobarbital sodium and the effects of reward and nonreward in the amsel double runway. 19676043012
[trematoda of birds of lower silesia. i. euamphimerus pancreaticus baer, 1960 (opisthorchiidae, trematoda) - new parasite of the blackbird (turdus merula l.) in poland and remarks with regard to the systematic position of other species of the genus euamphimerus yamaguti, 1941]. 19827183016
[two filariae of the genus eufilaria in turdus merula; development in culicoides nubeculosus (author's transl)].turdus merula from nevers (france) is infected by two species of microfilariae which both evolve in eight days (26 degrees c) in culicoides nubeculosus. we determine as eufilaria delicata supperer, 1958, the females with the longest microfilariae, the male with slightly unequal spicules and the largest infective larvae. we consider the species with the shorter microfilariae, males with more markedly unequal spicules and a relatively short infective larva as e. bartlettae n. sp. the female of thi ...19807224536
[ornithofilaria mavis (leiper 1909) gönnert, 1937 in blackbird (turdus merula l.) in poland]. 19817336749
[diagnosis and treatment of bacterial vaginosis by general practitioners].in order to evaluate which diagnostic procedures and treatments general practitioners (gp) used for bacterial vaginosis, and to describe their knowledge of the disease, all the gps in two counties were asked to fill in a questionnaire. two hundred and sixty-six (59%) answered. the gp used the criteria of amsel in 9%, the wet smear criteria in 12%, clue cells in 6%, the amine test in 30%, culture of gardnerella vaginalis in 29%, 8% only used clinical examination and 6% did not use any criteria. m ...19957483026
a wet smear criterion for bacterial vaginosis.to evaluate a simpler criterion for bacterial vaginosis than the recommended criterion of amsel.19947863139
[bacterial vaginosis. prevention of recurrence].bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the main cause of vaginitis. the condition is characterised by an abundant and odorous vaginal loss, but more than half the patients with demonstrable signs of bv do not report symptoms at all. gardnerella vaginalis (gv) is often associated with bv, but it is not the sole factor responsible, as is shown by the fact that it can be isolated in the vagina of women withbv. in 1992 and 1993, 2630 patients, 1460 of them gynaecological and 1170 obstetric, were admitted to th ...19947885610
midazolam administered to rats induces anterograde amnesia for changes in reward magnitude.l. p. crespi (1942) showed that rats trained to run an alley for a large food reward slowed down when shifted to a small reward. this effect is usually interpreted as an aversive emotional response to reward reduction (a. amsel, 1958). benzodiazepines attenuate the behavioral effects of reward reduction (cf. c. f. flaherty, 1990), but the emphasis has been on their anxiolytic, not memory-impairing, effects. researchers trained rats (175-200 g) to run an alley for food until asymptote was reached ...19947893398
a study of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to air pollution: ultrastructural study.a study was made of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to nox, so2 emissions and particulates from a coal-fired power plant. the results were compared to those of a non-polluted area, very similar in vegetation, relief, and climatology. we studied carduelis carduelis (goldfinch), emberiza cia (rock bunting), parus major (great tit), turdus merula (blackbird), and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse). all animals were captured in the wild. we also used goldf ...19948024317
postnatal high-peak blood ethanol concentration and external cue-based discrimination learning and reversal in the preweanling rat: comparison with memory-based discrimination learning.postnatal exposure to ethanol that produces high-peak blood ethanol concentrations (hp-bec) in artificially reared infant rats affects hippocampal neuroanatomy and discrimination learning based on memorial cues from a patterned (single) alternation (pa) schedule in preweanling rats (p. l. greene, j. l. diaz-granados, & a. amsel, 1992). in the present experiments, discrimination by preweanling rats exposed to ethanol in the same way was tested with nonmemorial, external cues. in this external cue ...19948037877
ixodes ricinus immatures on birds in a focus of lyme borreliosis.the infestation of birds by immature ixodes ricinus was studied during 6 months in a swiss woodland, where lyme borreliosis is endemic. thirteen passerine species were found to be parasitized by i. ricinus subadults and specially turdus merula, t. philomelos and erithacus rubecula. overall, 300 larvae and 162 nymphs were collected on 95 avian hosts. prevalence of infestation of nymphs on birds was higher in spring; larvae peaked in summer. the infection of birds by borrelia burgdorferi was also ...19938314179
electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of sleep in the blackbird (turdus merula).sleep in five blackbirds was investigated by continuous 24-h recordings of eeg, eog, emg, hr, and behavior. because these recordings were similar in many respects to those obtained previously in other species, it was possible to define the electrophysiological correlates of active wakefulness (aw), quiet wakefulness (qw), slow wave sleep (sws), and paradoxical sleep (ps). the time spent in sws and ps was 32.2% and 5.7% of the 24-h period, respectively. the amount of sws decreased during the cour ...19938346306
effects of air pollution on hematological parameters in passerine birds.the effects of atmospheric air pollution on some hematological, and bioquimic parameters, of passerine birds were analyzed. the studies were undertaken in the area of cercs (polluted area in spain), where there is a coal-fired power plant that emanates so2, nox, and particles, and the area of st. jaume de frontanya (nonpolluted area) located 40 km from the area of cercs with similar climatology, relief, and altitude, but without air pollution. the results showed that there was a significant decr ...19968688002
therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial.the efficacy of vaginal tablets (gynoflor) containing 50 mg of a lyophilisate of viable, h2o2-producing lactobacillus acidophilus (at least 10(7) colony forming units/tablet) and 0.03 mg estriol (cas 50-27-1) for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (bv) was tested in a multicentric, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-group design. 32 non-menopausal women with positive diagnoses for bv, including intermediate cases, participated in the trial. patients were diagnosed usin ...19968821521
borreliae in immature ixodes ricinus (acari:ixodidae) ticks parasitizing birds in the czech republic.of 411 forest birds of 33 species examined near valtice, czech republic, 29% were infested with ixodes ricinus (l.); 2.2% were parasitized by haemaphysalis concinna koch. borreliae were detected in 5.1 and 11.7% of larval and nymphal i. ricinus, respectively. none of the 13 h. concinna tested was infected. in total, 3.2% of the birds examined were parasitized by i. ricinus immatures infected by borreliae. borreliae-containing ticks parasitized european robin, erithacus rubecula (l.); eurasian bl ...19968840682
validity of the vaginal gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.to determine the sensitivity and specificity of vaginal gram stain as interpreted by the nugent criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, and to consider the use of gram stain as the criterion standard for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.19968841221
a study of sleep in the european blackbird.sleep states in the blackbird, turdus merula, were determined by recording the electroencephalogram (eeg), electrooculogram (eog), electromyogram (emg), and heart rate (hr), and from behavioral observations and responses to auditory stimulation by natural calls. the presence of changes in slow wave activity was determined from the power spectra of the eeg. spectral power density in the 0.5-4.0 hz band during slow wave sleep (sws) attained highest values in the first part of the night, then decli ...19968884941
estimation of distribution parameters of some avian parasites.occurrence of nematodes (mostly dominating and common species of porrocaecum ensicaudatum and p. semiteres) in host populations of birds (turdus merula, t. philomelos, sturnus vulgaris and scolopax rusticola) was summarized in frequency distributions, and tests of agreement with the poisson model as well as the modified binomial have been computed. comparisons of the observed frequencies with the expected ones showed the high values (3--257) of the coefficient of dispersion, the so-called "overd ...19979374592
propagation of bird acoustic signals: comparative study of starling and blackbird distress calls.previous works have demonstrated that the information supported by a bird distress call is encoded both by the energy distribution among harmonics and the temporal evolution of the frequency modulation. in the present study, using these parameters, we compared long-range information transfer in a dense vegetation environment between the starling sturnus vulgaris and the blackbird. turdus merula distress calls. it appears that excess attenuation of high frequencies (higher than 4 khz) after a lon ...19979499938
an avian reservoir (turdus merula) of the lyme borreliosis spirochetes.the reservoir competence of passerine birds for the lyme borreliosis spirochetes was studied in an enzootic focus in switzerland. skin aspirates and skin biopsies were used to isolate borrelia spirochetes from turdus species. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated and/or pcr-detected in bsk medium containing skin biopsy or skin aspirate from 5 blackbirds (t. merula) and one song thrush (t. philomelos). seven isolates were obtained from 3 different blackbirds. either b. garinii or borrelia from t ...19989638881
effects of mk-801 on vicarious trial-and-error and reversal of olfactory discrimination learning in weanling rats.the effects of dizocilpine maleate (mk-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (vte), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. the term vte was used by tolman (the determiners of behavior at a choice point. psychol. rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in simultaneous discrimination learning. it takes the form of head movements from one stimulus to the other, and has recently been proposed by ...19989867228
relative competitive ability changes with competitor density: evidence from feeding blackbirds.how individual competitive ability varies with competitor density in systems where interference competition occurs has been studied in few systems, despite its importance in determining the fundamental predictions of influential phenotype-limited ideal free distribution models. i measured individual variation in competitive ability in wild wintering blackbirds, turdus merula. variation in feeding rate of single birds, and the decline in their feeding rate in the presence of competitors, were mea ...19989933532
how selfish is a cuckoo chick?we studied the begging display of nestling cuckoos, cuculus canorus, reared by reed warbler, acrocephalus scirpaceus, hosts, to test various hypotheses for the cuckoo's unusually rapid begging call. the hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but focus on different parts of the chain: chick need-begging signals-provisioning by hosts. we reject two hypotheses. (1) cuckoo chicks do not use their exaggerated begging to counteract host rejection: begging displays varied with hunger and functioned enti ...199910512653
travel distance and mass gain in wintering blackbirds.birds that range over a large area will have a greater mass-dependent risk of predation than more sedentary birds. birds that travel more may then reduce winter mass gain to compensate for the increased predation risk that greater travelling entails. i tested whether european blackbirds, turdus merula, that travelled more in winter had a lower mass than more sedentary birds, independently of any confounding effects of food supply on both ranging behaviour and mass gain. i measured change in wint ...199910564614
female mate guarding: no evidence in a socially monogamous species.to understand the behavioural aspects of sperm competition, the costs and benefits to both sexes should be considered. however, few studies have addressed the costs to females of their social mate engaging in extrapair copulations (epcs). measures of female mate guarding have concentrated on female solicitation and copulation; however, females may also control access to their mate by maintaining close proximity, as is common in males. i recorded the maintenance of pair proximity behaviour of an ...200010640382
prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and correlation of clinical to gram stain diagnostic criteria in low risk pregnant women.the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, and the correlation of clinical amsel criteria with gram nugent criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a low risk population of pregnant women. pregnant women under 28 weeks of gestation who were followed in the low risk clinics at two centers were evaluated for the presence of bacterial vaginosis using the amsel clinical criteria, and underwent vaginal samples for gram staining. gram smears were examined fo ...199910669125
visual pigments, oil droplets, ocular media and cone photoreceptor distribution in two species of passerine bird: the blue tit (parus caeruleus l.) and the blackbird (turdus merula l.).the spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors of the blue tit (parus caeruleus) and blackbird (turdus merula) were investigated using microspectrophotometry. the retinae of both species contained rods, double cones and four spectrally distinct types of single cone. whilst the visual pigments and cone oil droplets in the other receptor types are very similar in both species, the wavelength of maximum sensitivity (lambda(max)) of long-wavelength-sensitive single and double ...200010798725
the papanicolaou smear: inadequate screening test for bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy.our purpose was to evaluate the ability of the papanicolaou smear to identify bacterial vaginosis in comparison with the amsel clinical criteria.200010819823
relationship of bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasmas to the risk of spontaneous abortion.this study was undertaken to investigate a possible link between first-trimester diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and cessation of pregnancy at < or =20 weeks' gestation.200010942482
[evaluation of microscopy methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis has always been controversial. during many years, the laboratory diagnosis of this syndrome was based on the criteria of amsel et al (1983). this includes many factors, such us aqueous vaginal discharge, positive koh test and the presence of clue-cells in a wet mount or gram stain. lately, a new diagnostic method only based on laboratory findings was performed by nugent et al (1991), which has the advantage of being more objective and rapid. it is also easy t ...200611026143
[evaluation of nugent and amsel criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a common disease in reproductive-age women and is associated to important gynecologic and obstetric complications.200011050838
[is the papanicolaou smear useful as aid for diagnosing some sexually transmitted infections?].we undertook this study to assess the validity of cytologic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections like: bacterial vaginosis (bv), tricomoniasis and candidiasis using the papanicolaou (pap) smear.200111262330
[prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in a group of women at a family planning clinic].to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among family planning users and the relationship between clinical symptoms and gynecologic signs.200211885127
improving gram-stained reproducible result by further adding clue cells in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis.the reproducibility of interpretation in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis may be enhanced by adding pus cells and clue cells into two different criteria, developed by spiegel et al. and nugent et al. the purpose of study was designed to find out which parameter was more reproducible. 100 patients were collected with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis as an experimental group, while the other 100 patients who were with routine papanicolaou smears in gynecologic clinic the collected as a control g ...200212164009
diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis on self-collected vaginal tampon specimens.a vaginal tampon specimen was previously shown to be suitable for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (stis). different tampon fluid preparations were evaluated for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv). women with pregnancy related problems were enrolled. two observers evaluated the different tampon fluid preparations and vaginal smears collected during speculum examination using the nugent score. using the amsel criteria, 21% of the 84 women enrolled w ...200212194740
leukorrhea and bacterial vaginosis as in-office predictors of cervical infection in high-risk women.to evaluate 1) whether microscopic detection of leukorrhea or bacterial vaginosis identifies patients at high risk for cervical infection with chlamydia trachomatis or neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 2) if pregnancy alters the predictive value of these findings.200212383553
detection of bacterial vaginosis-related organisms by real-time pcr for lactobacilli, gardnerella vaginalis and mycoplasma hominis.the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of detecting bacterial vaginosis (bv)-related organisms in stored genital tract specimens using real-time pcr. frozen cervicovaginal lavage (cvl) samples from 21 women were analyzed by real-time pcr for the numbers of mycoplasma hominis, gardnerella vaginalis and lactobacilli. lactobacilli organisms were detected in all cvl samples, g. vaginalis was detected in all but one sample, while m. hominis was detected in only six samples. using the ...200212443827
evaluation of a novel diagnostic test for bacterial vaginosis: 'the electronic nose'.the objectives were, first, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the osmetech microbial analyser (oma) for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) and, secondly, to determine the factors that interfere with the performance of the test. women presenting to a genitourinary medicine clinic underwent routine screening for genital infections. additional swabs were tested on the oma, and by nugent scoring. the optimum method for sampling was determined on the first 372 samples. bv was dia ...200312662390
bvblue test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a disorder of the vaginal ecosystem characterized by a shift in the vaginal flora from the normally predominant lactobacillus to one dominated by sialidase enzyme-producing mixed flora. it is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in adult women. the bvblue system (gryphus diagnostics, l.l.c.) is a chromogenic diagnostic test based on the presence of elevated sialidase enzyme in vaginal fluid samples. bvblue was compared to the standard method for diagnos ...200312734228
cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds in the central european carpathians.the occurrence of cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds was monitored in the central european carpathians from 1996 to 2001. a total of 5,414 birds, representing 86 species, was examined. collyriclum faba was found at 7 sites (5 in slovakia, 1 in poland, and 1 in the czech republic), and prevalences at the sites varied from 1 to 16%. ten species of passerine birds were infected: blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) (16 positive/622 tested, 2% prevalence), black redstart (phoenicurus ochrur ...200312760670
evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (femexam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in the gambia.diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) in resource-poor primary health care settings is often overlooked; there is a need for a cheap, rapid, objective point-of-care diagnostic test.200312782948
frequency of bacterial vaginosis among women attending for intrauterine device insertion at an inner-city family planning clinic.the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of bacterial vaginosis in women attending an inner-city family planning clinic for intrauterine device (iud) insertion. in a population of 86 women, eight (9.3%) and 20 (23.2%) were found to have bacterial vaginosis according to the criteria of amsel and nugent, respectively. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated in relation to bacterial vaginosis for amsel's criteria. the detection of clue cells demons ...200314667323
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in passerine birds from the mazurian lake region (northeastern poland).the aim of the present study was to evaluate a potential role of different passerine birds species in mazurian lake region (northeast poland) in the spread of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochaete that causes lyme disease. a total number of 1254 birds (representing 42 species) were captured during the 3-year study period. blood samples were collected from birds and analyzed with a nested polymerase chain reaction technique in order to detect fragments of the pathogen dna. positive res ...200414681070
diversities and similarities in pfge profiles of campylobacter jejuni isolated from migrating birds and humans.to genetically sub-type campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from migratory birds, and to compare these with clinical strains collected in the same area and corresponding time period, with the aim to increase our knowledge on sub-types occurring among wild birds and their possible impact on human disease.200415012823
[importance of the vaginal ecosystem examination in the first trimester of pregnancy].vaginal ecosystem disturbances especially bacterial vaginosis are strongly associated with infectious complication during the course of pregnancy.200315029744
pathology and viral distribution in fatal usutu virus infections of birds from the 2001 and 2002 outbreaks in austria.in the summer of 2001, usutu virus (usuv) was isolated for the first time in europe, from an episode of mass mortality in eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula). in the present study, 40 of the birds (representing three species), confirmed as cases of usuv infection, were examined by four methods (histopathology, immunohistochemistry [ihc], in-situ hybridization [ish] and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [rt-pcr]). the major macroscopical finding was hepatosplenomegaly; histologicall ...200415276857
stabilizing natural selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual trait in a passerine bird.natural selection is a central tenet of evolutionary theory, yet the estimation of the direction and intensity of selection remains problematic. here, we assess the strength of selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual ornament, bill colour, in male european blackbirds (turdus merula) using 5 years of capture-mark-recapture (cmr) data. the best-fitting model consisted of a quadratic relationship between survival rate and bill colour, indicating stabilizing natural selection on the ...200415312087
differences in the timing of reproduction between urban and forest european blackbirds (turdus merula): result of phenotypic flexibility or genetic differences?species which have settled in urban environments are exposed to different conditions from their wild conspecifics. a previous comparative study of an urban and a forest-living european blackbird population had revealed a three weeks earlier onset of gonadal growth in urban individuals. these physiological adjustments are either the result of genetic differences that have evolved during the urbanization process, or of phenotypic flexibility resulting from the bird's exposure to the different envi ...200415451688
complete genome analysis and molecular characterization of usutu virus that emerged in austria in 2001: comparison with the south african strain saar-1776 and other flaviviruses.here we describe the complete genome sequences of two strains of usutu virus (usuv), a mosquito-borne member of the genus flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis virus (jev) serogroup. usuv was detected in austria in 2001 causing a high mortality rate in blackbirds; the reference strain (saar-1776) was isolated in 1958 from mosquitoes in south africa and has never been associated with avian mortality. the austrian and south african isolates exhibited 97% nucleotide and 99% amino acid identity. p ...200415464850
[factors of risk of bacterial vaginosis].to recognise factors in the host that might condition the appearance of the bacterial vaginosis (bv) syndrome, whether gynae-obstetrical factors, habits of sexual conduct, hygiene, or other factors.200415511357
analysis of vaginal acetic acid in patients undergoing treatment for bacterial vaginosis.a "gold standard" method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (bv) is lacking. the clinical criteria described by the amsel technique are subjective and difficult to quantify. alternatively, the reading of gram-stained vaginal smears by scoring techniques such as those that use the nugent or hay-ison scoring systems is again subjective, requires expert personnel to perform the reading, and is infrequently used clinically. recently, a new diagnostic device, the osmetech microbial analyzer--ba ...200415528711
intravaginal metronidazole gel versus metronidazole plus nystatin ovules for bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.we compared metronidazole 0.75% gel (containing 37.5 mg metronidazole per dose) with ovules containing metronidazole 500 mg and nystatin 100,000 u, for intravaginal treatment of bacterial vaginosis (bv).200415592270
female genital-tract hiv load correlates inversely with lactobacillus species but positively with bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasma hominis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) acquisition. we examined the association between bv and bv-associated bacteria and expression of hiv in the female genital tract.200415592999
management of vaginitis.common infectious forms of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. vaginitis also can occur because of atrophic changes. bacterial vaginosis is caused by proliferation of gardnerella vaginalis, mycoplasma hominis, and anaerobes. the diagnosis is based primarily on the amsel criteria (milky discharge, ph greater than 4.5, positive whiff test, clue cells in a wet-mount preparation). the standard treatment is oral metronidazole in a dosage of 500 mg twic ...200415606061
low-dose secnidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.to determine whether bacterial vaginosis could be cured with a single 1-g oral dose of secnidazole.200515733882
evaluation of a point-of-care test, bvblue, and clinical and laboratory criteria for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) remains the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age and is associated with increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections and preterm delivery. present diagnostic methods require access to microscopy and laboratory expertise; however, the majority of women, particularly those in populations with a high prevalence of bv, do not have access to clinical services with on-site microscopy capabi ...200515750100
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in larval ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) feeding on blackbirds in northwestern italy.birds belonging to 59 species (n = 1,206) were live captured in piemonte, northwestern italy, in 2001. ixodes ricinus (l.) larvae were collected from 59 birds belonging to nine species, and nymphs were recovered on 79 birds belonging to 10 species. eurasian blackbirds, turdus merula l., had significantly higher levels of infestation by ticks than other passerine species. larval i. ricinus of blackbirds peaked in summer, when prevalence was 39% (95% confidence interval 24.2-55.5) and mean number ...200515799526
bacterial vaginosis--a laboratory and clinical diagnostics enigma.diagnosing bacterial vaginosis (bv) has long been based on the clinical criteria of amsel et al., whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. though there are other criteria and scoring methods which function well in comparison (i.e. nugent scoring), it is not certain that they will always identify the same category of patients. point-of-care methods based on various combinations of microbial products, presence of rna, or more complex laboratory instrumentations such as sensor arra ...200515799757
second intermediate host land snails and definitive host animals of brachylaima cribbi in southern australia.this study of infection of southern australian land snails with brachylaima cribbi metacercariae has shown that all commonly encountered native and introduced snails are susceptible second intermediate hosts. the range of infected snails is extensive with metacercariae-infected snails being present in all districts across southern australia. c. virgata has the highest average natural metacercarial infection intensity of 6.1 metacercariae per infected snail. the susceptibility of birds, mammals a ...200515828579
why do different criteria for 'cure' yield different conclusions in comparing two treatments for bacterial vaginosis?the objective of this study was to determine why different criteria for response to treatment of bacterial vaginosis (bv) led to markedly different conclusions about treatment efficacy in a randomized trial comparing metronidazole gel versus metronidazole/nystatin ovules.200516118599
utility of amsel criteria, nugent score, and quantitative pcr for gardnerella vaginalis, mycoplasma hominis, and lactobacillus spp. for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a clinical syndrome presenting with a malodorous vaginal discharge and increased vaginal ph. diagnosis has been based on clinical amsel criteria and direct gram stain of vaginal secretions. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected participants in the women's interagency hiv study contributed cervicovaginal lavage (cvl) samples. lactobacilli, gardnerella vaginalis, and mycoplasma hominis in cervicovaginal lavage samples were quantified by pcr. gynecologic evaluation ...200516145114
limited pathogenicity of usutu virus for the domestic chicken (gallus domesticus).in summer 2001, usutu virus (usuv), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was isolated for the first time in europe during a mortality incident among eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula) in austria. chickens are frequently used as sentinel animals for arbovirus surveillance systems. in the present study, the pathogenicity of usuv for specific pathogen free chickens was investigated. ten 2-week-old chickens were inoculated intravenously with 0.1 ml inoculum containing 10(3) median (50%) tissue culture infe ...200516236570
a pilot clinical trial comparing an acid-buffering formulation (acidform gel) with metronidazole gel for the treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis.to compare the effectiveness of an acid-buffering formulation gel (acidform) with metronidazole gel in the treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis (bv).200616433875
throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. this may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential.200616503990
role of birds in thuringia, germany, in the natural cycle of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme disease spirochaete.three hundred and twenty-two birds belonging to 35 species were live-captured in reifenstein, middle germany, from march to october 2004, to investigate their role as hosts of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and its vector ticks. a total of 141 ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 53 birds belonging to eight species was investigated for the prevalence of b. burgdorferi by a pcr-rflp analysis of the ospa gene. three of these bird species, the blackbird (turdus merula), the song thrush (t. philomel ...200616530003
limited pathogenicity of usutu virus for the domestic goose (anser anser f. domestica) following experimental inoculation.usutu virus (usuv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the japanese encephalitis virus group, which has been associated with avian mortality in austria since 2001. the affected birds are predominantly eurasian blackbirds (turdus merula). in the present study, the pathogenicity of usuv for domestic geese (anser anser f. domestica) was investigated. eleven 2-week-old geese were inoculated intramuscularly with 5 x 10(4) 50% tissue culture infectious dose of usuv strain vienna-2001 blackbird. no clini ...200616629984
high recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis over the course of 12 months after oral metronidazole therapy and factors associated with recurrence.we wished to determine recurrences of bacterial vaginosis (bv) after treatment over the course of 12 months and to establish factors associated with recurrence.200616652274
association of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis with endometrial microbial colonization and plasma cell endometritis in nonpregnant women.this study was undertaken to determine whether asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (bv) is associated with an increased risk of endometrial microbial colonization or plasma cell endometritis in nonpregnant women.200616769017
the vi-sense-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms.this study was undertaken to evaluate a diagnostic panty liner (vi-sense) (common sense, caesarea, israel) developed to facilitate diagnosis of vaginal infections by detecting disordered acidity level.200616769019
association of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, and vaginal acidity with outcome of pregnancy.bacterial vaginosis and trichomons vaginalis are believed to be the risk factors for preterm labor birth and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. the objective of this study was to investigate the association between bacterial vaginosis, t.vaginalis, and vaginal ph with preterm labor birth and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes after excluding other known risk factors.200616859053
the association of atopobium vaginae and gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis and recurrence after oral metronidazole therapy.we investigated associations between atopobium vaginae and bacterial vaginosis (bv) and the role that a. vaginae plays in recurrent bv after oral metronidazole therapy.200616941351
sensitive measure of prevalence and parasitaemia of haemosporidia from european blackbird (turdus merula) populations: value of pcr-rflp and quantitative pcr.haemosporidian parasites are common in birds in which they act as an important selective pressure. while most studies so far have focused on the effect of their prevalence on host life-history traits, no study has measured the effect of parasitaemia. we developed molecular methods to detect, identify and quantify haemosporidia in 2 natural populations of the blackbird turdus merula. three different parasite genotypes were found - 1 haemoproteus and 2 plasmodium. a pcr-rflp screening revealed tha ...200616948874
lead concentrations in feathers and blood of common blackbirds (turdus merula) and in earthworms inhabiting unpolluted and moderately polluted urban areas.despite the dramatic decrease of atmospheric lead (pb) concentrations in urban areas of most industrialised countries, we hypothesised that urban common blackbirds (turdus merula) may still be contaminated by pb concentrations of toxicological concern due to transfer from soil through the food chain. we sampled blackbirds and earthworms, one of their main preys, in besançon, a middle-size city of eastern france (where atmospheric pb concentrations decreased from 0.5 microg/m(3) in 1987 to nearly ...200617055037
a randomized trial of the duration of therapy with metronidazole plus or minus azithromycin for treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is the most common cause of vaginitis worldwide. currently recommended treatments have poor efficacy and are associated with high rates of bv recurrence. we examined whether a longer duration of treatment with metronidazole or combination therapy with metronidazole and azithromycin would enhance the cure rates for bv. in addition, we examined factors other than drug therapy associated with cure.200717173219
ticks (ixodidae) from passerine birds in the carpathian region.birds have been found to be a reservoir host of borrelia. in order to assess the situation in slovakia ticks were collected from a total of 3057 mist-netted, ringed and released passerine birds in two locations at 500 m (in 2001) and 1000 m (in 2003) above sea level in the bukovské vrchy hills, part of the carpathian region in the north-east of slovakia. a total of 75 birds of 16 species were infested with subadult ticks of ixodes ricinus species (prevalence of parasitization 5%). sixty-two larv ...200617186172
distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey from switzerland.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and the structurally related polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) have been associated with chronic neurotoxicity involving reduced motor activity and impaired attentiveness. such neurobehavioral effects indicate that the central nervous system may represent an important target organ for the action of these persistent contaminants in wildlife. as a consequence, the brain of different terrestrial and aquatic birds collected in switzerland was analysed for pcbs a ...200717307228
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