dynamic viscoelastic characterisation of ostrich-meat yor (thai sausage) following pressure, temperature and holding time regimes.ostrich-meat yor (thai sausage) was pressurized at 200, 400 and 600mpa, with 40 and 50°c for 40 or 60min, subsequently, the products were assessed by stress control rheometry. two types of viscoelastic measurement were made. the first was an oscillatory analysis performed at a frequency range of 0.01-10hz using a stress of 30pa. secondly, creep and recovery testing was performed with an initial load of 30pa for 300s, unloaded recovery 900s. finally, the products were subjected to sensory evaluat ...200922064278
differentiation of the species ostrich (struthio camelus) and emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) by polymerase chain reaction using an ostrich-specific primer pair.through polymerase chain reaction a zone of the gene for the cytochrome b of ostrich (struthio camelus) mitochondrial dna was amplified using a primer pair which permits to identify the ostrich and differentiate it from the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae), thus giving different size fragment; in the ostrich of about 543 bp and in the emu of about 229 bp. this has been obtained without adopting other techniques such as, e.g., the fragment digestion by means of suitable restriction enzymes or singl ...200022061765
the effect of night transportation on the heart rate and skin temperature of ostriches during real transportation.literature has identified a number of stressors that have negative impacts on the welfare of ostriches during transportation. in order to maintain or improve the welfare of animals it is important to minimise or eliminate the impact of such stressors. literature suggested that ostrich welfare during transit might be improved by using darkened vehicles. a preliminary study was carried out which measured the response of ostrich heart rate and skin temperature (indicators of stress) to transportati ...200322063116
the roles of the proteasome, and cathepsins b, l, h and d, in ostrich meat very little research has been conducted on ostrich meat tenderisation, this study aims at investigating the roles of the proteasome and cathepsins b, l, h, and d in the tenderisation process. the enzyme activities in meat from eight ostriches during a 12-day ageing period and the corresponding physical characteristics (e.g. ph, shear force) and myofibril patterns were determined. after 12 days, substantial high remaining activities were found, especially of the proteasome, thus implicating th ...200422061124
First description of group A rotavirus from fecal samples of ostriches (Struthio camelus).This study investigated the occurrence of rotavirus infections in ostriches (Struthio camelus) reared in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Fecal (n=66) and serum (n=182) samples from nine farms located in four different cities were analyzed by silver stained-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE), RT-PCR assay, virus isolation, and counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis (CIE). Rotavirus group A seropositivity occurred in 5.49% (10/182) of serum samples of ostriches originated from two farms. Only 9.09% ( ...201122209018
influence of oxygen exclusion and temperature on pathogenic bacteria levels and sensory characteristics of packed ostrich steaks throughout refrigerated storage.ostrich steaks (290) were obtained from iliofibularis muscles. for microbiological and ph determinations, samples were inoculated with listeria monocytogenes nctc 11994 (80 steaks) or escherichia coli atcc 12806 (80), then air- or vacuum-packed and stored at either 4±1°c or 10±1°c. analyses were carried out on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 of storage. for sensory evaluation, samples (130) were air- or vacuum-packed and stored at 4±1°c or at 10±1°c. sensory attributes (odour, colour, drip loss, texture and ...200722064287
the structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (struthio camelus).with 5 figures summary: the electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the sinoatrial node (sa node), subsequently spreads to the atrioventricular node (av node) and continues in the atrioventricular bundle (av bundle). the av node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. in this study, the anatomy and histology of the av node were studied five female adult ostriches (struthio camelus). routine paraffin sec ...201121943125
The occurrence of Codiostomum struthionis in ostriches (Struthio camelus) of different ages and during the dry and rainy seasons at two farms in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Ostriches are susceptible to a wide variety of diseases that can affect their commercial breeding. The aim of this study was to identify morphologically Codiostomum struthionis and examine its seasonal occurrence among animals of three age categories in two commercial farms in Areal and Itaboraí, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fresh fecal samples were collected monthly, from June 2004 to May 2006. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were counted after centrifugal flotation in saturated sugar solution ...201221856078
Serum biochemical values of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) anesthetized with xylazine, ketamine, and isoflurane.Because of the size, speed, and powerful kicking ability of adult ostriches (Struthio camelus), chemical immobilization and general anesthesia are commonly used in these animals to provide veterinary care. To determine the serum biochemical values in ostriches anesthetized with xylazine and ketamine and isoflurane, 7 healthy adult ostriches (weighing 100 to 130 kg) were fasted for 12 hours. Each bird received an intramuscular injection of xylazine (4 mg/kg), followed 20 minutes later by an intra ...201121877446
database independent proteomics analysis of the ostrich and human proteome.mass spectrometry (ms)-based proteome analysis relies heavily on the presence of complete protein databases. such a strategy is extremely powerful, albeit not adequate in the analysis of unpredicted postgenome events, such as posttranslational modifications, which exponentially increase the search space. therefore, it is of interest to explore "database-free" approaches. here, we sampled the ostrich and human proteomes with a method facilitating de novo sequencing, utilizing the protease lys-n i ...201122198768
the effect of feed withdrawal during lairage on meat quality characteristics in ostriches.commercially reared ostriches (n=84) were randomly allocated to one of two groups. the first group (stressed: n=38) was deprived of food for a period of 2.5 days prior to slaughter, to simulate the stress experienced by slaughter ostriches held in holding pens (lairage) at a commercial ostrich abattoir over a weekend. the second group (control: n=46) was fed normally until 24 h prior to slaughter. initial live weight as well as hot and cold drumstick weight were independent (p>0.05) of treatment ...200522063142
fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of different ostrich muscles.six different muscles from the left legs of 19 african black ostriches were analysed for cholesterol content and fatty acid composition. cholesterol content differed (p < 0.05) from 56.61 mg/100 g in the m. femorotibialis medius to 71.12 mg/100 g in the m. iliofemoralis. although the percentage of individual fatty acids differed (p < 0.05) between muscles, and variation were found within muscles, the percentage of total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were relatively c ...199822060629
the effects of ca ions, egta and storage time on myofibrillar protein degradation, levels of ca(2+)-dependent proteases and cathepsins b, h, l and d of ostrich skeletal muscle.the effect of ca ions and ethylene glycol-bis(ß-aminoethyl ether)-n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid (egta) on myofibrillar protein degradation showed that when ostrich iliotibialis lateralis muscle was incubated with 10 mm egta at 2-4 °c for 24 hr, the activity of extracted cathepsin h was unchanged compared with a buffer-incubated sample. ca(++) had no effect on extracted cathepsin h activity, while that of ca(2+)-dependent protease (cdp) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). ca(2+)-treatment enhanced p ...199722061674
cross clade prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyvalent equine immunoglobulin f(ab')2 against highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 in mice.highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 virus (hpai h5n1) has the potential to cause a new pandemic, which may lead to disasters in the world. however, we cannot predict the hpai h5n1 strain that might cause the pandemic. therefore, broad-spectrum prophylactic or therapeutic preparations for containment of a possible future pandemic are urgently needed. polyvalent equine immunoglobulin f(ab')2 may be a promising candidate.201121906698
prediction of the chemical composition of freeze dried ostrich meat with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (nirs) was used to predict the chemical composition of freeze-dried ostrich meat samples. tenderloin (m. ambiens), big drum (m. iliofibularis) and fan fillet (m. gastrocnemius) samples (n=160) were included in the study. samples were minced, freeze-dried and analysed according to standard laboratory procedures for ash, dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp) and fat content. samples were scanned (1100-2500 nm) and partial least-square regression (plsr) was used ...200522062816
purification and partial characterisation of a matrix metalloproteinase from ostrich skeletal muscle, and its activity during meat maturation.the matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) are a homologous family of zinc proteinases that are collectively capable of catabolising the various macromolecular components of the extracellular matrix including collagens. in this study an mmp was successfully isolated and purified from ostrich skeletal muscle using toyopearl super q-650s, hydroxylapatite and zinc-chelate chromatographies. the purified molecule had a molecular weight of 55k and a total of 467 amino acid residues. purified ostrich mmp sho ...200722060990
effects of packaging atmospheres on shelf-life quality of ground ostrich meat.fresh ground ostrich meat was packaged under high oxygen (o2), high nitrogen (n2), vacuum (vac) and ambient air (air) atmospheres, stored at 4±1°c and displayed under 1700±100lux of fluorescent lighting for 9 days. the meat was evaluated for changes in typical shelf-life characteristics consisting of ph, color properties (cie l(*), a(*), b(*), and total color difference, ?e), oxidative changes (thiobarbituric acid value and hexanal content) and bacterial counts (total viable cell, coliform, lact ...200622062490
ostriches sleep like platypuses.mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (sws) and rapid eye movement (rem) sleep. sws is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while rem sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. however, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or 'ancient') group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of sws and rem sleep, sugg ...201121887239
quality characteristics of ostrich (struthio camelus) burgers.quality characteristics and storage stability of three types of burgers prepared with ostrich meat (alone or mixed with pork or beef meat) were evaluated. burger evaluation was based on chemical, microbiological, textural, colour, sensory and oxidation characteristics. all of the assayed formulas showed acceptable general quality scores in the sensory evaluation, but the burgers formulated with 100% ostrich meat or mixing ostrich and beef meat had the highest scores. only tba values and redness ...200622062301
optimisation of calcium-dependent protease and cathepsin d assays in ostrich muscle and the effect of chemical and physical dry-curing parameters.the best conditions for the assay of cathepsin d and ca(2+)-dependent pro tease (cdp) activity in ostrich muscle was established in order to have a simple, rapid and reliable method for its determination. measurements of a(280nm) of tca-soluble peptides and amino acid digests of casein and haemoglobin were used for measuring proteolytic activity in muscle extracts. the best conditions for the reliable determination of cathepsin d activity were found to be the incubation of an enzyme extract for ...199722062742
the yield and nutritional value of meat from african ungulates, camelidae, rodents, ratites and reptiles.the current knowledge of the yield and nutritional (proximate and fatty acid) composition of meat derived from african ungulates, camelidae, rodents, ratites and reptiles is reviewed. although most of the species discussed give low cholesterol levels consistent with their low meat lipid contents, the tegu lizard gives a very low level (18.2mg/100g tissue). the fatty acid profiles of the various species all have low saturated fatty acids and high polyunsaturated fatty acids resulting in favourabl ...200822063174
refrigerated shelf life of vacuum-packaged, previously frozen ostrich meat.previously frozen ostrich meat was evaluated over 28 days to determine the refrigerated shelf life. intact steaks and ground meat from three ostrich carcasses were vacuum-packaged, frozen to -40°c for 5 days, and stored in a 0°c walk-in cooler. instrumental analysis of cie l*a*b* values indicated that ostrich meat was very dark in color, initially and over time. microbial growth stayed slightly below 1.0 × 10(7) cfu/g for up to 21 days of refrigerated storage. sensorially evaluated color showed ...199922062576
effect of chemical and physical dry-curing parameters on cathepsins b, h and l from ostrich muscle.the effects of curing agents (nacl, nitrate, ascorbic acid and glucose) and processing parameters (ph, temperature and cooking temperatures) on cathepsins b, h and l activities were investigated. nacl, nitrate, ascorbic acid and glucose exhibited different influences on ostrich cathepsin b, b+l and h activities. in the range 20-60gl(-1), nacl inhibited cathepsin b+l and h activities. all three cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by up to 8g ascorbic acid l(-1). with the exception of ca ...199822060956
production of salami from ostrich meat with strains of lactobacillus sake, lactobacillus curvatus and micrococcus sp.the aim of this study was to produce italian-type salami from ostrich meat using different combinations of lactobacillus sake, lactobacillus curvatus and micrococcus sp., and to compare the sensory characteristics of these products to that of salami produced with glucono-delta-lactone (gdl). meat inoculated with starter cultures was fermented for four days (20-22 °c, 97-99% rh) and ripened for a further 11 days (16-18 °c, 40-60% rh). cell counts of lactic acid bacteria and micrococci, and change ...199622060827
fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and tenderness of ostrich meat as influenced by age at slaughter and muscle type.ten blue neck ostriches were used to study the effect of age at slaughter (10-11 and 14-15 months) and muscle on fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and texture of meat. fatty acid profile of ostrich meat was significantly affected by age at slaughter (p<0.001) and muscles (p<0.001). different age at slaughter (10-11 vs. 14-15 months) produced an increase of p/s ratio (p<0.001), total saturated (p<0.05) and monounsaturated (p<0.001) fatty acids. the highest percentage of saturated and monoun ...200322063017
Situation of Serum Antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus in Slaughter-Age Ostriches after Vaccination Campaign in Japan.A total of 516 slaughter-age ostrich sera were collected in Japan during 2006-2009. Sixty-one of five hundred and sixteen were positive by virus neutralization (VN) test and the titer of most positive samples was low level. Within the 61 positive sera, 35 sera were collected from unvaccinated ostriches. This result implies that these ostriches might have been infected naturally with low-virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Within the 455 negative samples, 125 samples were from vaccinated ostr ...201122075709
physical and sensory meat quality of south african black ostriches (struthio camelus var. domesticus), zimbabwean blue ostriches (struthio camelus australis) and their hybrid.meat derived from three genotypes of ostrich, resulting from breeding south african black (black) ostriches and zimbabwean blue (blue) ostriches as well as their hybrid, was analysed for physical and sensory quality. ostriches of a commercially standard slaughter age of 14 months, raised under the same environment were used. the ph(24) was the highest in the pure blue genotype and therefore meat from this genotype was the darkest and the percentage drip loss and cooking loss the lowest. when com ...200822062765
Egg yolk fatty acid profile of avian species - influence on human nutrition.Lipids are an important nutritional component of the avian egg. A review of the literature was completed to determine the fatty acid compositions in egg yolk from some avian species. Additionally, the nutritional influence of lipid and lipoprotein content on the plasma of male participants during 30-day feeding was discussed. The ostrich eggs had the highest unsaturated fatty acid and the lowest cholesterol content in relation to other avian species. Ostrich had a higher proportion of 18:3n-3 (p ...201122035443
effects of hydrocolloid addition and high pressure processing on the rheological properties and microstructure of a commercial ostrich meat product "yor" (thai sausage)."yor" is a traditional sausage like product widely consumed in thailand. its textures are usually set by steaming, in this experiment ultra-high pressure was used to modify the product. three types of hydrocolloid; carboxymethylcellulose (cmc), locust bean gum (lbg) and xanthan gum, were added to minced ostrich meat batter at concentration of 0-1% and subjected to high pressure 600mpa, 50°c, 40min. the treated samples were analysed for storage (g') and loss (g?) moduli by dynamic oscillatory tes ...200722060999
effect of packaging conditions on shelf-life of ostrich steaks.this study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of ostrich steaks stored in four different packaging types: (i) air exposure, (ii) vacuum, and two different modified atmospheres packages (iii) map: 80% co(2)+20% n(2,) and (iv) map+co: 30% co(2)+69.8% argon+0.2% co. shelf-life evaluation was based on colour, lipid and hemopigments oxidation, microbial counts and sensory assessment of odour and colour. samples stored under air exposure showed the highest lipid and hemopigments oxidation rate. ...200822062104
ostrich meat: physico-chemical characteristics and comparison with turkey and bovine several european countries ostrich breeding has now become quite common. in italy this has also given rise to the need for regulations for the slaughtering of ratites. the present work studies and compares the physico-chemical characteristics of the meat from the thigh of the ostrich with the same anatomical cuts of turkey and bovine. the ostrich meat muscle of the thigh was imported vacuum packed from israel and france, the muscles considered were m. flexor cruris and m. iliofibularis. the t ...199822063069
citrus pulp as an ingredient in ostrich diet: effects on meat quality.the purpose of this trial was to study the effects of citrus pulp inclusion in ostrich diets on meat quality, evaluated on iliofibularis and gastrocnemius muscles. m. iliofibularis had a lower ultimate ph (p<0.05) and was lighter in colour (p<0.05) than m. gastrocnemius. the latter had higher moisture (p<0.05) and lower crude protein contents (p<0.05) as compared to m. iliofibularis. m. gastrocnemius had a lower proportion of c14:0 (p<0.05), c16:0 (p<0.05) and c16:1 (p<0.05) and a higher percent ...200422062236
cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of ostrich meat as influenced by subspecies.two muscles, the m. gastrocnemius and m. iliofibularis, were excised from the left legs of six red neck (struthio camelus massaicus) and six blue neck (struthio camelus australis) ostriches and analysed for lipid and cholesterol content and fatty acid composition. total lipid (1.43 g 100g ) and cholesterol content (65.63 mg 100g ) did not differ (ps> 0.05) in any muscle between subspecies. although the percentage of some individual fatty acids differed (p < 0.05), the total percentage of satura ...199822061157
lipolysis, proteolysis, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of different types of spanish ostrich salchichon.the objective of this study was to compare three different types of salchichon: made of ostrich meat, made of ostrich meat and lean pork, and made of ostrich meat and pork belly, from physicochemical and sensory viewpoints. to evaluate the intensity of lipolysis and proteolysis produced during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids, the degree of rancidity, the non-protein, water-soluble and aminoacidic nitrogen content were determined. in addition, the composition of ...200722064031
Pre-hatch lung development in the ostrich.We studied development of the ostrich lung using light microscopy as well as electron microscopy techniques. At E24, the lung comprised a few epithelial tubes, interspersed with abundant mesenchyme with scattered profiles of incipient blood vessels. Between E24 and E39, the epithelial thickness was reduced by 90% from 13.5±0.41µm to 1.33±0.014µm (mean±SD, respectively). Atria were evident at E32, and by E35, the first portions of the blood-gas barrier (BGB) measuring 3.41±1.12µm were encountered ...201122138612
Interaction of a goose-type lysozyme with chitin oligosaccharides as determined by NMR spectroscopy.The interaction between a goose-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (OEL) and chitin oligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)(n) (n = 2, 4 and 6)] was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A stable isotope-labelled OEL was produced in Pichia pastoris, and backbone resonance assignments for the wild-type and an inactive mutant (E73A OEL) were achieved using modern multi-dimensional NMR techniques. NMR titration was performed with (GlcNAc)(n) for mapping the interaction sites of the individ ...201121859795
sensory properties of hot-deboned ostrich (struthio camelus var. domesticus) muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna.cold-deboning is currently practiced in south african ostrich abattoirs. however, the advantages of hot-deboning include the reduction of costs and time, but there is always the risk of cold-shortening. the effects of hot-deboning of ostrich m. gastrocnemius, pars interna on meat sensory attributes were investigated. the data showed that the hot-deboned muscles' ph(48) (6.57±0.18) was significantly negatively correlated (r=-0.7813; p<0.038) to the mean warner-bratzler shear force values (71.28±1 ...200622061887
The ostrich middle ear for developing an ideal ossicular replacement prosthesis.The aim of the study was to investigate the validity of the avian middle ear model for researching the tympanoplasty mechanics. We studied the morphological details, acoustic transmission and quasi-static behavior of the ostrich tympano-ossicular system. The stained specimens of the ostrich middle ear were examined under a light microscope. The sound transfer function and quasi-static performance of the ostrich middle ear were evaluated using laser Doppler vibrometry. The application of pressure ...201222210477
Ostrich - A new avian host of Riemerella columbina. 201222074857
muscle ph and temperature changes in hot- and cold-deboned ostrich (struthio camelus var. domesticus) muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna and muscularis iliofibularis during the first 23h post-mortem.cold-shortening is the response when muscles are exposed to temperatures below 10°c with a ph>6.20. the course of ph within hot-deboned and intact ostrich m. gastrocnemius, pars interna and m. iliofibularis were followed for the first 23-24h post-mortem to investigate the changes in ph as well as to determine the point of minimum ph for ostrich muscles post-mortem. the hot-deboned muscles took longer to reach the point of minimum ph than the intact muscles. there was no significant (p=0.4508) di ...200722063668
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).The distribution of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant using immunohistochemistry. GLP-1 immunoreactive cells were common in the small intestine, in the proventriculus and in the pancreas. Immunostained cells were not seen in the crop, in the gizzard and in the large intestine. Double labelling demonstrated that GLP-1 and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were occasionally co-localized only in the duodenal villi ...201122036174
nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (struthio camelus).putative nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near oudtshoorn, south africa. post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (struthio camelus) that had died. suspicious leaf remnants (weighing 80-770 g), packed in a layer on top of other plant material, were carefully separated from the proventricular content and submitted for chemical determination of anabasine, the major toxic principle contained by this plant. a standard solid phase ext ...201122135925
effects of temperature, oxygen exclusion, and storage on the microbial loads and ph of packed ostrich steaks.ostrich steaks (96) were packed (air or vacuum) and stored at 4°c or 10°c. microbiological loads (total viable counts - tvc, psychrotrophic, enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria - lab, pseudomonas and fluorescent pseudomonas) and ph values were determined at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days. high counts (8.0-10.2 log(10)cfu tvc/g) were observed at day 9, possibly as a consequence of the initial high microbial load (range 4.9-5.4 log(10)cfu tvc/g) and ph (average 6.7). temperature and sampling day signific ...200622062489
processing and nutritional characteristics of value added ostrich products.two types of processed products, chopped hams (0.15% and 0.30% phosphate on final yield) and viennas (27 and 32% fat extension) were manufactured from ostrich fan fillets (m. iliofibularis) to determine the suitability of ostrich meat for processing purposes. cooking losses differed significantly (p<0.10) between the two types of ham-like products (0.15% phosphate=1.59 and 0.30% phosphate=0.78%), indicating that an increase in phosphate addition reduced cooking loss. cooking losses did not diffe ...200022061092
Laying, egg and hatchability characteristics in ostrich (Struthio camelus) at different age.The experimental material comprised 7 ostrich families (7 males and 14 females) of which five families were at the age of 7 and two at the age of 5 years. In the course of the entire reproductive season, the following parameters were analysed: length of the laying period, mean laying rate, number of eggs laid by one female, proportion ofhatching eggs, egg weight and shape, egg weight lost during incubation, egg fertilisation, percentage of dead embryos and unhatched chicks, hatchability from fer ...201122195471
physical meat quality characteristics of hot-deboned ostrich (struthio camelus var. domesticus) muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna during post-mortem aging.there is a risk of shortening and toughening with hot-deboning of muscles. however, with refrigerated aging this phenomenon may be negated. vacuum-packed hot and cold-deboned ostrich muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna were stored for 21 d at 4°c to investigate the effects of hot-deboning on quality characteristics of ostrich meat during refrigerated storage. muscle ph did not differ (p>0.05) between hot and cold-deboned muscles during storage. hot-deboning caused (p<0.0001) more purge in the ...200722064036
Phospholipid composition of plasma and erythrocyte membranes in animal species by 31P NMR.The aim of this study was to provide basal values of phospholipid (PL) composition in different animal species by 31P NMR analysis using detergents. This fast and accurate method allowed a quantitative analysis of PLs without any previous separation. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane PLs were investigated in mammals (pig, cow, horse). Moreover, for the first time, the composition of plasma PLs in avian (chicken and ostrich) was performed by 31P NMR. Significant qualitative and quantitative intersp ...201121881904
reconstruction of cranial bone defects using struthio camelus eggshell.there are many synthetic materials for the treatment of bone defects, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. we aimed to compare the efficacy of ostrich eggshell, which is cheap and easily available, and demineralized bone matrix in healing of cranial bone defects.201121959448
quality characteristics of low fat ostrich meat patties formulated with either pork lard or modified corn starch, soya isolate and water.a trained taste panel could not distinguish (p>0.05) between ostrich meat patties containing either 10% pork lard or 10% of a modified starch/protein isolate (fat replacer) mixture. the panel could distinguish between the types of ostrich muscle/meat cuts used with a significant (p<0.05) number preferring ostrich patties made from meat containing a higher collagen content (±3% vs <1%). the chemical analysis of the patties showed that within the meat classes (class fillet-de-membraned, class a-ve ...200322063450
computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. however, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently ...201222211275
gastrointestinal parasites in greater rheas (rhea americana) and lesser rheas (rhea pennata) from argentina.few data exist on the parasites of ratites, especially from regions within their natural range. it is only recently that extensive studies on the parasites of ostriches (struthio camelus) have been published, mainly from european countries where commercial farming has expanded. two species of ratites are native in south america: the lesser rhea also known as darwin's rhea (rhea pennata) and the greater rhea (rhea americana). both species are considered near threatened by the iucn and are include ...201223305970
genotyping of clostridium perfringens isolated from healthy and diseased ostriches (struthio camelus).clostridium perfringens is more prevalent type of clostridia genus isolated from the intestinal tract of ostrich (struthio camelus). necrotic enteritis (ne) is a potentially fatal gastrointestinal (gi) disease of poultry and other avian species, which produces marked destruction of intestinal lining in digestive tract caused by c. perfringens. pathogenicity and lesions are correlated with the toxins produced, thus toxin typing of the bacterium has diagnostic and epidemiological significance. the ...201425954489
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. to enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial dna of the s ...201424963709
protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time.proteins persist longer in the fossil record than dna, but the longevity, survival mechanisms and substrates remain contested. here, we demonstrate the role of mineral binding in preserving the protein sequence in ostrich (struthionidae) eggshell, including from the palaeontological sites of laetoli (3.8 ma) and olduvai gorge (1.3 ma) in tanzania. by tracking protein diagenesis back in time we find consistent patterns of preservation, demonstrating authenticity of the surviving sequences. molecu ...201627668515
bacterial enteritis in ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in the western cape province, south africa.ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. this study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. bacterial isolates were typed by pcr and serotyping. escherichia coli (e. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from ...201525840967
natural infection of cryptosporidium muris in ostriches (struthio camelus).a total of 303 fecal samples were collected from ostriches (struthio camelus) and 31 samples (10.2%) were cryptosporidium-positive upon microscopic analysis. the infection rate was 27.6% in ostriches aged 16-60 days, 1.2% in those aged 61-180 days, and 20.4% in those aged >10 years. the cryptosporidium-positive isolates were genotyped with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and dna sequence analysis of the small subunit (ssu) rrna gene. the 22 isolates from ostriches aged >10 ye ...201425178556
a goose-type lysozyme from ostrich (struthio camelus) egg white: multiple roles of his101 in its enzymatic reaction.a goose-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (oel) was produced by escherichia coli expression system, and the role of his101 of oel in the enzymatic reaction was investigated by nmr spectroscopy, thermal unfolding, and theoretical modeling of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hexa-n-acetylchitohexaose, (glcnac)6. although the binding of tri-n-acetylchitotriose, (glcnac)3, to oel perturbed several backbone resonances in the (1)h-(15)n hsqc spectrum, the chemical shift of the backbone resonance of his1 ...201626428437
molecular cloning, expression and bioactivity of b cell activating factor (baff) in african ostrich.b cell activating factor (baff), which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (tnf) family, is testified to play a critical role in b cell survival, proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin secretion. in the present study, the cdna of open reading frame (orf) in african ostrich (struthio camelus) baff (designated osbaff) was cloned by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr). the osbaff gene encodes a 288-amino acid protein containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a putative furin protease cl ...201526256697
serological investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 in ostriches (struthio camelus).an ostrich farm of 929 birds that tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 in a single sample was designated for culling, despite no evidence of sero-conversion as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests. a month later and immediately prior to culling, all birds were bled and tested with an idexx avian influenza virus (aiv) nucleoprotein (np)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a high sero-prevalence was detected. to addr ...201323607480
characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 virus isolated from diseased ostriches (struthio camelus) in the kingdom of saudi arabia.during 2007, two outbreaks of avian influenza virus (aiv) in backyard and commercial ostrich flocks were first reported in the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa). the infected ostriches suffered from depression, anorexia, and diarrhea and some exhibited sudden death. a rapid aiv-group antigen detection and real-time reverse-transcription pcr (rtrt-pcr) were initially performed on cloacal and tracheal swabs collected from diseased birds. pools from positive-tested swabs for each flock were utilized fo ...201425055639
description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (struthio camelus) in south africa in 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of south africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai), subtype h5n2. surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. the outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. various factors in the ostrich production system were observed t ...201627237385
ostrich ( struthio camelus ) infected with h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in south korea in 2014.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of the h5n8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in south korea in march 2014. clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. the isolated a/ostrich/korea/h829/2014 (h5n8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of hpai virus. the phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the h5 hpai virus showed that this ostrich h5n8 virus belongs to clade virus ...201627309301
mycobacteriosis in ostriches (struthio camelus) due to infection with mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium avium complex.avian tuberculosis rarely affects ratites compared to other bird species and is typically caused by mycobacterium avium species. this study describes the pathological and microbiological findings in three adult ostriches with mycobacteriosis, in one of which mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the lesions. post mortem examinations on ostriches from two different zoological collections in ireland revealed multifocal caseous granulomas affecting the spleen and liver in all cases, with additional ...201324597127
full genomic characterization of a lentogenic newcastle disease virus isolated from farm-reared ostriches (struthio camelus) in northwest our knowledge, our study is the first to report the whole-genome sequence of an ostrich-origin newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolate, abbreviated as ostrich/sx-01/06. phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the subgenotype c in class ii. the identification of the complete genome will provide useful information regarding ostrich diseases, especially ndv.201728183763
risk factors and molecular typing of toxoplasma gondii isolated from ostriches (struthio camelus) from a brazilian slaughterhouse.toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution with different genotypes reported in animals and humans. the parasite is of great importance to food production and public health, highlighted by the high diversity of hosts, i.e. ostriches. this study aimed to determine the prevalence of t. gondii infection in ostriches from a brazilian slaughterhouse, the genotype, and the associated risk factors. t. gondii antibodies were detected in 38/344 (11.05%) serum samples using the modified agglutination ...201627369578
development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. the health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. we developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. the thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. macrophages were activated by chicken in ...201626794839
occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in rheas (rhea americana) and ostriches (struthio camelus) from farms of different brazilian regions.this study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in rheas (rhea americana) and ostriches (struthio camelus) commercially breeding in brazil. blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults) were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (mat) at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. antibodies against t. gondii were found in 50% (10/20) of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400 ...201324142180
a repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs: implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in crocodilia.a recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. however, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (rom) in ...201424664936
a test of the validity of range of motion studies of fossil archosaur elbow mobility using repeated-measures analysis and the extant phylogenetic bracket.recent studies have presented range of motion (rom) data in degrees for dinosaur forelimb joints, usually via physical manipulation of one individual. using these data, researchers have inferred limb orientations, postures, gaits, ecological functions and even phylogenetic trends within clades. however, important areas of concern remain unaddressed; for example, how does rom at a forelimb joint change after soft tissues are lost in archosaurs? and are fossil rom methodologies amenable to reprodu ...201222623191
reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. in recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. here we report testing a set for 14 can ...201424926893
molecular cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of two ostrich β-defensins: avbd2 and avbd7.avian β-defensins (avbds) are a family of small antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the innate immunity of birds. herein, we report on two new ostrich avbd genes, avbd2 and avbd7, which were isolated from the bone marrow of ostriches (struthio camelus). the coding regions of ostrich avbd2 and avbd7 comprised 195 bp and 201bp, which encoded 64 and 66 amino acids, respectively. homology analysis showed that ostrich avbd2 had the highest similarity (up to 86%) with the swan goose (a ...201425127671
lipid and protein stability and sensory evaluation of ostrich (struthio camelus) droëwors with the addition of rooibos tea extract (aspalathus linearis) as a natural antioxidant.the effect of rooibos tea extract (rbte 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00%) as a natural antioxidant on the lipid and protein stability of ostrich droëwors (traditional south african dried sausage) after a 15 day drying period was investigated. the lipid stability of the droëwors increased with 0.25% rbte having lower tbars. the protein stability of the droëwors did not differ (p≥0.05) between treatments. the heme-iron content did not differ (p≥0.05) between the treatments and increased from day 0 to day 1 ...201424334052
characterization of avian poxvirus in anna's hummingbird (calypte anna) in california, usa.avian poxvirus (genus avipoxvirus, family poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded dna virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. we characterized the infection in anna's hummingbird (calypte anna; n = 5 birds, n = 9 lesions) by conducting diagnostic tests on skin lesions that were visually similar to avian poxvirus lesions in other bird species. skin lesions were single or multiple, dry and firm, pink to yellow, with sca ...201324502725
molecular evaluation of a new highly sensitive aryl hydrocarbon receptor in ostriches.a 1,000-fold difference has been reported in dioxin sensitivity between avian species. this difference is because the 2 amino acids in the type 1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr1), at positions 325 and 381, correspond to leu324 and ser380 in chickens. the chicken had been reported to be the only avian species to possess a sensitive form of ahr1. this is the first study to reveal that the ostrich (struthio camelus), a nonchicken species, also has a pair of amino acids (ile-325 and ser-381) that sh ...201323776281
bony pits in the ostrich (struthio camelus) and emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) bill tip.a specialized region of the bill tip characterized by a complex arrangement of mechanoreceptors and referred to as a bill tip organ, has been identified in numerous avians. a bill tip organ was initially inferred in kiwi species by the presence of numerous, bony pits in the rostrum of the bill, and later confirmed histologically. this study enumerates and compares the number and distribution of pits present in the bill tip in the ostrich and emu. the heads from 10 ostrich and 5 emu were prepared ...201728296166
visual pigments in a palaeognath bird, the emu dromaius novaehollandiae: implications for spectral sensitivity and the origin of ultraviolet vision.a comprehensive description of the spectral characteristics of retinal photoreceptors in palaeognaths is lacking. moreover, controversy exists with respect to the spectral sensitivity of the short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (sws1) opsin-based visual pigment expressed in one type of single cone: previous microspectrophotometric (msp) measurements in the ostrich (struthio camelus) suggested a violet-sensitive (vs) sws1 pigment, but all palaeognath sws1 opsin sequences obtained to date (including the o ...201627383819
the serine/threonine kinase 33 is present and expressed in palaeognath birds but has become a unitary pseudogene in neognaths about 100 million years ago.serine/threonine kinase 33 (stk33) has been shown to be conserved across all major vertebrate classes including reptiles, mammals, amphibians and fish, suggesting its importance within vertebrates. it has been shown to phosphorylate vimentin and might play a role in spermatogenesis and organ ontogenesis. in this study we analyzed the genomic locus and expression of stk33 in the class aves, using a combination of large scale next generation sequencing data analysis and traditional pcr.201526199010
comparative methane emission by ratites: differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. ostriches (struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (rhea americana) are intermediate. a recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (ch4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. we hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less ch4 than ost ...201526123777
three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (struthio camelus) knee joint.the three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. the adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mecha ...201425551024
morphological features of herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and emu (dromaius novaehollandiae).the distribution of herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of the ostrich and emu has recently been documented. however, although the morphology of these mechanoreceptors is well known in neognathous birds, little structural information is available on the herbst corpuscles of ratites. tissue sections from those regions of the oropharynx known to possess a high concentration of herbst corpuscles were sampled from ostrich and emu heads collected after slaughter and prepared for light and transmissio ...201525382625
a morphological classification of sperm defects in the ostrich (struthio camelus).commercial ostrich farming is constrained by the absence of a formal animal recording and evaluation scheme as well as by current farming practices. artificial insemination may have an important role in overcoming these limitations, but requires a thorough knowledge of sperm morphology. although the morphological characteristics of normal ostrich sperm have been documented, little information is available on the incidence and structural peculiarities of defective sperm in this species. semen sme ...201425255781
comparative distribution and arrangement of herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and emu (dromaius novaehollandiae).herbst corpuscles are widely distributed throughout the oropharynx of the ostrich and emu in contrast to the general situation in birds. knowledge of the comparative distribution of herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of these two commercially important ratite species may assist in a better understanding of their feeding habits. tissue sections representing all parts of the oropharynx of five ostrich and five emu heads collected after slaughter were prepared for light microscopy, the herbst corp ...201424782341
rapid separation and characterisation of triacylglycerols in ostrich oil by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.the triacylglycerol (tag) composition of ostrich oil (struthio camelus) was determined by non-aqueous reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. using a column with 150 mm in length, the tags were separated efficiently with acetonitrile/2-propanol gradient at flow rate of 0.2 ml/min for 20 min. detection is performed by positive apci mass spectrometry, accurate mass measurements (<3 ppm) and definite elemental composition for molecular ions and fragment ions were o ...201323870933
evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in dromaius novaehollandiae and struthio camelus (palaeognathae). 201222909013
what prevents struthio camelus and dromaius novaehollandiae (palaeognathae) from choking? a novel anatomical mechanism in ratites, the linguo-laryngeal apparatus.the avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. it is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction of the arytenoid cartilages. an epiglottis, however, is reportedly absent in birds. ratites such as struthio camelus and dromaius novaehollandiae possess a very wide glottis in comparison to other ...201222650266
expression of prostaglandin synthesizing enzymes (cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2) in the ovary of the ostrich (struthio camelus).cyclooxygenase is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of prostaglandins. in birds two isoforms are present: cyclooxygenase 1 (cox-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (cox-2). despite evidence implicating that cyclooxygenases and pgs are critical factors in female reproduction in birds, little is known about cox expression in the avian ovary. in birds, cyclooxygenases have been studied in very few species only. in this study we report on the expression of cox-1 and cox-2 in the ovary of the ostrich (s ...201525528171
the staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (xx/xy) and female heterogametic (zz/zw) sex chromosomes. identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in testudines. the ...201425121779
analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.previous studies on the immunoglobulin (ig) genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes) but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the igd and igκ encoding genes, inversion of the iga encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. to better understand the ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the ig genes in the ostrich (struthio camelus), which is ...201222479606
libyostrongylus douglassii (strongylida: trichostrongylidae) in ostrich (struthio camelus) farms from colombia.ostrich farming is an important livestock industry in different world regions with a diverse offer of products and services. in colombia, as in other countries, this market led the importation of animals from countries like canada, united states of america and south africa for breeding objectives. with the animals, specific pathogens for these ratites could be introduced. libyostrongylus spp. is a strongylid nematode with worldwide distribution, which can induce a severe disease and mortality in ...201728215868
phenotypic and genetic variability for body weight of ostriches (struthio camelus).1. objective of the present study was to estimate heritability for hatch weight (hw), body weight at 90 (w90) and 180 (w180) d of age in brazilian ostriches. 2. the heritability estimates were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood method for an animal model. least squares method was used to define possible fixed effects for consideration in the analysis model. 3. the estimates of heritability were 0.42 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.04 and 0.24 ± 0.08 for hw, w90 and w180, respectively. 4. herita ...201425269694
retention of solutes and different-sized particles in the digestive tract of the ostrich (struthio camelus massaicus), and a comparison with mammals and reptiles.ostriches (struthio camelus) achieve digesta retention times, digesta particle size reduction and digestibilities equal to similar-sized herbivorous mammals, in contrast to some other avian herbivores. the sequence of digestive processes in their gastrointestinal tract, however, is still unexplored. using two groups of four ostriches (mean body mass 75.1 ± 17.3 kg) kept on fresh alfalfa, we tested the effect of two intake levels (17 and 42 g dry matter kg(-0.75)d(-1)) on the mean retention time ...201222609929
increased thymic cell turnover under boron stress may bypass tlr3/4 pathway in african ostrich.previous studies revealed that thymus is a targeted immune organ in malnutrition, and high-boron stress is harmful for immune organs. african ostrich is the living fossil of ancient birds and the food animals in modern life. there is no report about the effect of boron intake on thymus of ostrich. the purpose of present study was to evaluate the effect of excessive boron stress on ostrich thymus and the potential role of tlr3/4 signals in this process. histological analysis demonstrated that lon ...201526053067
a retrospective necropsy study of the ostrich (struthio camelus) bursa of fabricius.a retrospective study of bursa of fabricius from 90 necropsied ostriches from florida farms was performed. eighty-five bursas showed lymphoid necrosis and/or depletion, and acute to chronic inflammation. rounded cytoplasmic inclusions were noted within bursal macrophages of 17 birds. ultrastructurally, these inclusions comprised arrays of icosahedral virions with a diameter of 60 to 65 nm, suggesting possibly reovirus or birnavirus. further work is needed to classify and determine the pathogenic ...199926911604
characterisation of tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci in the ostrich (struthio camelus).1. eleven polymorphic tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were identified in the ostrich (struthio camelus) using a selective enrichment protocol. 2. the average number of alleles observed was 6·6 with an average heterozygosity of 0·4. 3. the population was found to be in hardy-weinberg equilibrium and two of the loci had a greater than 95% probability of having null alleles. 4. these microsatellite loci will add to the existing pool of markers available for the ostrich and help to facilitate a ...201223130580
characterization of avian influenza h9n2 viruses isolated from ostriches (struthio camelus).h9n2 subtype avian influenza viruses (aivs) have been isolated from various species of wild birds and domestic poultry in the world, and occasionally transmitted to humans. although h9n2 aivs are seldom isolated from ostriches, seven such strains were isolated from sick ostriches in china between 2013 and 2014. sequence analysis showed several amino acid changes relating to viral adaptation in mammals were identified. the phylogenetic analyses indicated that these isolates were quadruple reassor ...201829396439
the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on body weight, size, and microflora of ostrich chicks.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary energy and protein supplements on performance, weekly body sizes or body frame size, and microbiota of ostrich chicks during 2-9 weeks of age. two metabolic energy levels of 2400 and 2600 kcal/kg live weight and three protein levels of 20, 22, and 24% were used. a total of 36 ostrich chickens (struthio camelus) of the blue and black african breed were used. body weight, 12 body measurements (i.e., circumference of the head, ne ...201729177729
analysis of the moment arms and kinematics of ostrich (struthio camelus) double patellar sesamoids.the patella ("kneecap") is a biomechanically important feature of the tendinous insertion of the knee extensor muscles, able to alter the moment arm lengths between its input and output tendons, and so modify the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscle. however, patellar gearing function is little-explored outside of humans, and the patella is often simplified or ignored in biomechanical models. here, we investigate patellar gearing and kinematics in the ostrich-frequently used as an an ...201729356388
preferred gait and walk-run transition speeds in ostriches measured using gps-imu sensors.the ostrich (struthio camelus) is widely appreciated as a fast and agile bipedal athlete, and is a useful comparative bipedal model for human locomotion. here, we used gps-imu sensors to measure naturally selected gait dynamics of ostriches roaming freely over a wide range of speeds in an open field and developed a quantitative method for distinguishing walking and running using accelerometry. we compared freely selected gait-speed distributions with previous laboratory measures of gait dynamics ...201627802152
lipid profile and quality indices of ostrich meat and this study, the lipid profile of 5 different edible tissues (leg, thigh, heart, gizzard, and liver) of ostrich was analyzed. ostrich edible tissues presented a low fat content (<5 g/100 g wet basis). gizzard and heart revealed the highest amounts of total cholesterol (1.77 and 1.47 mg/g wet basis, respectively), differing significantly from all other tissues (which averaged 0.95 mg/g wet basis). the main tocochromanol in all tissues was α-tocopherol (10.3 μg/g wet basis in heart and an averag ...201729253211
distribution and morphology of ghrelin immunostained cells in the adrenal gland of the african ostrich.ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. we investigated the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the african ostrich adrenal gland. we found that the adrenal gland of the african ostrich consisted of three parts: capsule, inter-renal tissue and chromaffin cells. the inter-renal tissue and chromaffin cells interdigitated irregularly. the inter-renal tissue consisted of a peripheral zone and a central ...201729215919
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