distribution of tyrosine-hydroxylase (th)-immunoreactive neurons in the diencephalon of the pigeon (columba livia domestica).the distribution of tyrosine-hydroxylase (th)-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in the diencephalon has been investigated with immunohistological techniques in the pigeon. the results suggest that th is present in a number of morphologically distinct neuronal systems. preoptic and hypothalamic th neurons were subdivided into a medial periventricular and a lateral group. the medial group starts with a rostral collection of small cells in the preoptic region. a significantly larger collection ...19872881951
pigeon herpesvirus: inclusion body hepatitis in a free-ranging adult male pigeon (columba livia) was presented to the wildlife service at the university of pennsylvania school of veterinary medicine for depression, cachexia, and diarrhea. five days after the initial presentation, the bird died and was necropsied. gross lesions included opaque air sacs and multiple 1-mm yellow-white foci on the epicardial surface of the heart. histopathologic lesions included a pericarditis, epicarditis, and multifocal hepatic necrosis accompanied by eosinophilic inclusio ...19863015118
in vitro effect of ions in presence of insulin and acetylcholine on glucose uptake or release by liver of domestic pigeons columba livia. 19883049325
on the histochemical characterization and distribution of fast and slow muscle fibers in certain avian skeletal muscles.histochemical techniques based upon the ph sensitivity of myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase are used to differentiate avian skeletal muscle fibers as either fast or slow. pars thoracica m. pectoralis (pm) of several avian species, pars cranialis m. latissimi dorsi (ldcr) of the japanese quail, and m. tensor propatagialis (tp) of the domestic pigeon are examined. fast fibers predominate in the pm, and slow fibers in the ldcr. the tp shows marked internal variation in the distribution of muscl ...19872951958
seasonal differences in glucose tolerance and insulin response of pinealectomized pigeons (columba livia).the effects of a glucose tolerance test (gtt) and an insulin response test (irt) on blood glucose levels were evaluated in pinealectomized and nonpinealectomized pigeons during the breeding and nonbreeding months. the tests revealed increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in pinealectomized birds during the breeding season. in the nonbreeding season, both the pinealectomized and the control birds tended to show more or less similar responses for both gtt and irt. these changes confir ...19892651644
in vitro effects of ethanol and ddt on myofibrillar-atpase in cardiac and certain skeletal muscles of pigeon (columba livia) and rat (rattus rattus). 19872969369
immunoreactivity to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip) and thyreotropin-releasing hormone (trh) in hypothalamic neurons of the domesticated pigeon (columba livia). alterations following lactation and exposure to cold.the distribution of vip- and trh-immunoreactivity in neurons and processes within the hypothalamus of the pigeon was investigated with light-microscopic immunocytochemical techniques. most of the vip-containing neurons are concentrated in the middle and caudal parts of the hypothalamus, with the greatest concentration of perikarya occurring in the medial and lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the infundibular nucleus. these cells give rise to axons that seem to extend into ...19883125979
adrenocortical responses of pigeons (columba livia) to treadwheel exercise.voluntary flight has previously been observed to stimulate adrenocortical activity in pigeons and in the present study increased circulating corticosterone levels were observed in adult feral pigeons forced to exercise in a treadwheel. the magnitude of the corticosterone response to treadwheel exercise was related to the speed of the moving drum, and hence to the work rate involved. rapidly increasing the ambient temperature also stimulated corticosterone secretion in pigeons and masked the stim ...19873026885
gas exchange during high-frequency ventilation in the pigeon (columba livia).we studied the effect of high-frequency ventilation (hfv) on the gas exchange of tracheotomized pigeons. the pigeons were artificially ventilated using a piston pump, which alternately connected the pigeons' airways to a constant-flow source. two-minute periods of hfv were interposed between long periods of normal ventilation. the effect of hfv was assessed by the recorded changes in the po2, pco2 and ph of arterial blood and from the changes in the composition of the gas in the interclavicular ...19883147570
a method for controlled mechanical stimulation of single semicircular the present technical report, we describe a method of mechanical stimulation for single semicircular canals that is reproducible, sensitive, and discrete. the mechanical stimulator is capable of delivering reliable controlled stimuli of different waveforms over a wide frequency range that produce endolymph movements and consequent cupula deflections without motion being imparted to the animal. the results of electrophysiological experiments where the responses from pigeon (columba livia) sing ...19883172821
lead exposure in an "urban" peregrine falcon and its avian prey.necropsy of a 7-yr-resident peregrine falcon (falco peregrinis) from baltimore showed a pseudomonas infection involving the pharynx as the immediate cause of death. concentrations of lead in liver and kidney measured 0.74 and 1.40 ppm, respectively. a survey of lead exposure was performed on 40 urban rock doves (columbia livia). thirteen additional rock doves were collected from sites removed from lead contamination and served as controls. the mean concentration of lead in the blood of the urban ...19863086577
osmoregulation and body fluid compartmentalization in dehydrated heat-exposed pigeons.osmoregulatory and volume-regulatory responses of heat-acclimated pigeons (columba livia) were studied during normal hydration and dehydration combined with heat exposure. dehydrated heat-exposed pigeons (exposure to 50 degrees c following 48 h of water deprivation; 16-18% mass loss) could recover 97% of their initial body mass within 30 min of free drinking at the end of heat exposure. at the end of heat exposure, body temperature increased by 3 degrees c and hematocrit increased by 12.5%. seru ...19892764160
comparative morphometric study of the vestibular system of the vertebrata: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces.morphometric measurements were made from serial sections of the vestibular system in four classes of vertebrates: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces. representative species of reptile studied were the lizard (gekko gecko), the common garter snake (thamnophis sp.), and the common turtle (chelonia sp.). the budgie (melopsittacus undulatas), the common pigeon (columba domestica), the yellow-bellied sapsucker (sphyrapicus varius), and the horned owl (bubo virginianus) were chosen as representative ...19863485883
musculotopic innervation of the primary flight muscles, the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) and supracoracoideus, of the pigeon (columba livia): a wga-hrp study.the distribution of motoneurons innervating the primary depressor and elevator muscles of the wing of the domestic pigeon (columba livia) was studied by using the retrograde axonal tracer lectin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (wga-hrp). injection of wga-hrp into the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) labeled neurons in the ventromedial corner of the lateral motor column of the spinal cord. these neurons were arranged in a column extending from spinal segment x or xi to spinal segment xii or xiii. t ...19892774211
[efferent innervation of the larynx in domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica l].the motoneurons innervating the larynx of the pigeon were localized with the horseradish peroxidase (hrp)-method (mesulam 1978). after injection of hrp into the laryngeal muscles the exact position of the nucleus ambiguous could be determined, which lays in the region of 600 micron rostral to 1,000 micron caudal of the obex.19863538940
offense and defense after lateral septal lesions in columba is generally agreed that there are several different types of animal aggression that may be distinguished in terms of their neural organization and that discrete lesions, in particular brain areas, may affect one but not other types of aggression. in this study the effects of electrolytic, bilateral lesions in lateral septum on offense and defense were examined in pigeons. subjects were tested by introducing an adult conspecific stranger into their home cage. a postoperative increase in offen ...19883182182
comparative study of ampicillin and amoxycillin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in homing pigeons (columba livia).pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and amoxycillin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration was investigated in homing pigeons. the pharmacokinetic parameters in a cross-over study after intravenous administration of the sodium salts were comparable. the only significant difference was found for the distribution phase. the bioavailability after intramuscular injection of the sodium salts was especially low for ampicillin (26 per cent, as against 57 per cent for amoxycillin). the mean ...19873112878
needle catheter duodenostomy: a technique for duodenal alimentation of birds.a technique for duodenal alimentation (needle catheter duodenostomy) of birds was developed, using the domestic pigeon (columba livia) as the experimental model. a needle catheter was inserted into the descending duodenum of 5 pigeons and was secured to the body wall and dorsum of each bird. a liquid diet was administered daily (in equal amounts of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) for 14 days without adverse effects. on day 15, the catheters were removed, and the birds immediately resumed normal consu ...19863146561
ovarian follicular growth and maturation in the domestic pigeon and guinea fowl (numida meleagris).yolks of pigeon and guinea fowl eggs were examined for the number of dichromate-staining rings. estimates of the time for rapid follicular development using this technique were 5.1 and 5.6 days for pigeons and guinea fowl, respectively. another measure of follicular development based on the incorporation of sudan dyes into the yolk yielded an estimate of 6.5 and 8.3 days for pigeons and guinea fowl, respectively. using one and two-egg clutches, no differences due to clutch position were observed ...19883241784
post-hatching development of the immune system of the pigeon, columba livia. 19883208962
toxic lead exposure in the urban rock dove.thirteen adult urban rock doves (columba livia), 12 captured alive and one found dead, were studied from the baltimore zoo. the mean concentration of lead in the blood for the 12 live birds was 184.5 +/- 531.2 (range 10.5-1,870 micrograms/dl). three of the 13 birds with high measured blood and tissue lead concentrations were found at necropsy with lead shot pellets in their gizzards. correlations were not found between concentrations of lead in the blood and body weight or hematocrit. conversely ...19873586205
effects of noise on pure-tone thresholds in blackbirds (agelaius phoeniceus and molothrus ater) and pigeons (columba livia).blackbirds and pigeons were trained to detect tones in quiet and in broadband noise by using positive-reinforcement techniques. in experiment 1, thresholds in noise were obtained in blackbirds as a function of both tone frequency and noise intensity for a pulsed noise masker (noise gated on and off with tone). for blackbirds, critical ratios (the ratio of the power of the just-detectable tone in noise to the power of the noise masker) obtained in pulsed noise showed no consistent relation to ton ...19873568604
discrimination of shape reflections and shape orientations by columba using a free-operant instrumental discrimination procedure, it was demonstrated that pigeons find two-dimensional mirror-image visual forms more difficult to distinguish than otherwise similar forms. variations in orientation of the discriminanda exacerbated the relative confusability of mirror images. no significant difference was found in the pigeons' performance whether the birds were discriminating vertically or horizontally reflected mirror-image pairs. mirror images of shapes were also ...19883365942
allometric comparison of brain weight and brain structure volumes in different breeds of the domestic pigeon, columba livia f.d. (fantails, homing pigeons, strassers).in three breeds of domestic pigeons (fantails, homing pigeons, and strassers) the volumes of fresh, i.e. unfixed tissue of 14 brain structures were determined (telencephalon, diencephalon, nervus opticus, tectum, cerebellum, tegmentum and hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum ventrale, neostriatum, paleostriatum, hippocampus, septum, regio praepiriformis, bulbus olfactorius). allometric comparisons that take into account differences in body weight and size were made among these three breeds. ...19883370442
stabilizing gaze reflexes in the pigeon (columba livia). i. horizontal and vertical optokinetic eye (okn) and head (ocr) reflexes.a quantitative study of horizontal and vertical optokinetic nystagmus (okn) and optocollic reflex (ocr) has been performed in the pigeon using the search-coil technique. the reflexes were analysed in response to either velocity steps or sinusoidal stimulation. results show that: 1. in response to a velocity step stimulation, the slow phase velocity of both okn and ocr increases gradually to reach a steady state level. when the stimulation stops in the dark, after responses (okan-i, okar-i) occur ...19883371439
cryptococcal antigen survey among racing pigeon workers and patients with cryptococcosis, pythiosis, histoplasmosis and penicilliosis.the cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (calas) test is simple, sensitive and specific. a total of 129 serum samples, 29 cerebrospinal fluids (csf) and one ascitic fluid from 143 subjects were tested in the study. cryptococcal antigenaemia was present in all csf specimens tested from patients with culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcaemia, and in 91% of tested serum from the same group of patients with cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcaemia. the occurrence of fa ...19883253220
unusual discharge patterns of single fibers in the pigeon's auditory nerve.extracellular recording from single auditory nerve fibers in the pigeon, columba livia, revealed some unusual discharge patterns of spontaneous and evoked activity. time interval histograms (tihs) of spontaneous activity showed a random interval distribution in 73% of the auditory fibers (fig. 1a). the remaining 27% revealed periodicity in the tihs (fig. 1b-e), determined by the characteristic frequency (cf) of a given fiber. normally, those fibers had a cf less than 2.2 khz. in both cases spont ...19883385673
light microscopic observations on the morphology of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the pigeon, columba livia.experiments were performed in anesthetized, immobilized, artificially respirated pigeons (columba livia). extracellular recordings from 56 antidromically activated and collided sympathetic preganglionic neurons were obtained. eleven cells were intracellularly labeled with horseradish peroxidase and reconstructed at the light microscopic level. electrophysiologically there were no statistical differences between labeled and unlabeled neurons. four different somatic shapes were observed: fusiform, ...19873587607
loss of the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, food intake, and plasma melatonin concentration induced by constant bright light in the pigeon (columba livia).locomotor activity and feeding activity were measured together with circulating levels of melatonin in pigeons which were exposed to constant bright light (llbright, 2000 lux) following light-dark (ld) cycles. although all the pigeons showed daily rhythms of locomotor activity, feeding activity, and melatonin levels under ld cycles, they lost all the rhythms in prolonged llbright. acute exposure to bright light (2000 lux) during darkness reduced plasma melatonin levels. the half-time for the sup ...19883184008
seasonal histomorphological alterations of adrenals and thyroid in normal and pinealectomized domestic pigeons columba livia. 19863583332
structure and neural control of the pectoralis in pigeons: implications for flight mechanics.the pectoralis muscle in pigeons (columba livia) is composed of two heads (sternobrachialis, thoracobrachialis) that are separately innervated and have different fiber orientations. high-speed film and electromyographic studies of free-flying pigeons reveal that the pectoralis is activated prior to wing depression (the power stroke) and that its two heads are differentially recruited during takeoff, level flight, and landing. the electrical activity patterns of both heads support an interpretati ...19873631542
fine structure of the pecten of the pigeon (columba livia).the pecten oculi of the diurnally active pigeon (columba livia) has been examined by light and electron microscopy. in this species the pecten is of the pleated type. it is situated over the optic nerve head and extends out into the vitreous. fifteen to 17 accordion folds are joined apically by a heavily pigmented ridge of tissue which holds the pecten in a fan-like shape, widest at the base. the entire pecten is enclosed by a fine basal lamina. within each fold are numerous capillaries, larger ...19883405586
regulation of cloned prolactin-inducible genes in pigeon crop.polyadenylated rna from prl-stimulated pigeon (columba livia) crop was used as template to produce a cloned cdna library in plasmids. the library was screened by differential hybridization against labeled nucleic acid populations representative of both unstimulated and prl-stimulated crop tissue. by this method four independent clones coding for prl-inducible mrnas were identified. the regulation of these four genes ranged from modest (2- to 3-fold) to major (greater than 70-fold). a clone desig ...19873331713
retinal projections to the pretectum in the pigeon (columba livia).the retinal projection to the pretectum in the pigeon has previously been described in detail only by means of anterograde degeneration techniques (repérant, '73). the present study reinvestigated these retinal projections by using the more sensitive anterograde autoradiographic technique. in general, our results confirm and extend those of repérant ('73). we have found that three pretectal nuclei--the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, tectal gray, and the area pretectalis--received heavy retina ...19883360999
[vascular reactivity of the brain in the pigeon columba livia].in experiments on awake relatively unrestrained pigeons, studies have been made on the reactions of the cerebrovascular bed to fixed functional loads of physical (orthostasis) and chemical (inhalation of hypoxic and hypercapnic gas mixtures) nature. using hydrogen clearance method, the increase in the intensity of local cerebral blood flow in different structures of the telencephalon during inhalation of the mentioned gas mixtures was demonstrated. bilateral vagotomy resulted in inversed reactio ...19873434035
projections of the retinorecipient pretectal nuclei in the pigeon (columba livia).we have used anterograde autoradiographic and retrograde hrp techniques to investigate the efferent connections of the retinorecipient pretectal nuclei in the pigeon. in the accompanying paper we identified these nuclei in the pigeon as the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali--pars lateralis and pars medialis, the tectal gray, the area pretectalis, and pretectalis diffusus. although there are reports of a few of the projections of these nuclei, they had not previously been the subject of a detailed ...19883361002
alteration in the histochemical profile of steroid dehydrogenases in the uropygial gland of male domestic pigeons following androgen deprivation and testosterone supplement.activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-hsdh) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-hsdh)) were histochemically demonstrated in the alveoli of the uropygial glands of male domestic pigeons (columba livia gmelin). the level of 3 beta-hsdh (substrates: pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone) was very low. on the other hand, an intense activity of 17 beta-hsdh was observed in the glandular alveoli of both sexually immature and adult pigeons when testosterone w ...19873473985
functional morphology of the tail apparatus of the pigeon (columba livia). 19873454535
stabilizing gaze reflexes in the pigeon (columba livia). ii. vestibulo-ocular (vor) and vestibulo-collic (closed-loop vcr) reflexes.the vestibulo-ocular reflex (vor) and the closed-loop vestibulo-collic reflex (cl-vcr) were investigated in the pigeon. the animals, placed either in the fixed-head condition (vor) or in the free-head condition (cl-vcr) were rotated in darkness (vestibular responses) or in the presence of visual surroundings (visuo-vestibular responses). the linear range of the reflexes were determined both in the frequency and in the velocity domains. results show that: 1. pigeons develop a strong vor, which pr ...19883259511
[activation of the right atrioventricular valve in the avian heart].using intramural needle electrode, in situ determinations have been made of the moment of activation of the right muscular atrioventricular valve during electrical systole of the heart. in the hen, gallus domesticus, the electrical activation of the valve was observed 8.8 +/- 1.4 ms (mean qrs duration 25 ms) whereas in the pigeon columba livia--5 +/- 1 ms (qrs duration 17 ms) after the beginning of ventricular depolarization, i.e. during excitation of the main bulk of the myocardium of the free ...19873591119
a functional analysis of the primary upstroke and downstroke muscles in the domestic pigeon (columba livia) during domestic pigeons (columba livia), the electrical activity of the major depressor muscle of the wing, the pectoralis (pars thoracicus), beings in late upstroke well before the wing begins its downstroke excursion. the two architecturally distinct heads of the pectoralis, the sternobrachialis and the thoracobrachialis, are differentially recruited during take-off, level flight and landing. in addition to wing depression, the sternobrachialis protracts the humerus and the thoracobrachialis retra ...19883356961
trichomonas gallinae in columbiform birds from the galapagos islands.domestic pigeons were introduced into the galapagos islands in 1972 or 1973. there is a high prevalence of trichomonas gallinae among them and some evidence of canker. trichomonas gallinae can be found also in endemic galapagos doves in the vicinity of puerto ayora on santa cruz island. doves examined on pigeon-free islands were not found infected.19873625913
[venous sinuses of the dura mater of the bird brain].by means of corrosive, injection and tracheoscopy methods venous formations of the brain have been studied in 19 species of birds--endemical for far east--from 12 orders. four types of the venous sinuses structure have been distinguished in the dura mater: the first type of the structure is specific for birds that live an inactive and quiet life (blue rock pigeon, ussuric pheasant, tetrastes bonasia, domestic hen). the second type of the sinus structure occurs in birds, that sharply change the s ...19883408362
occurrence of campylobacter jejuni in free-living wild birds from japan.campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 44 of 313 free-living birds from japan. the highest isolation rate was found in 30 of 87 (34%) crows (corvus levaillanti and corvus corone), followed by 2 of 10 (20%) blue magpies (cyanopica cyanus), 5 of 35 (14%) gray starlings (sturnus cineraceus), 2 of 16 (13%) domestic pigeons (columbia livia domestica), 4 of 36 (11%) bulbuls (hypsipetes amaurotis), and 1 of 62 (2%) eastern turtledoves (streptopelia orientalis). one-fourth of the contents of the crop an ...19883411703
[the effect of the paramunity inducer pind-orf on the elimination of coccidial oocysts from normal and immunosuppressed carrier pigeons (columba livia gmel., 1789, var. dom.)]. 19873687287
histomorphological alterations in gonads of normal and pinealectomized domestic pigeon, columba livia, during breeding and post-breeding phases. 19883248841
influence of age and splanchnic nerve on the action of melatonin in the adrenomedullary catecholamine content and blood glucose level in the avian group.a single intraperitoneal (ip) melatonin injection (0.5 mg/100 g body wt.) caused an increase in norepinephrine (ne) fluorescence and elevation of ne content in newly-hatched pigeons (columba livia), but a reduction of ne fluorescence and depletion of ne content in the adrenal medulla of newly-hatched crows (corvus splendens) after 0.5 h of treatment. in contrast, in adults melatonin caused increase in ne fluorescence and elevation of ne content only in the parakeet (psittacula krameri). half an ...19883249022
hematological responses to sumithion (fenitrothion) in the blue-rock pigeon columba livia gmelin. 19853833687
[the effect of the paramunity inducer pind-orf on the flight performance of healthy and sick carrier pigeons (columba livia gmel., 1789, var. dom.)]. 19873673365
the toxin kainic acid: a study of avian nerve and glial cell response utilizing tritiated kainic acid and electron microscopic autoradiography.three questions are asked regarding the toxin kainic acid (ka). does it destroy specific glial cells as well as neurons? does ka gain access to the cytoplasm in intact cells and to which organelles does it bind? intracerebral injections of tritiated ka into the pigeon (columba livia) paleostriatal complex (basal ganglia) coupled with electron microscopic autoradiography revealed the following major points. kainic acid destroyes oligodendrocytes, with pathophysiology apparent by 30 min after chal ...19883407396
temperature and humidity dynamics of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation in pigeons, columba livia.using a two-compartment metabolism chamber, we measured oxygen consumption simultaneously with evaporative water loss (ewl) separately from the skin and respiratory tract of pigeons exposed to various air temperatures and humidities. both respiratory (rewl) and cutaneous (cewl) water loss increased markedly with increasing air temperature, and latent heat loss through both routes dissipated large fractions of internal heat production during mild heat stress. cewl as a percentage of total ewl sig ...19873571575
the acuity of sound localization in the pigeon (columba livia). 19873627280
qualities and locations of stimuli and responses affecting discrimination learning of chinchillas (chinchilla laniger) and pigeons (columba livia).chinchillas and pigeons were used as subjects in separate experiments to study interactions among stimulus and response characteristics in discrimination learning. both the stimuli and the responses could differ with respect to their "quality" and their "location." bright versus dim lights and upper versus lower lights served as the stimulus qualities and stimulus locations for the chinchillas, respectively. red versus green lights and upper versus lower lights served as the stimulus qualities a ...19873608421
the spontaneous interconnection of four repertoires of behavior in a pigeon (columba livia).a pigeon was trained to peck a small facsimile of a banana placed within its reach, to climb onto a box, to open a door, and to push a box toward targets. when confronted with a new situation-the banana was placed out of reach, and the box was placed behind the door-the four repertoires came together rapidly to produce a humanlike solution to the problem. a tentative account of the performance is offered in terms of empirically validated principles.19873608425
the heat-acclimated pigeon: an ideal physiological model for a desert bird.acclimation of rock pigeon (columba livia) to high ambient temperature (ta) 50 degrees c from the time of hatching resulted in a well-developed cutaneous evaporative cooling mechanism (cecm), which became the dominant mechanism for heat dissipation. after the age of 15 days and in adults, acclimated pigeons exposed to 48-60 degrees c ta could regulate normal body temperature (tb) without employing either panting or gular fluttering. respiration rate varied between 36 +/- 12 (sd) and 35 +/- 14 br ...19873571094
a further look at the binocular visual field of the pigeon (columba livia).the binocular visual field of the pigeon, measured ophthalmoscopically, is ovoid in shape. it is 114 degrees in vertical extent and centered and widest (37 degrees) about the eye-beak axis (i.e. the line passing through the straight edge of the beak and the midpoint of a line connecting the centres of the pupils). the area dorsalis projects 10 degrees-15 degrees below the eye-beak axis where the field is 35 degrees wide. the stereotyped peck response of the pigeon entails birds pausing twice. at ...19853832599
flight stimulates adrenocortical activity in pigeons (columba livia).the influence of long-distance flight on corticosterone secretion has been examined in trained racing pigeons. flights of 315-561 min from release sites 115-557 km from the home loft greatly increased the circulating corticosterone concentration in comparison with the levels in nonexercised controls sampled before release or bled in the loft at the times of release or arrival. the increase in corticosterone concentration was unrelated to the distance flown or duration of flight. flights of less ...19863956993
vestibular, olfactory, and vibratory responses of nucleus basalis prosencephali neurons in pigeons.evoked multiple unit responses were recorded through chronically implanted electrodes from the nucleus basalis prosencephali of the pigeon (columba livia) upon vibratory stimulation of the beak-tip and airborne auditory stimulation, thus confirming earlier anatomical and physiological findings. electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve led to similar short latency responses. a specific directional sensitivity to rotatory vestibular stimulation was observed. pitch motions of the head in the d ...19873499587
[study on the presence of yeasts in the feces of the rock pigeon (columba livia gmelin 1789) from rural areas].the diffusion of rock-pigeon (domestic form of columba livia gmelin 1789) is greatly increasing owing to its high reproductivity; for this reason it is present in both countries and cities. this bird is considered an important vector of pathogens to man and domestic animals, and today it represents a serious hygienic-sanitary problem. therefore we checked for the presence of yeasts in feces of rock-pigeons nesting in the regional park "la mandria" (near turin), visited mostly by school-children ...19853870648
wild-pigeon-related psittacosis in a family.three members of a family acquired psittacosis after exposure to a wild pigeon. each of the patients had pulmonary infiltrates, prominent headache, abdominal complaints, and serologic evidence for infection with chlamydia psittaci. of 759 cases of psittacosis reported to the centers for disease control for the period of 1974 to 1981, some 75 (10 percent) were associated with pigeons. fifty-two of the cases were associated with domestic pigeons and 23 with wild pigeons. pigeons represent a largel ...19863769573
the influence of intracerebroventricular infusions on osmotically induced urine excretion in the pigeon (columba livia).this study deals with the influence of intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions on urine volume and electrolyte excretion in response to a peripherally administered osmotic load in conscious behaving pigeons. the icv infusions were intended to influence the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) sodium (na+) concentration that would have been increased by the hypertonic nacl or sucrose solutions infused intravenously (iv). urine and electrolyte excretion following iv infusion of 0.5 m nacl were enhanced by si ...19863774899
telencephalic afferent projections from the diencephalon and brainstem in the pigeon. a retrograde multiple-label fluorescent study.the sites of origin of ascending projections to the telencephalon in the pigeon (columba livia) were studied by means of the retrograde fluorescence technique following the injection of various tracers (evans blue, fast blue, nuclear yellow) concomitantly into different regions of topographically distinct areas of one hemisphere: hyperstriatum (hy), ectostriatum-paleostriatum (ep), posterior neostriatum (pn). the distribution of retrograde neuronal labeling observed within diencephalic and midbr ...19853850028
frequency discrimination in the pigeon (columba livia). 19863762730
multisensory convergence in the thalamus of the pigeon (columba livia).neuronal activity was extracellularly recorded from the nucleus dorsolateralis posterior thalami (dlp) of anesthetized pigeons. the sensitivity of individual cells to stimuli of different sensory modalities: somatosensory, visual and auditory was investigated. a substantial population of the dlp neurons responded to mechanical stimulation of large, often bilateral areas of the animal's body surface. no somatotopic organization could be detected. the functional properties of these neurons resembl ...19873658232
[infestation of the domestic pigeon columba livia dom. in wrocław by biting lice in the summer of 1983]. 19863705588
[reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterases of different origins by quaternary phosphonium compounds].studies have been made on the reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity from the erythrocytes of man, horse and camel, the electric organ of the skate torpedo marmorata and eel electrophorus electricus, the venom of the snakes naja naja and vipera lebetina, the brain of the pigeon columba livia by tetraphenyl-, triphenylalkyl- and tributyrylalkyl-phosphonium salts. the investigated phosphonium inhibitors exhibit an evident specificity in their action: they were more effective in inh ...19863716682
[plasmalogen distribution in the subcellular fractions of the vertebrate brain].studies have been made on plasmalogen and diacylic forms of phospholipids, i. e. phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine (their relative content and ratio), in subcellular fractions isolated from the brain of the trout salmo trideus, frog rana temporaria, pigeon columba livia, tortoise testudo horsfieldi, and rabbit. investigation was carried out on 5 subcellular fractions (myelin, nuclei, microsomes, mitochondria, synaptosomes) as well as on brain homogenates. in all the fractions, rel ...19853876667
interaural time and intensity difference thresholds of the pigeon (columba livia). 19873683591
the phase relationship between the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and circulating melatonin in the pigeon (columba livia).the phase relationship between the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and circulating melatonin levels under ld 12:12 and constant dim light conditions (lldim) was examined in pigeons. our new radioimmunoassay technique had sufficient sensitivity to detect the concentration of melatonin from a small quantity of plasma, which enabled us to measure locomotor activity simultaneously with circulating melatonin rhythms from each individual pigeon. the relationship of phase between the two circad ...19873666415
an outbreak of encephalitis in pigeons (columba livia) in the canary islands (spain).an encephalitic disease in pigeons, characterized by paralysis of extremities, torticollis, head tremor, and diarrhea, is described. the negative titers in the hemagglutination tests, the presence of feulgen-positive intranuclear inclusions in the cells of the granular layer of the cerebellum and the fibroblast culture, and the presence of viral particles with an icosahedral-herpetic morphology and a diameter of 100-170 nm all indicate that the etiology of this outbreak may be related to the enc ...19863729888
a second ascending visual pathway from the optic tectum to the telencephalon in the pigeon (columba livia).previous studies in the pigeon (karten and revzin: brain res. 2:368-377, '66; karten and hodos: j. comp. neurol. 140:35-52, '70) have described an ascending tectofugal visual pathway from the optic tectum to the ectostriatum by way of the nucleus rotundus of the thalamus. this present study used anterograde autoradiographic and retrograde horseradish peroxidase pathway-tracing techniques to investigate another ascending tectofugal pathway in the pigeon. injections of 3h-proline/leucine confirmed ...19863745517
osmoreceptor localization in the brain of the pigeon (columba livia).the area of the brain of pigeons that may be responsible for drinking following intravascular administration of osmotically effective solutes was investigated using infusions of water or isotonic and hypertonic solutions of nacl or sucrose into various regions of the brains of conscious birds, and measuring the volume of water drunk. the preoptic area and the lateral hypothalamus were the only areas from which dose related drinking could be obtained in response to bilateral infusions of hyperton ...19863730859
[anti-p1 production in the blood of columba domestica].after intravenous immunization of six rabbits with washed red cells from a pigeon (columba domestica), anti-p1 of very good quality was obtained after 8-12 injections. the sera indicate human blood cells of type p1 equally well as do anti-p1 of goat (immunized with echinococci cyst fluid).19854084282
chlamydiosis in birds in great britain. 1. serological reactions to chlamydia in birds sampled between 1974 and 1983.a total of 6593 serum samples from birds, received for diagnostic testing or surveys between 1974 and 1983, were titrated by direct complement fixation (cf) test against chlamydia psittaci antigen. the percentage of positive reactions found was variable for domestic poultry, ranging from 1.5 in chickens to 22.2 in geese, and was highest in pigeons columba livia (47.3) and collared doves streptopelia decaocto (51.4). a moderate incidence was found for game birds (29.0), wild ducks (23.3) and impo ...19863734430
bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and amoxycillin from tablets, capsules and long-acting preparations in the homing pigeon (columba livia).three ampicillin and three amoxycillin formulations (tablets and capsules, administered orally, and oily suspensions, injected intramuscularly (i.m.) and subcutaneously (s.c.] were studied in twenty adult homing pigeons (columba livia). bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and recovery were determined for each product and administration route. a standard dose of 50 mg/pigeon or 100 mg/kg was used in each study. the mean availability calculated for each of these preparations was 7% for ampicillin an ...19863806780
thalamic projections to the paleostriatum and neostriatum in the pigeon (columba livia).thalamic projections to the paleostriatum and neostriatum in the pigeon have been studied using wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase in anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments. injections centred on different mediolateral regions of the dorsal thalamus produced terminal labelling in correspondingly different mediolateral regions of the striatal complex, comprising paleostriatum augmentation and lobus parolfactorius, within the ventral paleostriatum, and within the neostriatum. inj ...19873561765
[electrophoretic presentation of the protein component of crop milk of pigeons (columba livia domestica) by isoelectric focusing and sds-electrophoresis]. 19873827808
occurrence of yersinia enterocolitica in wild-living birds and japanese serows.yersinia spp. were isolated from 34 of 500 birds representing nine species. the highest isolation rate, 5 of 21 (23.8%), was found in blue magpies (cyanopia cyanus), followed by pheasants (phasianus colchicus tohkaidi), 5 of 33 (15.2%); gray starlings (sturnus cineraceus), 6 of 57 (10.5%); tree sparrows (passer montanus), 1 of 14 (7.1%); bulbuls (hypsipetes amaurotis), 4 of 57 (7.0%); crows (corvus levailantii or corvus corone), 7 of 117 (6.0%); eastern turtledoves (streptopelia orientalis), 4 o ...19853977310
effects of temperature and pco2 on o2 affinity of pigeon blood: implications for brain o2 supply.bird heads contain paired countercurrent heat exchangers, the ophthalmic retia, which function in brain temperature regulation. blood, cooled by evaporation from the nasal and buccal mucosa and the ocular surfaces, flows to the venous side of each rete and there gains heat from arterial blood flowing countercurrent to it. the cooled arterial blood then flows to the brain. to ascertain whether characteristics of the blood reaching the cooling surfaces and the retia favor o2 and co2 exchange, as w ...19853934989
drinking in the pigeon (columba livia) in response to water deprivation and the influence of intracerebroventricular infusions of nacl or sucrose solutions.pigeons were deprived of fluid for 24 hours then allowed access to water and a 2.7% nacl solution, the intakes of both solutions during the subsequent 60 min were observed. in a second experiment hypertonic or isotonic solutions of nacl or sucrose were infused icv, starting 5 min before access to the solutions and finishing 10 min after access, and the consummatory behaviour observed. pigeons rehydrated themselves after the period of deprivation with a volume of water equal to the weight lost du ...19863823188
auditory intensity discrimination in the pigeon (columba livia) as measured by heart-rate conditioning. 19863951560
electrocardiogram of the racing pigeon (columba livia domestica).using standard limb leads electrocardiograms (ecgs) were recorded in 60 pigeons. the greatest amplitude of the p wave was observed in lead ii in the majority of ecgs. the predominant pattern of the p wave was positive in leads i and ii, biphasic (-/+) in lead iii, negative in avr, biphasic (+/-) in avl and positive in avf. a ta wave was observed in 50 out of 60 tracings. wenckebach's phenomenon was observed in three different pigeons. in lead i the qrs pattern was rs or qs. in leads ii, iii and ...19854012029
grasping in the pigeon (columba livia): final common path mechanisms.a combination of cinematographic and denervation procedures were used to analyse the mechanisms involved in the adjustment of gape size during grasping in the pigeon. gape size was found to vary directly with seed size and to reflect the operation of two variables, jaw opening velocity and jaw opening duration. effects upon duration are mediated, indirectly, by the effect of seed size upon head height, which, in turn, controls the velocity of head descent. the data suggest that the control of ga ...19854091959
serotonergic involvement in the backward tumbling response of the parlor tumbler pigeon.the parlor tumbler is a breed of domestic pigeon which displays a hereditary movement disorder resulting in backward somersaulting upon attempting to fly. a neurochemical abnormality has been suggested to underlie this behavior. the effect on tumbling of several drugs with serotonergic actions was studied. increasing available serotonin with 5-hydroxytryptamine (50 mg/kg) plus fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) as well as using amitriptyline (10-20 mg/kg) significantly suppressed tumbling without sedation. t ...19873815086
unusual complement activation properties of serum immunoglobulins of the pigeon columba livia.complement-mediated lysis of mouse erythrocytes (mrbc) by whole pigeon antisera was found to occur in the presence of magnesium ions alone. the underlying basis for this observation was demonstrated to be the ability of igm antibodies to activate the alternative pathway of pigeon complement, whereas igg activates a calcium-dependent pathway possessing an unusually low lytic capacity. in addition to differing from the alternative pathway by requiring both calcium and magnesium ions, the calcium-d ...19863957409
the effect of kc1, nac1, hydration and dehydration on the subcommissural organ of the domestic pigeon. 19674176814
histochemical detection of glycoproteins in the gastric epithelia of columba livia.a histochemical investigation was carried out to detect glycoproteins in the lining and glandular epithelia of 4 regions of the stomach of columba livia: proventriculus, intermediate region between proventriculus and gizzard, gizzard, intermediate region between gizzard and duodenum. it was noticed the presence of neutral and sulphoglycoproteins, with a clear predominance of the latter in the lining epithelia and in the simple tubular glands of the mucosa of these regions, except for the gizzard ...19853929542
effect of thirst and water load on the hypothalamic regulation of the adrenal in the pigeon (columba livia domestica l.). 19664290846
[morphologic features of the adaptation of vessels of the renal glomerular complex of testudo horsfeldi gr. and columba livia].morphological characteristics on adaptive abilities of the glomerular complex vessels in kidneys of 35 tortoises (testudo horsfieldi) is presented under conditions of experimental alimentary dehydration and in intact kidneys of 29 pigeons (columba livia). appearance of transversal and circular anastomoses between the afferent and efferent arterioles of the glomeruli, as well as transformation of their capillaries into nutritional capillaries in the tortoise kidneys under the alimentary dehydrati ...19854091684
some psychophysics of the pigeon's use of landmarks.1. three pigeons (columba livia) were trained to find hidden food in a sunken well (3.3 cm in diameter) at a constant place within an (160 cm x 160 cm) experimental box (fig. 1). after learning the location, the animals were tested occasionally with the well and food absent. landmarks in the experimental box might be transformed on such tests. 2. changing the height or width of a nearby landmark had no systematic influence on the position of peak search. translating a nearby landmark, however, l ...19883397923
the avian somatosensory system. i. primary spinal afferent input to the spinal cord and brainstem in the pigeon (columba livia).the process of transganglionic transport was used to determine the pattern of primary afferent projections to the spinal cord and brainstem in the pigeon by (1) applying horseradish peroxidase (hrp) to various peripheral nerves in the leg or wing, (2) by injecting hrp-lectin into feather follicles of the wing or tail, and (3) by injecting hrp-lectin into various muscles of the leg or wing. in the spinal cord major peripheral nerves were represented heavily throughout the dorsal horn laminae but ...19853880357
studies on a "renin-angiotensin" system in the normal and hypophysectomized pigeon (columba livia). 19714323879
the effects of hypophysectomy on the metabolism of adrenal steroids in the pigeon (columba livia). 19724336117
topographic representation of visceral target organs within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve of the pigeon columba livia.our previous work (katz and karten, '83a j. comp. neurol. 217:31-46 demonstrated that the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmn complex) in the pigeon is composed of cytoarchitecturally distinct subnuclei that are distinguished by the size, shape, position, and cytochemical characteristics of their constituent neurons. in view of the diversity of target organs innervated by the vagus nerve, we sought to determine whether the subnuclear heterogeneity of the dmn complex is related to the pa ...19854086668
[enzyme histochemical and fine structural observations on the pecten oculi of the pigeon (columba livia) and laughing gull (larus ridibundus)]. 19724343361
the influence of central infusions on drinking due to peripheral osmotic stimuli in the pigeon (columba livia).the drinking responses of pigeons infused simultaneously iv (0.334 ml/min) and icv (2 microliters/min) for 15 min with various osmotic solutions were observed during, and for 60 min after, the combined infusions. drinking in response to iv infusion of 0.5 m nacl or 1.0 m sucrose was unaffected by simultaneous icv infusion of 0.15 m nacl, enhanced by icv 0.3 m nacl, inhibited during the infusion of water icv and attenuated by icv infusion of 0.9 m sucrose. drinking in response to iv infusion of 1 ...19863960995
an unusual case of lead poisoning in a honey buzzard (pernis apivorus).the diagnosis and treatment of a case of lead poisoning in a honey buzzard (pernis apivorus) are described. presenting signs were diarrhoea and weakness. lead poisoning was suspected after radiography and confirmed by measuring the lead concentration in a venous blood sample. comparison values of venous lead concentrations in healthy racing pigeons (columba livia) were established. a method for the removal of lead shor from the gizzard of birds with a bronchoscope and grasping forceps under fluo ...19854013056
variations in ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver, gonads, kidney, and blood serum of feral blue rock pigeon (columba livia gmelin) during the breeding and nonbreeding elucidate the possible involvement of ascorbic acid in gonadal steroidogenesis and role of gonadal steroids on the vitamin's turnover, ascorbic acid levels were quantified in the liver, gonads, kidney, and blood serum in both sexes of the indian feral blue rock pigeon (columba livia gmelin) during the breeding (march to april) and nonbreeding (june to july) seasons. low concentrations were observed during the breeding season and significantly higher cencentrations during the nonbreeding seaso ...19853991426
a comparative study of the peroxidases from thyroid glands of pigeon (columba livia domestica) and common myna (acridotheres tristis). 19714400978
[hexamitiasis in carrier pigeons in the netherlands].hexamitiasis in carrier pigeons caused by hexamita columbae was reported for the first time in the netherlands. infections tend to occur from april to july in 6-8 week old birds. the patients were affected with diarrhoea, became emaciated and died. mortality may be considerable. parasites may be identified in unstained wet specimens of very fresh droppings. treatment consists in administration of ronidazole during a period from seven to ten days. optimum hygiene should be observed.19854089854
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