central injections of noradrenaline and adrenaline differentially affect plasma free fatty acid and glucose in conscious pigeons (columba livia).the possible involvement of central noradrenergic and/or adrenergic circuits in central mechanisms controlling free fatty acids and glucose levels was investigated in conscious pigeons. the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of noradrenaline (80 nmol) or adrenaline (80 nmol) on plasma free fatty acids and glucose concentrations were examined. the possible role of the autonomic nervous system, of sympathetic terminals and of pituitary hormone release in the metabolic responses induced ...200011083520
projections from the nucleus of the basal optic root and nucleus lentiformis mesencephali to the inferior olive in pigeons (columba livia).the nucleus of the basal optic root (nbor) of the accessory optic system (aos) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (lm) are involved in the analysis of optic flow and the generation of the optokinetic response. previous studies have shown that the nbor projects bilaterally to the medial column (mc) of the inferior olive (io) and the lm projects to the ipsilateral mc. in the present study the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b was injected into either the caudal or rostral m ...200111116234
enhanced specific antibody response to bovine serum albumin in pigeons due to l-carnitine supplementation.1. thirty adult female pigeons (columba livia domestica) were randomly divided into 3 equal groups; the 1st and 2nd groups were immunised with bovine serum albumin (bsa) at 0 and 20 d, the 2nd group also received 1 g l-carnitine per litre of drinking water from -5 to 25 d post-immunisation (dpi) and the 3rd group, a control group, received neither treatment. 2. body weights and serum samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 dpi. 3. both bsa-specific igg and igm responses were enhanc ...200011128385
in vivo and in vitro sensitivity of trichomonas gallinae to some nitroimidazole drugs.a study was carried out in order to establish the in vivo efficacy of two nitroimidazole drugs against the flagellate trichomonas gallinae. the results obtained showed a high proportion of therapeutic failures. thus, carnidazole and dimetridazole failed to eliminate infection in 13 of 17 and 20 of 21 racing pigeons, respectively. the in vitro susceptibility of four t. gallinae isolates to five nitroimidazolic drugs, that is, carnidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ornidazole and ronidazole, w ...19989786623
equal frequencies of recombination nodules in both sexes of the pigeon suggest a basic difference with eutherian mammals.the total number of recombination nodules (rns) in the autosomal synaptonemal complexes (scs) is statistically equivalent in oocytes and spermatocytes from the domestic pigeon columba livia. the distribution on rns along the three longest autosomes is also equivalent in oocytes and spermatocytes. the numbers of rns show a linear relationship when plotted against sc length both in oocytes and spermatocytes. on the other hand, the zw pair shows a single and strictly localized rn near the synaptic ...199910231963
genetic analyses of visual pigments of the pigeon (columba livia).we isolated five classes of retinal opsin genes rh1(cl), rh2(cl), sws1(cl), sws2(cl), and lws(cl) from the pigeon; these encode rh1(cl), rh2(cl), sws1(cl), sws2(cl), and lws(cl) opsins, respectively. upon binding to 11-cis-retinal, these opsins regenerate the corresponding photosensitive molecules, visual pigments. the absorbance spectra of visual pigments have a broad bell shape with the peak, being called lambdamax. previously, the sws1(cl) opsin cdna was isolated from the pigeon retinal rna, ...199910581289
impairment in a discrimination reversal task after d1 receptor blockade in the pigeon "prefrontal cortex".dopamine (da) is known to modulate cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (pfc) of mammals, especially via d1 receptor mechanisms. like the pfc, the neostriatum caudolaterale (ncl) of birds is characterized by dopaminergic input, and nlc and pfc lesions cause similar deficits. the significance of da in a color discrimination reversal was assessed by evaluating the effects of bilateral infusions of the d1 receptor antagonist sch 23390 into the ncl of pigeons (columba livia). reversal defici ...200011142646
phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the medulla oblongata of the pigeon (columba livia) projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.the distribution and ascending projections to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase (pnmt)-immunoreactive perikaria were studied in adult pigeons using a combination of retrograde transport of fluorogold injected into the paraventricular nucleus, and double immunohistochemical procedures for pnmt, tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide y. pnmt-immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the subtrigeminal reticular nucleus of the ventrolateral medulla and ...200011154997
parasites of domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) in sebele, gaborone, botswana.the following parasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons kept in sebele: a haemoprotozoan, haemoproteus columbae (80%); endoparasite metazoan nematodes, ascaridia columbae (30%) and dispharynx spiralis (10%); a cestode, raillietina sp. (80%) and coccidian oocysts (40%); 2 ectoparasites, namely the pigeon fly, pseudolynchia canariensis (50%) and the louse, columbicola columbae (30%). the pigeons also had highantibody titres, (1:256) to the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii (100%). the ...200011212939
how does time since feeding affect the fuels pigeons use during flight?time between meals can vary from multiple hours to days within and among species. we investigated the effects of time since feeding on lipid, protein, and carbohydrate oxidation in flying pigeons (columba livia) by interpreting changes in blood plasma metabolite concentrations and mass during flight. five pigeons were flown or rested for 4 h after food deprivations of 2, 12, 24, and 48 h. after flight, blood plasma concentrations of uric acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate were elevated over control a ...200111226009
role of dopamine in the modulation of adrenal gland responses in the osmotically stressed pigeons, columba livia.salt loading on pigeons (c. livia) had stimulatory effects on brain amines (dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine), corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine contents of adrenal gland. conjoint administration of dopamine with hypertonic saline restored the brain amines and corticosterone of adrenal gland, but had no effect on catecholamine (cam) contents of adrenal medulla. the excessive release of cam in the plasma indicates sympathetic stimulation after both the treatments.200011233096
pigeons (columba livia) learn to link numerosities with symbols.after responding to each element in varying, successive numerosity displays, pigeons (columba livia) had to choose, out of an array of symbols, the symbol designated to correspond to the preceding number of elements. after extensive training, 5 pigeons responded with significant accuracy to the numerosities 1 to 4, and 2 pigeons to the numerosities 1 to 5. several tests showed that feedback tones accompanying element pecks, the familiarity of element configurations, and the shape of the elements ...200111334222
regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-living pigeons.we studied feral free-living pigeons (columba livia) to determine whether either unstressed or stress-induced corticosterone release was altered during a prebasic molt. the pigeons were at various stages of molt throughout the study, but corticosterone responses in molting and nonmolting birds did not differ. this was further reflected in equivalent adrenal responses to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth), suggesting equivalent steroidogenic capacity of adrenal tissues during both physi ...200111352106
the intermesenteric plexus in the pigeon (columba livia gm).using the thiocholine method and histological techniques the intermesenteric plexus of the pigeon was studied. the intermesenteric plexus of this species is a plexo-ganglionic structure with several (five to seven) ganglia and nerve fibres. the ganglia have an oval-, spindle- or star-like shape. single nerve cells along the nerve fibres were observed. the intermesenteric plexus of the pigeon is situated on the ventrolateral surface of the aorta, between the cranial mesenteric artery and caudal m ...200111379370
the effect of distinctive parts on recognition of depth-rotated objects by pigeons (columba livia) and explore whether effects observed in human object recognition represent fundamental properties of visual perception that are general across species, the authors trained pigeons (columba livia) and humans to discriminate between pictures of 3-dimensional objects that differed in shape. novel pictures of the depth-rotated objects were then tested for recognition. across conditions, the object pairs contained either 0, 1, 3, or 5 distinctive parts. pigeons showed viewpoint dependence in all objec ...200111409102
accurate route demonstration by experienced homing pigeons does not improve subsequent homing performance in naive conspecifics.we describe an experiment that uses the grouping tendencies and navigational abilities of the homing pigeon (columba livia) to investigate the possibility of socially mediated information transfer in a field setting. by varying the composition of paired-release types, we allowed some naive birds to receive an accurate demonstration of the home route whilst others were paired with similarly naive conspecifics. after this 'paired phase', we predicted that if any learning of spatial information occ ...200011413647
distribution of bdnf, nt-3, trkb and trkc in the developing retino-tectal system of the pigeon (columba livia).the distribution of the neurotrophins bdnf and nt-3 as well as their corresponding high-affinity receptors trkb and trkc was characterized by immunohistochemistry in the developing retino-tectal system of the pigeon. these neurotrophins are known to be important for survival and development of neuronal tissues, but also for activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. in pigeons visual asymmetry is established at the morphological and behavioral level due to a natural asymmetrical light input before ...200111506431
[geographic variation in color of the synanthropic blue rock pigeon ].variation in plumage color was studied in 211 populations of the blue rock pigeon (columbia livia) from various geographic zones. the frequency distribution of three common and three rare phenotypes and an interspecific hybridization zone of c. livia and c. rupestris were described. different conditions of the origin of the urban populations of blue rock pigeon and consequent high genetic heterogeneity of this species were revealed. the key aspect of color polymorphism in blue rock pigeon is syn ...200111517766
changes of endolymphatic pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeon by caloric gets into difficult to explain the mechanism of caloric nystagmus only by convection theory from results of microgravity experiments. one of the other theories is an occurrence of a relative volume change due to a temperature change. since the volume change must lead to a pressure change after caloric stimulation, we tried to measure the ampulla pressure of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons (columba livia) using an improved servo micropipette system. the main result was that th ...199411537945
changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation.still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. in this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons (columba livia). although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. on the ...199411539516
static tilt may modify the value of nystagmus awake pigeons (columba livia) we investigated the horizontal cervical and ocular nystagmuses which were induced by monaural stimulation of the lateral semicircular canals by the parathreshold sinusoidal currents. the value of nystagmus asymmetry (by the average velocities of slow components) with a normal orientation of the bird's head was compared with that in static head tilts in the sagittal and frontal planes. in the normal head position depolarization of the lateral canals evoked a stron ...199611540409
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and chlamydia psittaci in domestic pigeons (columbia livia domestica) at sebele, gaborone, botswana.high antibody titres to toxoplasma gondii and chlamydophila psittaci were demonstrated in serum collected from domestic pigeons at average titres of 1:128 and 1:64 respectively. the public health implications of these findings are discussed.200111585096
serologic evidence for west nile virus infection in birds in the new york city vicinity during an outbreak in part of an investigation of an encephalitis outbreak in new york city, we sampled 430 birds, representing 18 species in four orders, during september 13-23, 1999, in queens and surrounding counties. overall, 33% were positive for west nile (wn) virus-neutralizing antibodies, and 0.5% were positive for st. louis encephalitis virus-neutralizing antibodies. by county, queens had the most seropositive birds for wn virus (50%); species with the greatest seropositivity for wn virus (sample sizes we ...200111585522
responses of ectostriatal neurons during delayed matching-to-sample behavior in pigeons (columba livia).we recorded from 71 neurons in the ectostriatum of awake behaving pigeons performing the delayed matching-to-sample task. the ectostriatum is considered to be equivalent to the primate extrastriate cortex. many of the neurons (n=56, 78.9%) were visually responsive to either or both the red and green stimuli. in addition, a large number of neurons (n=51, 71.8%) exhibited delay activity, that is, a change in activity during the delay period when memory was required compared to the baseline intertr ...200111602229
histochemical and immunocytochemical investigations of the marginal nuclei in the spinal cord of pigeons (columba livia).in birds there are segmentally organized marginal nuclei at the lateral or ventrolateral border of the spinal cord. in most regions of the spinal cord these nuclei are within the outline of the cord. however, in the lumbosacral region they form accessory lobes protruding into the vertebral canal. histochemical and immunocytochemical investigations were performed to study the neurochemical features of the marginal nuclei of the pigeon. despite histological differences (only accessory lobe neurons ...200111604243
[classification of the forebrain striatum neurons in birds].polymorphism of neurons in the basic fields of the forebrain striatum of birds was described using specially developed classification of neurons in nissl preparations. birds with different degrees of development of elementary rational activity were studied: corvus monedula, columba livia, coturnix coturnix, and melopsittacus undulatus. according to the proposed method, the neurons were classified in 3 basic types and 2 additional, 6 subtypes and 26 classes. it was found that in the higher brain ...200111605427
does the endolymph pass through the base of the cupula?whether the endolymph of the semicircular canal passes the cupular partition or not was examined using the lateral semicircular canal system of adult pigeons (columba livia). by applying various pressures by means of injection of a dye solution through the membranous canal, it was found that the dye solution, was seen to pass the cupula even under very low pressures when the pressure was increased gradually. when pulled by a magnet, the ultrafine particles of the dextran magnetite contained in t ...200111669123
are hippoboscid flies a major mode of transmission of feather mites?feather mites (astigmata) are distributed around the world, living on the feathers of birds, but their mechanisms for transmission among hosts are not fully understood. there is anecdotal evidence of feather mites attached to louseflies (diptera: hippoboscidae), suggesting that feather mites may use these flies as a mode of phoretic transmission among birds. two bird-lousefly associations (alpine swift apus melba-crataerina melbae and feral pigeon columba livia-pseudolynchia canariensis) were in ...200111695394
respiratory water loss in free-flying pigeons.we assessed respiratory and cutaneous water loss in trained tippler pigeons (columba livia) both at rest and in free flight. in resting pigeons, exhaled air temperature t(ex) increased with ambient air temperature t(a) (t(ex)=16.3+0.705t(a)) between 15 degrees c and 30 degrees c, while tidal volume v(t) (v(t)=4.7+/-1.0 ml, mean +/- s.d. at standard temperature and pressure dry) and breathing frequency f(r) (f(r)=0.46+/-0.06 breaths s(-1)) were independent of t(a). respiratory water loss, rwl, wa ...200111719543
critical evaluation of five methods for quantifying chewing lice (insecta: phthiraptera).five methods for estimating the abundance of chewing lice (insecta: phthiraptera) were tested. to evaluate the methods, feral pigeons (columba livia) and 2 species of ischnoceran lice were used. the fraction of lice removed by each method was compared, and least squares linear regression was used to determine how well each method predicted total abundance. total abundance was assessed in most cases using koh dissolution. the 2 methods involving dead birds (body washing and post-mortem-ruffling) ...200111780812
participation of the homing pigeon thalamofugal visual pathway in sun-compass associative learning.the ascending thalamofugal visual pathway in pigeons (columba livia) terminates in the telencephalic wulst. characterizing the role of this pathway in visually guided behaviour has remained a challenge. to determine whether this pathway, and in particular the wulst, may participate in sun-compass-guided behaviour in homing pigeons, intact, ectostriatum-lesioned or wulst-lesioned pigeons were trained to use their sun compass to locate the direction of a food reward in an outdoor, octagonal arena. ...200211860519
cooling by cutaneous water evaporation in the heat-acclimated rock pigeon (columba livia).the present study provides an up-to-date overview of the cutaneous water-evaporation cooling mechanism in the rock pigeon. cutaneous water evaporation fully replaces the classic respiratory cooling mechanism in the resting, heat-acclimated bird, and is more economical in terms of water conservation. it enables the pigeon to maintain homeostasis, and to breed successfully in harsh environments. adrenergic signaling is involved in the initiation of this novel mechanism, either by deactivation of t ...200211867275
bacteriological characteristics of dressed young pigeon (squabs) columba livia domesticus.a total of 50 frozen squabs carcasses were collected from different retail markets in cairo and giza governorates. the collected samples were examined bacteriologically. the aerobic plate count, the enterobacteriaceae and the staphylococcus count were 6.6 x 10(5), 6.3 x 10(2) and 1.4 x 10(3) cfu./gram, respectively. the results revealed no positive samples for salmonella yersinia entercolitica, listeria monocytogenes and campylobacter jejuni. staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 2% of samples ...200211890056
coenzyme q10 levels in pigeon (columba livia) assess the coq10 levels in pigeon spermatozoa and to verify their possible correlation with spermatic kinetic parameters.200211907632
functional aspects of dopamine metabolism in the putative prefrontal cortex analogue and striatum of pigeons (columba livia).dopamine (da) in mammalian associative structures, such as the prefrontal cortex (pfc), plays a prominent role in learning and memory processes, and its homeostasis differs from that of da in the striatum, a sensorimotor region. the neostriatum caudolaterale (ncl) of birds resembles the mammalian pfc according to connectional, electrophysiological, and behavioral data. in the present study, da regulation in the associative ncl and the striatal lobus parolfactorius (lpo) of pigeons was compared t ...200211920720
the influence of stress from transport and handling on hematologic and clinical chemistry blood parameters of racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).in the present study, the influence of stress from handling and transport on some frequently examined blood parameters of racing pigeons was evaluated. after 3 hr, there was a highly significant (p < 0.01) increase in the number as well as in the percentage of heterophils and decrease of lymphocytes. in clinical chemistries, increases of creatine kinase and glucose and a decrease of uric acid were observed. there was a mean decrease of the total white blood count of >15% that was less significan ...200211922340
muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade impairs free fatty acid mobilization during fasting in pigeons (columba livia).the effects of intracerebroventricular pretreatment with muscarinic (scopolamine or methylscopolamine; 2.7 nmol or 5.4 nmol) or nicotinic (mecamylamine, 2.7 nmol or 5.4 nmol) cholinergic receptor antagonists on plasma free fatty acid increases induced by intracerebroventricular injections of carbachol in conscious resting pigeons (columba livia) were examined. plasma glucose levels were also measured throughout the experiments. pretreatment with methylscopolamine suppressed the lipolytic effect ...200211924561
pathogenicity of a hong kong-origin h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for emus, geese, ducks, and pigeons.the h5n1 type a influenza viruses that emerged in hong kong in 1997 are a unique lineage of type a influenza viruses with the capacity to transmit directly from chickens to humans and produce significant disease and mortality in both of these hosts. the objective of this study was to ascertain the susceptibility of emus (dramaius novaehollandiae), domestic geese (anser anser domesticus), domestic ducks (anas platyrhynchos), and pigeons (columba livia) to intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the a/ ...200211924603
intratelencephalic connections of the hippocampus in pigeons (columba livia).behavioral experiments using ablation of the hippocampus are increasingly being used to address the hypothesis that the avian hippocampus plays a role in memory, as in mammals. however, the morphological basis of the avian hippocampus has been poorly understood. in the present study, the afferent and efferent connections of the hippocampus in the pigeon telencephalon were defined by injections, at various rostrocaudal sites, of neuronal tracers mainly into the triangular part located between its ...200211977120
adrenergic control of glycemia in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in pigeons.the effects of local injections of adrenaline into the paraventricular nucleus (pvn) and into other anterior hypothalamic areas on blood glucose levels were investigated in conscious pigeons (columba livia). adrenaline evoked a reliable and potent increase in blood glucose levels when injected into the pvn; no glycemic change was observed after vehicle injections into the pvn or after adrenaline injections into the 3rd ventricle or hypothalamic structures adjacent to the pvn. local pretreatment ...200211997704
unilateral eye closure and interhemispheric eeg asymmetry during sleep in the pigeon (columba livia).aquatic mammals (i.e., cetaceans, eared seals and manatees) and birds show interhemispheric asymmetries (ia) in slow-wave sleep-related electroencephalographic (eeg) activity, suggesting that the depth of sleep differs between hemispheres. in birds, an association between unilateral eye closure and ia has been reported in five species from three orders (i.e., galliformes, charadriiformes, and anseriformes). moreover, unilateral eye closure has been observed during behaviorally defined sleep in 2 ...200112016351
cardiovascular responses to adrenergic agents in different acclimation states in the rock pigeon (columba livia).the effect of propranolol on heart rate (fh) was measured in season-acclimatized pigeons. propranolol treatment decreased fh in winter-acclimatized pigeons, accelerated fh in summer-acclimatized pigeons, but had no effect on fh in spring-acclimatized pigeons. the effect of propranolol in summer-acclimatized pigeons is opposite to that observed in mammals. interestingly, isoproterenol produced a propranolol-like cardioacceleration in heat-acclimated pigeons. we suggest that propranolol affects fh ...200212099400
pigeon allergens in indoor environments: a preliminary study.few studies have measured pigeon allergens in non pigeon coop environments. this study was conducted to determine approximate pigeon dropping allergen concentrations in indoor environments.200212100304
impaired learning of a color reversal task after nmda receptor blockade in the pigeon (columba livia) associative forebrain (neostriatum caudolaterale).the neostriatum caudolaterale (ncl) in the pigeon (columba livia) forebrain is a multisensory associative area and a functional equivalent to the mammalian prefrontal cortex (pfc). to investigate the role of n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) receptors in the ncl for learning flexibility, the authors trained pigeons in a color reversal task while locally blocking nmda receptors with d,l-2-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (ap-5). controls received saline injections. ap-5-treated pigeons made significantly mo ...200212148920
cutaneous blood flow in the pigeon columba livia: its possible relevance to cutaneous water evaporation.the heat-acclimated rock pigeon is thought to use cutaneous water evaporation (cwe) as the 'preferred' route for heat dissipation, and this mechanism is controlled by adrenergic signaling. in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that adjustments in skin blood flow are a crucial component of this adaptation. skin blood flow was measured by laser doppler flowmetry and by ultrasonic flowmetry in heat-acclimated (hac) and non-acclimated (nac) pigeons. skin blood flow, cwe and rectal and skin ...200212151368
annual variation in semen characteristics of pigeons (columba livia).the purpose of this study was to evaluate annual semen characteristics of pigeons (columba livia). ten selected male pigeons, aged 2 to 5 yr were housed under natural environmental conditions, and semen collection was conducted via a digital massage twice weekly throughout the year. the success rate of semen collection in a total of 920 attempts was 40% (371/920) over the whole year. the highest success rate was 69% (55/80) in march followed by 66% (53/80) in november, whereas the lowest rates w ...200212162344
effect of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine anaesthesia and atipamezole on heart and respiratory rate and cloacal temperature of domestic pigeons.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative-anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine (m, 50 microg per pigeon), butorphanol (b, 50 microg per pigeon) and ketamine (k, 25 mg per pigeon) in domestic pigeons. eight domestic pigeons (four male and four female, 8-15 months old) were used. the combination of medetomidine and butorphanol injectable solutions were used to produce sedation. ten minutes after m + b administration, k was injected. the anaesthetic effects of the drugs ...200212227468
imitation of conditional discriminations in pigeons (columba livia).in the present experiments, the 2-action method was used to determine whether pigeons could learn to imitate a conditional discrimination. demonstrator pigeons (columba livia) stepped on a treadle in the presence of 1 light and pecked at the treadle in the presence of another light. demonstration did not seem to affect acquisition of the conditional discrimination (experiment 1) but did facilitate its reversal of the conditional discrimination (experiments 2 and 3). the results suggest that pige ...200212234078
caloric nystagmus after plugging of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons.the mechanism of caloric nystagmus has been attributed to endolymphatic thermoconvection flow of the horizontal semicircular canal in the inner ear. it has recently become difficult, however, to explain caloric nystagmus provoked in the space experiment by employing the convection theory only because the convection phenomenon does not exist under the conditions of microgravity (0g). although several hypotheses concerning the mechanism of caloric nystagmus have been proposed which exclude the con ...199312236250
intrahippocampal connections in the pigeon (columba livia) as revealed by stimulation evoked field potentials.the hippocampal formation (hf) of mammals and birds is crucial for spatial learning and memory. however, although the underlying synaptic organization and connectivity of the mammalian hf are well characterized, comparatively little is known about the avian hf. localized regions of the homing pigeon hf were stimulated at 400-600 microa while evoked field potentials (efps) were recorded from adjacent and more distant hf areas relative to the stimulation site. the shortest discernible efp latency ...200212353225
discrimination of intentional and random motion paths by pigeons.twelve pigeons ( columba livia) were trained on a go/no-go schedule to discriminate between two kinds of movement patterns of dots, which to human observers appear to be "intentional" and "non-intentional" movements. in experiment 1, the intentional motion stimulus contained one dot (a "wolf") that moved systematically towards another dot as though stalking it, and three distractors ("sheep"). the non-intentional motion stimulus consisted of four distractors but no stalker. birds showed some imp ...200212357284
comparison of susceptibility to antimicrobials of the enterococcal species isolated from pigeons (columba livia).antimicrobial resistance profiles were assessed in enterococcus faecium, enterococcus faecalis, and enterococcus columbae strains isolated from racing pigeons (columba livia). e. columbae is the most prevalent enterococcal species in the intestines of pigeons. acquired resistance against the antimicrobials bambermycin, vancomycin, monensin, narasin, virginiamycin (cross-resistant with quinupristin/dalfopristin), avilamycin (cross-resistant with evernimicin), and ampicillin was not seen. only for ...200212363011
prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among pigeon isolates of streptococcus gallolyticus, escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium.thirty-three streptococcus gallolyticus, 60 escherichia coli and 18 salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium var. copenhagen strains isolated from homing pigeons (columba livia) were tested for susceptibility to the antimicrobials most commonly used to treat pigeons. minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined using the agar dilution technique. aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), trimethoprim and flumequine were relatively inactive against the streptococci tested. acquired tetracyc ...200212396341
pcr-rflps within the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-a) gene of the domestic pigeon (columba livia var. domestica).a total of 45 racing pigeons were genotyped using pcr-rflp method. pcr product of the ldh-a gene was amplified according to the long-pcr procedure. the amplification products were digested with restriction enzymes. pcr-rflps for two restriction enzymes, haeiii and nlaiv, were observed. two pairs of alleles ldh-a(a) and ldh-a(b) for ldh-a-nlaiv polymorphism and ldh-a(c) and ldh-a(d) for ldh-a-haeiii polymorphism were detected in the homozygous and heterozygous states. frequencies of alleles were ...200212441634
wild pigeons and pheasants--a source of chlamydophila psittaci for humans and animals.the authors present results of serological examination in 275 pheasants (phaisanus colchicus) and 273 pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) for the presence of chlamydophila (ch) psittaci igg antibodies. using micromethod of complement fixation (cf) test with genus-specific antigen ch. psittaci (bioveta, ivanovice na hané, czech republic), the seropositivity in pheasants oscillated between 31.5-40.4 %. no clinical signs of chlamydiosis were detected in pheasants under study. the seropositivity in ...200212498596
zonal organization of the vestibulocerebellum in pigeons (columba livia): i. climbing fiber input to the flocculus.previous studies in pigeons have shown that the neurons in the medial column of the inferior olive respond best to patterns of optic flow resulting from self-rotation. with respect to the axis of rotation, there are two functional groups: rva neurons prefer rotation about the vertical axis, whereas rh45 neurons respond best to rotation about an horizontal axis oriented at 45 degrees ipsilateral azimuth. the rva and rh45 neurons are located in the caudal and rostral margins of the medial column, ...200312509870
zonal organization of the vestibulocerebellum in pigeons (columba livia): ii. projections of the rotation zones of the flocculus.previous neurophysiologic research in birds and mammals has shown that there are two types of purkinje cells in the flocculus. the first type shows maximal modulation in response to rotational optokinetic stimulation about the vertical axis (rva neurons). the second type shows maximal modulation in response to rotational optokinetic stimulation about a horizontal axis oriented 45 degrees to contralateral azimuth (rh45c neurons). in pigeons, the rva and rh45c are organized into four alternating p ...200312509871
comparative pharmacokinetics of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in five bird species.information on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-inflammatory drugs in birds is scarce. choice of drug and of dosage is usually empirical, since studies of anti-inflammatory drugs are lacking. in this study, three common veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) were administered intravenously to five different bird species. sodium salicylate, flunixin and meloxicam were selected as anti-inflammatory drugs. these nsaids were administered intravenously to chickens ...200312524015
cytochrome p450 enzyme activity in five herbivorous, non-passerine bird species.we examined hepatic cytochrome p450 activity in wild and hand-reared grey partridges (perdix perdix), capercaillies (tetrao urogallus) and ring-necked pheasants (phasianus colchicus), as well as the enzyme activity in a variety of tissues of hand-reared japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica) and pigeons (columba livia). post-mortem decrease in hepatic enzyme activity in the grey partridge was measured. hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity was similar in wild and hand-reared grey ...200312524019
a comparative study of geometric rule learning by nutcrackers (nucifraga columbiana), pigeons (columba livia), and jackdaws (corvus monedula).three avian species, a seed-caching corvid (clark's nutcrackers; nucifraga columbiana), a non-seed-caching corvid (jackdaws; corvus monedula), and a non-seed-caching columbid (pigeons; columba livia), were tested for ability to learn to find a goal halfway between 2 landmarks when distance between the landmarks varied during training. all 3 species learned, but jackdaws took much longer than either pigeons or nutcrackers. the nutcrackers searched more accurately than either pigeons or jackdaws. ...200212539930
temporal integration as a function of signal and gap intensity in rats (rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (columba livia).previous data suggest that rats (rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (columba livia) use different interval-timing strategies when a gap interrupts a to-be-timed signal: rats stop timing during the gap, and pigeons reset their timing mechanism after the gap. to examine whether the response rule is controlled by an attentional mechanism dependent on the characteristics of the stimuli, the authors manipulated the intensity of the signal and gap when rats and pigeons timed in the gap procedure. results ...200212539934
multiple-landmark piloting in pigeons (columba livia): landmark configuration as a discriminative cue.using the landmark-transformation technique, researchers have shown that pigeons (columba livia) tend to encode a goal location relative to 1 landmark, even when multiple landmarks are in the vicinity of the goal. the current experiments examined pigeons' ability to use configural information from a set of landmarks by making the arrangement of 4 landmarks a discriminative cue to the location of buried seeds. results showed that pigeons used information from the 3 consistently placed landmarks t ...200212539935
domesticated birds as a model for the genetics of speciation by sexual theory, even populations occupying identical environments can diverge in sexually selected traits, as a consequence of different mutational input. i evaluate the potential of this process by comparing the genetics of breeds of domesticated birds to what is known about the genetics of differences among species. within domesticated species there is a strong correlation of time since domestication with the number of breeds. descendants of the rock dove, columba livia (the oldest domesticate) sho ...200212555787
investigations into the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in a granivorous (columba livia domestica) and in a carnivorous (buteo jamaicensis) avian study the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in granivorous and carnivorous birds, experiments were conducted in pigeons (columba livia domestica) and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis). plasma concentrations of allantoin and uric acid were determined at various times in experimental groups before and after receiving 100, 200, and 600 u/kg urate oxidase once daily and were compared with controls. all regimens caused a significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentrations within 2 days ...200212593740
ultrastructural analysis of a putative magnetoreceptor in the beak of homing pigeons.with the use of different light and electron microscopic methods, we investigated the subcellular organization of afferent trigeminal terminals in the upper beak of the homing pigeon, columba livia, which are about 5 microm in diameter and contain superparamagnetic magnetite (spm) crystals. the spm nanocrystals are assembled in clusters (diameter, approximately 1-2 microm). about 10 to 15 of these clusters occur inside one nerve terminal, arranged along the cell membrane. each spm cluster is emb ...200312619070
temporal modulation of spatial contrast vision in pigeons (columba livia).spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity (cs) functions were obtained from four white carneaux pigeons. the spatial frequency for each session was selected randomly from a group of five spatial frequencies ranging from 0.42 to 1.26 c/deg. within the session, the temporal frequency varied from 1 to 32 hz. when plotted as a function of spatial frequency, the cs functions peaked in the range 0.7-1.0 c/deg. when compared to data that had been collected at 0 hz temporal modulation, the temporally modulate ...200312639602
internal connectivity of the homing pigeon (columba livia) hippocampal formation: an anterograde and retrograde tracer study.the avian hippocampal formation (hf) is a structure necessary for learning and remembering aspects of environmental space. therefore, understanding the connections between different hf regions is important for determining how spatial learning processes are organized within the avian brain. the prevailing feed-forward, trisynaptic internal connectivity of the mammalian hippocampus and its importance for cognition have been well described, but the internal connectivity of the avian hf has only rec ...200312640665
feeding induced by microinjections of nmda and ampa-kainate receptor antagonists into ventral striatal and ventral pallidal areas of the pigeon.the participation of glutamatergic circuits of the ventral basal ganglia in feeding-related regulatory mechanisms has been extensively indicated in primate and rodent species. in avian species, it has been shown that icv injections of mk-801 or of cnqx increase food intake and reduce the latency of feeding initiation in free-feeding pigeons. in the present study, the effects of local injections of mk-801 (6 nmol), cnqx (160 nmol) or vehicle (0.2 microl) into a number of ventral striatopallidal n ...200312646310
serologic evidence for west nile virus infection in birds in staten island, new york, after an outbreak in 2000.after an outbreak of west nile virus (wnv) infections in people, horses, and wildlife in staten island, ny, during the summer of 2000, we surveyed the bird population of the island for evidence of infection. neutralizing antibodies were detected in 59 of 257 (23.0%) resident birds and none of 96 transient (migrating) birds sampled in early october. species with the greatest seroprevalence were northern cardinal (cardinalis cardinalis) (69.2%) and rock dove (columba livia) (54.5%). house sparrows ...200112653147
quantitative renal scintigraphy in domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) exposed to toxic doses of standardize techniques for renal scintigraphy in birds, to use scintigraphy to assess gentamicin nephrotoxicosis in birds, to compare nuclear medicine assessments with histologic assessment of gentamicin nephrotoxicosis and serum uric acid concentrations, and to determine the radiopharmaceutical that best quantifies avian renal function.200312693536
detection of anti-west nile virus immunoglobulin m in chicken serum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the emergence of west nile (wn) virus in new york and the surrounding area in 1999 prompted an increase in surveillance measures throughout the united states, including the screening of sentinel chicken flocks for antibodies. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of chicken immunoglobulin m (igm) to wn virus was developed, standardized, and characterized as a rapid and sensitive means to detect wn viral antibodies in sentinel flocks. serum specimens from experimentally i ...200312734241
characterization of newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from eurasian collared doves (streptopelia decaocto) in italy.eurasian collared doves (streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from india and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the middle east and, more recently, mediterranean countries such as italy and spain. in the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of newcastle disease viruses (ndv) obtained from eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (columba livia) during the same period. all isolates could be c ...200312745382
a modified protocol for sex identification of in ovo avian embryos and its application as a management tool for endangered species conservation programs.a simple, reliable, and safe protocol was developed for the collection of small amounts of blood from avian eggs of variable size and at early stages of development. fifty eggs were used in the study; 40 were common chicken (gallus domesticus) eggs, six were homing pigeon (columba livia domestica) eggs, and four were burrowing owl (athene cunicularia) eggs. collection was attempted approximately halfway through incubation. the success rate for collection of blood or blood-tinged fluid from eggs ...200112790417
social influence in pigeons (columba livia): the role of differential reinforcement.socially-influenced learning was studied in observer pigeons that observed a demonstrator in an adjacent chamber performing a target response comprising standing on a box and pecking a key 10 times. in experiment 1 there was no evidence for social learning in the absence of reinforcement of the observer's behavior. when the target response was already established in the observer's repertoire, but was not differentially reinforced in relation to the demonstrator's behavior, rates of extinction we ...200312822685
searching by rules: pigeons' (columba livia) landmark-based search according to constant bearing or constant distance.pigeons (columba livia) searched for a goal location defined by a constant relative spatial relationship to 2 landmark. for one group, landmark-to-goal bearings remained constant while distance varied. for another group landmark-to-goal distances remained constant while direction varied. birds were trained with 4 interlandmark distances and then tested with 5 novel interlandmark distances. overall error magnitude was similar across groups and was large than previously reported for clark's nutcra ...200312856782
differential effects of visual context on pattern discrimination by pigeons (columba livia) and humans (homo sapiens).three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons (columba livia) and humans (homo sapiens). experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small and large variations of these stimuli in a same-different task. humans showed a configural superiority effect when tested with displays const ...200312856790
experimental inoculation of pigeons (columba livia) with mycobacterium bovis.the purpose of this pilot study was to determine if pigeons (columba livia) are susceptible to infection with mycobacterium bovis by either oral or intratracheal inoculation and to assess their possible role in the lateral transmission of bovine tuberculosis. six pigeons were orally inoculated with 1.3 x 10(5) colony-forming units of m. bovis, six pigeons were intratracheally inoculated with the same dose, and six pigeons served as noninoculated controls. the study continued for 90 days postinoc ...200312887208
bird skins in museum collections: are they suitable as indicators of environmental metal load after conservation procedures?to find out whether modern conservation treatments alter the level of metals in feathers, we analysed the content of 10 metals in feathers before and after skins were washed with detergent and treated with eulan u-33 (a commonly used preservative at museums). feathers of 31 birds of goshawk accipiter gentilis, eagle owl bubo bubo. feral pigeon columba livia domest, and common eider somateria mollissima were analysed. we found that in most cases metals were partly washed out of the feathers, but ...200312889635
[endocrine cells of mucosa epithelium in distal area of the intestine in domestic pigeon].the epithelium of mucosa in the distal portion of the intestine of domestic pigeon (columba livia var domestica) was studied using the methods of light and electron microscopy. in the epithelium of the studied portions of the intestine, argentaffin cells are distributed relatively uniformly. a certain variation in the number of endocrine cells has been marked in individual birds which is probably associated with functional lability of the endocrine apparatus of pigeon colon. in the epithelium of ...200312942832
zonal organization of the vestibulocerebellum in pigeons (columba livia): iii. projections of the translation zones of the ventral uvula and nodulus.previous electrophysiological studies in pigeons have shown that the complex spike activity of purkinje cells in the medial vestibulocerebellum (nodulus and ventral uvula) is modulated by patterns of optic flow that result from self-translation along a particular axis in three-dimensional space. there are four response types based on the axis of preferred translational optic flow. by using a three axis system, where +x, +y, and +z represent rightward, upward, and forward self-motion, respectivel ...200312949780
phylogenetic analysis reveals extensive evolution of avian paramyxovirus type 1 strains of pigeons (columba livia) and suggests multiple species transmission.partial sequence and residue substitution analyses of the fusion protein gene were performed for 68 strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 of pigeons (ppmv-1), an antigenic variant of newcastle disease virus (ndv) of chickens, derived from 16 countries between 1978 and 2002. the majority of isolates clustered into a single genetic lineage, termed vib/1, within genotype vi of ndv strains of chickens, whereas a small number of isolates that originated in croatia after 1995, grouped in a highly dive ...200312951266
avian cryptococcosis.clinical and laboratory findings in 15 unreported cases of avian cryptococcosis from australia were collated and contrasted with 11 cases recorded in the literature. cryptococcus species produced localized invasive disease of the upper respiratory tract of captive parrots living in australia. this resulted in signs referable to mycotic rhinitis or to involvement of structures contiguous with the nasal cavity, such as the beak, sinuses, choana, retrobulbar space and palate. parrots of widely diff ...200312964843
methods to determine metabolizable energy and digestibility of feed ingredients in the domestic pigeon (columba livia domestica).the influence of length of excreta collection period (1, 3, 6, 10, 14 d) and prefeeding protocol (7 d either individual feeding in collection cages or group feeding in housing cages) on amen, nitrogen retention (nr), and apparent dm, organic matter and ether extract digestibility of corn and peas were evaluated in domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica). in addition, the use of internal markers [acid-insoluble ash (aia) and acid detergent lignin (adl)] to determine amen, nr, and apparent dige ...200312967260
[optimum chemical thermoregulation of the domestic pigeon]. 195313067421
[temporary sex inversion, at time of puberty, in the female domestic pigeon; heredity of this phenomenon]. 195313082857
some observations on experimental infections in domestic pigeons (columba livia gmelin) with p. relictum. 195313117527
effect of 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole (enheptin) and other drugs on trichomonas gallinae infection in the domestic pigeon. 195313118435
isolation of west nile virus from hooded crow and rock pigeon in the nile delta. 195313134268
natural immunity of domestic pigeons (columba livia gmelin) to experimental infections with p. gallinaceum. 195413210947
susceptibility of the pigeon (columba livia) to infection with western equine encephalomyelitis virus. i. blood virus levels following subcutaneous inoculation. 195513252265
saprophytic sources of cryptococcus neoformans associated with the pigeon (columba livia). 195513268414
olfactory sensitivity in the domestic pigeon. 195713411197
the arterial system of the domestic pigeon (columba livia gmelin). 195713435516
host resistance and regulation of the development of plasmodium lophurae in the pheasants, coots and domestic pigeons. 195713463684
[action of combined primaquine-pyrimethamine. i. experimental study on pigeons (columba livia) infected with plasmodium relictum]. 195713474136
[desoxyribonucleinic acid content of the somatic and sexual cells of gallus gallus, meleagris gallopavo, columba livia and rana esculenta]. 195813607153
observations on central regulation of body temperature and of food and water intake in the pigeon (columba livia). 196013681897
[contribution to the study of the comparative anatomy of the telencephalon. investigation in "lebistes reticulatus", "rana catesbyana","chalcides occellatus", "columba livia" and "cavia coabya"]. 196013684488
the thalamic projection upon the telencephalon in the pigeon (columba livia). 196113737626
the chemical cytology of the adrenal medulla in the domestic pigeon. 196113739947
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