sentinel pigeon surveillance for west nile virus by using lard-can traps at differing elevations and canopy cover classes.sentinel pigeons, columba livia, were installed in lard-can traps at heights of 1.5 m and 7.6-9.1 m within differing canopy cover classes in new york city. adult mosquitoes were collected weekly from july to october 2002, as were serum samples from each pigeon. culex pipiens l. and culex restuans theobald comprised 97% of mosquitoes collected and were most numerous in canopy-level, forested traps. the west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) seroconversion rate was significan ...200516465746
effect of age, sex and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in domestic pigeons (columba livia) from bursa province, turkey.the one-year study reported in this paper was carried out from april 2002 to march 2003 in domestic pigeons (columba livia) of bursa province (turkey) to determine the occurrence of helminth species and to evaluate the effect of host age, sex and season on their prevalence and intensity. a total of 100 (31 young and 69 adult) domestic pigeons were necropsied and examined. the results of necropsies revealed that 74 pigeons harboured helminth infections. three helminth species were identified: bar ...200516363146
a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor reduces rem sleep in the homing pigeon.avian and mammalian 'rapid eye movement' sleep (rem sleep) resemble each other in several aspects. however, the question of whether rem sleep has a shared evolutionary ancestry in birds and mammals has yet to be thoroughly explored. the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems involved in the generation of mammalian rem sleep are phylogenetically ancient, and are also found in extant birds and reptiles. several pharmacological experiments in birds indicate that similar neural substrates are in ...200616469340
spatial contrast sensitivity of birds.contrast sensitivity (cs) is the ability of the observer to discriminate between adjacent stimuli on the basis of their differences in relative luminosity (contrast) rather than their absolute luminances. in previous studies, using a narrow range of species, birds have been reported to have low contrast detection thresholds relative to mammals and fishes. this was an unexpected finding because birds had been traditionally reported to have excellent visual acuity and color vision. this study repo ...200616404602
projections of the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali in pigeons (columba livia): a comparison of the morphology and distribution of neurons with different efferent projections.the avian nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (lm) is a visual structure involved in the optokinetic response. the lm consists of several morphologically distinct cell types. in the present study we sought to determine if different cell types had differential projections. using retrograde tracers, we examined the morphology and distribution of lm neurons projecting to the vestibulocerebellum (vbc), inferior olive (io), dorsal thalamus, nucleus of the basal optic root (nbor), and midline mesencephal ...200616432900
age-dependent diet choice in an avian top predator.age-dependent breeding performance is arguably one of the best-documented phenomena in ornithology. the existence of age-related trends has major implications for life-history theory, but the proximate reasons for these patterns remain poorly understood. it has been proposed that poor breeding performance of young individuals might reflect lack of foraging skills. we investigated this possibility in a medium-sized, powerful raptor-the northern goshawk accipiter gentilis. male goshawks are respon ...200616537129
effects of environmentally relevant doses of cyanide on flight times in pigeons, columba livia. 200616467997
west nile virus antibodies in avian species of georgia, usa: 2000-2004.west nile virus (wnv) was first isolated in the state of georgia in the summer of 2001. as amplifying hosts of wnv, avian species play an important role in the distribution and epidemiology of the virus. the objective of this study was to identify avian species that are locally involved as potential amplifying hosts of wnv and can serve as indicators of wnv transmission over the physiographic and land use variation present in the southeastern united states. avian serum samples (n=14,077) from 83 ...200616584328
complete nucleotide sequence of it-227/82, an avian paramyxovirus type-1 strain of pigeons (columba livia).this paper describes the complete genome sequence of it-227/82, a strain of avian paramyxovirus type-1 of pigeon (ppmv-1). it-227/82 is an antigenic variant of newcastle disease virus (ndv) of chickens. the genome is 15,192 nucleotides (nt) long, similarly to the previously published ndv strain zj1. it is, however, six nt longer than the genomes of ndv strains lasota/46 and beaudette c. the six-nt insertion was located in the 5' non-coding region of the nucleoprotein (np) gene. the presence of t ...200616525735
ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.the host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. for example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. this hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. we adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. we tested the ability of ...200616629310
transmission of avian pox from starlings to rothchild's mynahs.several wild species of birds, including starlings (sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (passer domesticus) and pigeons (columba livia) gained access to an aviary housing rothchild's mynahs (leucospar rothchildii) and over 100 additional birds representing a variety of species. six of approximately 15 mynahs became infected with avian pox and all of them died. none of the other birds in the aviary developed lesions. pox virus was isolated from mynah facial lesions on chicken chorioallantoic membra ...197616498876
recombination nodule mapping and chiasma distribution in spermatocytes of the pigeon, columba livia.pigeon spermatocytes were processed with a drying-down technique and their synaptonemal complex (sc) complements were analyzed by electron microscopy. the synaptonemal complex karyotype of the macrobivalents shows an excellent correspondence with the mitotic karyotype. the number and distribution of recombination nodules (rns) were scored in complete nuclei stained with phosphotungstic acid. the average number of rns per nucleus is 64.7. the number of nodules per bivalent shows a clear linear re ...199916671250
possible routes for lead accumulation in feral pigeons (columba livia).this study examined possible routes for lead (pb) accumulation in resident pigeons collected from rural, urban, and four industrial sites in korea. the accumulation pattern of pb was comparable to the study sites. the highest pb concentration was found in the bone, followed by kidney, liver, and lung of pigeons. highest pb residues in bones were found in urban (seoul), and two industrial complex areas (busan and ulsan), which were about 15 times higher than rural area (duckjuk island), and follo ...200616703418
classical tone-shock conditioning induces zenk expression in the pigeon (columba livia) hippocampus.the hippocampus is involved in fear conditioning, although the molecular events underlying this function are still under investigation. the authors analyzed the expression of the zenk proto-oncogene product within the pigeon (columba livia) hippocampus after training with a classical aversive conditioning protocol using tone-shock associations. control groups were trained with shock or tone alone or were only exposed to the experimental chamber and manipulated. experimental pigeons showed signif ...200616719699
prevalence of chlamydophila psittaci in fecal droppings from feral pigeons in amsterdam, the many cities, the feral rock dove is an abundant bird species that can harbor chlamydophila psittaci. we determined the prevalence and genotype of c. psittaci in fresh fecal samples from feral pigeons in amsterdam, the netherlands. the prevalence was 7.9% overall (26/331; 95% confidence interval, 5 to 11). ten genotyped pcr-positive samples were all genotype b.200616751560
viral infections in pigeons.this review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. i ...200616772130
reproductive effects of heavy metal accumulation on breeding feral pigeons (columba livia).to investigate the effects of heavy metal accumulations on breeding birds, we compared the egg size, eggshell thickness and some reproductive parameters in feral pigeon populations collected from seoul and ansan colonies. the results showed that concentrations of pb in bone and cd in kidney of adult pigeons in seoul were three times higher than in ansan colony. significant positive correlation was also observed between pb and zn in bone and cd and zn in kidney of adult pigeons from seoul, but no ...200616545429
modification of irradiation effects in the pigeon, columba livia. i. effects of homologous and heterologous bone marrow transplants. 195916590350
prevalence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli and salmonella enterica in rock pigeons captured in fort collins, colorado.the potential role of rock pigeons (columba livia) in the epidemiology of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) and salmonella enterica is unclear. our objective was to determine the prevalence of stec and s. enterica in pigeons at urban and dairy settings as a function of season. prevalence of stec and s. enterica was estimated by bacteriologic culture of cloacal swabs collected from pigeons trapped at urban and dairy locations in and around fort collins, colorado from january to novemb ...200616699148
nocardiosis in domestic pigeons (columba livia). 200616782860
symmetry and transitivity of conditional relations in monkeys (cebus apella) and pigeons (columba livia).in experiment 1 six monkeys were tested with discriminative relations that were backward relative to their training in a 0-second conditional ("symbolic") matching procedure. although there was some indication of backward associations, the evidence was generally weak, and statistical evaluations did not reach conventional significance levels. unlike children, who show backward associations to the point of symmetry, monkeys and pigeons display at best only weak and transient backward associations ...198516812425
ingestive effects of nmda and ampa-kainate receptor antagonists microinjections into the lateral hypothalamus of the pigeon (columba livia).this study examined the ingestive and behavioral effects of nmda- and ampa/kainate glutamatergic receptor blockade in the lateral hypothalamic area (lhy) of free-feeding pigeons (columba livia). injections of mk-801 (nmda receptor antagonist; 6 nmol) or cnqx (ampa/kainate receptor antagonist; 25.8 nmol) into the lhy of free-feeding pigeons induced significant increases in food intake and in feeding duration, as well as reductions in the latency to start feeding. duration, latency and volume of w ...200616919612
time-place learning by pigeons, columba each of two experiments, 2 pigeons received discrimination training in which food reinforcement for key pecking was conditional upon both spatial and temporal cues. in experiment 1, food was available for periods of 30 s at each of three locations (pecking keys) during trials that lasted 90 s. in experiment 2, food was available for periods of 15 min at each of four locations (pecking keys) during a 60-min trial. in both experiments, pigeons' key pecking was jointly controlled by the spatial ...199216812650
a novel sex-specific dna marker in columbidae birds.that most columbidae birds have no conspicuous sexual dimorphism often makes it difficult to identify their sex on the basis of external morphology. in the present study, we report a novel sex-specific dna marker in columbidae birds. dna was extracted from one member of this bird group, streptopelia orientalis (s. orientalis, oriental turtle dove), and used to identify a female-specific dna marker using a random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) fingerprinting. one hundred and sixty random primer ...200716965809
spared feature-structure discrimination but diminished salience of environmental geometry in hippocampal-lesioned homing pigeons (columba livia).homing pigeons (columba livia) were trained to locate a goal in one corner of a rectangular arena by either its shape (geometry) or the left-right configuration of colored features located in each corner (feature structure). control and hippocampal-lesioned pigeons learned at a similar rate, but the control birds made proportionally more geometric errors during acquisition. on conflict probe trials, the control birds preferred geometrically correct corners, whereas the hippocampal-lesioned birds ...200616893289
perception of the standard and the reversed müller-lyer figures in pigeons (columba livia) and humans (homo sapiens).the authors compared perception of the standard and reversed müller-lyer figures between pigeons (columbia livia) and humans (homo sapiens). in experiment 1, pigeons learned to classify 6 lengths of target lines into "long" and "short" categories by pecking 2 keys on the monitor, ignoring the 2 brackets so placed that they would not induce an illusion. in the test that followed, all 3 birds chose the "long" key more frequently for the standard müller-lyer figures with inward-pointing brackets (> ...200616893262
ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.ultrasonography (us) and computed tomography (ct) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [buteo buteo l., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [tinnunculus tinnunculus l., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [tyto alba l., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [strix aluco l., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [asio otus l., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [bubo bubo l., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (columba livia, ...200617009515
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in pigeons (columba livia) in taiwan.starting from january 2004 to december 2004, 665 blood serum samples from pigeons (columba livia) were collected from 44 pigeonaries in 11 counties and 20 regions in taiwan. these samples were examined by latex agglutination test (lat) for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by using the lat. antibodies were found in 4.7% (31/ 665) of pigeons at a lat titer of 1:32 or higher. the prevalence in taiwan was highest in the northern areas (6.0%; 13/216) and lowest in the eastern areas (1.8%; 2/111).200616995410
fiber connections of the compact division of the posterior pallial amygdala and lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the pigeon (columba livia).the compact division of the posterior pallial amygdala (poac) and lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (bstl) are components of the limbic system in the pigeon brain. in this study, we examined the position and fiber connections of these two nuclei by using nissl staining and tract-tracing methods. poac occupies a central division in the posterior pallial amygdala. bstl faces the ventral horn of the lateral ventricle and extends between a 7.25 and a 10.50. poac and bstl connec ...200616977623
removal of the uropygial gland does not affect serum lipids, cholesterol and calcium levels in the rock pigeon columba livia.the uropygial gland is an organ typical of birds, over which no agreement regarding its function has been attained yet. authors attribute to the gland an hydrophobic action. the function of the gland is herein explored in rock pigeon, columba livia, was used as experimental model for trials. the study was focused on the physiological role of the gland in relation to biochemical parameters. pigeons were separated in groups of six birds each: a) intact control, b) surgical control, c) ablationed. ...200617048693
two optic flow pathways from the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali to the cerebellum in pigeons (columba livia).neurons in the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (lm) are involved in the analysis of optic flow. lm provides mossy fiber inputs to folia vi-viii of the posterior cerebellum and ixcd of the vestibulocerebellum. previous research has shown that the vestibulocerebellum is involved in visual-vestibular integration supporting gaze stabilization. the function of folia vi-viii in pigeons is not well understood; however, these folia receive input from a tectopontine system, which is likely inv ...200617048227
mortality associated with fenbendazole administration in pigeons (columba livia).a group of 12 domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) was treated for capillariasis by use of fenbendazole at 30 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 d. after treatment, 8 of the 12 pigeons exhibited signs of anorexia, lethargy, and dehydration; these birds died within 2 d after the onset of clinical signs. a total of 6 birds were necropsied, and all had unremarkable gross findings. microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute hemorrhagic enteritis, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, small in ...200617089995
the role of body size in host specificity: reciprocal transfer experiments with feather lice.although most parasites show at least some degree of host specificity, factors governing the evolution of specificity remain poorly understood. many different groups of host-specific parasites show a striking correlation between parasite and host body size, suggesting that size reinforces specificity. we tested this hypothesis by measuring the relative fitness of host-specific feather lice transferred to pigeons and doves that differ in size by an order of magnitude. to test the general influenc ...200617133872
determination of the inhibitory concentration 50% (ic50) of four selected drugs (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, enrofloxacin and difloxacin) that reduce in vitro the multiplication of chlamydophila psittaci.a total of 18 chlamydial isolates from various psittacine birds, one isolate from a domestic pigeon and one isolate from a pekin duck were isolated in continuous buffalo green monkey (bgm) kidney cell cultures. all 20 isolates were identified by nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction as chlamydophila psittaci. these isolates were multiplied to high titres and subsequently tested for in vitro sensitivity against two tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline) and two quinolones (enroflo ...200617147151
time-space learning in homing pigeons (columba livia): orientation to an artificial light source.time-space learning reflects an ability to represent in memory event-stimulus properties together with the place and time of the event; a capacity well developed in birds. homing pigeons were trained in an indoor octagonal arena to locate one food goal in the morning and a different food goal in the late afternoon. the goals differed with respect to their angular/directional relationship to an artificial light source located outside the arena. further, the angular difference in reward position a ...200717160343
afferent innervation patterns of the pigeon horizontal crista ampullaris.the vestibular semicircular canals are responsible for detection of rotational head motion although the precise mechanisms underlying the transduction and encoding of movement information are still under study. in the present investigation, we utilized neural tracers and immunohistochemistry to quantitatively examine the topology and afferent innervation patterns of the horizontal semicircular canal crista (hcc) in pigeons (columba livia). two hundred and eighty-six afferents from five horizonta ...200616943311
timing of ascending and descending visual signals predicts the response mode of single cells in the thalamic nucleus rotundus of the pigeon (columba livia).neurons of the pigeon's diencephalic n. rotundus were demonstrated to show visual responses of short and long latency representing ascending signals of the retino-tecto-rotundal system and descending signals from telencephalo-tecto-rotundal fibers. pigeons thus provide an ideal model to investigate the convergence of ascending and descending visual processing streams at single cell level. although it is known that rotundal responses of long latency show distinct response characteristics, depende ...200717184744
[investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (columba livia f. dom.)].in the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. in comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. the daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant ...200617078530
asymmetrical participation of the left and right hippocampus for representing environmental geometry in homing pigeons.control, right and left hf lesioned homing pigeons (columba livia) were trained to locate a goal in one corner of a rectangular enclosure with a distinctive feature cue. probe tests revealed that all groups were able to encode in parallel geometric (enclosure shape) and feature information, and in the absence of one of them, they could us the other to locate the goal. however, left hf lesioned pigeons learned the task at a faster rate, and when the geometric and feature information were set in c ...200717215051
performance of pigeons (columba livia) on maze problems presented on the lcd screen: in search for preplanning ability in an avian species.the authors examined how pigeons (columba livia) perform on 2-dimensional maze tasks on the lcd monitor and whether the pigeons preplan the solution before starting to solve the maze. after training 4 pigeons to move a red square (the target) to a blue square (the goal) by pecking, the authors exposed them to a variety of detour tasks having lines as a barrier. a preview phase was introduced, during which the pigeons were not allowed to peck at the monitor. results of a set of experiments sugges ...200617115856
[ectoparas ites of domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) in bursa province.]a total of 100 domestic pigeons from 10 different districts of bursa were examined for ectoparasites; 72% of them were found to be infested and 3 species were determined. goniocotes bidentatus was found in 47% of the pigeons examined, columbicola columbae in 44% and menopon gallinae in 1%. although a higher infestation rate was found in adult pigeons (75.3%) compared to younger pigeons (64.5%), there was no significant difference between the age groups. also, no statistical differences in the ra ...200517160835
somatic mosaics in the domestic pigeon. 194017246956
social learning and innovation are positively correlated in pigeons (columba livia).when animals show both frequent innovation and fast social learning, new behaviours can spread more rapidly through populations and potentially increase rates of natural selection and speciation, as proposed by a.c. wilson in his behavioural drive hypothesis. comparative work on primates suggests that more innovative species also show more social learning. in this study, we look at intra-specific variation in innovation and social learning in captive wild-caught pigeons. performances on an innov ...200717205290
differential toxic effects of carbofuran and diazinon on time of flight in pigeons (columba livia): potential for pesticide effects on migration.cholinesterase inhibiting compounds such as carbamates and organophosphate insecticides have been widely used in agriculture since the ban on organochlorines in the 1970s. carbofuran, a carbamate, and diazinon, an organophosphate, are among the most commonly implicated cholinesterase inhibitors in episodes of accidental avian toxicity and mortality. despite the apparent effects of these compounds, little work has been done to study effects of low-level, environmentally relevant doses at the popu ...200717254622
inheritance of certain "blue-black" patterns and "bleached" colorations in the domestic pigeon. 193817246873
a sex difference in linkage intensity of three autosomal factors in the domestic pigeon. 193817246875
the hybrid-substance of the erythrocytes of the hybrids between columba livia and streptopelia risoria. 195617247657
purkinje cell compartmentation as revealed by zebrin ii expression in the cerebellar cortex of pigeons (columba livia).purkinje cells in the cerebellum express the antigen zebrin ii (aldolase c) in many vertebrates. in mammals, zebrin is expressed in a parasagittal fashion, with alternating immunopositive and immunonegative stripes. whether a similar pattern is expressed in birds is unknown. here we present the first investigation into zebrin ii expression in a bird: the adult pigeon (columba livia). western blotting of pigeon cerebellar homogenates reveals a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight ...200717278140
iridescence in the neck feathers of domestic pigeons.we conducted structural characterizations, reflection measurements, and theoretical simulations on the iridescent green and purple neck feathers of domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica). we found that both green and purple barbules are composed of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. the thickness of the keratin cortex layer shows a distinct difference between green and purple barbules. green barbules vary colors from green to purple with the observing angle changed ...200617279948
clinical application of an external fixator in the repair of bone fractures in 28 birds.the repair of seven tibiotarsal fractures, three humeral fractures, three tarsometatarsal fractures, two femoral fractures and 13 radial and ulnar fractures with a tubular external fixator system was evaluated prospectively in 10 common pigeons (columba livia), 11 psittacine birds, six birds of prey and one bali starling (leucopsar rothschildii). the fixations included type 1, type 2 and intramedullary tie-in methods, and the fractures healed in all but three cases. a comparison of the weight of ...200717293578
evidence that pigeons orient to geomagnetic intensity during homing.the influence of the earth's magnetic field on locomotory orientation has been studied in many taxa but is best understood for homing pigeons (columba livia). effects of experimentally induced and naturally occurring perturbations in the geomagnetic field suggest that pigeons are sensitive to changes in geomagnetic parameters. however, whether pigeons use the earth's magnetic field for position determination remains unknown. here we report an apparent orientation to the intensity gradient of the ...200717301015
absolute pitch: frequency-range discriminations in pigeons (columba livia): comparisons with zebra finches (taeniopygia guttata) and humans (homo sapiens).absolute pitch (ap) is the ability to classify individual pitches without an external referent. the authors compared results from pigeons (columba livia, a nonsongbird species) with results (r. weisman, m. njegovan, c. sturdy, l. phillmore, j. coyle, & d. mewhort, 1998) from zebra finches (taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species) and humans (homo sapiens) in ap tests that required classification of contiguous tones into 3 or 8 frequency ranges on the basis of correlations between the tones in ea ...200717324079
discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (homo sapiens) and pigeons (columba livia).adult humans (homo sapiens) and pigeons (columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. one was a family resemblance relationship: the highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. the other was a polymorphous rule: no single feature was essential for distinguishing th ...200717324072
high occurrence of multi-antimicrobial resistance in staphylococcus intermedius isolates from healthy and diseased dogs and domesticated pigeons.staphylococcus intermedius isolates (n=106), including 44 dog isolates and 62 pigeon isolates, were examined for their susceptibility to ampicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin by standard disk-diffusion test. the frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher in dog isolates than pigeon isolates (95.5% vs. 0%, 31.8% vs. 0%, and 45.5% vs. 9.7%, respectively; p<0.0 ...200717368493
evaluation of hepatobiliary scintigraphy as an indicator of hepatic function in domestic pigeons (columba livia) before and after exposure to ethylene glycol.this study investigated the use of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess liver function in 14 white carneaux pigeons (columba livia). liver scintigraphy using 99mtc-mebrofenin was performed and liver function was quantified using deconvolutional analysis and the area under the normalized heart time-activity curve as previously described in the dog and horse. liver biopsies were performed in all birds before and after toxin-induced liver damage with ethylene glycol. before the inducti ...200717385376
ovotestes and sexual reversal in racing pigeons.the occurrence of ovotestes associated with male behavioral characteristics in two mature female racing pigeons (columba livia) is recorded. an ovotestis developed in the area of the vestigial right gonad of one bird and within the functional left ovary of the second bird.198617422628
information processing by pigeons (columba livia): incentive as information.experiment 1 showed that the hick-hyman law (w. e. hick, 1952; r. hyman, 1953) described the effects of anticipated reinforcement, a form of incentive, on pigeons' (columba livia) reaction time to respond to a target spatial location. reaction time was an approximately linear function of amount of information interpreted as probability of reinforcement, implying that pigeons processed incentive at a constant rate. experiment 2 showed that the hick-hyman law described effects of incentive even wh ...200717324077
olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: initial orientation of birds receiving a unilateral olfactory has been shown that homing pigeons (columba livia) rely on olfactory cues to navigate from unfamiliar locations. in fact, the integrity of the olfactory system, from the olfactory mucosa to the piriform cortex, is required for pigeons to navigate over unfamiliar areas. recently it has been shown that there is a functional asymmetry in the piriform cortex, with the left piriform cortex more involved in the use of the olfactory navigational map than the right piriform cortex. to investigate fur ...200717425577
pigeons (columba livia) associate time intervals with symbols in a touch screen task: evidence for ordinality but not summation.the present experiments examined whether pigeons can sum symbols that are associated with various temporal consequences in a touch screen apparatus. pigeons were trained to discriminate between two visual symbols that were associated with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 s either of delay to 4 s of hopper access (delay group) or duration of hopper access (reward group). in experiment 1, the pigeons in both groups learned to select the symbol associated with the more favorable outcome, and they successfully t ...200717324078
urban feral pigeons (columba livia) as a source for air- and waterborne contamination with enterocytozoon bieneusi spores.this study demonstrated that a person with 30 min of occupational or nonoccupational exposure to urban feral pigeons, such as exposure through the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with pigeon excrement, could inhale approximately 3.5 x 10(3) enterocytozoon bieneusi spores and that 1.3 x 10(3) spores could be inhaled by a nearby person.200717483269
homing pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) can use magnetic cues for locating experimental group of homing pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 x 10(6) mut bar magn ...200717492419
domestic pigeons (columba livia) discriminate between photographs of male and female pigeons.we investigated whether pigeons are able to discriminate color photographs of male and female pigeons, using a categorical discrimination procedure. in experiments 1 and 2b, 10 out of 14 pigeons learned the discrimination. of these, 5 pigeons showed transfer to novel stimuli, demonstrating the categorical nature of the trained discrimination. experiment 3 showed that the discriminative behavior was based primarily on the body, as opposed to the head and the neck region. in 1 out of 3 pigeons, th ...200617330522
the key mimetic features of hoverflies through avian eyes.batesian mimicry occurs when a palatable species (the mimic) gains protection from predators by resembling an unpalatable or otherwise protected species (the model). while some mimetic species resemble their models closely, other species ('imperfect mimics') are thought to bear only a crude likeness. in an earlier study, pigeons (columba livia) were trained to recognize wasp images in one experiment and non-mimetic (nm) fly images in another by rewarding the pigeons for pecking on the respective ...200717550880
[detection of some zoonotic agents in the domestic pigeon (columba livia) in the city of chillán, chile].there is an increase in the population of doves (columba livia) as well as their contact with healthy and immunocompromised hosts.200717554438
pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route do birds orient over familiar terrain? in the best studied avian species, the homing pigeon (columba livia), two apparently independent primary mechanisms are currently debated: either memorized visual landmarks provide homeward guidance directly, or birds rely on a compass to home from familiar locations. using miniature global positioning system tracking technology and clock-shift procedures, we set sun-compass and landmark information in conflict, showing that experienced birds can accura ...200717452634
matching and oddity relational learning by pigeons (columba livia): transfer from color to shape.relational learning, as opposed to perceptual learning, is based on the abstract properties of the stimuli. although at present there is no doubt that pigeons are capable of relational behavior, this study aims to further disclose the conditions under which it occurs. pigeons were trained in an outdoor cage on a matching-to-sample or an oddity-from-sample task, with colored cardboard stimuli presented horizontally. the apparatus involved three sliding lids on which the stimuli were drawn and whi ...200817516101
reclassification of phenotypically identified staphylococcus intermedius reclassify phenotypically identified staphylococcus intermedius strains, which might include true s. intermedius strains and novel species such as staphylococcus pseudintermedius and staphylococcus delphini, we analyzed molecular phylogenies and phenotypic characteristics of 117 s. intermedius group (sig) strains tentatively identified as being s. intermedius by the rapid id32 staph assay. from phylogenetic analyses of soda and hsp60 sequences, the sig strains were divided into three clusters ...200717596353
paramyxovirus-1 in feral pigeons (columba livia) in ontario.paramyxovirus-1 (pmv-1) infection was diagnosed in racing pigeons in ontario during 1985, but it was not until january 1989, that the virus was isolated from feral pigeons (columba livia) in this province. during an 18 month period beginning january 1988, a total of 43 feral pigeons was submitted to the wildlife diseases laboratory, pathology department, ontario veterinary college. a history of neurological signs accompanied most of the birds. tissues from 29 birds were submitted for pmv-1 isola ...199217424132
[polymorphism and phene geography of the blue rock pigeon in europe].the variation of blue rock pigeon plumage color has been studied in 192 settlements of europe. as in earlier studies, six color phenotypes have been distinguished, the main of which are blue, intermediate and melanistic. the phenotype frequency distribution patterns in urban and rural landscapes have been determined. pigeon populations with increased density are the most melanistic. rural populations are less melanistic than urban ones. the frequency of birds with aberrant plumage colors varies ...200717633554
identification and expression analysis of hepcidin-like cdnas from pigeon (columba livia).hepcidin is a cysteine-rich, dual-function peptide with antimicrobial activity that plays a crucial role in iron homeostasis. here, we have identified two hepcidin-like cdna sequences from pigeon, columba livia. the two cdnas consist of 295 and 380 nucleotides, respectively, and were named hp1 and hp2. sequence alignment showed that the homology between pigeon and mammals or amphibians is higher than that of pigeon and fishes. semi-quantitative rt-pcr analysis suggested that hp1 transcripts are ...200717619950
prevalence of a septicemia disease in the crested ibis (nipponia nippon) in china.this study investigated six cases of septicemia in young crested ibises (nipponia nippon). these birds all died with similar clinical signs, including sudden death, anorexia, diarrhea, and lameness. immediately after death, the birds were necropsied; a blood sample was taken from heart and tissues were sampled from liver, lung, spleen, peritoneal mucus, and feces for bacteriologic examination. anatomic observation showed that the main findings common to the sick birds were arthrocele, associated ...200717626495
symbolic communication between two pigeons, (columba livia domestica).through the use of learned symbols, a pigeon accurately communicated information about hidden colors to another pigeon. each verbal exchange was initiated with a spontaneous request for information. the two pigeons engaged in a sustained and natural conversation without human intervention.198017795640
what is your diagnosis? coelomic mass in a rock dove (columba livia).a 15-year-old domestic rock dove (columbia livia) was presented to the service de médecine zoologique of the université de montréal with a 10-day history of lethargy and chronic weight loss of 1-year duration. ultrasonographic evaluation of the coelomic cavity revealed the presence of effusion and a well-defined mass containing variably sized hypoechoic nodules of unknown origin. cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspirates of the mass indicated a malignant epithelial tumor consisting of round ...200717806083
a case of sex-linked inheritance in the domestic pigeon. 191217814436
the domestic pigeon. 196617819794
[characteristics of the rapid eye movement sleep after carbachol microinjections into mesencephalic reticular formation in pigeons columba livia]. 200717933353
minute excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus a/chicken/indonesia/2003 (h5n1) from experimentally infected domestic pigeons (columbia livia) and lack of transmission to sentinel chickens.five out of sixteen domestic pigeons, inoculated oculo-nasally with a high dose of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus a/chicken/indonesia/2003 (h5n1), developed clinical signs and neurological lesions leading to death of three pigeons 5-7 days after inoculation [klopfleisch, r., werner, o., mundt, e., harder, t. & teifke, j. p. (2006). vet pathol 43, 463-470]. h5n1 virus was recovered from all organs sampled from two apparently healthy pigeons at 3 days post-infection and from the three pig ...200717947534
morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon columba livia.abstract:200718031576
mosaic evolution and adaptive brain component alteration under domestication seen on the background of evolutionary theory.brain sizes and brain component sizes of five domesticated pigeon breeds including homing (racing) pigeons are compared with rock doves (columba livia) based on an allometric approach to test the influence of domestication on brain and brain component size. net brain volume, the volumes of cerebellum and telencephalon as a whole are significantly smaller in almost all domestic pigeons. inside the telencephalon, mesopallium, nidopallium (+ entopallium + arcopallium) and septum are smaller as well ...200818032887
a comparison of the protective action of added egg yolks from five avian species to the cryopreservation of bull sperm.cryopreservation of domestic animal sperm has been widely used for artificial insemination (ai), and egg yolk is one of the most commonly used cryoprotectants during the freezing-thawing process. the objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of egg yolk from five avian species (domestic chicken, domestic duck, domestic goose, japanese quail or domestic pigeon) and to optimize the concentration of egg yolk on the cryopreservation of bull sperm in terms of frozen-thawed sperm prog ...200817662543
pharmacokinetic disposition of the oral iron chelator deferiprone in the domestic pigeon (columba livia).deferiprone is a bidentate oral iron chelator used for the treatment of iron overload in people. the purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of deferiprone in the domestic pigeon (columba livia) and to compare the results with a previous study in the white leghorn chicken. deferiprone (dfp) was administered orally as a suspension at a single dose of 50 mg/kg to 10 iron-loaded (il-dfp) pigeons and 10 non--iron-loaded controls (nil-dfp). six nil-dfp birds were also a ...200718065133
pathologic findings in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica) with "young bird sickness"."young bird sickness" is a term used by racing pigeon fanciers to describe a condition that has occurred regularly in recent years and affects pigeons (columba livia domestica) in their first year of life. it is characterized by slow crop emptying, regurgitation, diarrhea, weight loss, poor performance, and occasionally death. little scientific information is known about this syndrome to differentiate it from other diseases that occur in young pigeons. in this study, 1 bird from each of 9 lofts ...200718069166
endoscopic orchidectomy and salpingohysterectomy of pigeons (columba livia): an avian model for minimally invasive evaluate a minimally invasive endosurgical system in birds, endoscopic orchidectomy and salpingohysterectomy were evaluated in 11 male and 14 female pigeons (columba livia). anesthesia was maintained by using isoflurane delivered by a pressure-cycle ventilator and produced good to excellent anesthesia during 96% of procedures. endosurgery was performed with a 2.7-mm telescope system, 3-mm human pediatric laparoscopy instruments, and a 4.0-mhz radiofrequency device. mean +/- sd surgery times f ...200718069169
[external morphology of the adults specimens of paratanaisia bragai (santos, 1934)(diginea: eucotylidae)].adult specimens of paratanaisia bragai collected from renal ducts of columba livia naturally infected, were fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5 degrees and processed for scanning electron microscopy. two distinct types of scales had been identified, bifid and simple scales, disposed in transversal rows, on the tegument of dorsal and ventral face of the body. also show in details the oral sucker subterminal, well developed and acetabulum of size reduced, located in third medium of the body, surrounded fo ...200718078598
plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (columba livia).to determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. no significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nit ...200718065134
projections of the nucleus of the basal optic root in pigeons (columba livia): a comparison of the morphology and distribution of neurons with different efferent projections.the avian nucleus of the basal optic root (nbor) is a visual structure involved in the optokinetic response. nbor consists of several morphologically distinct cell types, and in the present study, we sought to determine if these different cell types had differential projections. using retrograde tracers, we examined the morphology and distribution of nbor neurons projecting to the vestibulocerebellum (vbc), inferior olive (io), dorsal thalamus, the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (lm) ...200717915041
the discrimination of natural movement by budgerigars (melopsittacus undulates) and pigeons (columba livia).three experiments examined the ability of birds to discriminate between the actions of walking forwards and backwards as demonstrated by video clips of a human walking a dog. experiment 1 revealed that budgerigars (melopsittacus undulates) could discriminate between these actions when the demonstrators moved consistently from left to right. test trials then revealed that the discrimination transferred, without additional training, to clips of the demonstrators moving from right to left. experime ...200717924786
generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in macaca mulatta, cebus apella, and columba livia.the generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (cebus apella), and pigeons (columba livia) learning a same/different (s/d) task with expanding training sets. the generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. by contrast, concept learning is learning ...200718085922
preference of birds for zinc phosphide bait formulations.zinc phosphide baits are used for controlling pest rodents but are also highly toxic to other vertebrates. the base for rodent baits containing zinc phosphide is usually wheat kernels which are highly attractive to birds. in this study, wheat-based pellets of different shapes and colours without zinc phosphide were tested for their attractiveness for pigeons (columba livia gmelin) and japanese quails (coturnix japonica temm. & schleg.) in aviaries and for pigeons and corvids (corvus monedula l., ...200818189327
experimental infection of newcastle disease virus in pigeons (columba livia): humoral antibody response, contact transmission and viral genome shedding.the aim of this study was to evaluate the humoral antibody response, the genome viral excretion and the contact transmission of pathogenic chicken origin newcastle disease virus (ndv) from experimentally infected pigeons (columba livia) to in-contact pigeon. the antibody response to infection was assessed by the hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test and the genome viral excretion was detected by rt-pcr. viral strain induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and in sentinel birds. the path ...200818166283
occurrence of parasitic invasions in domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) in the northern poland.considering the dynamic development of domestic pigeons breeding in poland, working out preventive programs for this species of birds becomes necessary. preventive programs should be elaborated based on epizootic situation in a particular area and should be adapted to it. the aim of the present study was to evaluate of the occurrence of parasitic invasions in domestic pigeons in the northern poland. in years 2005/2006, 55 lofts of carrier pigeons and 11 lofts of fancy pigeons were examined. one ...200718198544
long flights and age affect oxidative status of homing pigeons (columba livia).flying is an energy demanding activity that imposes several physiological challenges on birds, such as increase in energy expenditure. evidence from sports medicine shows that exhausting exercise may cause oxidative stress. studies on avian flight have so far considered several blood parameters, such as uric acid, corticosteroids, or circulating free fatty acids, but only one study has analysed markers of oxidative stress in flying birds. in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, how diff ...200818203993
absolute and relational control of a sequential auditory discrimination by pigeons (columba livia).recent evidence indicates that pigeons can readily learn visual discriminations based on both absolute and relational stimulus factors. to examine how these two types of control function in their non-dominant auditory modality, we tested four pigeons in a go/no-go sequential auditory discrimination in which both absolute and relational cues were redundantly available. in this task, sequences of different sounds created from one set of pitches were reinforced, while different sequences created fr ...200818182214
fine structure of the visual dorsolateral anterior thalamic nucleus of the pigeon (columba livia): a hodological and gaba-immunocytochemical study.the ultrastructure of the lateroventral subcomponent of the visual dorsolateral anterior thalamic nucleus of the pigeon (dllv) was analyzed using hodological techniques and gaba-immunocytochemistry. two types of gaba-immunonegative hyperpalliopetal neurons and a single type of strongly gaba-immunoreactive (-ir) interneuron were identified, the latter displaying long dendrites with some containing synaptic vesicles (dcsv). ten types of axon terminal were identified and divided into two categories ...200818189307
host defence mediates interspecific competition in ectoparasites.1. interspecific competition influences which, how many and where species coexist in biological communities. interactions between species in different trophic levels can mediate interspecific competition; e.g. predators are known to reduce competition between prey species by suppressing their population sizes. a parallel phenomenon may take place in host-parasite systems, with host defence mediating competition between parasite species. 2. we experimentally investigated the impact of host defenc ...200818194262
behavioral and metabolic effects of central injections of orexins/hypocretins in pigeons (columba livia).in the present study, the acute behavioral and ingestive effects of icv injections of mammalian orexin-a (orxa; vehicle, 0.2, 0.6 or 2 nmol) and of orexin-b (orxb; vehicle, 0.2, 0.6 or 2 nmol), as well as possible long-term effects (through 24 h of continuous intake monitoring after 0.6 nmol of orxa or orxb) of these treatments in food/water intake and in blood levels of metabolic fuels (free fatty acids and glucose, after 0.2 or 0.6 nmol of orxa) were examined in adult male pigeons. both orxa a ...200818234360
pigeons (columba livia) plan future moves on computerized maze tasks.planning, the internal process of formulating an organized method about one's future behavior, should be advantageous for non-human animals as well as for humans. however, little is known about this process in avian species. we examined planning processes in pigeons (columba livia) using a computerized maze task. in experiment 1, we found that the pigeons plan their next one step, and in some cases even correctly adjust their actions after change of goal locations, while performing on a plus-sha ...200818256862
neural correlates of directed forgetting in the avian prefrontal cortex.the authors trained 2 homing pigeons (columba livia) on a directed forgetting task with 3 cues: a remember cue that was followed by a memory test and the opportunity to obtain a reward, a forget cue that was not followed by a memory test or a reward, and a free-reward cue that was not followed by a memory test but was followed by a free reward. the authors examined the activity of single neurons in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, an area equivalent to the primate prefrontal cortex. followin ...200818298263
kinematics and power requirements of ascending and descending flight in the pigeon (columba livia).ascending or descending locomotion involves a change in potential energy (pe) and a corresponding change in power requirement. we sought to test whether the mechanical power required for steady ascending or descending flight is a simple sum of the power required for level flight and the power necessary for potential energy change. pigeons (columba livia) were trained to fly at varying angles of ascent and descent (60 degrees , 30 degrees , 0 degrees , -30 degrees , -60 degrees ), and were record ...200818344487
anti-protozoan activities of harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on trichomonads and malaria.the ethanolic stem bark extract of harungana madagascariensis (hypericaceae), (choisy) poir were evaluated for their activities on trichomonas gallinae (rivolta) stabler isolated from the pigeon (columba livia). it was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on n67 plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro.200818372133
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