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the intertarsal joint of the ostrich (struthio camelus): anatomical examination and function of passive structures in locomotion.the ostrich (struthio camelus) is the largest extant biped. being flightless, it exhibits advanced cursorial abilities primarily evident in its characteristic speed and endurance. in addition to the active musculoskeletal complex, its powerful pelvic limbs incorporate passive structures wherein ligaments interact with joint surfaces, cartilage and other connective tissue in their course of motion. this arrangement may enable energy conservation by providing joint stabilisation, optimised limb se ...200919538629
purification and partial characterization of a myofibril-bound serine protease from ostrich skeletal muscle.a myofibril-bound serine protease (mbsp) was partially purified from ostrich (struthio camelus) skeletal muscle. mbsp was dissociated from the myofibrillar fraction by ethylene glycol treatment at ph 8.5, followed by partial purification via toyopearl super q 650 s and p-aminobenzamidine column chromatographies. ostrich mbsp revealed a major protein band of approximately 21 kda on sds-page, showing proteolytic activity after casein zymography. optima ph and temperature of ostrich mbsp were 8 and ...200919559097
purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (struthio camelus).haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. the oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. the respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. in avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-p(5)) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for ...200919574638
aeromonas species associated with necrotizing enteritis and septicemia in an adult male ostrich (struthio camelus).a deceased 10-yr-old male ostrich was diagnosed with severe necrotizing enteritis and septicemia. the bird was inappetent for 3 wk and had neurologic signs 2 days prior to death. macroscopically, no significant lesions were noted aside from congestion of the liver, kidneys, and spleen. histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis,associated with large numbers of gram-negative bacteria, multifocal fibrinoid necrosis in portal arteries, accumulation of fibrin in hepatic sinusoids, myoc ...200919630242
microbial diversity in ostrich ceca as revealed by 16s ribosomal rna gene clone library and detection of novel fibrobacter species.the ostrich (struthio camelus) is a herbivorous bird and although the hindgut is known as the site for fiber digestion, little is known about the microbial diversity in the ostrich hindgut. our aim was to analyze the microbial diversity in ostrich ceca using a 16s ribosomal rna gene (rdna) clone library approach. a total of 310 clones were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed and were classified into 110 operational taxonomy units (otus) based on a 98% similarity criterion. the similarity of ...201019632349
pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in ostriches (struthio camelus).a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of sulfadiazine combined with trimethoprim (sulfadiazine/trimethoprim) was carried out in fifteen healthy young ostriches after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral administration at a total dose of 30 mg/kg body weight (bw) (25 and 5 mg/kg bw of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, respectively). the study followed a single dose, three periods, cross-over randomized design. the sulfadiazine/trimethoprim combination was administered to ostriches ...200919646090
pathological findings in the caeca of naturally infected ostriches, struthio camelus linnaeus, 1758 (aves, struthionidae) parasitized by codiostomum struthionis (horst, 1885) railliet and henry, 1911 (nematoda, strongylidae).in order to characterize lesions associated with codiostomum struthionis in ostriches, 10 caeca were examined on both macro- and microscopic levels. parasites were found in the distal third of the caecum and characterized as c. struthionis. thickened mucosa was identified macroscopically where parasites were observed in high concentrations. nodular areas were also observed in the distal third of the infected caeca, as well as hemorrhagic areas abutting small ulcers surrounded by edema. these fin ...200919647369
the use of xylazine, ketamine, and isoflurane for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in ostriches (struthio camelus).to evaluate the use of xylazine/ketamine and isoflurane for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in adult ostriches (struthio camelus), 7 healthy adult ostriches (weight 100-130 kg) were deprived of food for 12 hours and then given an injection of xylazine (4 mg/kg im), followed 20 minutes later by an injection of ketamine (8 mg/kg iv). after intubation, each bird was maintained on isoflurane anesthesia, and physiologic and hematologic parameters were measured. the respiratory rate and th ...200919673456
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in brazil. a total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees c until processing. oocysts were purified in sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic dna. molecular analyses were performed using nested-pcr for amplification of fragments of the 18s subunit of rrna gene and of the actin gene. a ...200919683397
wild ostrich (struthio camelus) ecology and physiology.this work discusses some of the important considerations of wild ostrich evolution, behaviour and ecology, as items included in ostrich production. in the process considerable research was conducted by collating information from peer-reviewed papers; textbooks; manuals; and pubmed and agricola searches. selected areas reviewed included activity of ostriches; feeding and water needs; sexual maturity; egg laying and natural incubation; selected physiological parameters; and predation. there is an ...201019693684
heterochronic shift between early organogenesis and migration of cephalic neural crest cells in two divergent evolutionary phenotypes of archosaurs: crocodile and ostrich.living archosaurs (crocodiles and birds) represent an intriguing evo-devo model system. although close in phylogenetic relationship, the two lineages show considerable divergence in trends of phenotypic evolution. the head anatomy of recent crocodilians has changed little in comparison with that of their crocodylomorph ancestors. the head phenotype of the avians (birds), as well as some non-avian theropods, shows numerous evolutionary innovations that differ considerably from the crocodylomorph ...200919754710
three-dimensional serial section computer reconstruction of the arrangement of the structural components of the parabronchus of the ostrich, struthio camelus lung.the ostrich, struthio camelus is the largest extant bird. the arrangement of the airway and the vascular components of the parabronchus of its lung were investigated by 3d serial section reconstruction. modestly developed atrial muscles, shallow atria, paucity of infundibulae with preponderant origination of the air capillaries (acs) from the atria and lack of interparabronchial septa, structural features that epitomize lungs of most highly derived metabolically active volant birds were observed ...200919768752
inspiratory aerodynamic valving occurs in the ostrich, struthio camelus lung: a computational fluid dynamics study under resting unsteady state inhalation.in the avian lung, inhaled air is shunted past the openings of the medioventral secondary bronchi (mvsb) by a mechanism termed 'inspiratory aerodynamic valving' (iav). sizes and orientations of the trachea (tr), syrinx (sx), extrapulmonary primary bronchus (eppb), intrapulmonary primary bronchus (ippb), mvsb, mediodorsal secondary bronchi (mdsb), lateroventral secondary bronchi (lvsb) and the ostium (ot) were determined in the ostrich, struthio camelus. air flow was simulated through computation ...200919786124
detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the ceca of ostrich using specific primer sets.the purpose of this study was to detect three fibrolytic bacteria, fibrobacter succinogenes, ruminococcus flavefaciens, and ruminococcus albus, in the cecal digesta of the ostrich (struthio camelus) by pcr using a species-specific primer set for each 16s ribosomal rna gene (16s rdna). although amplified dna fragments obtained from each primer set had the expected size, the clone library derived from the amplimer contained non-specific sequences. the f. succinogenes-specific primer set recovered ...201019787401
appearance of granulated cells in blood films stained by automated aqueous versus methanolic romanowsky methods.romanowsky stains are used routinely by veterinary clinical pathology laboratories for cytologic and blood film evaluations. automated stainers are available for both aqueous and methanolic romanowsky stains. mast cell granules and canine distemper virus inclusions are known to stain differently by these 2 methods, but we have noticed differences in the staining characteristics of other granulated cells.201019793228
ostrich involvement in the selection of h5n1 influenza virus possessing mammalian-type amino acids in the pb2 protein.amino acids at positions 627 and 701 in the pb2 protein (pb2-627 and pb2-701, respectively) of avian influenza a viruses affect virus replication in some mammalian cells. highly pathogenic h5n1 influenza viruses possessing mammalian-type pb2-627 were detected during the qinghai lake outbreak in 2005 and spread to europe and africa. via a database search, we found a high rate of viral isolates from ratitae, including ostrich, possessing mammalian-type pb2-627 or -701. here, we report that h5n1 av ...200919793811
posture in ovo as a precursor of footedness in ostriches (struthio camelus).two categories of behaviour involving lateralized posture were observed in semi-natural conditions in ostriches (struthio camelus). observing preferences for left or right foot, both in the forward foot posture (the foot standing in front at rest) and the starting foot used to initiate locomotion, a population-level right-foot preference was shown for the whole group and for each of the three age ranges considered (chick, young and adult). ostriches are known to rely upon a lateralized behaviour ...201019815058
leukocyte ultrastructure, hematological and serum biochemical profiles of ostriches (struthio camelus).in the last decade ostrich farms spread throughout the world as an alternative source of investment. although previous studies have reported hematology and biochemical values for ostriches from several regions of the world, little information is available regarding leukocyte morphology. this study reports the morphology and ultrastructure of ostrich leukocytes and hematology and biochemical values from birds raised in brazil. heterophils presented a lobulated nucleus, and fusiform, and acidophil ...200919834079
the effects of extreme seasonality of climate and day length on the activity budget and diet of semi-commensal chacma baboons (papio ursinus) in the cape peninsula of south africa.we examined the effects of extreme seasonality on the activity budget and diet of wild chacma baboons with access to a high-quality, human-derived food source. the cape peninsula of south africa is unusual among nonhuman primate habitats due to its seasonal extremes in day length and climate. winter days are markedly shorter and colder than summer days but have higher rainfall and higher primary production of annually flowering plants. this combination of fewer daylight hours but higher rainfall ...201019851982
distribution and morphology of argyrophilic cells in the digestive tract of the african ostrich.we used light microscopy to elucidate the morphological features of argyrophilic cells in the digestive tract of the african ostrich (struthio camelus). the results indicated that argyrophilic cells were found to be distributed among the epithelial cells of the mucosa or glands throughout the digestive tract, except for the esophagus; two types of argyrophilic cells were found; i.e., closed-type cells and cells with triangular or elongated shapes and with their apical cytoplasmic process in cont ...201019853267
the excurrent ducts of the testis of the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (struthio camelus): microstereology of the epididymis and immunohistochemistry of its cytoskeletal systems.the volumetric proportion of the various ducts of the epididymis of the emu and ostrich and the immunohistochemistry of actin microfilaments, as well as cytokeratin, desmin and vimentin intermediate filaments, were studied in the various ducts of the epididymis of the emu and ostrich. the volumetric proportions of various ducts, which are remarkably different from those of members of the galloanserae monophyly, are as follows: the rete testis, 5.2 +/- 1.4% for the emu and 2.4 +/- 1.8% for the os ...201019874278
expansion of robotics in urology: the pioneer and the ostrich. 201019875961
comparison of post-thaw dna integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed with the neutral comet assay and sperm-sus halomax test kit.in this study, we tested the hypothesis whether the neutral comet assay (nca) and the sperm-sus-halomax (ssh) test kit could provide similar measurements of post-thaw dna fragmentation of boar spermatozoa. whole ejaculates or sperm-rich fractions of boar semen were frozen in an extender containing lactose, lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (lpfo), glycerol (lactose-lpfo-g) or in a standard boar semen extender (k3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. in all boar ...201019895391
ultrastructural and molecular characterization of balantidium coli isolated in the philippines.balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoon inhabiting the colon of swine, rodents, horses, nonhuman primates and humans. in association with disease triggered by other infectious agents, b. coli may become a pathogenic opportunist. this study describes the isolation, cultivation, morphological as well as molecular characterization of b. coli isolated from the large intestine of a pig in the philippines. based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy, this protozoon presents a dense ciliati ...201019902250
[struthiolipeurus rheae harrison, 1916 (phthiraptera: philopteridae) infesting ostriches (struthio camelus) in one farming in the municipality of três rios, rj].in brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. in rio de janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the mun ...200920040199
[occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts (apicomplexa, cryptosporidiidae) in ostriches, struthio camelus l., 1758 (aves, struthionidae) reared in north and lowered coastline regions of the state of rio de janeiro, brazil].the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches reared in the state of rio de janeiro. the diagnosis of oocysts of cryptosporidium spp. in the feces of 77 ostriches was done by modified ziehl-neelsen technique. the occurrence was observed in 44.4% of the examined animals. however, in a property 100% of the ostriches shed oocysts in their feces. oocysts was subspherical in shape with 6.33 +/- 1.27 (4.31-9.63) by 5.90 +/- 1.18 (4.07-9.42) mm and shape ...200820059869
balantidium sp. in ostriches (struthio camelus l., 1758) in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil.the aim of this work was report for the first time the occurrence of balantidium sp. in ostriches reared in rio de janeiro state, brazil. feces samples from 82 ostriches were examined by the ziehl-neelsen technique and morphometric analyses were made of the cysts. the data were compared by a simple linear regression analysis. the cysts found ranged in size from 60.39 by 34.62 mm and 59.13 by 33.92 m in diameters. the spherical shape was confirmed by observing the shape index of 1.05 and r = 0.96 ...200820059871
regional specialization of the ganglion cell density in the retina of the ostrich (struthio camelus).in this study, retinal whole-mount specimens were prepared and stained with 0.1% cresyl violet for the ganglion cell study in the ostrich (struthio camelus). the total number, distribution, and size of these cells were determined in different retinal regions. the mean total number of ganglion cells (three retinas) was 1,435,052 with an average density of 652 cells/mm(2). the temporo-nasal area of the retina with high cell density were identified with the peak of 7525 cells/mm(2) in the central a ...201020163681
from the cover: a howiesons poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at diepkloof rock shelter, south africa.ongoing debates about the emergence of modern human behavior, however defined, regularly incorporate observations from the later part of the southern african middle stone age and emphasize the early appearance of artifacts thought to reflect symbolic practice. here we report a large sample of 270 fragments of intentionally marked ostrich eggshell from the howiesons poort at diepkloof rock shelter, western cape, south africa. dating from approximately 60,000 years ago, these pieces attest to an e ...201020194764
structural homologies, importance for catalysis and lipid binding of the n-terminal peptide of a fungal and a pancreatic lipase.lipases share an overall alpha/beta hydrolase fold structure characteristic of serine hydrolases. nevertheless, each lipases group possesses its characteristic 3-d structure and catalytic properties. the purified n-terminal truncated forms of a pancreatic (from ostrich) and a fungal (from rhizopus oryzae, rol32) (sayari et al., 2005) lipases displayed much lower activities as compared to the native proteins. the aim of this study is to explain this common functional feature on a structural basis ...201020214648
the policy of the ostrich. 191920311245
isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed namibian ostriches (struthio camelus f. dom.).meat and skin from farmed ostriches are valuable products for european consumers. the eu regulations require that ostrich products deamed for export need to come from ostriches that are free of antibodies against newcastle disease virus (avian paramxovirus type 1, apmv-1). after the detection of antibodies against apmv-1 in one of five ostrich farms in namibia, attempts were made to isolate the causative virus. no apmv-1 but an avian paramyxovirus type 3 (apmv-3) was isolated from five pharyngea ...201020329642
["the ostrich strategy" will not give us a national program for obesity surgery]. 201020333980
comparison of warfarin sensitivity between rat and bird species.scattering coumarin derivative rodenticides in broad areas have caused primary- and secondary-poisoning incidents in non-target wild birds. in this study, we compared factors determining warfarin sensitivity between bird species and rats based on vitamin k 2,3-epoxide reductase (vkor) kinetics, vkor inhibition by warfarin and warfarin metabolism assays. in vkor characterization, chickens and ostriches showed significantly lower enzymatic efficiencies than rats (one-sixth and one-third, respectiv ...201020346414
ontogenetic scaling of locomotor kinetics and kinematics of the ostrich (struthio camelus).kinematic and kinetic parameters of running gait were investigated through growth in the ostrich, from two weeks up to 10 months of age, in order to investigate the effects of increasing body size. ontogenetic scaling relationships were compared with published scaling relationships found to exist with increasing body size between species to determine whether dynamic similarity is maintained during growth. during the study, ostrich mass (m(b)) ranged from 0.7 kg to 108.8 kg. morphological measure ...201020348347
detection of ctx-m-14 and tem-52 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in fecal escherichia coli isolates of captive ostrich in portugal.the main aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance among escherichia coli isolates recovered in levine agar plates from 54 fecal samples of captive ostriches from a farm in the south of portugal. fifty-four nonselected e. coli isolates were obtained (one/sample) and the phenotypes and genotypes of antibiotic resistance were characterized. the following numbers of isolates showed antibiotic resistance: ampicillin (nine), tetracycline (seven), streptomycin (three), ...201020367084
evaluation of different serological tests for the detection of antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza in experimentally infected ostriches (struthio camelus).in the present study we collected 177 serum samples from ostriches (struthio camelus) infected experimentally with a/ostrich/south africa/middleton/2004 (h5n2) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. we tested these samples using the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test, the agar gel immunodiffusion test and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. we considered the hi test, with homologous antigen and including pre-treatment of sera with 10% chicken red blood cells, as the gold standard ...201020390531
avian influenza in ostriches: epidemiological investigation in the western cape province of south africa.an h5n2 avian influenza virus was isolated from ostriches in the eastern cape province of south africa in july 2004. during a subsequent national survey to determine the possible presence of the disease in other areas of south africa, specific antibodies against h5 avian influenza were detected by the haemagglutination inhibition test in ostrich sera collected in the western cape province. however, the sampling strategy used in the initial survey was developed to accommodate practical constraint ...200620429053
diversity of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (fthfs) gene in the proximal and mid ostrich colon.we analysed fragments of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (fthfs) gene, which encodes a key enzyme in reductive acetogenesis, from the bacterial flora in the proximal (pc) and mid (mc) colon of three ostriches to assess and compare bacterial diversity in this organ. two clone libraries of fthfs fragments were constructed from dna extracted from digesta of the pc and mc, and a total of 46 cloned sequences were analysed from each library. a wide variety of fthfs sequences were recovered. the ...201120458481
surface morphology of the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) tongue.despite numerous morphological studies on the avian tongue, very little meaningful information is currently available on the surface features of this organ using scanning electron microscopy (sem). the only sem description of a ratite tongue is that of the ostrich, although the descriptions are brief and superficial. this sem study of the emu tongue confirms and compliments the comprehensive macroscopic and histological data available for this commercially important species. the tongues of five ...201020491751
use of lysozyme, nisin, and edta combined treatments for maintaining quality of packed ostrich patties.the antimicrobial effectiveness of lysozyme, nisin, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (edta) combination treatments (mix(1): 250 ppm lysozyme, 250 ppm nisin, 5 mm edta; mix(2): 500 ppm lysozyme, 500 ppm nisin, 5 mm edta) on bacterial growth of ostrich patties packaged in air, vacuum, and 2 different modified atmospheres (map(1): 80% o(2), 20% co(2); map(2): 5% o(2), 30% co(2), 65% n(2)) was evaluated. moreover, the lipid oxidation was evaluated as well as color and sensory characteristics. t ...201020492308
characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 virus isolated from an ostrich.the continued spread of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus among poultry and wild birds has posed a potential threat to human public health. an influenza pandemic happens, when a new subtype that has not previously circulated in humans emerges. almost all of the influenza pandemics in history have originated from avian influenza viruses (aiv). birds are significant reservoirs of influenza viruses. in the present study, we performed a survey of avian influenza virus in ostriche ...201020497905
how does typicality of category members affect the deductive reasoning? an erp study.the typicality effect describes a phenomenon whereby a typical item is easier to be judged as a member of a category than are atypical items. this effect has been intensively studied in the context of category verification tasks. the present study further investigated the typicality effect using our newly developed category-based deductive reasoning task. subjects were required to judge whether an incoming stimulus had the properties described in the premise presented before. the stimuli were ei ...201020512485
phylogenetic analysis of influenza a viruses (h6n8, h1n8, h4n2, h9n2, h10n7) isolated from wild birds, ducks, and ostriches in south africa from 2007 to 2009.influenza a strains emerging from wild birds are a constant threat to south africa's valuable ostrich industry. in 2004 and again in 2006, low pathogenicity avian influenza h5n2 strains introduced from a wild bird reservoir mutated in ostriches to high pathogenicity avian influenza (hpai), with serious economic consequences and export bans imposed by the european union. although no outbreaks of notifiable avian influenza have occurred in south africa since 2006, the h9n2 virus caused a localized ...201020521652
epidemic outbreaks, diagnostics, and control measures of the h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the kingdom of saudi arabia, 2007-08.the first outbreak of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) in the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) occurred in two "backyard" flocks of houbara bustards and falcons in february 2007. subsequent outbreaks were seen through the end of 2007 in "backyard" birds including native chickens, ostriches, turkeys, ducks, and peacocks. from november 2007 through january 2008, h5n1 hpai outbreaks occurred in 19 commercial poultry premises, including two broiler breeder farms, one layer breeder farm, on ...201020521658
tinamous and moa flock together: mitochondrial genome sequence analysis reveals independent losses of flight among ratites.ratites are large, flightless birds and include the ostrich, rheas, kiwi, emu, and cassowaries, along with extinct members, such as moa and elephant birds. previous phylogenetic analyses of complete mitochondrial genome sequences have reinforced the traditional belief that ratites are monophyletic and tinamous are their sister group. however, in these studies ratite monophyly was enforced in the analyses that modeled rate heterogeneity among variable sites. relaxing this topological constraint r ...201020525622
characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from fecal samples of ostriches by molecular methods.the aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) in fecal samples of ostriches from a farm of southern portugal, the mechanisms implicated, and the associated virulence factors, 13 years after the banning of the glycopeptide avoparcin as animal growth promoter in the european union. fifty-four fecal samples of ostriches were inoculated in slanetz-bartley supplemented with vancomycin (4 microg/ml) for vre recovery. susceptibility to 11 antibiotics was ...201020528466
the arterial supply of the pelvic limb of the adult ostrich (struthio camelus).blood to the pelvic limb of the ostrich is provided by the external iliac and ischiatic arteries that arise from the descending aorta. the external iliac artery (a.) gave rise to the pubic a. that supplied the obturator muscles and continued as the femoral a. the femoral a. gave off three branches: (1) cranial coxal a. to muscles above the pre-acetabular ilium; (2) cranial femoral a. to muscles cranial to the femur, the gastrocnemius muscle, hip and stifle joints and (3) medial femoral a. to mus ...201020545635
bruising on ostrich carcasses and the implications on the microbiology and losses in utilizable meat when removing them post-evisceration or post-chilling.bruising on ostrich carcasses reduces meat yield. these bruises are usually removed as part of the primary meat inspection, performed directly after evisceration. three separate studies were conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of removing the bruises at primary meat inspection or after overnight cooling of the ostrich carcasses (0-4 degrees c). the bruised areas were also investigated to determine their frequency and distribution and to establish the most obvious causes and p ...201020591576
innervation of the pelvic limb of the adult ostrich (struthio camelus).with 24 figures summary the pelvic limb of the ostrich is innervated by the lumbar and sacral plexuses. the lumbar plexus gave rise to several nerves (n.s) including, n. coxalis cranialis, lateral and cranial femoral cutaneous n.s, n. femoralis, cranial, caudal and medial crural cutaneous n.s, and n. obturatorius. the remaining nerves emanated from the sacral plexus. the n. iliotibial, n. ischiofemoralis, n. iliofibularis, and n. coxae caudalis were distributed in the thigh, while the n. ischiad ...201020645957
interactions of egg yolk lipoprotein fraction with boar spermatozoa assessed with a fluorescent membrane probe.the interactions of a fluorescent membrane probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ans), with boar spermatozoa were followed through the use of lipoprotein fraction of ostrich egg yolk (lpfo). semen samples, extended in kortowo 3 (k3) extender, were supplemented with 2% or 5% lpfo and stored for 3h at 16 degrees c. additionally, cold shock-treated spermatozoa (1h at 4 degrees c) were stored in k3 extender supplemented with lpfo for 3h at 16 degrees c. in each boar, the fluorescent enhan ...201020675288
the case of the "human ostrich.". 189420754788
the policy of the ostrich. 191920769347
biochemical characterization and sperm motility parameters of ostrich (struthio camelus) semen.the aim of the study was to obtain baseline values for biochemical parameters of ostrich seminal plasma and sperm motility parameters measured by casa. biochemical characteristics of ostrich semen included a high protein concentration (29.3 ± 9.1g/l) and high amidase (280.6 ± 130.8 u/l) and ldh activity (1880.0 ± 983.6 u/l). on the other hand antioxidant, superoxide dismutase, anti-proteinase and acid phosphatase activity were low. biochemical parameters of semen were variable. motility of ostri ...201020833487
intracellular distribution of ns1 correlates with the infectivity and interferon antagonism of an avian influenza virus (h7n1).highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype h7n1 that emerged during an outbreak in 1999 and 2000 in italy differ from their low-pathogenicity precursor viruses by changes in several genes, including three mutations in the ns1 protein. two of them involve amino acid exchanges located within or closely adjacent to the nuclear export signal of ns1. the third mutation resulted in a new stop codon and thereby a c-terminal truncation of the ns1 protein of the highly pathogenic viruses. to fi ...201020844052
strain in the ostrich mandible during simulated pecking and validation of specimen-specific finite element models.finite element (fe) analysis is becoming a frequently used tool for exploring the craniofacial biomechanics of extant and extinct vertebrates. crucial to the application of the fe analysis is the knowledge of how well fe results replicate reality. here i present a study investigating how accurately fe models can predict experimentally derived strain in the mandible of the ostrich struthio camelus, when both the model and the jaw are subject to identical conditions in an in-vitro loading environm ...201120846282
west nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern africa.west nile virus (wnv) is widely distributed in south africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence. several cases of nonfatal encephalitis in humans as well as fatal cases in a foal, dog, and ostrich chicks have, however, been associated with lineage 2 wnv in south africa. the pathogenesis of lineage 2 wnv strains was investigated using mouse neuroinvasive experiments, gene expression ex ...201020854018
no time to play ostrich. 195320893677
distinct expression profiles of udp-galactose: β-d-galactoside α1,4-galactosyltransferase and udp-galactose: β-d-galactoside β1,4-galactosyltransferase in pigeon, ostrich and chicken.we previously identified two novel enzymes in pigeon, α1,4- and β1,4-galactosyltransferases (galts), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the galα1-4gal and galβ1-4gal sequences on glycoproteins, respectively. no such glycan structures and/or enzymes have been found in mammals, suggesting that the expression of these enzymes diverged during the course of vertebrate evolution. to compare their expression profiles among avian species, we first established a method for detecting the activi ...201020959391
prevalence of cryptosporidium baileyi in ostriches (struthio camelus) in zhengzhou, china.few data are available on the molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium species or genotypes in ostriches. a total of 452 fecal samples from five farms, a zoo, and an animal rescue center in zhengzhou, henan province, china were examined for cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy of wet mount of fecal materials concentrated by the sheather's sugar flotation technique. fifty-three samples were cry ...201021030152
adaptations for economical bipedal running: the effect of limb structure on three-dimensional joint mechanics.the purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical adaptations linked to economical locomotion in cursorial bipeds. we addressed this question by comparing mass-matched humans and avian bipeds (ostriches), which exhibit marked differences in limb structure and running economy. we hypothesized that the nearly 50 per cent lower energy cost of running in ostriches is a result of: (i) lower limb-swing mechanical power, (ii) greater stance-phase storage and release of elastic energy, and (iii) l ...201021030429
calcified cartilage shape in archosaur long bones reflects overlying joint shape in stress-bearing elements: implications for nonavian dinosaur locomotion.in nonavian dinosaur long bones, the once-living chondroepiphysis (joint surface) overlay a now-fossilized calcified cartilage zone. although the shape of this zone is used to infer nonavian dinosaur locomotion, it remains unclear how much it reflects chondroepiphysis shape. we tested the hypothesis that calcified cartilage shape reflects the overlying chondroepiphysis in extant archosaurs. long bones with intact epiphyses from american alligators (alligator mississippiensis), helmeted guinea fo ...201021046673
purification and partial characterization of ostrich skeletal muscle cathepsin d and its activity during meat maturation.cathepsin d was purified from ostrich (struthio camelus) skeletal muscle using pepstatin-a chromatography. the enzyme was comprised of two subunits (29.1 and 14 kda). the n-terminal amino acid sequence of both subunits were determined and showed high amino acid sequence identity to other cathepsin d homologs. ostrich cathepsin d was optimally active at ph 4 and at a temperature of 45°c, and was strongly inhibited by pepstatin-a (k(i)=3.07×10(-9)m) and dithiothreitol. cathepsin d activities from ...201021055883
cdna cloning of ghrelin and ontogeny of ghrelin mrna expression in the gastrointestinal tract of african ostrich chicks.ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghs-r). the sequence of ghrelin has been determined in many species ranging from fish to mammals. the ostrich is the largest herbivorous bird in the world. although the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract of african ostrich chicks have recently been determined, the sequence and structure of ghrelin and its expression in the gas ...201021134405
embryonic development of the emu, dromaius novaehollandiae.the chick, gallus gallus, is the traditional model in avian developmental studies. data on other bird species are scarce. here, we present a comparative study of the embryonic development of the chick and the emu dromaius novaehollandiae, a member of paleognathae, which also includes the ostrich, rhea, tinamou, kiwi, and cassowary. emu embryos ranging from hamburger and hamilton (hh) equivalent stages 1 to 43 were collected and their gross morphology analyzed. its early development was studied i ...201121181941
incidence, structure and morphological classification of abnormal sperm in the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae).little detailed information is currently available on the incidence and morphological characteristics of abnormal sperm in the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) and of ratites in general. this situation is further compounded by the lack of a uniform system for the morphological classification of avian sperm defects. considering the important role that sperm morphology plays in the assessment of semen quality, a detailed description of avian sperm defects is of paramount importance. based on morphol ...201021190730
molecular characterization of newcastle disease viruses in ostriches (struthio camelus l.): further evidences of recombination within avian paramyxovirus type 1.newcastle disease virus (ndv) strains isolated from ostriches have been genotyped for the first time by partial sequencing of the f gene to determine the epidemiologic role that this species can play within nd outbreaks. fifteen additional ndv strains, mostly isolated from chickens but also from pigeons and penguins, were also included in the study to determine genetic relationships with ostriches ndv isolates. high genetic diversity was demonstrated in ostrich ndv isolates, as the 10 isolates w ...201021215532
preventing sexually transmitted diseases: effecting behavioural change.the discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of std preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. they must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. this article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and std prevention in particular.199221221351
evolution of the moa and their effect on the new zealand flora.it is 150 years since sir richard owen announced the former existence of large flightless ostrich-like birds in new zealand based on a fragment of femur presented to him in england. numerous studies of this extinct group of giant birds, now known by the polynesian (plural) name 'moa', have provided much information about their effects on the flora, their recent extinction, and the evolutionary history of new zealand and its endemic biota. significant revision of moa taxonomy and ecology continue ...199321236223
prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.the prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. the effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. an attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the pla ...201021247040
occurrence of nematodes and anthelmintic management of ostrich farms from different brazilian states: libyostrongylus douglassii dominates mixed infections.ostriches were imported to brazil in the early 1990s without appropriate parasite control leading to a co-importation of parasites. libyostrongylus douglassii, libyostrongylus dentatus and codiostomum struthionis are nematodes of the ostriches that have been reported on some brazilian farms but no national survey has been performed. moreover, little is known about anthelmintic usage to control these parasites in brazil. therefore, the occurrence of l. douglassii, l. dentatus and c. struthionis a ...201021247703
histological, chemical, and morphological reexamination of the "heart" of a small late cretaceous thescelosaurus.a three-dimensional, iron-cemented structure found in the anterior thoracic cavity of articulated thescelosaurus skeletal remains was hypothesized to be the fossilized remains of the animal's four-chambered heart. this was important because the finding could be interpreted to support a hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were endothermic. mammals and birds, the only extant organisms with four-chambered hearts and single aortae, are endotherms. the hypothesis that this thescelosaurus has a preser ...201121279321
protection from avian influenza h5n1 virus infection with antibody-impregnated filters.there is worldwide concern over the possibility of a new influenza pandemic originating from the highly pathogenic avian h5n1 influenza viruses. we herein demonstrate that functional air filters impregnated with ostrich antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the h5n1 virus protect chickens from death by h5n1 transmission. these results suggest that the use of ostrich antibody-impregnated filters might be a powerful way to prevent the transmission of h5n1.201121303494
twice daily collection yields greater semen output and does not affect male libido in the ostrich.the success of an artificial insemination program in ostriches is highly dependent on the yield of viable semen. we, therefore, tested how semen output is affected by three different collection frequencies: once every 2d (48h interval), daily (24h interval), and twice a day (6h interval). ejaculates were collected from seven male ostriches (aged 2-4 years) for 10 consecutive days using the dummy female method. we assessed semen characteristics (sperm motility, volume, concentration, number of sp ...201121306843
morphology of the tongue of the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae). ii. histological features.although a number of brief, fragmented descriptions have been provided on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue, very few studies have documented the histological structure of this organ. this paper presents the first definitive histological description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the histology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. five tongues were removed from heads obtained from birds at slaughter and fixed in 10% neutr ...200921344785
toe function and dynamic pressure distribution in ostrich locomotion.the ostrich is highly specialized in terrestrial locomotion and is the only extant bird that is both didactyl and exhibits a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint. this extreme degree of digitigrady provides an excellent opportunity for the study of phalangeal adaptation towards fast, sustained bipedal locomotion. data were gathered in a semi-natural setting with hand-raised, cooperative specimens. dynamic pressure distribution, centre of pressure (cop) trajectory and the positional int ...201121389197
set a thief to catch a thief: brown-necked raven (corvus ruficollis) cooperatively kleptoparasitize egyptian vulture (neophron percnopterus).our study describes how brown-necked ravens (corvus ruficollis) are able to take advantage of an ordinarily inaccessible, high-quality food source by relying upon their innovative and manipulative thinking capabilities to exploit methods used by egyptian vulture (neophron percnopterus) to overcome the problem. in five observed interactions, the ravens were first seen in the vicinity of an abandoned clutch of ostrich eggs (struthio camelus). the area was frequented by a pair of egyptian vultures ...201121409436
"ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.vertebral artery dissections (vads) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. we present a case of bilateral extracranial vad as a complication of conducting an orchestra. to our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place exces ...201121440457
effect of additional boron on tibias of african ostrich chicks.the aim of the present study was to find out the effects of boron on ostrich chicks fed with 0 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 200 mg/l, and 400 mg/l of additional boron in water. we measured bone mineral density (bmd), perimeter, length, weight, ash content of ostrich tibias, thickness of cortical bone, and diameter of the marrow cavity. we also analyzed the apoptosis status of paraffin sections using a tunel kit and examined serum levels of leptin and estradiol (e(2)). the results were dramatic. compared with ...201121461669
antibodies against swine influenza virus neutralize the pandemic influenza virus a/h1n1.the most effective method for the prevention of influenza infection would be prophylaxis with a safe and effective vaccine and anti-viral materials. after vaccination, neutralizing antibodies are generated by plasma cells following various immune responses, thus resulting in protection against an infectious agent expressing the same antigens. however, in the case of novel or unknown pathogens, the onset of immune responses is occasionally delayed, thus resulting in considerable morbidity and mor ...201121468553
effects of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the microbiological quality and shelf life of ostrich meat.effects of various concentrations of o(2)/co(2) in modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological quality and shelf-life of ostrich meat was investigated. nine-12months old ostriches were used. the iliofibularis muscle was cut into small cubes that were divided into five groups and then separately packaged under various gas mixes: air and o(2):co(2):n(2) ratios of 80:20:0, 60:20:20, 60:40:0, and 40:40:20, using 2 different headspace ratios (1:1 and 3:1). the packaged meats were kept at 4°c ...201121474253
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: purification and inhibition studies of pigeon (columba livia var. domestica) red blood cell carbonic anhydrase with sulfonamides.a carbonic anhydrase (ca, ec 4.2.1.1) from red blood cells of pigeons (columba livia var. domestica), clca, was purified to homogeneity. its kinetic parameters for the co(2) hydration reaction were measured. with a k(cat)/k(m) of 1.1 × 10(8) m(-1) s(-1), and a k(cat) of 1.3 × 10(6) s(-1), clca has a high activity, similar to that of the human isoform hca ii. a group of 25 aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides incorporating the sulfanilamide, homosulfanilamide, benzene-1,3-disulfonamide, and acetazo ...201121476925
development of neutralization antibodies against highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza virus using ostrich (struthio camelus) yolk.the rapid outbreak of the highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza virus and its transmission to humans have induced world-wide fears of a new influenza pandemic. the most effective method for the reduction of the impact of such a pandemic would be prophylaxis with a safe and effective vaccine, as well as anti-viral materials. in this study, we generated the specific antibodies 'immunoglobulin yolk (igy)' from ostrich eggs immunized with a full-length glycosylated recombinant h5 protein of the str ...200821479398
potential role of sc1, a cell adhesion molecule, in mammary gland tumors.sc1, an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule, is expressed in embryonic tissues and plays an important role in development through its cell adhesive activity. sc1 is also found in a variety of tumors and its expression is associated with a poor prognosis. the expressional patterns of sc1 were examined in sporadic cases of canine mammary gland tumors and it was found that this molecule is enriched in adenocarcinomas and is weaker in benign mixed tumors. sc1 might therefore be involve ...200821479400
genotyping of potentially zoonotic giardia duodenalis from exotic and wild animals kept in captivity in brazil.we have studied the variability of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and small subunit ribosomal (ssu) rrna coding genes of giardia species in fecal samples isolated from wild and exotic animals in brazil, and compared with homologous sequences of isolates from human and domestic animals characterized in previous studies. cysts of giardia duodenalis were obtained from feces of naturally infected monkeys (alouatta fusca) (n=20), chinchillas (chinchilla lanigera) (n=3), ostriches (struthio camelus) (n ...201121530084
synergic antimicrobial activity of lysozyme, nisin, and edta against listeria monocytogenes in ostrich meat patties.synergic antimicrobial activity of lysozyme (250 ppm), nisin (250 ppm), and disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (edta) (20 mm) against listeria monocytogenes and meat-borne spoilage bacteria in ostrich patties packaged in air and vacuum was studied. the antimicrobial treatment decreased the l. monocytogenes population in ostrich patties below the official limit of the european union (<2 log cfu/g). the total viable counts for the treated samples (air and vacuum) showed a reduction of 1 log ...201021535551
a comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (struthio camelus), the kestrel (falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (pandion haliaetus).the spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. the histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). for this purpose, mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. germinal centers were not p ...201121555263
osteoinductivity of partially purified bovine, ostrich and emu bone morphogenetic proteins in vitro.the aim of this study was to observe the osteogenic activity of native bone morphogenetic proteins (bmps) obtained from different species including bovine, ostrich and emu sources in order to compare mammalian and avian bmps. rat mesenchymal progenitor marrow stromal cells and pre-osteoblastic c2c12 cell cultures, were exposed to the native bmps and alkaline phosphatase (alp) and creatine kinase (ck) levels were determined by assay. the results showed that the alp activity in c2c12 cultures was ...201121630431
coxa morphologically adapted to large egg in aepyornithid species compared with various palaeognaths.with 12 figures and 3 tables summary the coxa of palaeognaths including extinct aepyornithid species was compared by means of osteology, computed tomography (ct) imaging and macroscopic anatomy. the pre-acetabular area of the ilium was proportionally much larger in width and height in aepyornithid species than in other extant palaeognaths. the post-acetabular area of the ilium, ischium and pubis was relatively short and bilaterally extended in aepyornithid species. although the aepyornis species ...201121812805
maintenance nitrogen requirements of adult female ostriches (struthio camelus).successful ostrich farming requires knowledge of the nutritional needs of the birds. while much information is available on the nutritional value of various feed ingredients fed to ostriches, there is little known about their specific nutrient requirements. in this study, we measured the maintenance nitrogen requirements (mnr) of ostriches by nitrogen balance. we predict, based on the previous analysis of nitrogen requirements of various species of birds, that ostriches would have a mnr of 13.6- ...201121699584
genetic heterogeneity in internal transcribed spacer genes of balantidium coli (litostomatea, ciliophora).the species balantidium coli is the only ciliate that parasitizes humans. it has been described in other primates, and it has been proposed that the species b. suis from pigs and b. struthionis from ostriches are synonyms of b. coli. previous genetic analysis of pig and ostrich balantidium isolates found a genetic polymorphism in the its region but its taxonomic relevance was not established. we have extended the genetic analysis to balantidium isolates of pig, gorilla, human and ostrich origin. ...201121840258
the use of microsatellite polymorphism in genetic mapping of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the aim of this study was to determine microsatellite polymorphism in ostriches and using it in creation the genetic map of the ostrich. the polymorphism analysis covered 30 microsatellite markers characteristic of ostrich, for the cau (china agricultural university) group. the material consisted of 150 ostriches (struthio camelus). the 30 microsatellite loci was examined and a total of 343 alleles was identified. the number of alleles at a single locus ranged from 5 at locus cau78 to 34 at locu ...201121717061
a novel hydroxyapatite ceramic bone substitute transformed by ostrich cancellous bone: characterization and evaluations of bone regeneration activity.various biomaterials have been used for bone repair and reconstruction of bone defects. inorganic xenogenic bone substitutes have been intensively studied because they possesses favorable regenerative properties. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the properties of a novel inorganic xenogenic bone substitute, sintered ostrich cancellous bone (socb). bone regeneration capability was also comparing to that of other bone substitutes in rabbit calvarial defects. biochemical and biomechanical ...201121681951
An effective ostrich oil bleaching technique using peroxide value as an indicator.Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials) from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ...201121730920
post-mortem ph decline in different ostrich muscles.post-mortem glycolysis, as described by muscle ph decline, was investigated in several ostrich muscles. while the gastrocnemius pars interna, femorotibialis medius, iliotibialis lateralis and iliofemoralis showed the normal descending ph decline pattern, the ambiens as well as the iliofibularis showed a very rapid ph decline until 2 hr post mortem whereafter ph increased.199622060688
combination effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the physical and thermal properties of ostrich meat sausage (yor).ostrich meat sausages (yor) were subjected to ultra-high pressures of 300, 500 and 700mpa for 40 and 60min at 40 and 60°c. subsequently the physical properties of the products, colour, released and expressible water, gel strength and stress relaxation as well as their thermal characteristics (by differential scanning calorimeter, dsc) were determined. the effects of pressure, temperature and holding time significantly influenced the l(*), a(*) and b(*) values. the amount of released plus express ...200722061000
stunning and slaughter of ostriches.a study of the commercial stunning and slaughter of 783 ostriches in a republic of south african abattoir revealed that a simple ostrich handling system, combined with a leg clamp applied during stunning current flow and operated by experienced ostrich slaughtermen, resulted in a humane, efficient slaughter process. it was estimated that an electrical stunning current in excess of 400 milliamps at 50 hz ac, applied to the head only, would prevent recovery in more than 90% of the ostriches, when ...200222063642
molecular characterization of goose- and chicken-type lysozymes in emu (dromaius novaehollandiae): evidence for extremely low lysozyme levels in emu egg white.lysozyme (lz), a bacteriolytic enzyme, is found in the egg white of many avian eggs and plays an important role in host defense; however, lz activity in emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) egg white is exceptionally undetectable. we cloned and characterized emu goose-type lz (lzg) and chicken-type lz (lzc) genes. rt-pcr analysis revealed very low lzg gene expression levels and absence of lzc gene expression in the emu oviduct. sequencing of full-length lzg and lzc cdnas indicated that their amino aci ...201222044478
use of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures of lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus curvatus in production of ostrich meat salami.ostrich meat salami was produced by using lactobacillus plantarum strain 423 and lactobacillus curvatus strain df126. the strains produce the bacteriocins plantaricin 423 and curvacin df126, respectively. the specific activity of plantaricin 423 in mrs broth at 30 °c increased as the ph decreased from 6.5 to 3.5, but activity subsequently decreased. the activity of curvacin df126 increased under the same conditions, but remained stable for the duration of the growth cycle. maximum curvacin df126 ...200422060880
the effect of dietary fish oil rich in n-3 fatty acids on the organoleptic, fatty acid and physicochemical characteristics of ostrich meat.the effect of different levels of unrefined fish oil in the diet on ostrich musculus iliofibularis was evaluated in a completely randomised experimental design, where a supplementary energy rich feed, containing 6.7% fish oil, was fed at four different levels over a 7-month period. an increase in the amount of fish oil consumed was found to have had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of ostrich meat, although there was a tendency towards an increase in fishiness, for both aroma ...200522063279
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