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seasonal changes in yolk hormone concentrations carry-over to offspring traits.yolk hormones are substances which transmit non-genetic factors from the mother to the next generation. the systematic changes of yolk hormone concentrations within asynchronously hatching clutches have been interpreted as a means to adaptively shape the offspring's phenotype. however, in synchronously hatching clutches the role of yolk hormones is less understood. we investigated whether seasonal changes between eggs in the yolk hormones testosterone (testo), progesterone (prog) and corticoster ...202031790656
changes in habitat selection patterns of the gray partridge perdix perdix in relation to agricultural landscape dynamics over the past two decades.changes in agricultural practices have reshaped agricultural landscapes and triggered a drastic decline in spatial and temporal heterogeneity leading to changes in habitat quality and food resources for birds. however, the precise relationships between landscape changes, spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and habitat preferences in response to those changes remain poorly known.we investigated patterns of habitat selection and causes for changes over the years 1997-2017 for the gray partridge pe ...201931110675
molecular detection of gamma coronaviruses in bird parks of iran.gamma coronaviruses (gcovs) are distributed worldwide, affecting a wide range of bird species, the beluga whale, and bottlenose dolphins. because of the limited proofreading capability in the viral encoded polymerase, they emerge genetically diverse. there has been no molecular surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of gcovs in avian species. the present study was conducted to detect gcovs in tehran birds’ parks, 2015. cloacal swabs (267 samples) from eight different bird speci ...201931939251
experimental infection of grey partridges with bagaza virus: pathogenicity evaluation and potential role as a competent host.bagaza virus (bagv; synonymous to israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, itv) is a relevant arthropod-borne epornitic flavivirus. in its first emergence in europe (southern spain, 2010) bagv caused an outbreak, severely affecting red-legged partridges and common pheasants. the effects (pathogenicity, role as reservoir host) of bagv in other european phasianids are unknown. to fill this gap, grey partridges were experimentally infected with bagv. the clinical course of the disease was seve ...201829739470
the impact of winter meteorological parameters on abundance of the grey partridge perdix perdix in the southern ural steppe.in the winter periods from 1994 to 2017, the grey partridge average abundance in the steppe zone of the southern urals was significantly negatively correlated with some meteorological parameters (the snow cover height, precipitations, snow density). at the same time, in the subsequent summer period, these winter parameters (including the mean air temperature) had no influence on the bird number. indeed, the harsh and snowy winters did not affect the grey partridge abundance in the reproductive p ...201830009351
expert judgment based multicriteria decision models to assess the risk of pesticides on reproduction failures of grey partridge.a suite of models is proposed for estimating the risk of pesticides against the grey partridge (perdix perdix) and their clutches. radio-tracked data of females, description and location of the clutches, and data on the pesticide treatments during the laying periods of the partridges were used as basic information. quantitative structure-activity relationship (qsar) and quantitative structure-property relationship (qspr) modelling allowed us to characterize the pesticides by their 1-octanol/wate ...201729206499
mate choice for major histocompatibility complex complementarity in a strictly monogamous bird, the grey partridge (perdix perdix).sexual selection has been hypothesised as favouring mate choice resulting in production of viable offspring with genotypes providing high pathogen resistance. specific pathogen recognition is mediated by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) encoding proteins fundamental for adaptive immune response in jawed vertebrates. mhc genes may also play a role in odour-based individual recognition and mate choice, aimed at avoiding inbreeding. mhc genes are known to be involved in mate choi ...201728239400
decline of game birds (phasianus colchicus and perdix perdix) in bavaria: a survey on pathogenic bacteria, parasites, pesticide residues, and influence of set-aside land and maize cultivation.due to a europe-wide decline of grey partridge ( perdix perdix ) and pheasant ( phasianus colchicus ) populations, this study was conducted focusing on the county of bavaria, south germany. the aim was to assess the health status of game birds and identify possible causes of decline. for this purpose 203 pheasants and 11 partridges were examined during the 2011 hunting season. pathologic examinations were conducted including examinations for parasites and bacteria. due to public health significa ...201728363041
field evidence of bird poisonings by imidacloprid-treated seeds: a review of incidents reported by the french sagir network from 1995 to 2014.the large-scale use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised growing concerns about their potential adverse effects on farmland birds, and more generally on biodiversity. imidacloprid, the first neonicotinoid commercialized, has been identified as posing a risk for seed-eating birds when it is used as seed treatment of some crops since the consumption of a few dressed seeds could cause mortality. but evidence of direct effects in the field is lacking. here, we reviewed the 103 wildlife mortality ...201728028702
can ingestion of lead shot and poisons change population trends of three european birds: grey partridge, common buzzard, and red kite?little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides) on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. we used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (perdix perdix), common buzzard (buteo buteo), and red kite (milvus milvus). we ...201626799815
phylogenetic analysis of a novel reassortant orthoreovirus strain detected in partridge (perdix perdix).avian orthoreoviruses cause various diseases in wild birds and domesticated poultry. in this study we report the detection and genomic characterization of a partridge (perdix perdix) origin reovirus strain, d1007/2008. the virus was isolated on cell culture from acute pneumonia and infra-orbital sinusitis. the 23,497 nucleotide long genome sequence was obtained by combined use of semiconductor and capillary sequencing. sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the partridge reovirus strain ...201626597720
the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of eimeria innocua (eimeriidae, coccidia, apicomplexa).the complete mitochondrial genome of eimeria innocua kr strain (eimeriidae, coccidia, apicomplexa) was sequenced. this coccidium infects turkeys (meleagris gallopavo), bobwhite quails (colinus virginianus), and grey partridges (perdix perdix). genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. the circular-mapping mt genome of e. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding la ...201626099978
residues of plant protection products in grey partridge eggs in french cereal ecosystems.the contamination of the eggs of farmland birds by currently used plant protection products (ppps) is poorly documented despite a potential to adversely impact their breeding performance. in this context, 139 eggs of 52 grey partridge perdix perdix clutches, collected on 12 intensively cultivated farmlands in france in 2010-2011, were analysed. given the great diversity of ppps applied on agricultural fields, we used exploratory gc/ms-ms and lc/ms-ms screenings measuring ca. 500 compounds. the l ...201626841780
gamma and deltacoronaviruses in quail and pheasants from northern italy.in view of the restricted knowledge on the diversity of coronaviruses in poultry other than chicken, this study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in quail, pheasant, and partridge from two regions of northern italy. to this end, pools of tracheal and cloacal swabs from european quail (coturnix coturnix) and intestinal tract from pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and partridge (perdix perdix) flocks, with or without enteric signs, were collected during 2015. avian coronavi ...201627738120
crop diversity loss as primary cause of grey partridge and common pheasant decline in lower saxony, germany.the grey partridge (perdix perdix) and the common pheasant (phasianus colchicus) are galliform birds typical of arable lands in central europe and exhibit a partly dramatic negative population trend. in order to understand general habitat preferences we modelled grey partridge and common pheasant densities over the entire range of lower saxony. spatially explicit developments in bird densities were modelled using spatially explicit trends of crop cultivation. pheasant and grey partridge densitie ...201627612946
distinct responses of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels to genetic and environmental factors.glucocorticoid (gc) hormones, i.e. corticosterone (cort) in birds, support physiological homeostasis and facilitate adaptations to stressful situations. however, maintaining high gc levels are energetically costly and interfere with other physiological processes. to keep the balance of costs and benefits of gc hormones, various mechanisms act to adapt gc levels to environmental conditions on different timescales, i.e. over generations, between parents and their offspring and within the life-time ...201525307951
characterisation of toll-like receptors 4, 5 and 7 and their genetic variation in the grey partridge.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are a cornerstone of vertebrate innate immunity. in this study, we identified orthologues of tlr4, tlr5 and tlr7 (representing both bacterial- and viral-sensing tlrs) in the grey partridge (perdix perdix), a european galliform game bird species. the phylogeny of all three tlr genes follows the known phylogeny of galloanserae birds, placing grey partridge tlrs (pepetlrs) in close proximity to their turkey and pheasant orthologues. the predicted proteins encoded by the p ...201525626717
little field evidence of direct acute and short-term effects of current pesticides on the grey partridge.direct lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on farmland birds' populations are recurring questions and largely debated. in this context, we conducted an innovative study combining radiotelemetry, farmer surveys, residue analyses on carcasses and modelling to assess the unintentional effects of pesticides on terrestrial birds. we chose the grey partridge perdix perdix as a case study because this typical bird of european cereal ecosystems is highly exposed to pesticides. in this paper we fo ...201525828892
quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands.estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. in this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ass) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge perdix perdix. it is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. it accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. we id ...201525847175
host specificity of turkey and chicken eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.protozoan parasites of the eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. these species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. the availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken eimeria speci ...201525660426
nanomechanical properties of bird feather rachises: exploring naturally occurring fibre reinforced laminar composites.flight feathers have evolved under selective pressures to be sufficiently light and strong enough to cope with the stresses of flight. the feather shaft (rachis) must resist these stresses and is fundamental to this mode of locomotion. relatively little work has been done on rachis morphology, especially from a mechanical perspective and never at the nanoscale. nano-indentation is a cornerstone technique in materials testing. here we use this technique to make use of differentially oriented fibr ...201425339689
first isolation of mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (perdix perdix). clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. the gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development ...201425055642
shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.like all jawed vertebrates, birds (aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. their igs are composed of two identical heavy (h) and light (l) chains which are of lambda isotype. the l chain consists of variable (vl), joining (jl) and constant (cl) region. using enzyme immunoassays (eia) and two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) (3c10 and ch31) to chicken l chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nin ...201424603015
genetic mutations of avian leukosis virus subgroup j strains extended their host range.the genetic diversity of avian leukosis virus subgroup j (alv-j) is determined not only by the env gene, but also by its 3' utr and 3' ltr. they all play important roles in extending the host range and tumour development. in the present study, one alv-j strain (zb110604-6) from black-bone silky fowl (bsf) and three alv-j strains (zb110604-3/4/5) from grey partridge (gp), which bore multiple tumours and breed in one house of farm a, were demonstrated extending their host to gp, while two other al ...201424272684
mhc class iib exon 2 polymorphism in the grey partridge (perdix perdix) is shaped by selection, recombination and gene conversion.among bird species, the most studied major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is the chicken mhc. although the number of studies on mhc in free-ranging species is increasing, the knowledge on mhc variation in species closely related to chicken is required to understand the peculiarities of bird mhc evolution. here we describe the variation of mhc class iib (mhciib) exon 2 in a population of the grey partridge (perdix perdix), a species of high conservation concern throughout europe and an emerging ...201323935938
automatic detection of animals in mowing operations using thermal cameras.during the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. this has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. in particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (perdix perdix) or pheasant (phasianus colchicus) ...201222969362
comparison of single and split-dose flubendazole treatment for the nematode parasite trichostrongylus tenuis in experimentally infected grey partridges perdix perdix.different therapeutic regimes using flubendazole for the treatment of trichostrongylus tenuis infection in experimentally infected grey partridges perdix perdix were examined. flubendazole dosages of 4, 8 and 20 mg/kg were administered orally as a single dose or split into 3 or 9 parts given over 9 days. the efficacy against adult worms in the caeca improved with dose rate. split doses were at least as effective as single doses, which removed up to 83% of adult t. tenuis. a dose of 20 mg/kg admi ...201222850078
growth and development of chicks of two species of partridge: the grey partridge (perdix perdix) and the chukar (alectoris chukar).1. in two partridge species, the grey partridge (perdix perdix) and chukar (alectoris chukar), from hatching up to 120 d, the growth rate and development of body mass, wing, tarsus, and bill length were measured and fitted by gompertz equations. 2. as a typical precocial species, partridges hatched with relatively well developed legs and bills, and wing growth followed a gradual development of thermoregulation. 3. gompertz growth constants for body mass growth were 0·039 and 0·038 for grey partr ...201222404815
intestinal nematodes of shot wild grey partridges in norfolk, england. 201222678618
linker histone h1.b is polymorphic in grey partridge (perdix perdix).this study was aimed at characterizing allelic variations of erythrocyte histone h1.b by comparing the electrophoretic patterns of histone h1.b from individuals of grey partridge (perdix perdix) population. as two alloforms, h1.b1 and h1.b2, were discerned in the screening gels, the histone h1.b was regarded to be a polymorphic protein encoded by a gene with two codominant alleles, b1 and b2, at a locus. the tested population was found to be at hardy-weinberg equilibrium (chi2 = 0.834, p = 0.361 ...201121812348
identification of bacteriocin genes in enterococci isolated from game animals and saltwater fish.bacteriocins produced by enterococci, referred to as enterocins, possess great interest for their potential use as biopreservatives in food and feed, as well as alternative antimicrobials in humans and animals. in this context, the aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and the presence of bacteriocin structural genes in fecal enterococcal isolates from animal origins. evaluation of the direct antimicrobial activity of 253 isolates from wild boars (sus scrofa, n = 6 ...201121819651
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the grey partridge perdix perdix: outbreak description, histopathology, biochemistry and antioxidant parameters.the grey partridge is an important game bird in europe that has declined considerably over the last decades. the production and release of farm-bred birds can be threatened by infectious agents. the objective of this study was to describe the outbreak, pathology, and blood and tissue biochemical responses in a flock of grey partridges naturally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum.201121740554
beak necrosis in hungarian partridges (perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infection.proliferative growth, consistent with poxvirus infection, encapsulated plastic beak-bits and covered the dorsal portion of the upper beak and nares of adult male and female captive-raised hungarian partridges. three representative birds were submitted to the wisconsin veterinary diagnostic laboratory for necropsy. lesions in the necropsied birds extended through the nares, where the plastic bit ends are designed to rest. the lesions also variably extended caudally into the oropharynx and cranial ...201020544429
transferability of microsatellite markers among economically and ecologically important galliform birds.we used the partially sequenced genomes of the turkey and chicken to find a large number of microsatellite markers. we then characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed by cross-species amplification from economically and ecologically important birds to various european sub-species of the grey partridge. even though we used cross-species amplification, a high degree of polymorphism was conserved in all microsatellite markers. cross-species amplification from birds of economic an ...201020568057
immune challenge affects female condition and egg size in the grey partridge.as maintenance of the immune system is energetically costly and resource-limited, trade-offs among immune function, body condition, and reproductive allocation are expected. in this study, we experimentally test the possible trade-off between immune response, self maintenance, and reproductive output in breeding grey partridges perdix perdix. before laying, half the females were immune challenged with a novel antigen vaccine (newcastle disease virus, ndv). the challenged females showed a higher ...201020665708
the phylogenetic position and speciation dynamics of the genus perdix (phasianidae, galliformes).the nuclear gene (c-mos) and mitochondrial genes (cyt b and nd2) sequences, representing 44 phasianid species and 26 genera (mainly distributed in china), were used to study the phylogeny of the genus perdix, which comprises three partridge species. maximum parsimony and bayesian methods were employed, and the analysis of mitochondrial sequence data and the combined dataset showed that perdix is specifically related either to typical pheasants or to ithaginis. phylogenetic trees also indicated t ...201020363341
prevalence of thermotolerant campylobacter in partridges (perdix perdix).to estimate the prevalence of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. in commercially reared partridges (perdix perdix) in southern italy.200919552770
outbreak of newcastle disease due to pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in grey partridges (perdix perdix) in scotland in october 2006.in october 2006, following an initially non-statutory disease investigation affecting 12-week-old grey partridges (perdix perdix), an outbreak of newcastle disease due to infection with the avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus responsible for the current panzootic in pigeons (ppmv-1) was confirmed in scotland. two pens of partridges were affected by signs including loss of condition, diarrhoea, progressive neurological signs and mortality totalling approximately 24 per cent, and laboratory evidence ...200919880861
evaluation of a competitive elisa for antibody detection against avian influenza virus.active serologic surveillance is necessary to control the spread of the avian influenza virus (aiv). in this study, we evaluated a commercially-available celisa in terms of its ability to detect aiv antibodies in the sera of 3,358 animals from twelve species. celisa detected antibodies against reference h1- through h15-subtype aiv strains without cross reactivity. furthermore, the celisa was able to detect antibodies produced following a challenge of the aiv h9n2 subtype in chickens, or followin ...200919934598
lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern ontario, canada.one-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern ontario, canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, meleagris gallopavo; hungarian partridge, perdix perdix; chukar; and common ...200817763885
mycotic proventriculitis in gray partridges (perdix perdix) on two game bird farms.proventriculitis and chronic respiratory disease were diagnosed in two flocks of gray partridges (perdix perdix) on unrelated swedish game bird farms. affected birds showed loss of condition, respiratory signs, and flock mortality rates of 50 and 98%, respectively. the proventricular lesions were associated closely with fungal organisms that were microscopically indistinguishable from the ascomycetous yeast macrorhabdus ornithogaster (former provisional name "megabacterium"). at necropsy, the pr ...200818817007
yolk testosterone levels and dietary carotenoids influence growth and immunity of grey partridge chicks.early maternal effects in the form of substances accumulated in the egg, such as carotenoids and hormones, can be physiologically relevant for a good development of offspring. it has been found in different species that testosterone (t) can be beneficial to offspring by increasing growth rate, but detrimental by reducing immunocompetence and increasing oxidative stress. carotenoids on the other hand are suggested to be beneficial because they can counteract the oxidative stress and the immune-de ...200818299130
resting metabolic rate and erythrocyte morphology in early development of thermoregulation in the precocial grey partridge (perdix perdix).in the early stages of development of thermoregulation in grey partridge, a typical precocial species, i measured the resting metabolic rate (rmr) and body temperature (tb) in the thermoneutral zone (tnz) and the parallel changes in the size of erythrocytes and their cell nuclei. the strong positive correlation between the mass-independent (residuals versus body mass) values of tb and rmr indicates a close relationship, between these physiological parameters in the first week of life of partridg ...200818640285
effects of beta-carotene on adult immune condition and antibacterial activity in the eggs of the grey partridge, perdix perdix.carotenoids are important dietary constituents in birds. their functions are numerous and complex, and breeding females are potentially faced with an optimal allocation of these resources between themselves and offspring. we conducted a dietary experiment (low and high supply of beta-carotene) to examine the effect of beta-carotene on health and immune response of 64 reproducing pairs of grey partridge (perdix perdix l.) and on the quality of their eggs, as revealed by the measurement of biochem ...200717462926
effect of supplemental roughage on behavior, physiological stress response, and egg production parameters of farmed partridges (perdix perdix).the objective of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of roughages (maize silage, rucola salad, or wheat sprouts) would reduce behavioral and physiological signs of stress and increase egg production. a total of 160 adult partridge breeder birds were housed in pairs of 1 male and 1 female/cage during the egg-laying period from april to june. birds fed on maize silage spent more time laying and less time foraging than birds in the wheat sprout treatment (p < ...200717626807
vigilance and fitness in grey partridges perdix perdix: the effects of group size and foraging-vigilance trade-offs on predation mortality.1. vigilance increases fitness by improving predator detection but at the expense of increasing starvation risk. we related variation in vigilance among 122 radio-tagged overwintering grey partridges perdix perdix (l.) across 20 independent farmland sites in england to predation risk (sparrowhawk accipiter nisus l., kill rate), use of alternative antipredation behaviours (grouping and use of cover) and survival. 2. vigilance was significantly higher when individuals fed in smaller groups and in ...200717302828
effects of beta-carotene supplementation on chick growth, immune status and behaviour in the grey partridge, perdix perdix.carotenoids are important for various functions during chick development. since these pigments cannot be synthesized, they can be considered limited resources that the mother optimally allocates between herself and her offspring (maternal effect). some studies have examined the effects of carotenoids on growth and immune function but little is known about their role in behaviour. in this study of the grey partridge, we conducted two supplementation experiments: (1) laying females were fed with b ...200616963199
energy metabolism and thermoregulation in hand-reared chukars (alectoris chukar).metabolic rate and colonic temperature were measured in chukars between 1st and 108th day of life (divided into six age groups: 1-3-days old, 1, 2, 3, and 4-weeks old and 3.5-months old) in ambient temperatures set separately for each group and ranging from -12 to 41 degrees c. the gompertz growth constant for growing chukars (0.042) was close to the value obtained in earlier study for the grey partridge. similarly as in other species of galliformes, newly hatched chukar chicks had lower t(b) at ...200314613803
serological evidence for japanese encephalitis virus and west nile virus infections in water frequenting and terrestrial wild birds in kolar district, karnataka state, india. a retrospective study.in a serological survey of birds in a japanese encephalitis (je) endemic area of kolar district, karnataka state, india, 859 bird sera were tested by hemagglutination-inhibition test (hit) for je encephalitis and west nile encephalitis (wne) viruses. only 2 (0.002%) and 178 (20.72%) sera were positive for je virus (jev) and wne virus (wnv), respectively. only 160 (18.63%) of 859 sera could be subjected to neutralizing test (nt). of these, 20 (12.50%) and 62 (38.75%) were positive for jev and wnv ...200314658848
cytochrome p450 enzyme activity in five herbivorous, non-passerine bird species.we examined hepatic cytochrome p450 activity in wild and hand-reared grey partridges (perdix perdix), capercaillies (tetrao urogallus) and ring-necked pheasants (phasianus colchicus), as well as the enzyme activity in a variety of tissues of hand-reared japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica) and pigeons (columba livia). post-mortem decrease in hepatic enzyme activity in the grey partridge was measured. hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity was similar in wild and hand-reared grey ...200312524019
complete nucleotide sequence of the coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in galliformes phasianidae coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the coturnix japonica (japanese quail) and gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are class ...200212642645
reticuloendotheliosis in hungarian partridge.a large commercial flock of hungarian partridge (perdix perdix) experienced elevated mortality associated with a wasting disease in may 1998. postmortem examination of females consistently revealed a distended crop and abnormal gray-white tissue infiltrating the wall of the crop and thoracic esophagus. neoplasia in male partridge was observed in the liver. microscopic examination of the crop and thoracic esophagus revealed transmural masses of immature lymphocytes with frequent mitotic figures. ...200212038145
the effect of an experimental infection of the nematode heterakis gallinarum on hand-reared grey partridges perdix perdix.we compared 26 hand-reared grey partridges given an experimental infection of the caecal nematode heterakis gallinarum with 26 uninfected ones. under laboratory conditions after 91 days, there were no measurable clinical effects of the infection. we found no effect of treatment on the amount of food eaten or on caecal dropping production. however, treated birds, in particular females, developed slightly lower body mass (around 2%) compared to the controls. at post-mortem examination, we found a ...200212049415
the estimation of density dependence using census data from several sites.the discussion of density dependence in the ecological literature has tended to concentrate on significance testing, whereas estimation is often of more importance. in this paper we use simulation to investigate the bias and precision of a number of methods for estimating density dependence using census data from several sites. the estimation methods examined were a modification of an existing maximum likelihood approach, a regression method, and a new approach using restricted (or residual) max ...200228466175
tannins--a dietary problem for hand-reared grey partridge perdix perdix after release?a 4-week feeding trial on 22 grey partridges perdix perdix was conducted in this study. seven birds were fed commercial poultry food, seven natural food and eight commercial poultry food containing 6% of quebracho-tannin. our results suggest that 6% dietary tannin, when added to a commercial food with high protein content, effects the grey partridge only slightly. no difference was seen in food consumption and body mass remained stable. however, birds fed tannin had longer small intestines, whic ...200111574293
differential impact of a shared nematode parasite on two gamebird hosts: implications for apparent competition.if the deleterious effects of non-specific parasites are greater on vulnerable host species than on reservoir host species then exclusion of the vulnerable host through apparent competition is more likely. evidence suggests that such a mechanism occurs in interactions between the ring-necked pheasant (plasianus colchicus), the grey partridge (perdix perdix), and their shared caecal nematode heterakis gallinarum. modelling of the system predicts that the reduced parasite impact on the pheasant co ...200111272650
complete sequence of the japanese quail (coturnix japonica) mitochondrial genome and its genetic relationship with related species.the japanese quail (coturnix japonica; jq) is one of the domesticated fowl species of japan. to provide dna sequence information for examination of its phylogenetic position in the order galliformes, the complete sequence of the jq mitochondria was determined. sequence analysis revealed that the jq mitochondrial genome is a circular dna of 16 697 basepairs (bp), which is smaller than the chicken mitochondrial dna of 16 775 bp, but the genomic structure of jq mitochondria was the same as that of ...200111736810
life cycle of eimeria procera in experimentally infected grey partridges (perdix perdix).we examined exogenous and endogenous development of eimeria procera in experimentally infected grey partridges (perdix perdix). our examination included data on morphology, localization, duration of schizogony and gametogony and morphology of sporulated oocysts. the endogenous stages of e. procera developed in large numbers within the epithelial cells of caecal crypts. the asexual development comprised three generations of schizonts. the first fully developed macrogametes and microgamonts were o ...200010856812
high susceptibility of partridges ( perdix perdix ) to toxoplasmosis compared with other gallinaceous birds.partridges ( perdix perdix ), chukars ( alectoris chukar ), wild guineafowl ( numida meleagris ), wild turkeys ( meleagris gallopavo ) and chickens ( gallus domesticus ) were inoculated per os with 103 or 105 toxoplasma gondii oocysts (k7 strain). two of five partridges fed 103 oocysts and six of eight partridges fed 105 oocysts died between day 6 and 16 post-inoculation (p.i.); no clinical symptoms were observed in surviving birds. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in the birds by the indir ...200019184852
the role of shared parasites in the exclusion of wildlife hosts: heterakis gallinarum in the ring-necked pheasant and the grey partridge.1. a two-host shared-macroparasite model was parameterized from the results of infection and transmission experiments, to investigate whether apparent competition between the ring-necked pheasant (phasianus colchicus) and the grey partridge (perdix perdix), mediated via the shared nematode heterakis gallinarum, could theoretically cause partridge exclusion. 2. both the model created and the experiments conducted show that the bulk of h. gallinarum infection to partridges, when they occur in the ...200029313999
distribution of aromatase, estrogen receptor, and androgen receptor mrna in the forebrain of songbirds and nonsongbirds.androgens and estrogens are crucial for the differentiation and function of the vocal control system of songbirds. a major source of estrogens in songbirds is the cerebral aromatization of circulating testosterone by aromatase (aro). in the vocal control system, songbirds have a unique estrogen receptor (er)-containing area, the nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale (hvc) of the caudal neostriatum. work in the zebra finch has demonstrated aro expression adjacent to but not in the hvc. co ...199910213192
shivering thermogenesis in leg and breast muscles of galliform chicks and nestlings of the domestic pigeon.we studied the ontogeny of shivering thermogenesis in breast and leg muscles of precocial galliforms (domestic fowl, grey partridge, and japanese quail) and the altricial domestic pigeon using electromyography (emg) and indirect calorimetry. galliforms were able to increase heat production by shivering in leg muscles at the youngest age studied (1-2 d). pectorals contributed to heat production from days 7-10 onward, but in the partridge and especially in the fowl, shivering by the pectorals was ...199910438684
parasite-mediated competition between pheasant and grey partridge: a preliminary investigation.pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and grey partridges (perdix perdix) were maintained together on land known to be contaminated with eggs of the caecal nematode heterakis gallinarum to examine the hypothesis that this shared parasite has a greater impact on grey partridges than on pheasants. since an inverse relationship between worm intensity and partridge body condition was detected, while no such relationship with pheasant body condition was observed, we were unable to refute this hypothesis. f ...199928307760
sexually selected vigilance behaviour of the grey partridge is affected by plasma androgen levelsin the grey partridge, perdix perdixvigilance and calling activity are two sex-dimorphic behaviours that are critical for mate choice. to ascertain whether circulating levels of testosterone directly affect vigilance (i.e. the occurrence of upright alert posture), we compared vigilance scores of testosterone-implanted versus control males both during the normal activity of the flock and after the passage of a raptor silhouette; in the latter case, the calling activity was also recorded. hormone- ...19979344453
connections of the dorsomedial part of the nucleus intercollicularis in a male non-songbird, the grey partridge: a tract-tracing study.vocal control systems have been poorly investigated in non-songbirds. in this study we describe descending neural pathways to the dorsomedial portion of the nucleus intercollicularis (ico) in a galliform (male grey partridges) by means of the dii in vitro tracing technique. the simple and sex-dimorphic vocalizations of partridges, which have a critical role in sexual selection, favour this species as a model system for the study of vocal control mechanisms. our data demonstrate that the ico, an ...19969014181
testosterone-induced changes of call structure, midbrain and syrinx anatomy in partridges.testosterone (t) treated grey partridges (perdix perdix) of both sexes uttered significantly longer and lower-pitched calls than controls; both these acoustic features play a critical role in mate choice. a morphometrical analysis of the midbrain nucleus intercollicularis showed a cell size increase in t-treated birds regardless of their sex. histological study of the syrinx did not reveal any sexually dimorphic structure in experimental and control birds; the major t-induced change was a thicke ...19958623014
[epizootiology and pathogenesis of avian mycobacteriosis in the ring-necked pheasant (phasianus colchicus) and the hungarian partridge (perdix perdix)].various species of free living birds play an important role in the epidemiological of avian mycobacteriosis as a source of mycobacteria. among them of certain importance are feathered game, in this country, particularly pheasant (phasianus colchicus) and partridge (perdix perdix). in these species, closer contact with domestic animals can be expected. the aim of this work was to find their susceptibility to m. avium, origin and location of tuberculosis process and the occurrence of mycobacteria ...19938116140
hypobiosis of trichostrongylus tenuis in experimentally infected grey partridges.storage of infective larvae (l3) of trichostrongylus tenuis at +4 degrees c for six weeks before being given as single infections to grey partridges (perdix perdix) did not increase the proportion of worms subsequently found to be hypobiotic. however, after repeated infections, hypobiotic larvae were numerous. three infections given over three weeks resulted not only in the presence of many hypobiotic larvae, but also in the coincident loss of most adult worms. this indication of the role of imm ...19938460270
factors affecting the incidence of dawn calling in red-legged and grey partridges.seasonal variations in the frequency and the timing of calling in red-legged (alectoris rufa) and grey (perdix perdix) partridges, and their relationships with biological and environmental factors, were investigated during 89 morning surveys. in winter, when birds were living in social groups, the vocal activity of both species decreased. most calling began before sunrise. yet many variations in the timing of first calls were observed when sunrise was prior to 0530 h, i.e. when the daylength was ...199224924326
effects of pcbs on plasma enzymes, testosterone level, and hepatic xenobiotic metabolism in the grey partridge, perdix perdix. 19892571373
variation in diet composition: a hazard to the reliability of the ld50-test.the severity of toxic effects on nearly fully-grown birds from an organophosphorus insecticide (isofenphos) was shown to be affected by the tested birds' previous diet as juveniles. subadult grey partridges (perdix perdix), with an insect-poor diet as juveniles, were severely affected by the insecticide, whereas birds fed an insect-rich diet as juveniles showed no signs of poisoning after feeding on isofenphos-treated seeds.198815092662
annual testicular activity in the gray partridge (perdix perdix l.).seasonal changes in plasma androgens, testicular total protein content, gonosomatic index, and spermatogenic activity were studied in the grey partridge, perdix perdix. moreover, testicular androgen output after stimulation with ovine lh (olh) was tested in vitro during different periods of the sexual cycle. androgens and the gonosomatic index peaked in april, during which all the spermatogenic stages were observed. total protein content in the testes was highest in january and march. gonadal re ...19873666422
lead poisoning in a partridge (perdix perdix) after ingestion of gunshot. 19873590554
[campylobacter jejuni/coli in partridges (perdix perdix l.) and pheasants (phasianus colchicus l.)]. 19863814066
antibody response in partridge (perdix perdix l.) 1. effect of sex and age on the immune response to sheep red blood cells (srbc), newcastle disease virus (ndv) and brucella abortus (buck 19).to ascertain the immune response capacity of partridges to classical experimental and natural antigens, dose and time response curves to sheep red blood cells (srbc), newcastle disease virus (ndv) and brucella abortus (buck 19 strain), were determined in two strains reared in two different farms. 1 ml of 20% srbc, 10(9) ndv particles and 10(7) buck 19 microorganisms, gave optimal antibody responses seven (srbc and buck 19) or fourteen days after immunization. as far as srbc is concerned, the ant ...19853936735
effects of prochloraz on drug metabolism in the japanese quail, grey partridge, chicken, and pheasant. 19854004337
treatment of nematodiasis in poultry and game birds with fenbendazole.administration of 100 ppm fenbendazole to 661 pheasants (phasianus colchicus colchicus) and 25 partridges (perdix perdix) for 4 days reduced natural infection with syngamus trachea and/or capillaria obsignata and in some cases with heterakis spp. by more than 90%. a 5-day administration of feed medicated with 30 or 60 ppm fenbendazole resulted in almost 100% efficacy against natural c. obsignata and heterakis gallinae infection in 343 pullets. the treated pullets were kept under poor hygienic co ...19846743169
[reproductive conditioning of the partridge (perdix perdix) with gnrh and an increase in the photoperiod].follicular growth and egg deposition were induced in the grey partridge (perdix perdix) after stimulation with gn-rh and artificial light. the experiment was carried out from november to december 1983, during the short day period, and during the non egg laying period for this bird-sp. two groups consisting of ten pairs of grey partridge each (female and male), received 3.8 mcg of gn-rh (pglu-his-trp-ser-tyr-gly-leu-arg-pro-gly-nh2) every 8 hours for 10 and 15 days, respectively. with interruptio ...19846383430
[parasitofauna of partridges (perdix perdix l.) isolated in eastern and central poland]. 19817324467
[transmission of marek's disease to wild feathered game].the following wild feathered game were tested from 6 to 12 months of age: common pheasant (phasianus colchicus), common gray partridge (perdix perdix), european quail (coturnix coturnix), and greek partridge (alectoris graeca). only pheasant was found to be susceptible to infection with a virulent virus of marek's disease. in this bird the first clinical symptoms of the disease (nervous changes) were observed in 28 days from infection. immunoprecipitation antibodies to the marek's disease virus ...19816275596
the occurrence of salmonellae in free-flying-avifauna: isolation and antibiogram.the occurrence of salmonellae in a variety of free-flying birds was investigated. of 790 intestinal-content-samples examined, 20 yielded different salmonella serotypes, which included 10 strains of s. saint-paul, 4 of s. bareilly, 3 of s. weltevreden, 2 of s. typhimurium and 1 of salmonella e1 group. common mynah, house-sparrow, swallow, grey-partridge, parrot and crow were found positive for the presence of salmonellae. antibiogram of the isolates was studied against 14 common chemotherapeutic ...19807461918
7-ethoxycoumarin dealkylase and cytochrome p-450 from grey partridge (perdix perdix) hepatic and duodenal microsomes. 19806781496
comparative neurohistological observations on the pancreatic duct in certain birds and mammals as revealed by cholinesterase technique.a comparative study of pancreatic duct innervation of francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter) and suncus murinus (indian musk shrew) as revealed by cholinesterase technique has been done for investigation. in suncus pancreas, the ache-positive ganglia, elongated and irregularly shaped, medium and large-sized, were recorded either on the periphery of the excretory duct or on the wall of the duct. no ganglia were recorded on the periphery, although the fibres of the ganglia were ...1978645332
study of acetylcholinesterase distribution in the various tissues of birds and mammals.the distribution of ache activity in the various tissues was studied, in female funambulus pennanti (five banded squirrel), female francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge of safed teeter), female perdicula asiatica (jungle bush quail or lowwa), female gallus domesticus (white leghorn), and female suncus murinus (indian musk shrew) by the use of cholinesterase technique, under different temperatures, incubation periods and ph values. the distribution of ache activity in the nerve cells, their f ...1978744541
in vivo inhibition of grey partridge (perdrix perdrix) creatine-kinase by methoxy ethyl mercury silicate.in grey partridge, methoxy-ethyl-mercury is a potent reversible inhibitor of muscular creatine-kinase. this effect is probably the result of a fixation of mercury by the thiol groups of the enzyme molecule.1977605046
histochemical study on the nerve endings in the lung of rattus rattus rufescens and francolinus pondicerianus.presence and the relation of the nerve endings with associated structures in the lund of rattus rattus rufescens (indian black rat) and francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter) has been studied by cholinesterase technique. dot, plate, and vater pacini corpuscles like nerve endings in the lung of rattus and dot, and bulb like nerve endings with axis cylinder covered with myelinated sheath in the lung of francolinus were recorded. the nerve endings were ache-positive.1977611695
[ecology of syngamosis in a large scale farming area].within recent 20 years, czechoslovak agriculture has undergone considerable changes due to the introduction of largescale farming. our contribution presents the results of studies on chickens (gallus gallus f. dom.) reared traditionally on runs in an area contaminated with the eggs of syngamus trachea distributed with pheasant faeces. in addition to postmortem examination of 336 chicken tracheae, their faeces collected for one year from the runs were examined, but syngamosis was not found. studi ...1976137683
attempts for immunization of partridges (perdix perdix) against newcastle disease. 19761031254
[biometry, hematology, blood biochemistry, blood and tissue enzymology of the gray partridge (perdrix perdrix)]. 19761028377
neuro-histochemical observations on the pancreas of francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter) as revealed by the cholinesterase technique.the sharpness in the staining of the neural elements with associated structures was maximum under maintained ph of 5.2, incubation period 19 h and temperature 40 degrees c, by cholinesterase technique. innervation of the pancreas with reference to blood vessels, pancreatic duct, and islets of langerhans has been studied in francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter). the fibres of the periarterial plexus, periductular plexus and the periinsular plexus were closely related to each ...1976801847
anatomical, neurohistological and histochemical observations on the tongue of francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter).the staining and demonstration of neural elements in relation with other associated structures was most satisfactory at ph 5.2, incubation period 20 h, and temperature 40degreesc. ganglia of various shape and size were observed on or near the fungiform, filiform and foliate papillae. in the region of the fungiform papillae, a chain of ganglia (parasympathetic) was observed. the nerve cells of these ganglia showed cholinesterase (che) activity. the neural networks of the foliate papillae were con ...19751227231
acclimatization to temperature in pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and partridge (perdix perdix). 1975237677
pesticides and the fertility of the grey partridge, perdix perdix. 19734522386
[negative effects of a disturbed environment on free living animals, as demonstrated on the example of the partridge (perdix perdix l.)]. 19724557284
the pterylography of the mature partridge perdix perdix l. 19705441476
pseudaspidoderella indica n. gen. n. sp. from grey partridge francolinus pondicerianus. 19695408573
lemdana francolini n. sp. from grey partridge francolinus pondicerianus. 19685751501
[tetrathyridium elongatum (blumberg, 1882) infection in perdix perdix l]. 196414348750
moniliasis in partridges (perdix perdix). 196113752826
[studies on helminths in wild galliformes in the lublin province. i. helminths in perdix perdix l]. 195813604235
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