tetrameres sp. (nematoda: spiruridae) found in pigeons (columba livia) in kansas and oklahoma. 19676069467
cutaneous water evaporation--ii. survival of birds under extreme thermal stress.two birds, the pigeon (columba livia) and the partridge (alectoris chukar), differing in their habits and flight ability were compared with regard to their ability to survive extreme high air temperatures (ta's). during 270 min survival tests birds were exposed to ta's between 45 and 60 degrees c and low relative humidities. the pigeon was observed to be unique in its ability to survive 270 min of exposure to 60 degrees c while regulating tb at 43.8 degrees c. the partridge could not survive 270 ...19836136379
day/night differences in pineal indoles in the adult pigeon (columba livia).day/night differences in concentrations of 5-hydroxy and 5-methoxy indole metabolites in the pineal gland of the pigeon are described. a simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, n-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (n-acetyl serotonin), 5-methoxyindoleacetic acid, 5-methoxytryptophol, tryptophan, indoleacetic acid and melatonin was accomplished using a recently developed procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography with ...19846146462
drinking and changes in blood pressure in response to precursors, fragments and analogues of angiotensin ii in the pigeon columba livia.1. the pigeon drank as vigorously in response to intracranial injection of synthetic renin substrate and angiotensin i as to angiotensin ii. 2. mammalian renin injected into the brain caused the water-replete pigeon to drink but it was a less effective dipsogen than in the mammal. as in the mammal, renin-induced drinking was slower in onset and continued for longer than angiotensin-induced drinking. 3. the converting enzyme inhibitor sq 20881 attenuated drinking in response to intracranial renin ...19816164784
hyperstriatal-tectal projections in the pigeon (columba livia) as demonstrated by the retrograde double-label fluorescence technique.hyperstriatal-tectal connections were investigated in the pigeon by mapping retrogradely labeled neurons in the hyperstriatum following the injection of different fluorescent tracers (fast blue, nuclear yellow, evans blue) either bilaterally or unilaterally into distinct portions of the tectum. the projections were found to arise from the hyperstriatum accessorium (ha) of the wulst, were essentially ipsilateral and topographically organized with respect to the dorsoventral and lateromedial plane ...19836194861
substance p-containing pathways to avian sympathetic preganglionic neurons: evidence for major spinal-spinal circuitry.the origin of substance p-like immunoreactivity (spli) in the neuropil of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (spns) was investigated in pigeon (columba livia). previous investigators had suggested that a major spli-containing projection to spns arose from caudal brainstem (johansson, o., t. hokfelt, b. pernow, s. l. jeffcoate, n. white, h. w. m. steinbusch, a. a. j. verhofstad, p. c. emson, and e. spindel (1981) neuroscience 6: 1857-1881; gilbert, r. f. t., p.c. emson, s. p. hunt, g. w. bennett, ...19846206212
immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.the presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctate). the outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. th ...19826213109
differences in muscle spindle structure between pigeon muscles used in aerial and terrestrial locomotion.muscle spindle density (number of spindles per gram of muscle) of all 29 muscles of the forearm and leg of the domestic pigeon was evaluated by counting receptors in van gieson-stained serial cross sections. extra- and intra-fusal fiber-type profiles were determined from histochemical preparations. muscles of the leg had on the average significantly more avian slow-twitch oxidative extrafusal fibers (22.5 vs. 0.8%) and slower contraction times than muscles of the forearm, but fiber-type profiles ...19836227230
effects of lethal dose of gamma-irradiation on intestinal enzymes of the pigeons columba livia intermedia strickland. 19806259054
short-term modulation of domestic pigeon (columbia livia l.) behaviour induced by intraventricular administration of acth.the behavioural responses induced in adult domestic pigeons by intraventricular injections of 0 to 6 iu of acth 1-39 are reported. the frequency of 10 different behaviour patterns was recorded for 90 min after administration of the peptide. the effect that was induced was complex, the frequency of some patterns increasing (yawning, headshaking, body shaking, wing-flapping), or some others decreasing (feeding, one-wing stretching, eye closing) or remaining unchanged (preening). the frequency of s ...19816267843
erythrocytic phosphates and flying activity in birds.1. the intraerythrocitary organic phosphates in different avian species (sturnus vulgaris, apus apus, gallus gallus domesticus, coturnix coturnix japonica and columba livia) were analyzed by ionic exchange chromatography. the chromatograms of these species revealed the presence of adp, atp, gtp, ipp and inorganic phosphate. 2. the main organic phosphates (atp and ipp) and the inorganic phosphate were also evaluated, directly, in other specimens. the ipp levels were very similar in all species; h ...19836132731
cutaneous water evaporation--i. its significance in heat-stressed a comparative study on avian cutaneous evaporation, two species of phasianidae, japanese quail coturnix coturnix japonica and chukar partridge alectoris chukar, and three species of columbidae, palm dove streptopelia senegalensis, collared turtle dove streptopelia decaocto and rock pigeon columbia livia, were investigated. the skin resistance to vapor diffusion (rs) and cutaneous water loss (cwl) were studied in these birds exposed to air temperatures (ta) between 20 and 52 degrees c. the ski ...19836136378
avian wildlife reservoir of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, yersinia spp., and salmonella spp. in norway.cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, yersinia spp., and salmonella spp. the carrier rates detected were as follows: c. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; yersinia spp., 1.2%; and salmonella spp., 0.8%. all birds were apparently healthy when captured. c. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. among birds inhabiting the city of oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), fol ...19836338824
genetic properties of conjugative r plasmids in escherichia coli and salmonella isolated from feral and domestic pigeons, crows and kites.a total of 62 conjugative r plasmids detected in 48 escherichia coli and 19 conjugative r plasmids in 16 salmonella strains from domestic (carrier and emerald) and feral pigeons, crows (japanese jungle crows and carrion crows) and black kite, were examined for genetic properties. out of the 62 e. coli r plasmids examined for fertility inhibition (fi), 29 (46.8%) were fi+, and the remainder were fi-. among the 62 r plasmids, 16 (25.8%) were classified into incompatibility (inc) group fii, 15 (24. ...19836359777
comparative localization of neurons containing ovine corticotropin releasing factor (crf)-like and neurophysin-like immunoreactivity in the diencephalon of the pigeon (columba livia domestica).neural elements immunoreactive for ovine corticotropin releasing factor-like immunoreactivity (ocrf-li) were shown to be present in the diencephalon of the pigeon by using peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry. the external zone of the anterior median eminence contains a rich network of varicose ocrf-li fibers in close proximity to the pituitary portal capillaries. perikarya reactive for ocrf-li were found in several regions known to innervate the median eminence and gave rise to axons w ...19846384281
the primary vestibular projection to the cerebellar cortex in the pigeon (columba livia).the cerebellar cortex of the pigeon receiving direct vestibular afferents was delineated by anterograde transport of [3h]-amino acids injected into the vestibular nerve. labelled mossy fiber rosettes in the granular layer were concentrated in lobule x (nodulus) and to a lesser extent, in the ventral portion of lobule ixd (uvula and paraflocculus). a few solitary labelled rosettes were also found in more dorsal portions of lobule ix, as well as in the anterior lobe between lobule ii and iv. the l ...19836308074
the effect of pinealectomy on plasma levels of gonadotrophins and growth hormone in the pigeon (columba livia). 19846443698
light- and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, rana esculenta, emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis and viridis. gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctata, didelphis virginiana, erinaceus roumanicus, myotis myotis, rabbit, rat, cat).19816458362
a quantitative approach to cytoarchitectonics. ix. the areal pattern of the hyperstriatum ventrale in the domestic pigeon, columba livia f.d.a map of the areal pattern of the hyperstriatum ventrale in the domestic pigeon (columba livia f.d.) is proposed. this map is based mainly on the distribution of the grey level index which has been characterized using an automatic image analyzer. twelve areas are described. they are classified into two groups (hvm 1-6, hvl 1-6) which are defined by a different range of grey level indices. three of these areas show topographic relationships to primary projection areas in the neighbouring neostria ...19846476405
transport of proteins into mitochondria: a high conservation of precursor uptake and processing system.ornithine transcarbamylase (ec of rat (rattus norvegicus var. albus) liver, a urea cycle enzyme, is synthesized extramitochondrially as a larger precursor which is transported posttranslationally into mitochondria and processed to the mature enzyme. the precursor synthesized in vitro was taken up and processed to the mature enzyme by isolated pigeon (columba livia var. domestica) liver and frog (rana catesbeiana) liver mitochondria. carp (cyprinus carpio) liver mitochondria could also p ...19836347507
photopic spectral sensitivities of the red and the yellow field of the pigeon retina.the spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (columba livia) were determined on the basis of erg responses. between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. the results are in agreement with spectral sensitivity data, obtained by behavioural threshold procedures.19846506476
estriol-induced changes in ovary and oviduct of the domestic pigeon columbia livia gmelin. 19846510963
electrophysiological evidence for central nervous connections of the pigeon's pineal the pigeon, columba livia, single unit electrical activity was recorded from 110 cells in the pineal gland. all the cells were classified according to their responses to single shock stimulation of the habenular nuclei and, of these units, 42 cells were subsequently classified according to their response following stimulation of the optic chiasma. cells were either activated, inhibited or unaffected by the stimulus. no antidromic responses to the stimulation of either site were observed. habe ...19846518397
immunological responsiveness of the pigeon (columba livia) following neonatal bursectomy.pigeon squabs in two separate experiments were surgically bursectomized ( bsx ), surgically sham bursectomized ( sbsx ), or maintained as non-surgical controls (con). surgical procedures were performed within 2 hr of hatching. primary and secondary hemagglutinin (ha) responses, as well as mercaptoethanol sensitive (me-s) and resistant (me-r) levels, to sheep red blood cells (srbc) were quantitated. bsx did not reduce ha responses, nor me-s and me-r levels.19846609849
probability learning in pigeons (columba livia) is not impaired by hyperstriatal lesions.three experiments investigated the effects of hyperstriatal lesions on spatial and visual probability learning in pigeons. the lesions did not affect choice accuracy although they did reduce positional responding on error trials in the visual task. the results gave support to a perseverative, as opposed to an attentional, interpretation of the lesion effects. increasing intertrial interval in the visual task resulted in decreased accuracy in both lesion and control groups, and the absence of a d ...19836634995
the retinal binocular field of the pigeon (columba livia: english racing homer).an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique has shown that in sedated pigeons maximum retinal binocular field width occurs approximately 20 degrees above the bill. the binocular field has a maximum width of 27 degrees and extends vertically by 130 degrees (90 degrees above the bill, 40 degrees below it). both the bill and cere intrude into the binocular field. maximum optical binocularity also occurs approximately 20 degrees above the bill. the plane containing the optic axes of each eye coincides with ...19836636551
extrapulmonary gas exchange enhances brain oxygen in pigeons.blood in mouth, nose, and eye tissues of birds cools by evaporation, then flows to a cephalic vascular heat exchanger, the ophthalmic rete. there, acting as a heat sink, blood from the evaporative surfaces cools arterial blood flowing counter-current to it toward the brain. the brain thus remains cooler than the body core. data for unanesthetized domestic pigeons (columba livia) suggest that in addition to losing heat, blood perfusing the evaporative surfaces also exchanges oxygen and carbon dio ...19846436975
[method of extracting brain proteolipids].from the whole brain of animals representing 5 classes of vertebrates--mammals (macaca rhesus and albino rat), birds (the pigeon columba livia), reptiles (the tortoise testudo horsfieldi), amphibians (the frog rana temporaria) and fishes (the trout salmo irideus), as well as from myelin preparations of mammals (dog, rabbit and rat) proteolipids have been isolated by emulsion--centrifugation method. it was shown that extraction procedure results in the loss and destruction of several proteolipid ...19846335333
[toxoplasmas of wild warm-blooded animals in turkmenia].antibodies to toxoplasma in the reaction of indirect hemagglutination were found in 8 species of mammals and 2 species of birds. carriage of antibodies to toxoplasma in house mouse, common fox, bald coot , and rock-dove was first recorded from turkmenia . analysis of the infection with toxoplasma according to species, habitat of antibodies carriers, their ecology, age, sex and season of investigation is given.19846233524
long descending projections of the hypothalamus in the pigeon, columba autoradiographic analysis was performed on the descending projections of nucleus periventricularis magnocellularis (pvm) of the hypothalamus in the pigeon. a pvm-medullospinal pathway was observed coursing posteriorly through the lateral hypothalamus, ventrolateral midbrain tegmentum, and into the spinal lemniscus (ls) in the ventrolateral pons and medulla. in the pons, some fibers course dorsomedially from ls and terminate at the lateral border of the locus coeruleus. at medullary levels, fi ...19836643721
avian paramyxovirus type 1 infection of racing pigeons: 3 epizootiological considerations.during july to december 1983 birds in 192 racing pigeon lofts were confirmed as infected with paramyxovirus type 1 virus on the basis of disease signs alone when contact with infected cases was known (10) or with supporting serology (130), virus isolation (eight) or both (44). these outbreaks were mainly concentrated in south wales (89) and dorset (40). in all, 29 counties of great britain were involved. in the majority of outbreaks (69 per cent) activities associated with racing were strongly i ...19846485232
clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of flumequine after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in pigeons (columba livia).the in-vitro activity of flumequine against 157 strains of bacteria isolated from birds was determined. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of 96.3% of the enterobacteriaceae, proteus spp. and yersinia pseudotuberculosis studied (n = 135) was less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml. pharmacokinetics of flumequine in pigeons (columba livia) was investigated after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration. from the blood disappearance curves after i.v. bolus injection (10 mg/kg body w ...19836668641
diurnal variations of melatonin and n-acetylserotonin in the tissues of quails (coturnix sp.), pigeons (columba livia), and chickens (gallus domesticus).the levels of melatonin and n-acetylserotonin in the pineal, serum, retina, and brain of quails (coturnix sp.), pigeons (columba livia), and chickens (gallus domesticus) were studied. the birds were kept under a photoperiod of 12 hr light and 12 hr dark for a minimum of 5 days before they were decapitated at midlight or middark under a 25 w red light. melatonin and n-acetylserotonin in the pineal, serum, retina, and brain samples were extracted and determined by radioimmunoassay. it was found th ...19836684071
drinking in response to intracarotid administration of angiotensin in the pigeon (columba livia). 19846701179
a study of some of the ascending and descending vestibular pathways in the pigeon (columba livia) using anterograde transneuronal autoradiography.a mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the endolymph of one of the membranous labyrinths of each of 5 white king pigeons (columba livia). the membranous labyrinth was resealed and the animals were allowed to survive for 15 days. brains and upper parts of the spinal cords were sectioned and processed by standard autoradiographic procedures. clear labeling was noted in structures usually associated with both the ascending auditory pathways and the ascending and descending vest ...19836640331
neurotransmitter effects on release of prolactin and growth hormone in vitro from pituitary glands of the pigeon, columba livia.single pigeon anterior pituitary glands were incubated with or without a hypothalamus in media containing various drugs. release of prolactin and growth hormone was quantified by an electrophoretic-densitometric method. the hypothalamus stimulated release of both prolactin and growth hormone from the pituitary gland. dopamine did not affect hormone release from pituitary glands incubated alone, but inhibited hypothalamus-stimulated release of prolactin and augmented hypothalamus-stimulated relea ...19826120986
modulation sensitivity and functional organization of the receptive field of ganglion cells in the pigeon (columba livia).modulation sensitivity functions ( msfs ) of retinal ganglion cells of the pigeon were determined by recording action potentials from their end branching in the optic tectum as response indicator. the inverse fourier transformation of a msf is taken to represent the receptive field sensitivity function approximating the receptive field profile of a ganglion cell.19846728430
a trigeminal sensorimotor circuit for pecking, grasping and feeding in the pigeon (columba livia).a combination of autoradiographic and histochemical tracing procedures was used to identify telencephalic structures, linking the sensory and motor components of the trigeminal system in the pigeon. in addition to the nucleus basalis, these structures include trigeminal projection areas in the frontal and caudal neostriatum both of which project upon the intermediate archistriatum . archistriatal output reaches premotor areas in the lateral (parvocellular) reticular formation via a descending pa ...19846733461
the neural substrate for the pupillary light reflex in the pigeon (columba livia).the neural substrate of the pupillary light reflex in the pigeon was investigated using anatomical, stimulation, and lesion techniques. in birds, as in mammals, the sphincter pupillae muscle (which constricts the iris) is innervated by cells in the ciliary ganglion (pilar and tuttle, '82). these cells are in turn innervated by cells in the edinger-westphal nucleus (ew) (cowan and wenger, '68; narayanan and narayanan, '76; lyman and mugnaini, '80). the efferent link of the pupillary light reflex ...19846747033
short-term & prolonged actions of testosterone on preen gland of the male domestic pigeon columba livia gmelin. 19826757116
afferent connections of nervus facialis and nervus glossopharyngeus in the pigeon (columba livia) and their role in feeding behavior.the afferent connections of the facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve in the pigeon have been studied with the fink-heimer i method after ganglion lesions. the nucleus ventrolateralis anterior of the solitary complex and an indistinct cell group s vii medial to the nucleus interpolaris of the descending trigeminal tract are the terminal fields for facial afferents. the n. ventrolateralis anterior also receives an important projection from the distal glossopharyngeal ganglion. other projection ...19846713168
stimulation of crop sac and pituitary lactotrophs after intraventricular administration of dermorphin in pigeons.the effects of dermorphin, a new potent opioid peptide, on structural and ultrastructural changes in the crop sac and in pituitary lactotrophs were assessed in pigeons (columba livia). a single administration of dermorphin into the third cerebral ventricle (1 microgram) and the same dose repeated for 3 consecutive days both produced maximal crop sac stimulation, as documented by the presence of milk-like material as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy of crop sac mucosa. in ...19846489737
acute lead poisoning of the pigeon induced by single, intraperitoneal administration of lead acetate.a single dose of lead acetate (either 30 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered to adult feral pigeons, columba livia var and the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (cana2edta), (0, 150, 300, 600 mg/kg), administered i.p. twice a week in the ensuing period were observed. lead acetate caused dose related mortality and decreases in weight, hematocrit and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ala-d). acute toxicity of lead acetate in the pigeon ...19806786266
paleostriatal lesions in the pigeon (columba livia) potentiate classical conditioning: evidence from fixed-interval responding, free operant go-no-go discrimination, and alternation.the paleostriatum augmentatum was the major site of interest for four experiments in which pigeons were given bilateral electrolytic lesions. experiment 1 investigated the effects of lesions on key pecking for reinforcement on a 1-min fixed-interval schedule. the lesions were found to increase total response rates, but response timing was not disrupted in paleostriatal pigeons. in experiment 2, naive subjects were given variable-interval baseline training and, in contrast to the results of exper ...19836849682
experimental infection of columba livia with paramyxovirus yucaipa.the town pigeons (columba livia) were inoculated intranasally with a yucaipa-like virus (ploc/senegal/273/77). they were then surveyed for virus production in the cloaca over a 10 day period. the virus could be isolated at two, three and four days after inoculation.19836878893
the intermediate host spectrum in a sarcocystis species of birds.the life cycle of an avian sarcocystis has been completed in the laboratory, originating with naturally infected icterids and passing alternately between opossums (didelphis virginiana) and experimentally infected birds. to determine the intermediate host range, six avian species, including canaries (serinus canarius), zebra finches (poephila guttata), budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus), pigeons (columba livia), chickens (gallus gallus), and guinea fowl (numida meleagris), were inoculated ora ...19826811715
visceral representation within the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the pigeon, columba livia.this study describes the distribution of organ-specific populations of vagal afferent fibers within the nucleus of the solitary tract (nts) in the pigeon. the central projections of vagal sensory neurons were visualized by the centripetal and trans-ganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase from either the central cut ends of peripheral vagal branches or from hrp injection sites in peripheral vagal target tissues. this paper also includes a detailed description of the cytoarchitectural organ ...19836886066
[ultrastructural changes in pineocytes of the carrier pigeon (columba livia) subjected to the effect of artificial magnetic field oscillations. i. nucleolar ectopia]. 19816897880
[ultrastructural changes in pineocytes of the carrier pigeon (columba livia) subjected to the effect of artificial magnetic field oscillations. ii. nucleolar changes]. 19816897881
probable mode of action of cortisone on the preen gland of the pigeon columba livia gmelin. 19817030938
laminar distribution of the cells of origin of the descending tectofugal pathways in the pigeon (columba livia). 19827056890
organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods.a mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (columba livia). using standard autoradiographic techniques, we observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. those ipsilateral structures which were sligh ...19827059826
the localization of vasotocin and neurophysin neurons in the diencephalon of the pigeon, columba livia.vasotocin (vt)- and neurophysin (np)-synthesizing neurons were demonstrated by immunocytochemistry in the diencephalon of the pigeon, columba livia. three diencephalic regions contain vt-np cells: (1) periventricular preoptic area and hypothalamus, including nucleus periventricularis magnocellularis (pvm); (2) lateral preoptic area and hypothalamus; and (3) dorsal diencephalon. the immunoreactive cells in each of these three regions were divided into groups based on cytology and topography. no d ...19827061740
method of determining the osmotic fragility curves of erythrocytes in birds.the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in 3 species of birds (gallus gallus domesticus, coturnix coturnix japonica, columba livia) and the rat was determined. the results of this study point to a smaller osmotic fragility. birds, with elliptical erythrocytes, have a lower osmotic fragility than species with round erythrocytes, like most of the mammals.19827062710
associative influence on the foraging behavior of pigeons (columba livia).in a laboratory simulation of foraging conditions, pigeons maintained ad lib weight by treadle pressing for lengthy periods of access to grain in a 24-hr live-in environment. localized visual signals produced by treadle pressing evoked approach and pecking behavior if they signaled impending food presentation (pavlovian first-order conditioning) or the presentation of an established signal for food (pavlovian second-order conditioning). these findings imply a role for associative mechanisms in t ...19827069376
transient aphagia produced following bilateral destruction of the lateral hypothalamic area and quinto-frontal tract of chicks.six groups of broiler chicks, gallus domesticus, sustained bilateral lesions to specific neural structures residing in the lateral hypothalamic and thalamic areas. in contrast to past data reported for the albino rat, the pigeon, columba livia and barbary dove, streptopelia risoria, bilateral destruction of the chick lateral hypothalamic area (lhy), quinto-frontal tract (qf), and stratum cellulare externum (sce) resulted in transient aphagia and rapid recovery of lost body weight. similarly, bil ...19827079336
regulation of brain temperature in pigeons: effects of corneal convection.the effect of direct ventilation of the eyes on cooling in the brain was investigated in domestic pigeons (columba livia, mean mass 0.27 kg) with thermocouples chronically implanted in the hypothalamus and anterior eye chamber. during conductive heating in still air body-brain temperature difference (delta t) was 2.6 degrees c. during exclusive ventilation of ocular surfaces, with air flowing at about flight speed, delta t increased to 3.5 degrees c and returned to preventilation values on cessa ...19827081481
the feeding system of the pigeon (columba livia l.). 19827090874
trichomonas gallinae infections in the ringdove (streptopelia risoria).twenty trichomonas-free ringdoves (streptopelia risoria) were intubated with trichomonas gallinae derived from pigeons (columba livia). by 15 days post-intubation (dpi) five doves had t. gallinae-type lesions (cankers) in the pregastric portion of the digestive system, and six doves had t. gallinae present without lesions. sixteen trichomonas-free ring doves were infected using t. gallinae from axenic cultures. by 21 dpi four doves had t. gallinae lesions and died, and one dove had t. gallinae p ...19827097875
effect of chronic heat stress on adreno-medullary hormones & blood sugar response in blue rock pigeon columbia livia gmelin. 19827129546
tracing of sensory neurones and spinal motoneurones of the pigeon by injection of fluorescent dyes into peripheral nerves.the projection of peripheral sensory and motor nerves was investigated in the pigeon (columba livia) by means of retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes. two combinations of fluorescent tracers were used that could be identified within the same cell when excited by light of 405 nm: 1) propidium iodide and bisbenzimide, which label the cytoplasm orange and the nucleus blue, respectively; 2) fast blue, which labels the cytoplasm blue, and nuclear yellow, which labels the nucleus (especially the ...19836883441
hyperstriatal lesions in pigeons (columba livia): effects on retention and perseveration.two experiments explored the possibility that lesions of avian hyperstriatum, which disrupt reversal learning, might have that effect through a potentiation of the influence of proactive interference. neither experiment found any evidence to suggest excessive interference in hyperstriatal pigeons, from preceding training on a position (or color) discrimination, on retention of a color (or position) discrimination, and this was true both after a short (30 min) and after a long (6 or 7 day) retent ...19827142485
[autonomy of the centers of otolithic nystagmus].pigeons (columba livia) with unilaterally sectioned saccular nerves (ramuli sacculi) were rotated in the dark along the horizontal plane. the nystagmic reaction which developed when the vestibular apparatus was simultaneously exposed to otolith and canal stimuli, each of which taken separately caused nystagmus of the same direction, was less pronounced in the case of canal stimulation. this can be regarded as evidence indicating autonomicity of otolith nystagmus centers.19827144102
pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species.tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. the species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida), and emus (dromaius novaehollandiae). in the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered im to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosa ...19827149381
protein polymorphism in a feral population of the pigeon columba livia domestica.sixteen enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins of the pigeon columba livia domestica were examined electrophoretically. these proteins were presumed to be under control by 22 loci. of the 22 loci, 6 were defined as polymorphic and 15 as monomorphic. another locus was variable, but the variation was not genetically interpretable. average heterozygosity calculated over 21 loci was 0.075.19827171133
the auditory threshold of the pigeon (columba livia) by heart-rate conditioning. 19846717607
efferent vestibular neurons: a study employing retrograde tracer methods in the pigeon (columba livia).efferent neurons innervating the vestibular labyrinth and cochlea of the pigeon have been identified by means of a variety of retrograde tracers: [3h]-adenosine (ad), horseradish peroxidase (hrp), evan's blue (eb) and bisbenzimide (bb). discrete injections into individual cristae ampullares of the semicircular canals, into the macula utriculi, or into several of these end organs resulted in similar patterns of neuronal labelling. efferent vestibular neurons were always found within a small porti ...19817204661
drinking and changes in blood pressure in response to angiotensin ii in the pigeon columba livia.1. angiotensin ii is as potent a stimulus to drink in pigeons as it is in mammals. there are striking similarities in the action of this peptide in pigeons and mammals. 2. angiotensin ii injected intracranially, i.v. or i.p. consistently caused short-latency and vigorous drinking in pigeons but no other behaviour. drinking was completed rapidly and intakes were very large, sometimes in excess of 10% of the bird's body weight. 3. the latency to drink and the amount drunk were dose dependent for a ...19817230039
optokinetic nystagmus in the pigeon (columba livia). ii. role of the pretectal nucleus of the accessory optic system (aos).in birds, the accessory optic system (aos) includes two nuclei: the nucleus ectomamillaris (nem) and the pretectal nucleus superficialis synencephali (nss). the role of the nss in the production of a horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (okn) was studied in the pigeon, by comparing the okn before and after a unilateral lesion of this nucleus. the lesions were performed either by electrolysis or by local application of kainic acid (ka); the ka lesions gave more stable modifications of the okn than th ...19836641857
optokinetic nystagmus in the pigeon (columba livia). iii. role of the nucleus ectomamillaris (nem): interactions in the accessory optic system (aos).the accessory optic system (aos) in birds is composed of two structures: the nucleus superficialis synencephali (nss), essential for the production of an optokinetic nystagmus (okn) in the temporo-nasal direction (slow phase) for the eye contralateral to the nucleus, and the nucleus ectomamillaris (nem), or nucleus of the basal optic root (nbor). the objectives of the present work were: (1) to study the importance of the nem for the horizontal okn, (2) to study the interactions between the nss a ...19836641858
vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of plasmodium (novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in iowa.vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of plasmodium (novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo silvestris vieillot) in iowa are presented. plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (colinus virginianus), chukars (alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (numida meleagris), peacocks (pavo cristatus), and canaries (serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (ans ...19836644918
changes in lipid content during the post-hatching development of the brain of altricial birds.the post-hatching development of the brain was studied in three altricial birds (those whose development is completed after hatching), namely, the domestic pigeon, house swift and house sparrow, to assess the state of maturity of the brain at the time that the fledglings leave the nest. maturity is related to the process of myelination and, therefore, sudan black was chosen as it is a sensitive indicator of myelin lipids. on hatching, it was found that sudanophilia was very low in all three bird ...19817251396
monoamine oxidase in brain maturation: a histochemical study during posthatching development in altricial birds.monoamine oxidase was studied histochemically in the brain of three altricial birds, domestic pigeon house swift and house sparrow, during posthatching development. it was found that there was a steady increase in the activity of the enzyme in all areas of the brain of the three birds. the medulla and thalamus showed adult pattern of maturation by 15-20 days in sparrow while the optic lobes and cerebellum did so by 25 days in the former and 11 days in the latter. the cerebral hemispheres showed ...19817264281
pharmacokinetics of cephalothin and cephalexin in selected avian species.plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. the species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (colinus v virginianus), pigeons (columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (netta sp), greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida), and emus (dromiceius novaehollandiae). in the 1st phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given im in a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. plasma concentrati ...19817283231
relative physiological activity of calcitonin in the thyroid and ultimobranchial glands of the pigeon, columba livia gmelin. 19817286614
the ultrastructure of ruffini and herbst corpuscles in the articular capsule of domestic pigeon.the present study identifies two types of sensory nerve endings in the articular capsule of the shoulder joint of domestic pigeons: ruffini corpuscles (spray-like endings), and herbst corpuscles. ruffini corpuscles occur in the fibrous membrane of the articular capsule and consist of two to four branched cylindrical segments within a network of fascicles of collagen fibers. at the terminal ends of the cylinders the perineural sheaths of the capsule are deficient and surround the fascicles of col ...19807212317
efferent vestibular neurons. electrophysiological evidence for axon collateralization to cristae ampullares in the pigeon (columba livia).extracellular spikes were recorded under general anaesthesia from the cell bodies of efferent vestibular neurons located in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus of the pigeon. discrete electrical stimuli, applied directly to the three ampullary nerve branches in one labyrinth and to the anterior ramus of the vestibular nerve trunk in the other labyrinth, evoked antidromic spikes which served to identify efferent neurons. most cells could be antidromically driven only by stimuli to the vestibular ...19817315258
optokinetic nystagmus in the pigeon (columba livia). i. study in monocular and binocular vision. 19817308352
extratelencephalic pathways and feeding behavior in the pigeon (columba livia).electrolytic lesions were placed in the tractus septomesencephalicus (tsm) and tractus occipitomesencephalicus (tom), efferent pathways originating in visual and somatosensorimotor areas of the avian telencephalon and distributing widely to brain stem and spinal nuclear regions. lesion effects upon several aspects of ingestive behavior were examined using high speed cinematography, operant conditioning procedures and monitoring of intake and feeding responses. while there was no evidence for dir ...19817326570
[demonstration of campylobacter jejuni in fecal samples of clinically healthy-carrier-pigeons]. 19817337645
visually guided pecking in the pigeon (columba livia).high-speed cinematography was used (1) to analyze the sequence of head movements made by pigeons pecking at small visual targets and (2) to determine where on the retina the target fell at different points in the sequence. in both key-pecking for food reward and normal feeding, the decision to peck the target was made during a head fixation that occurred over 80 mm from the surface on which the target was located (as measured from the center of the eyes). once the decision to peck had been made, ...19836831201
afferents to the trigeminal and facial motor nuclei in pigeon (columba livia l.): central connections of jaw motoneurons.trigeminal and facial motor nuclei innervating the pigeon's jaw muscles were identified using a combination of microstimulation and emg recording and hrp injections were made iontophoretically. the trigeminal motor nucleus receives an ipsilateral projection from sensory neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus which forms the afferent limb of the monosynaptic stretch reflex of the jaw-closers. both the trigeminal and facial motor nuclei receive bilateral projections from interneurons in t ...19827130458
[the sinuatrial node of the avian heart (author's transl)].comparative histologic observations were made of the sinuatrial nodes of avian hearts from a short-tailed shearwater (puffinus tenuirostris), a black-crowned night heron (nycticorax nycticorax), two ducks (anas platyrhycha domestica), eight japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica), a pigeon (columba livia domestica), a macaw (ara macao), three budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) and a jungle crow (corvus macrorhynchos). the node lies between the right atrial myocardium and epicardium at th ...19817318931
gentamicin tissue concentration in various avian species following recommended dosage therapy.plasma and tissue drug concentrations were compared in eastern bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus virginianus) and pigeons (columba livia) given gentamicin by im administration at the dosage of 10 mg/kg, and in greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) and hybrid rosybill ducks (netta sp) given the same antibiotic at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. quail and cranes had significantly higher liver concentrations of gentamicin at 6 hours after injection than did pigeons and ducks. cranes had significa ...19817340581
optokinetic nystagmus in the domestic pigeon. effects of foveal lesions.using both binocular and monocular viewing conditions, optokinetic nystagmus (okn) frequency-velocity functions were measured before and after ophthalmic laser-produced retinal lesions. with binocular viewing conditions, the range of effective pattern velocities and the upper velocity threshold increased by 20--30 degrees/sec in subjects with both foveas lesioned, and by 12 degrees/sec in a subject with only a single foveal lesion. subjects with parafoveal lesions showed no change in postlesion ...19807370730
ferromagnetic coupling to muscle receptors as a basis for geomagnetic field sensitivity in animals.over the past decade several investigators have provided convincing evidence that the orientation of pigeons and other birds during homing and migrational activities is significantly affected by earth-strength (less than or equal to 0.5 g) magnetic fields. the presumed mediator of such effects would be a highly sensitive magnetoreceptor which the birds would normally use to extract navigational information from the geomagnetic field. the recently reported measurement of magnet remanence in honey ...19807374763
operant conditioning studies of taste discrimination in the pigeon (columba livia). 19807384241
central representation and somatotopic organization of the jaw muscles within the facial and trigeminal nuclei of the pigeon (columba livia).the location of facial and trigeminal brainstem motoneurons innervating the jaw muscles of the pigeon has been determined, using the technique of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. trigeminal motoneurons innervating the jaw closing muscles are located within the classically defined main trigeminal motor nucleus, and their organization exhibits approximately a mediolateral somatotopy. trigeminal neurons innervating the opener muscle of the upper jaw are also located in the main trige ...19807410611
ultrastructure of the herbst corpuscle from beak skin of the serial sections of the lamellar sensory herbst corpuscle from beak skin of the domestic pigeon the authors followed the change in the ultrastructural picture in sections led at different levels of the corpuscle. in the proximal part of the corpuscle the inner core is formed by only a small number of broad lamellae whose number subsequently increases so that in the middle of the length there are much more lamellae and they are quite narrow. this situation is probably given by the fact that the ...19807415398
spectral transmission of the ocular media of the pegion (columba livia).spectrophotometric and microspectrophotometric measures of relative spectral transmission were obtained from the cornea, lens, and vitreous body and from the whole eye of young and adult pigeons. transmission was above 90% throughout the visible spectrum and was maintained at or above 50% into the near-uv at 310 nm. no age-related changes in transmission were found. the results concur with the pigeon's behavioral uv-detection abilities.19807429773
regulatory drinking in the pigeon columba livia.pigeons were subjected to stimuli known to induce regulatory drinking in mammals. water-satiated birds drank in response to intravenous (iv) hypertonic nacl, intraperitoneal (ip) hyperoncotic polyethylene glycol (peg) (20 m), iv infusions of angiotensinamide, subcutaneous (sc) isoprenaline, and iv chicken kidney extract. intravenous porcine renin failed to elicit a major drinking response. drinking after water deprivation was reduced by an iv preload of isotonic saline. water intake after iv hyp ...19807435592
[effect of sectioning saccular nerves (ramuli sacculi) on cervical nystagmus in pigeons (columba livia)]. 19807439437
a direct connection between visual wulst and tectum opticum in the pigeon (columba livia) demonstrated by horseradish peroxidase.labelled neurons were observed bilaterally in part of the visual wulst (hyperstriatum accessorium and hyperstriatum intercalatum superior) following unilateral injection of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase into the tectum opticum of pigeons. no labelling was observed in hyperstriatum dorsale. horseradish peroxidase positive fibres running through the tractus septomensencephalicus and ending bilaterally in the tectum opticum were found following injection of the enzyme into hyperstriatum accesso ...19807458532
the study of interactive effects of pollutants: a biomarker approach.biochemical biomarkers, such as inhibition of serum butyryl cholinesterase (buche) and brain acetyl cholinesterase (ache), have been useful in studies of interactive effects of pesticides in birds. examples of interactions due to increased activation or decreased detoxication are reviewed. studies have shown that hybrid red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa cross) pretreated with the inducing ergosterol biosynthesis inhibiting (ebi) fungicide, prochloraz, were more sensitive to the toxic effects ...19957481747
encephalitic nematodiasis in a douglas squirrel and a rock dove ascribed to baylisascaris procyonis. 19957497427
intratelencephalic projections of the visual wulst in pigeons (columba livia).the visual wulst is the telencephalic target of the thalamofugal visual pathway of birds, and thus the avian equivalent of the striate cortex of mammals. the anterograde tracer phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was used to follow the intratelencephalic connections of the major constituents of the visual wulst in pigeons. in particular, efferent pathways from the granular layer (intercalated nucleus of the hyperstriatum accessorium, iha), supragranular layer (hyperstriatum accessorium, ha), and ...19957499547
neuroactive substances in the developing dorsomedial telencephalon of the pigeon (columba livia): differential distribution and time course of maturation.the avian hippocampal formation has previously been shown to contain many of the same neurotransmitters and related enzymes that are found in mammals. in order to determine whether the relatively delayed development of the mammalian hippocampus is typical of other vertebrates, we investigated the maturation of a variety of neuroactive substances in the hippocampal formation of the homing pigeon. the distribution of two transmitter-related enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (chat) and tyrosine hy ...19947525663
local and commissural neuropeptide-containing projections of the nucleus of the solitary tract to the dorsal vagal complex in the pigeon.the neuropeptide content of neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nts), which have local and commissural projections to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmnx) and to nts, were demonstrated in the pigeon (columba livia) by using a combined fluorescein-bead retrograde-transport-immunofluorescence technique. the specific peptides studied were bombesin, cholecystokinin, enkephalin, galanin, neuropeptide y, neurotensin, and substance p. perikarya immunoreactive for bombesin were located ...19947529775
[the interaction of vestibular inputs with differing orientations of the otoliths in a gravitational field].in alert pigeons columba livia effects of static tilts about fore-aft and binaural axes (angles of tilts: 30-40 deg) on neck and ocular nystagmus elicited by monaural galvanic stimulation of the lateral semicircular canals with sinusoidal currents (peak amplitudes: 20-100 microa; period: 35 sec) were investigated. it was shown that the same angles of the tilts elicited different changes of horizontal nystagmus parameters in different animals. in some of them changes of quantitative characteristi ...19947534567
orientation invariant pattern recognition by pigeons (columba livia) and humans (homo sapiens).the orientation invariance of visual pattern recognition in pigeons and humans was studied using a conditioned matching-to-sample procedure. a rotation effect, a lengthening of choice latencies with increasing angular disparities between sample and comparison stimuli, was replicated with humans. the choice speed and accuracy of pigeons was not affected by orientation disparities. novel mirror-image stimuli, rotation of sample shapes, a delayed display of comparison shapes, and a mixed use of ori ...19957554824
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