[pigeons and other birds as a reservoir for cryptococcus spp].in the last 25 years, the cases of human and animal cryptococcosis have increased significantly. this is mostly due to the improvement in the survival of immunocompromised patients. the disease is frequently related to the exposure of this type of patients to avian droppings. among birds, pigeon, columba livia, is undoubtedly the most important reservoir for the cryptococcus species. nevertheless, the study of a large number of bird's species demonstrated that pigeons are not the only cryptococc ...200818338915
kinematics and power requirements of ascending and descending flight in the pigeon (columba livia).ascending or descending locomotion involves a change in potential energy (pe) and a corresponding change in power requirement. we sought to test whether the mechanical power required for steady ascending or descending flight is a simple sum of the power required for level flight and the power necessary for potential energy change. pigeons (columba livia) were trained to fly at varying angles of ascent and descent (60 degrees , 30 degrees , 0 degrees , -30 degrees , -60 degrees ), and were record ...200818344487
anti-protozoan activities of harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on trichomonads and malaria.the ethanolic stem bark extract of harungana madagascariensis (hypericaceae), (choisy) poir were evaluated for their activities on trichomonas gallinae (rivolta) stabler isolated from the pigeon (columba livia). it was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on n67 plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro.200818372133
molecular evolution and characterization of hepcidin gene products in vertebrates.antimicrobial peptides (amps) include a diverse group of gene-encoded molecules that play a role in innate defense in many organisms. evolutionary analyses of the amp genes can be challenging because of gene duplication and diversification. recently discovered, hepcidins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that also function as hormonal regulators of iron homeostasis. in this paper we investigated the organization, expression and molecular evolution of hepcidin. from searches of the ...200818395368
herpesviral inclusion body disease in owls and falcons is caused by the pigeon herpesvirus (columbid herpesvirus 1).a herpesviral disease of rock pigeons (columba livia), called "inclusion body disease" or "inclusion body hepatitis," was first described in the 1940s. the disease involves hepatic and splenic necrosis with associated intranuclear inclusion bodies and occurs primarily in young squabs. a similar herpesviral disease occurs in falcons and owls. serologic and restriction endonuclease digestion studies indicate that herpesviruses from pigeons, falcons, and owls are very closely related and that most ...200818436674
studies on reactivation and transmission of pigeon herpes virus (phv) for raising phv-free pigeons (columba livia dom.).for raising pigeons free of herpes virus infection, 12 parental pigeons were monitored for shedding of pigeon herpes virus (phv) during 18 weeks of reproduction. in most of the birds only a sporadic virus excretion, which was never associated with clinical signs could be observed. however, three out of seven squabs raised by their parents became infected during the first 3 weeks of life and all seven became phv seropositive within 4 months. therefore, we raised seven squabs hatched in an incubat ...199718483950
discrimination of moving video images of self by pigeons (columba livia).the ability to recognize self has been known to be limited to some animal species, but previous research has focused almost exclusively on the animal's reaction to a mirror. recent studies suggest that the temporal contingency between a subject's action and the corresponding visual scene reflected in a mirror plays an important role in self-recognition. to assess the roles of visual-proprioceptive contiguity in self-recognition, we explored whether pigeons are able to discriminate videos of them ...200818521633
persistent west nile virus transmission and the apparent displacement st. louis encephalitis virus in southeastern california, 2003-2006.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) invaded the colorado desert biome of southern california during summer 2003 and seemed to displace previously endemic st. louis encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, slev, an antigenically similar flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex). western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, weev), an antigenically distinct alphavirus, was detected during 2005 and 2006, ind ...200818533445
toxicological effects of diclofenac in four avian species.the objective of the present study was to investigate the toxico-pathological effects of diclofenac in different avian species including broiler chicks (gallus gallus, 15 days old), pigeons (columba livia, 3 months old), japanese quail (coturnix japonica, 4 weeks old) and mynah (acridotheres tristis, independent young). for each species, five groups each containing 10 birds were maintained and administered diclofenac sodium orally at dose rates of 0, 0.25, 2.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight, respe ...200818568659
evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype c infection of wild birds in georgia, south carolina, arkansas and ohio, usa.metapneumoviruses (mpvs) were first reported in avian species (ampvs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. although ampvs have been reported in europe and asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the united states in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. to examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in ampv spread, our study focused on determining whether population ...200818568663
first report of establishment of trypanosoma evansi infection in pigeon nestlings (columba livia).trypanosomosis (surra) caused by trypanosoma evansi is quite common among horses where the parasite is endemic. in the present study, t. evansi was isolated from an infected horse and maintained by subinoculation in swiss albino mice. at the peak of parasitemia (5 x 10(6) parasites per ml of blood), 0.25 ml of the tail blood from infected mice was inoculated intraperitoneally and subcutaneously to 2 groups of adult pigeons and 2 groups of pigeon nestlings. four days after inoculation, the trypan ...200818576831
female stimuli trigger gene expression in male pigeons.the immediate early gene zenk encodes transcriptional regulators and is believed to be one of the first steps in the formation of long-term memories associated with a given stimulus. in this study, we investigated the expression of zenk protein product in brain regions that are likely involved in the processing of social stimuli, such as a potential mate. male pigeons (columba livia) were exposed to one of the following: (1) a live female pigeon, (2) a video playback of a female pigeon, (3) a vi ...200918633838
an epidemic of fatal hepatic necrosis of viral origin in racing pigeons (columba livia).in october 1992, a new disease characterised by acute death in racing pigeons of all ages was noted among the belgian pigeon population. clinical symptoms were minimal since affected birds usually died within 24 h. mortality in pigeon lofts usually amounted to 30%. the most typical necropsy finding was a yellow, pale and swollen liver. histological and cytological examinations revealed extensive focal or diffuse hepatic necrosis and the presence of eosinophilic or amphophilic nuclear inclusion b ...199518645804
quantification of the immunoglobulin classes igg and iga in the young and adult pigeon (columba livia).pigeon immunoglobulin classes igg and iga were purified and specific isotype antisera were produced in rabbits. the antisera were used to develop a quantitative assay for both immunoglobulins. serum igg concentrations in relation to age showed a similar pattern in pigeons to that in chickens. the same applies to the transfer of maternal immunoglobulins via egg. besides this transfer mechanism, an additional transfer of immunoglobulins exists in the pigeon via feeding of crop milk. crop milk cont ...199218670956
failure of nitro-imidazole drugs to control trichomoniasis in the racing pigeon (columba livia domestica).the nitro-imidazole drugs ronidazol. dimetridazol, metronidazol and carnidazol failed to control trichomonas gallinae in the racing pigeon, presumably due to acquired drug resistance.199018679923
plasma chemistry and urine analysis in salmonella-induced polyuria in racing pigeons (columba livia).polyuria-polydipsia is a frequent observation in pigeons with salmonellosis. these are accompanied by a decreased albumin/globulin ratio, increased creatinine and haptoglobin concentrations, and decrease in the chloride concentration in the blood plasma. the urine was found to have a low density with red and white blood cells frequently present in the sediment. a water deprivation test was conducted on three animals: polyuria disappeared and plasma urea increased significantly.199118680034
comparison between co2 laser and 4.0 mhz radiosurgery for incising skin in white carneau pigeons (columba livia).to objectively evaluate the collateral damage associated with radiosurgical and carbon dioxide (co2) laser devices, a comparative surgical and histologic study was undertaken in white carneau pigeons (columba livia). ten pigeons were anesthetized, and a series of 3 skin incisions were made in the pectoral region by using a 4.0-mhz radiosurgical unit, a co2 laser, and a scalpel blade (control). a total of 90 skin incisions were microscopically evaluated, and their associated mechanical- and therm ...200818689070
columbid herpesvirus-1 in two cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) with fatal inclusion body disease.we report two separate naturally occurring cases of fatal herpesviral disease in cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii). gross lesions included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with diffuse pale mottling or scattered small white foci. histologic lesions included splenic and hepatic necrosis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of herpesvirus. in one case, necrosis and inclusions were also noted in bone marrow, thymus, bursa of fabricius, thyroid gland, parathyroid ...200818689647
starlings can categorize symmetry differences in dot displays.fluctuating asymmetry is an estimate of developmental stability and, in some cases, the asymmetry of morphological traits can reflect aspects of individual fitness. as asymmetry can be a marker for fitness, it has been proposed that organisms could use morphological asymmetry as a direct visual cue during inter- and intraspecific encounters. despite some experimental evidence to support this prediction, the perceptual abilities of animals to detect and respond to symmetry differences have been l ...200118707326
visually guided capture of a moving stimulus by the pigeon (columba livia).although the pigeon is a popular model for studying visual perception, relatively little is known about its perception of motion. three experiments examined the pigeons' ability to capture a moving stimulus. in experiment 1, the effect of manipulating stimulus speed and the length of the stimulus was examined using a simple rightward linear motion. this revealed a clear effect of length on capture and speed on errors. errors were mostly anticipatory and there appeared to be two processes contrib ...200918719954
epidemiological and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii in urban pigeons from the area of lisbon (portugal).circumstantial evidence suggests that birds may be a good indicator of soil contamination, since they feed from the ground. therefore a study was conducted to assess the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in urban pigeons (columba livia) from different areas of the city of lisbon and to genetically characterize t. gondii strains isolated from infected animals, in order to assess circulating genotypes. sera from 695 pigeons captured at 33 different localities of the city of lisbon were assayed by th ...200818722717
[interpretation of the epizootic outbreak among wild and domestic birds in the south of the european part of russia in december 2007].the paper presents the results of interpreting the epizootic outbreak etiologically associated with high-virulent influenza virus a/h5n1 among domestic and wild birds in the zernogradsky and tselinsky districts of the rostov region. epizooty was characterized by a high infection rate in the synanthropic birds of a ground-based complex. rt-pct revealed influenza virus a/h5 in 60% of pigeons and crows and in around 20% of starlings, and in 10% of tree sparrows. fifteen viral strains from chickens ...200818756811
tissue distribution of amoxycillin after oral and intramuscular administration to pigeons (columba livia).tissue distribution of amoxycillin in homing pigeons was studied after oral administration of amoxycillin trihydrate and after intramuscular injection of an oily amoxycillin suspension, both after a single dose of 100 mg/kg. after the injection muscular damage at the injection site was studied by serum chemistry, and by macroscopic and histologic examination. after oral administration high peak levels were found in most tissues, but at 8 hours post-administration (p.a.) in most organs no drug le ...198618766568
action of acth1-24 upon plasma corticosterone concentrations in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).to establish the optimal dose and sampling times for the acth stimulation test in racing pigeons, plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured in experimental animals at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after intramuscular administration of different doses of acth(1-24). baseline corticosterone concentrations varied between less than 0.2 and 1.24 microg/dl. to evaluate adrenocortical function the clinician is advised to take a blood sample before and at 60 or 90 min after stimulation with 50 ...198718766607
plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations in response to dehydration in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations were determined in six racing pigeons that had been deprived of water for 3 days. plasma urea concentration showed a 6.5- to 15.3-fold increase, creatinine a 1.2- to 1.5-fold increase and uric acid a 1.4- to 2-fold increase when compared with values before water deprivation. although these increases were significant, plasma urea and plasma creatinine were the only variables that were significantly elevated above reference values for these vari ...198718766627
clinical evaluation of thyroid function in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).reference values for basal thyroxine (t4) concentrations in racing pigeons are presented for use in clinical pathology. values for basal plasma t4 concentrations in healthy racing pigeons over the four seasons were 6-35 nmol/litre. significant differences were seen between seasons. to differentiate between primary hypothyroidism and other causes of lowered plasma t4 concentrations the optimum dose and sampling times for a tsh stimulation test in this species were determined. a convenient applica ...198818766667
collection and analysis of urine from racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).urine from racing pigeons (columba livia domestica) was collected by a method using cloacal cannulation. reference values for 12 chemical and physical variables in urine of racing pigeons were determined for use in clinical practice.198818766679
blood chemistry reference values for use in columbine hepatology.reference values of nine plasma chemical variables considered to be of potential use for the (differential) diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica) were determined. enzymes included creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transferase and cholinesterase. plasma bile acid concentrations were also measured.198818766709
enzyme activities in tissues and elimination half-lives of homologous muscle and liver enzymes in the racing pigeon (columba livia domestica).tissue enzyme profiles of heart, liver, pectoral muscle, quadriceps muscle, duodenum, kidney and brain from racing pigeons were established. the enzymes were alanine aminotransferase (alat), aspartate aminotransferase (asat), glutamate dehydrogenase (gldh), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), gamma glutamyltransferase (y-gt), alkaline phosphatase (ap), and creatine kinase (ck). elimination half-lives (tybeta) of certain enzymes were also determined. the mean values (+/- sd) were: asat, 7.66 +/- 1.55 (l ...198818766746
changes in plasma chemistry after drug-induced liver disease or muscle necrosis in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).changes in plasma variables as a result of liver damage induced by ethylene glycol (group a) or d-galactosamine (group b) and of muscle damage induced by doxycycline were compared. plasma bile acid concentration was both a specific and a sensitive indicator of liver disease. another specific, but less sensitive indicator of liver disease was 7-gt. plasma as at activity was the most sensitive indicator of disease of the liver, but was not specific, since increased asat activities were also seen d ...198818766747
isolation of mycoplasma spp. from racing pigeons (columba livia).live and dead racing pigeons (columba livia) from five lofts in norfolk and suffolk were examined clinically and cultured for mycoplasma spp. both clinically healthy birds and those showing signs of mild respiratory disease were included. the oropharynx was the culture site for 130 live birds, the nasal sinuses and other tissues for 58 carcases. mycoplasma columbinum, m. columborale and m. columbinasale were isolated from the oropharynges and nasal sinuses; m. columbinum and m. columbinasale fro ...198418766822
[leukosis in captive wild birds].among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. we diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two melopsittacus undulatus, two psittacus erithacus one platycerus eximius, one columba livia, one streptopelia decaocto, one polyplectron bicalcaratum, one pavo cristatus, one aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine melopsittacus undulatus, two agapomis personata f ...198418766880
the influence of blood sample treatment on plasma potassium concentrations in avian blood.plasma potassium concentrations were determined in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica), chickens (gallus domesticas) and man (homo sapiens) after different storage times of uncentrifuged blood samples at room temperature. in the pigeon plasma potassium concentrations declined rapidly. after 10 min the reduction was 9.5% and declined by 65% after 120 min. no further reduction was noted up to 24 hours. in chickens decreases were also noted but were smaller overall with a 29% decrease being no ...198518766918
antigenic and biological characterisation of avian paramyxovirus type i isolates from pigeons--an international collaborative study.during 1981-1983 a disease of pigeons (columba livia), characterised predominantly by nervous signs, spread across europe. in the present study 57 viruses isolated from pigeons from 15 countries (12 european, japan, israel and sudan) were characterised. all were shown to be avian paramyxoviruses of the a/pmv-1 serotype. monoclonal antibody binding tests showed 53 of the viruses to be identical. the virus from sudan was similar to these viruses but showed distinguishable variation. one vaccinal v ...198518766929
blood chemistry reference values in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).reference values for 23 blood chemical parameters in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica) were established for use in clinical pathology. the inner limits are given for the percentiles p(2).(5) and p(97.5) with a probability of 90%. a minimum of 50 blood samples collected between september and january from different animals aged between 6 months and 12 years (median 1.5 years) was used for each parameter. reference values obtained in the present study are compared with values published previ ...198518766932
ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of the pigeon columba livia in response to 1,25oh2d3 administration.columba livia were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 100 pmol of 1,25(oh)(2)d(3)/100 g body wt. for 15 days. ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands were fixed on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 10th and 15th day of the experiment. following 1,25(oh)(2)d(3) treatment, the plasma calcium levels of pigeon remain unchanged on day 1. the levels increase significantly after day 3 which progresses up to day 10. the plasma calcium level becomes normal at day 15. the plasma inorganic phosphate levels of columba l ...200818767053
contagious paralysis of pigeons.a disease affecting domestic pigeons characterised by marked contagiousness, high mortality and rapidly progressing paralysis of the extremities is reported. gross and microscopical findings in naturally affected pigeons are given. a viral agent was isolated and found to be a herpesvirus. reproduction of the disease in domestic pigeons with the isolated virus and its reisolation suggests it may be causally related to the condition.197818770416
pathogenicity of chinese h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in has long been thought that pigeons are resistant against h5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses. recently, however, highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza viruses have demonstrated distinct biological properties that may be capable of causing disease in pigeons. to examine the susceptibility of domestic pigeons to recent h5n1 viruses, we inoculated pigeons using h5n1 viruses isolated in china from 2002 to 2004. within 21 days following inoculation, all pigeons had survived and fu ...200818779923
modelling aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).in vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. in this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica) was examined. a. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. immunosuppression was induced by ...200818798031
responses of pigeon (columba livia) wulst neurons during acquisition and reversal of a visual discrimination task.the avian visual "wulst" is a target of the ascending thalamofugal visual pathway. in pigeons (columba livia), lesion damage to the wulst has little effect on simple visual discriminations, but impairs performance on tasks such as reversal learning. we recorded the responses of single wulst neurons as pigeons were trained on the acquisition and subsequent reversal of a visual discrimination. of the 64 units recorded, 54 (84%) displayed a significant difference in firing rate between some compone ...200818823169
[pseudolynchia canariensis (diptera:hippoboscidae) on buteogallus aequinoctialis (ciconiiformes: accipitridae) in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil].the record of pseudolynchia canariensis on two rufous crab-hawk in situ taken care of the hospital veterinarian of the riozoo foundation. the nineteen collected specimens had been identified in the laboratory of diptera, fundação instituto oswaldo cruz. the findings of p. canariensis out natural host (columba livia) it represents a contribution to the studies of the family hippoboscidae considering that it does not have records about native birds of the american continent parasitized by p. canar ...200818823580
salmonella indiana as a cause of abortion in ewes: genetic diversity and resistance patterns.salmonella enterica subspecies enterica indiana, a food-borne serovar uncommon in most countries, was responsible for an outbreak of abortion in a flock of lacaune dairy ewes in southern spain. drinking water and feedstuff samples were analysed in an attempt to determine the source of the infection. pigeons (columba livia) and turtledoves (streptopelia turtur) in close contact with the ewes were captured and examined for the bacterium. seventeen s. indiana strains were isolated from the ewes and ...200918823722
organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in lanner falco biarmicus feldeggli schlegel chicks and lanner prey in sicily, italy.this paper reports on research conducted to elucidate the risk posed to the sicilian population of the endangered lanner falcon falco biarmicus feldeggii schlegel by organochlorine (oc) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), as part of a wider study on contaminant risk to the lanner. seventeen lanner nest sites were studied in northern and central sicily. sampling (in 2005) and analysis were carried out for selected oc pesticides and pcb congeners in lanner chick blood (15 chicks from ...200818833798
diversity of birds at panipat refinery, haryana (india).avifaunal study was carried out in panipat refinery area before and after commissioning. a total of 63 birds were observed during the study, of which 39 and 49 birds were present during 1992 and 2001 respectively. of these, 25 birds were common during both the study period. blue rock pigeon was most dominant during 1992 whereas house sparrow was dominant during 2001. species diversity index was found to be 5.26 and 6.64 in respective years. jaccard's and sorenson similarity indices were 0.40 and ...200918850287
distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and glutamate receptor 1 mrna in the central nervous system of the pigeon (columba livia).glutamate acts as the excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (cns) and is mediated largely by the vesicular glutamate transporters (vglut1-3) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (ampa) types of glutamate receptors (glur1-4) in mammals. in the present study, we determined the cdna sequences of pigeon vglut2 and glur1 and mapped the distribution of their mrna in the pigeon cns. the predicted amino acids of pigeon vglut2 and glur1 showed a 93% identity t ...200818855881
experimental infection of domestic pigeons with pigeon circovirus.pigeon circovirus (picv) infection and young pigeon disease syndrome (ypds), associated with high morbidity and mortality, have been recognized in young racing pigeons from large portions of central europe. there exist a number of data indicating that ypds is a consequence of picv infection and subsequent immunosuppression. in order to prove picv to be one of the crucial factors of ypds, an experimental infection with picv was performed under controlled conditions. twenty-four domestic pigeons ( ...200818939623
lesions associated with the plexus venosus subcutaneus collaris of pigeons with chlorophacinone toxicosis.we describe lesions in 29 adult domestic pigeons (columba livia) poisoned with chlorophacinone, an indandione anticoagulant rodenticide. birds were found dead in the field and in dovecotes after a wide-area treatment against common voles (microtus arvalis) based on the dispersion in the open field of wheat grain treated with 0.005% chlorophacinone. at necropsy, most pigeons showed crops full of red-colored wheat grain, extensive subcutaneous hematoma in neck and breast zones, and hemorrhages in ...200818939650
navigational experience affects hippocampus size in homing pigeons.homing (racing) pigeons (columba livia f.d.) are well-known for their homing abilities, which are thought to be based on a genetic predisposition, multimodal learning and spatial cognition. on average, the hippocampus, a forebrain structure that processes spatial information, is larger in homing pigeons compared to other non-homing pigeon breeds or their wild ancestor, the rock dove. here we show that this characteristic hippocampus volume is dependent on flying and navigational experience. twen ...200818946210
chlamydial infections in feral pigeons in europe: review of data and focus on public health implications.feral pigeons (columba livia domestica), which thrive in most european towns and cities, are commonly infected with the zoonotic bacterium chlamydophila psittaci, the agent of psittacosis (also known as ornithosis) in humans. a number of surveys carried out over the last thirty years across europe have detected high seropositivity values and high percentages of infection in feral pigeon populations. overall, when considering data from 11 european countries, seropositivity values to c. psittaci i ...200918977610
pigeons' (columba livia) hierarchical organization of local and global cues in touch screen tasks.redundant encoding of local and global spatial cues is a common occurrence in many species. however, preferential use of the each type of cue seems to vary across species and tasks. in the current study, pigeons (columba livia) were trained in three experiments on a touch screen task which included redundant local positional cues and global spatial cues. specifically, pigeons were required to choose the middle out of three choice squares, such that the position within the array provided local in ...200919022355
pigeons (columba livia) are a suitable experimental model for neospora caninum infection in birds.neospora caninum infections in chickens have been recently described by epidemiological and experimental approaches, and these birds may be considered natural intermediate hosts of the parasite. it has been postulated that other bird species might perform this role in wildlife as well. to better understand the sylvatic life cycle of n. caninum, further studies are required. in that sense, this work aimed to observe infection kinetics in pigeons experimentally infected with n. caninum. experiment ...200919027237
a hitchhiker's guide to parasite transmission: the phoretic behaviour of feather lice.transmission to new hosts is a fundamental challenge for parasites. some species meet this challenge by hitchhiking on other, more mobile parasite species, a behaviour known as phoresis. for example, feather-feeding lice that parasitise birds disperse to new hosts by hitchhiking on parasitic louse flies, which fly between individual birds. oddly, however, some species of feather lice do not engage in phoresis. for example, although rock pigeon (columba livia) "wing" lice (columbicola columbae) f ...200919038259
phylogenetic analysis of west nile virus isolated in italy in italy the first occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) infection was reported in tuscany region during the late summer of 1998. in august 2008, the wnv infection re-emerged in italy, in areas surrounding the po river delta, and involving three regions lombardy, emilia romagna and veneto. wnv was isolated from blood and organs samples of one horse, one donkey, one pigeon (columba livia) and three magpies (pica pica). the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, conducted on 255 bp in the region cod ...200819040827
categorical scaling of duration bisection in pigeons (columba livia), mice (mus musculus), and humans (homo sapiens).a fundamental assumption underlying research in translational neuroscience is that animal models represent many of the same neurocognitive mechanisms and decision processes used by humans. clear demonstrations of such correspondences will be crucial to the discovery of the neurobiological underpinnings of higher-level cognition. one domain likely to support fruitful comparisons is interval timing, because humans and other animals appear to share basic similarities in their ability to discriminat ...200819076481
dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn zea mays l., barley hordeum vulgare l., safflower carthamus tinctorius l. and rice oryza sativa l. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract, or are transported externally, by captive mallard ducks anas platyrhynchos l., ring-necked pheasants ...200819081011
the influence of experience in orientation: gps tracking of homing pigeons released over the sea after directional training.flight experience is one of the factors that influences initial orientation of displaced homing pigeons (columba livia). prior studies showed a systematic dependence of initial orientation on previously flown direction. using gps data loggers, this study sought to examine the effect of previous directional training of 40 homing pigeons when they were released over the sea, in the absence of proximal landmarks, in a direction almost perpendicular to that of previous training flights. our results ...200919112136
influence of calcitonin administration on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of pigeon, columba livia.pigeons were divided into two numerically equal groups (a and b) containing 30 specimens each. birds from group a were intraperitoneally injected daily with 0.1 ml/100 g body wt of vehicle (0.1 m acetate buffer, ph 4.3 containing 0.1% gelatin). specimens from group b were intraperitoneally injected daily with 1 microg/100 g body wt of salmon calcitonin. six birds were sacrificed from each group 2 h after the last injection on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 10th, and 15th day of the experiment. after collection ...200919115331
long-term astroglial reaction and neuronal plasticity in the subcortical visual pathways after a complete ablation of telencephalon in pigeons (columba livia).this paper analyzes the astroglial and neuronal responses in subtelencephalic structures, following a bilateral ablation of the telencephalon in the columba livia pigeons. control birds received a sham operation. four months later the birds were sacrificed and their brains processed for glial fibrillary acid protein (gfap) and neurofilament immunohistochemistry, markers for astrocytes and neurons, respectively. computer-assisted image analysis was employed for quantification of the immunoreactiv ...200919116845
short restraint time does not influence markers of serum oxidative stress in homing pigeons (columba livia).restraint in a confined space, such as a cage or a box, may be perceived by birds as a stressful condition. some concern has been expressed about restraining homing pigeons (columba livia) in transport crates for sport or for scientific research. therefore, this study sought to test whether short restraint time in a transport crate for 1, 2 or 18 (overnight) h causes oxidative stress in homing pigeons and whether it is more stressful than flying. to isolate the effect of crowding from that of tr ...201019138344
the peeping response of pigeons (columba livia) to isolation from conspecifics and exposure to a novel environment.the present study examined the acute behavioral responses of pigeons to separation from conspecifics and exposure to an unfamiliar environment (ue). the effects of (1) repeated exposure to the ue; (2) visual isolation from surroundings, or saline injections; and (3) diazepam treatment (i.p., 0.25, 0.75, 2.5 or 7.5mg/kg) before the trial were also examined. ue exposure evoked intense ballistic head movements (peeping), gradually replaced with angular head movements (ahm), both associated with imm ...200919150396
isolation of epithelial cells, villi and crypts from small intestine of pigeons (columba livia).the isolation of viable enterocytes, villi and crypts from the small intestine of a feral bird (columba livia) is important for performing physiological experiments in ecologically relevant processes of membrane transport. the effectiveness of mechanical disruption, enzymatic digestion and chelating agents were compared. the objectives were to isolate enterocytes, villi and crypts from the small intestine of young pigeons; to evaluate the viability of the isolated intestinal epithelial cells iso ...200819181184
local rather than global processing of visual arrays in numerosity discrimination by pigeons (columba livia).a series of experiments investigated which stimulus properties pigeons use when they discriminate pairs of visual arrays that differ in numerosity. transfer tests with novel stimuli confirmed that the birds' choices were based on relative differences in numerosity. however, pigeons differed from other species in the non-numerical cues that affected their choices. in human and non-human primates, numerical discrimination is often influenced by continuous variables such as surface area or overall ...200919184137
purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (columba livia).haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. the respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (ip5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. effor ...200919194000
geometry and landmark representation by pigeons: evidence for species-differences in the hemispheric organization of spatial information processing?in this study, we investigated how pigeons (columba livia) represent environmental geometry and landmark information. birds learned to locate the centre of a square arena by means of geometric cues alone, or by means of both geometric and landmark cues. by manipulating the type of information available at training and testing, we assessed which cues the birds had encoded, and through the use of monocular occlusion we examined how the information was represented by the two brain hemispheres. our ...200919200073
abstract-concept learning carryover effects from the initial training set in pigeons (columba livia).three groups of pigeons were trained in a same/different task with 32, 64, or 1,024 color-picture stimuli. they were tested with novel transfer pictures. the training-testing cycle was repeated with training-set doublings. the 32-item group learned the same/different task as rapidly as a previous 8-item group and transferred better than the 8-item group at the 32-item training set. the 64- and 1,024-item groups learned the task only somewhat slower than other groups, but their transfer was bette ...200919236147
learning of absolute and relative distance and direction from discrete visual landmarks by pigeons (columba livia).in an open-field search task, pigeons (columba livia) were trained to search for a goal located at the midpoint of the hypothetical line connecting two discrete visual landmarks positioned 60 cm apart. in experiment 1, global orienting cues were absent. after reaching training criteria, pigeons were tested with novel interlandmark distances. search location and error on test trials suggested pigeons learned relative distance. in experiment 2, a global orienting cue was present. after reaching tr ...200919236148
protection levels of vaccinated pigeons (columba livia) against a highly pathogenic newcastle disease virus strain.the purposes of this study were to model a vaccination regimen for newcastle disease virus (ndv) in pigeons, and to evaluate the susceptibility and behavior of vaccinated birds against a highly pathogenic ndv brazilian strain. antibody response was assessed by means of hemagglutination inhibition test (hi), and viral genome excretion by means of rt-pcr. vaccinal strains (la sota and ulster) induced high antibody titers without any adverse effects, both in inoculated and in sentinel birds. a vira ...200919253000
a novel sarcocystis-associated encephalitis and myositis in racing pigeons.sarcosporidian cysts in the skeletal muscle of domestic pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) have previously been attributed to infection with sarcocystis falcatula, which is shed in the faeces of the opossum (didelphis virginiana). here, we describe fatal spontaneous encephalitis and myositis associated with sarcocystis infections in three flocks of racing pigeons with 47 of 244 animals affected. the clinical course was characterized by depression, mild diarrhoea, torticollis, opisthotonus, par ...200919322710
cloning and expression of a truncated pigeon circovirus capsid protein suitable for antibody detection in infected pigeons.infections with pigeon circovirus (picv) (also termed columbid circovirus) occur in meat and racing pigeons (columba livia) of all ages and have been reported worldwide. a picv infection is associated with immunosuppression and the development of young pigeon disease syndrome. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of virus-specific serum antibody was developed for research purposes. in the absence of a method to propagate picv in cell culture, the assay was base ...200919322712
testosterone has a long-term effect on primary sex ratio of first eggs in pigeons--in search of a mechanism.despite accumulating evidence that birds, in which females are the heterogametic sex, are able to manipulate primary offspring sex ratio, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. steroid hormones, which govern female reproduction and are also accumulated by the developing follicle could potentially affect primary sex ratio by differential follicle development in relation to future sex and meiotic drive, or by sex specific influence on oocyte abortion or fertilization. so far, experimental resul ...200919344666
identification of apolipoprotein a-i in the alpha-globulin fraction of avian plasma.plasma protein electrophoresis is frequently used in birds as a tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. identification of proteins in individual peaks can help improve our understanding of changes in protein concentration in physiologic and pathologic conditions.200919351330
do pigeons (columba livia) study for a test?in 4 experiments, the authors asked whether pigeons (columba livia) would show metamemory by choosing to study a sample stimulus before taking a memory test. in experiments 1a-1c, pigeons chose between cues that led either to exposure to a sample stimulus or directly to the comparison test stimuli without seeing the sample in a delayed matching-to-sample task. the same choice was used in experiment 2 to see whether pigeons would take a reminder when memory of the sample was weak. in experiments ...200919364222
[effect of sleep deprivation on characteristics of febrile reaction and process of restoration of the somato-visceral functions during endotoxaemia].using electrophysiological methods, the effects of total sleep deprivation on thermoregulatory characteristics of the febrile reaction (brain temperature, peripheral vasomotor reaction, contractile activity of the pectoral muscle), the process of rehabilitation of somatic functions, and temporal characteristics of wakefulness and sleep during the endotoxaemia caused by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (lps) in pigeons (columba livia) were studied. it was shown that sleep deprivation du ...200919368314
porphyrin pattern and methemoglobin levels in columba livia applied to assess toxicological risk by air pollution in urban areas.the study has explored two conservative biomarkers, porphyrin pattern in guano and methemoglobin levels in blood of columba livia, in order to assay their potential use for monitoring toxic effects induced by exposure to urban air pollution. fieldwork was conducted between october 2003 and june 2005 in the city of milan, italy, by sampling the pigeons in different areas almost twice a week. six air contaminants, co, pm10, no(2), o(3), so(2), and c(6)h(6), plus polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p ...200919377841
when one hemisphere takes control: metacontrol in pigeons (columba livia).vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. how the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. in some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection--a process known as metacontrol. thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for ...200919390578
further analysis of perception of reversed müller-lyer figures for pigeons (columba livia).nakamura, et al. recently showed that pigeons experience the standard müller-lyer illusion but not the reversed illusion induced by detaching the arrowheads from the target line. this study re-examined pigeons' perception of this reversed figure by using the stimuli known to induce the maximal contrast effect in humans (fellows, 1967). pigeons were retrained to classify six lengths of target lines into "long" and "short" categories by pecking two keys on the monitor, ignoring the two brackets so ...200919425465
behavioural and electroencephalographic effects of systemic injections of 8-oh-dpat in the pigeon (columba livia).the effects of systemic injections of the 5ht(1a) receptor agonist 8-oh-dpat on the spontaneous ingestive, maintenance, locomotor and sleep-like behaviours, and the sleep/waking-related hippocampal electrographic activity were investigated in pigeons. 8-oh-dpat (0.06, 0.2, 0.6 or 2.0mg/kg) was found to dose-dependently reduce food and water intake, acutely (in the first 3h) and 24h after treatment, during both low-activity morning hours (starting at 10:00 h) and high-activity evening hours (star ...200919428641
pigeon (columba livia) encoding of a goal location: the relative importance of shape geometry and slope information.the ability to use the geometric shape of an environment as an orienting cue for goal location has been shown in many vertebrate groups. experimentally, however, geometric spatial tasks are typically carried out on horizontal surfaces. the present study explored how learning a geometry task is affected by training on a surface extending in the vertical dimension-a slope. in a reference memory task, pigeons (columba livia) were trained to locate a goal in an isosceles trapezoid arena. learning on ...200919450027
prevalence and genotyping of trichomonas gallinae in pigeons and birds of prey.avian trichomonosis is a world-wide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan trichomonas gallinae. although several degrees of pathogenicity have been described on the basis of the clinical signs in birds, there are few reports concerning the genetic characterization of the parasite and its relationship with pathogenicity. the parasite usually appears apathogenic but is occasionally responsible for outbreaks of the disease in avian populations, particularly affecting nestlings of ornithophagous ...200919468936
distribution of glutamate transporter 1 mrna in the central nervous system of the pigeon (columba livia).glutamate transporter 1 (glt1) in glial cells removes glutamate that diffuses from the synaptic cleft into the extracellular space. previously, we have shown the distribution of glutamatergic neurons in the central nervous system (cns) of the pigeon. in the present study, we identified cdna sequence of the pigeon glt1, and mapped the distribution of the mrna-expressing cells in cns to examine whether glt1 is associated with glutamatergic terminal areas. the cdna sequence of the pigeon glt1 consi ...200919481008
diarrheagenic escherichia coli strains recovered from urban pigeons (columba livia) in brazil and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.urban pigeons (columba livia) come into close contact with humans and animals, and may contribute to the spread of infectious agents. these may include human pathogens such as diarrheagenic escherichia coli strains, which are able to survive in pigeon feces, thus creating potential for human exposure and infection. our objectives were to determine the occurrence of diarrheagenic e. coli strains in fresh feces from urban pigeons and their drug susceptibility patterns. e. coli strains were isolate ...200919504156
tetrameriosis in feral pigeons from murcia, southeastern spain.a total of 165 adult feral pigeons (columba livia) were captured in 7 different parks of the municipality of murcia, southeastern spain. birds were evaluated clinically and subsequently necropsied. all birds appeared to be in good physical condition and no apparent signs of disease were observed. however, 17.6% of the pigeons were parasitized by tetrameres (petrowimeres) fissispina. the nematode burden in the proventriculus ranges from 5 to 64 specimens (median: 19); the median of female and mal ...200919505736
trace element concentrations in raillietina micracantha in comparison to its definitive host, the feral pigeon columba livia in santa cruz de tenerife (canary archipelago, spain).the use of systems involving bird parasites as bioindicators of environmental pollution has been scarcely studied in comparison to other models involving fish and rodent parasites, which have been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their bioaccumulation capacities. the present study evaluated the accumulation of nine trace elements in the cestode raillietina micracantha and in its host columba livia collected from the densely populated city of santa cruz de tenerife (canary islands, sp ...201019526264
relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril.coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (columba livia). coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include eimeria columbarum and eimeria labbeana. the reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. this article summarizes the life cycle of e. colum ...200919530399
do release-site biases reflect response to the earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?how homing pigeons (columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. at many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. these deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophy ...200919556255
distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem and diencephalon of the pigeon (columba livia).the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase (tph)-containing perikarya and processes in the brainstem and diencephalon of the pigeon (columba livia) were investigated using single-labeling chromogenic and double-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemical methods for tph and 5-ht. tph-immunoreactive (tph-ir) perikarya were seen extending from the caudal medulla to mid-hypothalamic levels, located in brainstem regions previously described as containing 5-ht-ir somata. brainstem tph-ir cell clusters ...200919559984
infectious and lethal doses of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for house sparrows (passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (columbia livia).terrestrial wild birds commonly associated with poultry farms have the potential to contribute to the spread of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus within or between poultry facilities or between domesticated and wild bird populations. this potential, however, varies between species and is dependent on several virus and host factors, including habitat utilization, susceptibility, and viral shedding patterns. to provide data on susceptibility and shedding patterns of house sparrow ...200919564491
designing a treatment protocol with voriconazole to eliminate aspergillus fumigatus from experimentally inoculated investigate the efficacy of voriconazole for the treatment of aspergillosis, three groups of six racing pigeons (columba livia domestica) were inoculated in the apical part of the right lung with 2x10(7) conidia of an avian derived aspergillus fumigatus strain. the minimal inhibitory concentration of voriconazole for this strain was 0.25 microg/ml. in two groups, voriconazole treatment was started upon appearance of the first clinical signs and continued for fourteen days. the third group was ...200919574001
a cross-sectional survey of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in israeli pigeons.a cross-sectional prevalence study was performed for anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (mat) in 495 wild pigeons (columba livia) captured from various locations in israel. seropositivity was found in 20/495 (4%) of the birds. pigeon samples in regions of semi-arid climate had higher t. gondii seropositivity (p=0.033), amount of precipitation was inversely proportional to seropositivity (p=0.005), seropositivity was inversely related to the size of the neares ...200919619946
protective antibody response following oral vaccination of feral pigeons (columba livia) with newcastle disease vaccine (strain i-2) coated on oiled rice.the novel vaccination technique for feral pigeons was developed in the present study. multi-age feral pigeons were vaccinated orally with newcastle disease (nd) strain i-2 vaccine coated on oiled rice. the results showed that 14 days after vaccination 40% of pigeons seroconverted with hi gmt of ≥3 log₂ whereas 28 days after vaccination the seroconversion rate of these birds reached 100%. moreover, all vaccinated pigeons survived the challenge of virulent newcastle disease virus (ndv). the findin ...200919626453
tonic serotonergic control of ingestive behaviours in the pigeon (columba livia): the role of the arcopallium.this study examined the acute changes in feeding and drinking behaviours of free-feeding and free-drinking pigeons, in response to local injections of metergoline (met, 5-ht(1/2) receptor antagonist; 7 and 20 nmol), gr46611 (gr, 5-ht(1b/1d) agonist; 2 and 6 nmol) or vehicle, into two components of the arcopallium: the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (tna) and the arcopallium intermedium (ai). in the tna, the highest met dose elicited a short-lived hyperphagy, without affecting drinking or non-in ...200919632276
dietary incorporation of feedstuffs naturally high in organic selenium for racing pigeons (columba livia): effects on plasma antioxidant markers after a standardised simulation of a flying effort.selenium is a trace element of importance for animal health. it is essential for adequate functioning of many enzymes such as, the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which protects the cell against free radicals. a muscular effort induces a rise in reactive oxygen species production which, in turn, can generate an oxidative stress. two groups of eight racing pigeons were fed respectively with a diet containing 30.3 (control group) and 195.3 (selenium group) microg selenium/kg diet. the ...200919646107
high resistance to lipid peroxidation of bird heart mitochondria and microsomes: effects of mass and maximum lifespan.the aim of this investigation was to study the connection between body size, fatty acid composition and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation of heart mitochondria and microsomes isolated from different size bird species: manon (lonchura striata), quail (coturnix coturnix var japonica), pigeon (columba livia), duck (cairina moschata) and goose (anser anser), representing a 372-fold range of body mass. fatty acids of total lipids were determined using gas chromatography and lipid peroxidation was eva ...200919651227
effects of dietary milk thistle on blood parameters, liver pathology, and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in white carneaux pigeons (columba livia) challenged with b1 aflatoxin.milk thistle (silybum marianum) has been used in humans for the treatment of liver disease because of its antioxidant properties and its ability to stabilize cell membranes and regulate cell permeability. to investigate possible hepatoprotective effects in birds, standardized extracts (80%) of silymarin from milk thistle were tested in white carneaux pigeons (columba livia). pigeons were separated into 3 groups and fed diets formulated to provide milk thistle at a level of 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg bo ...200919673458
physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland.this review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. the gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. it was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on rock pigeon columba livia gmelin, 1879. the amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids prof ...200919675950
establishing the mitochondrial dna d-loop structure of columba livia.the complete mitochondrial dna d-loop structure of pigeon (columba livia) was established in this study. a strategy of amplifying three partial fragments of the d-loop and then combing the three fragments to cover the full length of the d-loop was adopted. ten samples from pigeons were collected and were successfully amplified and sequenced. repetitive sequences of a vntr and an str were both observed at the 3'-end of d-loop region. dna sequence data revealed polymorphic sequences including inde ...200919676092
further analysis of perception of the standard müller-lyer figures in pigeons (columba livia) and humans (homo sapiens): effects of length of brackets.nakamura, fujita, ushitani, & miyata (2006) have shown that pigeons perceive the standard müller-lyer illusion. in this report, the authors examined effects of bracket sizes on perception of this illusion in pigeons (columba livia) and humans (homo sapiens). in experiment 1, three pigeons were retrained to classify six lengths of target lines into "long" and "short" by pecking two keys on the monitor, ignoring the two brackets oriented toward the same direction. in the tests that followed, the s ...200919685970
slope-based encoding of a goal location is unaffected by hippocampal lesions in homing pigeons (columba livia).using the same procedures as nardi and bingman (2009) [22], bilateral hippocampal lesions were found to have no detectable effect on the capacity of homing pigeons to use the slope of an inclined surface to encode a goal location. hippocampal lesioned pigeons, like controls, also preferentially relied on slope over geometry when the two sources of information were set in conflict. as such, slope resembles visual features as a source of goal recognition information that is hippocampal independent ...200919703498
assessment of novel avian renal disease markers for the detection of experimental nephrotoxicosis in pigeons (columba livia).renal disease is a major cause of illness in captive and wild avian species. current renal disease markers (e.g., uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) are insensitive. two endogenous markers, creatine and n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nag), were selected for study in the pigeon (columba livia). representative organs from four pigeons were surveyed to determine those exhibiting the highest level of each marker. in a separate study, nag and creatine from plasma and urine were assayed ...200919746864
afferent and efferent projections of the central caudal nidopallium in the pigeon (columba livia).the central caudal nidopallium (ncc) is a large subdivision of the nidopallium in the pigeon brain, but its connectional anatomy is unknown. here, we examined the connections of ncc by using tract-tracing methods. injections of cholera toxin b-chain (ctb) in ncc labeled many neurons within ncc. outside ncc, many labeled neurons were found in the dorsal intermediate mesopallium and medialmost part of the medial intermediate nidopallium, with a few in the intermediate (ai) and medial (am) arcopall ...200919760740
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