dermatitis & conjunctivitis in workers on an ostrich farm following thrips infestation. 200717598947
running in ostriches (struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-d) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, ...200717601959
the molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birds.palaeognathous birds (struthioniformes and tinamiformes) have morphologically conserved karyotypes and less differentiated zw sex chromosomes. to delineate interspecific chromosome orthologies in palaeognathous birds we conducted comparative chromosome painting with chicken (gallus gallus, gga) chromosome 1-9 and z chromosome paints (gga1-9 and ggaz) for emu, double-wattled cassowary, ostrich, greater rhea, lesser rhea and elegant crested tinamou. all six species showed the same painting pattern ...200717605112
muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (struthio camelus).muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance. pelvic limbs of six juvenile ostriches were used for this study. the tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the ranges of motion observed during level running. six of the 21 muscles measured were found to h ...200717608640
macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich (struthio camelus).the macroscopic features of the arterial supply to the reproductive system of the male ostrich was studied in 16 pre-pubertal and eight sexually mature and active birds. the left and right cranial renal arteries arise from the aorta, between the cranial divisions of the kidneys. these vessels supply the cranial divisions of the kidneys, the testes, the epididymides and the cranial segments of the ducti deferentia. accessory testicular arteries which arise directly from the aorta are present in 4 ...200717617101
a case of conjoined cephalopagus twinning in an ostrich (struthio camelus).conjoined twinnings have been reported in most domestic animal species and in some avian species. cases of conjoined twins have not been reported in the ostrich so far. a hybrid blue neck x african black male ostrich conjoined twinning was born at the end of artificial egg incubation and died spontaneously 24 h after the hatching. it was frozen and sent to the unit of veterinary pathology of the university of messina for gross examination. the most important gross findings involved the external ...200717617102
ostrich pancreatic phospholipase a(2): purification and biochemical characterization.ostrich pancreatic phospholipase a(2) (opla(2)) was purified from delipidated pancreases. pure protein was obtained after heat treatment (70 degrees c), precipitation by ammonium sulphate and ethanol, respectively followed by sequential column chromatography on monoq sepharose and size exclusion hplc column. purified opla(2), which is not a glycosylated protein, was found to be monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 13773.93 da. a specific activity of 840u/mg for purified opla(2) was measure ...200717656163
[the avian middle ear (struthio camelus). data for the physiology of sound transmission in systems with a single ossicle in the chain].the columella of birds, often cited in the literature, has yet to be adequately described. we aim to give an account of this transmission element, describing its anchoring systems and detailing the muscle associated to it.200717663944
a preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (struthio camelus).electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. the heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47 +/- 9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52 +/- 2.64 beats/minute. the p-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. the ors complexes were mainly negative and either ...200717665766
differences in stride between healthy ostriches (struthio camelus) and those affected by tibiotarsal rotation.twenty healthy ostriches (ten cocks and ten hens), and twenty birds with tibiotarsal rotation (nine cocks and 11 hens) (14 months old) were isolated, hooded and weighed. a run (50 m x 2.5 m) was divided into sections marked 5 m, 10 m, 15 m and 20 m. time taken for each bird to pass these points was recorded and speed computed. the degree of tibiotarsal rotation in the right foot was mean +/- sem, 156 +/- 2.69 degrees. comparisons between left and right foot length in healthy birds showed no sign ...200717665768
the evolution of the avian genome as revealed by comparative molecular cytogenetics.birds are characterised by feathers, flight, a small genome and a very distinctive karyotype. despite the large numbers of chromosomes, the diploid count of 2n approximately 80 has remained remarkably constant with 63% of birds where 2n = 74-86, 24% with 2n = 66-74 and extremes of 2n = 40 and 2n = 142. of these, the most studied is the chicken (2n = 78), and molecular cytogenetic probes generated from this species have been used to further understand the evolution of the avian genome. the ancest ...200717675846
parallel mutations in the ostrich. 192017737045
paleognathous carinate birds from the early tertiary of north america.fossils newly discovered in the paleocene and early eocene of western north america document some of the oldest birds known from nearly complete skeletons. these were medium-sized carinates with powers of sustained flight but which had a paleognathous palate like that of the flightless ostrich-like birds and the tinamous. the fossils provide additional evidence that the paleognathous palate is probably primitive and therefore should not be cited as a derived character state to define the ostrich ...198117789293
dating pleistocene archeological sites by protein diagenesis in ostrich eggshell.eggshells of the african ostrich (struthio camelus), ubiquitous in archeological sites in africa, have been shown by laboratory simulation experiments to retain their indigenous organic matrix residues during diagenesis far better than any other calcified tissue yet studied. the rate of l-isoleucine epimerization to d-alloisoleucine follows reversible first-order kinetics and has been calibrated for local temperature effects and used to estimate the age range of stratified archeological sites. a ...199017843317
effect of diet on the metabolic profile of ostriches (struthio camelus var. domesticus).in order to study the metabolic profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 40 animals of both sexes were divided equally into two groups and fed two diets ad libitum consisting, on a dry matter basis, of the same commercial concentrate (60%) for the two groups and of corn silage (group a) or alfalfa hay (group b). in the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein. the following haematological parameters were determined with an automatic system (ektachem 250 analy ...200717847821
sexual practices of church youths in the era of hiv/aids: playing the ostrich.the church could be a powerful force for social and behavioural change, particularly in the current efforts to combat the hiv/aids pandemic. anecdotal evidence suggests that church youths are sexually active but few studies have documented the sexual practices of these youths. we looked at the sexual practices of 341 youths in two churches in southern nigeria. sixty-five percent were sexually experienced; age at first sexual intercourse for males was seven years and eight years for females. by 1 ...200717851991
experimental infectious bursal disease in the ostrich (struthio camelus).clinically severe disease was produced in ostriches aged 4 weeks by oral infection with a virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (vibdv), namely strain faragher 52/70. four days after infection the birds were humanely killed and tissue samples, including thymus, bursa of fabricius (bf), brain and kidney were collected for examination. histopathologically, the thymus and bf showed severe lymphoid depletion and necrosis, while immunolabelling with a polyclonal antibody demonstrated abu ...200717880991
proteolytic cleavage of ostrich and turkey pancreatic lipases: production of an active n-terminal domain.the aim of this study was to check some biochemical and structural properties of ostrich and turkey pancreatic lipases (opl and tpl, respectively).200717895836
ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus) during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity.the ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. in ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. a simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with a ...200717933362
fertilizing capacity of boar semen frozen in an extender supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein fractions--a pilot study.a limited field trial was performed to evaluate the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa frozen in an extender supplemented with lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (lpfo). boar semen, diluted in an extender containing lactose with lyophilized lipoprotein fractions, glycerol and orvus es paste (lactose-lpfo-g), was frozen using a controlled programmable freezer. sperm characteristics, such as motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial function were m ...200717937184
semen collection in the ostrich (struthio camelus) using a dummy or a teaser female.1. we investigated the feasibility of training male ostriches to ejaculate into an artificial cloaca (ac) using a teaser female or a dummy. 2. male ostriches develop desirable behaviour patterns that allow them to be trained to the teaser and the dummy female. training success can be high as both methods rely on natural stimulation and voluntary ejaculation into the ac provided suitable individuals are identified. 3. the key factors to successful training appear to be: the teaser method - temper ...200717952736
poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants--field from post-mortem and field studies were obtained that discussed poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants. from the notes, all plants studied caused death in ostriches and there was systemic organ damage. poisoning from sarcostemma viminale (melktou) resulted in beak patting, muscular tremors and head flopping, followed by collapse and violent kicking before death. ingestion of combretum oatesii (red wings) seeds from plants in free grazing pastures resulted in vomiting, re ...200717966275
nodular trombiculinosis caused by apolonia tigipioensis, torres and braga (1938), in an ostrich (struthio camelus) and a house sparrow (passer domesticus).nodular trombiculinosis has been reported in brazil in chickens [torres, s., braga, w., 1939. apolonia tigipioensis, g. e sp. n. (trombiculinae) parasito de gallus gallus dom. chave para determinação de gêneros. boletim da s.a.i.c. 4, 37-44] and humans [carneiro, l.s., 1952. uma nova acaríase humana - contribuição ao seu estudo. imprensa industrial, recife. faculdade de medicina da universidade do recife, tese livre docência, p. 56]. in this report, a juvenile ostrich and a house sparrow, both o ...200717981395
study of the morphology of the olfactory organ of african ostrich chick.the anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ of african ostrich chick were carefully observed by gross anatomy observation, paraffin sectioning and haematoxylin-eosin (he) staining. the results showed that there were no keratotic nose lids at the entrance of the external naris, and that the nasal cavity was separated into two imperforate compartments by the nasal septum. the posterior conchae were connected with the middle conchae without cohering to nasal walls, and appeared to be part of a ...200817986311
purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (struthio camelus) eggshell.the purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (sca-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported.200718007058
evolution of brain size in the palaeognath lineage, with an emphasis on new zealand ratites.brain size in vertebrates varies principally with body size. although many studies have examined the variation of brain size in birds, there is little information on palaeognaths, which include the ratite lineage of kiwi, emu, ostrich and extinct moa, as well as the tinamous. therefore, we set out to determine to what extent the evolution of brain size in palaeognaths parallels that of other birds, i.e., neognaths, by analyzing the variation in the relative sizes of the brain and cerebral hemisp ...200818032885
big birds and their brains: paleoneurology of the new zealand moa.the moa (dinornithiformes: aves) are an extinct group of ratites from the north and south islands of new zealand. the ancestors of both the moa and the kiwi were isolated from other gondwanan fauna as much as 80 million years ago and evolved in the absence of large mammalian predators. as such they represent a natural experiment in the removal of mammalian predation pressure on the encephalization of these two groups of ratites. we have used endocranial and skull morphometry in conjunction with ...200818032890
evaluation of the biocompatibility and osteoproductive activity of ostrich eggshell powder in experimentally induced calvarial defects in rabbits.the purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of particulate ostrich eggshell grafting on the healing of experimentally induced skull defects. the clinical, radiological, histological, and histomorphometrical findings of this material were compared with the results of commercially available demineralized bone matrix (dbm). the study was conducted on 18 adult new zealand rabbits. one defect served as a control and the remaining ones either were filled with different sized eg ...200818076098
mixed infection by libyostrongylus douglassii and l. dentatus (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) in struthio camelus (ratites: struthioniformes) from brazil with further morphological characterization of adults.the genus libyostrongylus includes three species, l. douglassii, l. dentatus and l. magnus that occur as parasites in the proventriculus of struthio camelus. we confirmed a mixed infection by l. douglassii and l. dentatus in farmed ostriches from the southeast of brazil for the first time, and provided new information on some morphological characters that differentiate these species. adult nematodes collected from the proventriculus of ostriches were observed by light and scanning electron micro ...200818155840
the ostrich syndrome: obstetrician gynecologists and human immunodeficiency virus exposure.obstetrician-gynecologists and midwives as well as surgical and labor and delivery staff are at risk for contact with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), but measures can be taken to reduce the risk of exposure and transmission. physician denial of exposure is common. prompt identification of exposure, including rapid testing of index patients of unknown hiv status, combined with prompt initiation of prophylactic medication, may reduce transmission by 81%.200818165408
spread bow leg syndrome in ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks aged 2 to 12 weeks.1. the incidence of spread bow leg syndrome and associated pathology in 15 ostrich chicks aged 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks is reported. measurements were made of hind limbs: femur plus tibiotarsus; tarsometatarus; phalanx i, digit iii; phalanx ii, digit iii plus phalanx iii, digit iii; and phalanx iv, digit iii. 2. a run was constructed (6 m x 1.7 m) and subdivided into 2 m sections and the time taken to traverse it was recorded. measurements (cm) were made of the left and right footprints; the number ...200818210283
an ultrastructural characterization of the ooplasm in ovarian follicles of the immature ostrich (struthio camelus).primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic follicles were present in the ovary of the immature ostrich. the oocytes of these follicles were composed of a nucleus surrounded by ooplasm. central, intermediate and cortical regions formed the ooplasm. the organelles present in these ooplasmic regions varied depending on the stage of follicular development. in primordial and small pre-vitellogenic (100-150 microm in diameter) follicles the central region of the ooplasm was dominated by an accumula ...200818221500
morphological and immunohistochemical study of testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (struthio camelus).the testicular capsule and peritubular boundary tissue of the emu and ostrich, as typical representatives of ratite birds, were studied in sexually mature and active birds. the testicular capsule was much thicker (578.1+/-73.4 microm for the free surface of the ostrich testis, and 176.2+/-57.5 microm for the emu) than those of members of the galloanserae. the cellular composition of both testicular capsule and peritubular tissue was similar generally to that of members of the previously studied ...200818236082
outcome-based education--the ostrich, the peacock and the beaver.significant progress has been made with the move to outcome-based education (obe) in medicine and learning outcomes are on today's agenda. learning outcomes have been specified in a number of areas and frameworks or models for communicating and presenting learning outcomes have been described. obe has, however, two requirements. the first is to make the learning outcomes explicit and the second is the use of the specified outcomes as a basis for decisions about the curriculum. it is the second r ...200718236254
molecular characterization of h5n2 avian influenza viruses isolated from south african ostriches in 2006.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n2 reemerged in ostriches in south africa during 2006, and a low-pathogenic ai h5n2 virus was also isolated. molecular and phylogenetic characterization was performed to determine whether the outbreak strains were genetically derived from the supposedly eradicated eastern cape ostrich outbreak hpai h5n2 strain of 2004. it was demonstrated that although the 2004 and 2006 south african h5n2 strains shared a common ancestor, the two outbreaks were not rela ...200718251396
ultrastructural features of atretic follicles in the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus).the aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural features of atresia in follicles of the immature ostrich (12-14 months old); a ratite that displays seasonal, precocious ovarian activity. the early stage of atresia in primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic follicles was characterized by the accumulation of lipid droplets in the granulosa cells. granulosa cells with condensed cytoplasm and nuclei were a prominent feature during the intermediate phase of atresia. the degenerating f ...200818312605
occurrence of pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 in various species and its relationship with herbivore diet.the occurrence of classical pancreatic lipase (pl) and pancreatic lipase-related proteins 1 and 2 (plrp1s and 2) in the pancreas of ten mammalian species (humans, pig, rat, guinea pig, coypu, rabbit, horse, ox, goat and sheep) and two bird species (ostrich and turkey) was investigated. the lipases were purified from delipidated pancreas and identified based on the results of western blotting analysis with anti-human plrp2 serum, the catalytic properties and n-terminal microsequencing data. plrp2 ...200818328758
intestinal entrapment in the right pulmonary ostium after castration in a juvenile ostrich (struthio camelus).a juvenile ostrich (struthio camelus) was castrated in 2 procedures (right and left hemicastrations) at 3 and 4 months of age. the bird had 3 episodes of depression, inappetence, and head-shaking with apparent dysphagia of 1-3 days duration during the 4 months after the first surgical procedure. it was found dead at 7.5 months of age with no clinical signs in the days immediately preceding the death. at necropsy, the intestine was found entrapped in the right pulmonary ostium. death likely resul ...200718351008
outbreak of severe disseminated aspergillosis in a flock of ostrich (struthio camelus).this study was undertaken to describe clinical, mycological and histopathological findings in black neck ostriches affected with severe aspergillosis in a flock including 80 birds, near tehran, iran. the signs included anorexia, depression, notable weight loss, diarrhoea, severe respiratory distress and death. grossly, the lungs showed numerous white to yellow caseous nodules and the walls of the thoracic and abdominal air sacs were thickened with inflammatory exudates containing cellular debris ...200818422919
role of disulfide bonds in goose-type lysozyme.the role of the two disulfide bonds (cys4-cys60 and cys18-cys29) in the activity and stability of goose-type (g-type) lysozyme was investigated using ostrich egg-white lysozyme as a model. each of the two disulfide bonds was deleted separately or simultaneously by substituting both cys residues with either ser or ala. no remarkable differences in secondary structure or catalytic activity were observed between the wild-type and mutant proteins. however, thermal and guanidine hydrochloride unfoldi ...200818430025
species identification in meat products using real-time of the most convenient methods for the identification of animal species in processed meat products is the examination of dna sequences. real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) techniques are particularly suitable because even small fragments of dna formed during heat processing of the meat can be amplified and identified. a real-time pcr method has been developed and evaluated for the identification of processed meat products. in test mixtures containing beef, pork, horse, mutton, chicken ...200818473208
comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination inhibition test for the detection of antibodies against newcastle disease virus in ostriches (struthio camelus).reactivity of ostrich sera to newcastle disease virus (ndv) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test were compared. ten-month old ostriches seronegative by both tests were vaccinated with an oil-based ndv vaccine on days 0 and 11. significant levels of reactive antibodies were first detected on day 11 by elisa (sample/positive ratio > 0.2 in 11/20 birds; 55%) and hi (titre > 1/8 in 10/20 birds; 50%). at the end of the experiment (day 37) all birds h ...199718483912
isolation of influenza a virus, subtype h5n2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in europe.a total of 146 of 506 ostriches (struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in denmark died within the first 23 days. the majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. avian influenza a viruses (aivs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each of three or four ostriches, which died over the first 3 weeks. the aivs were detected in respiratory tissues, kidneys and intestines. all were subtype h5n2. the intravenous pathogenicity index of each ...199818483960
selenium-vitamin e responsive myopathy in farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) in botswana.four adult ostriches developed sudden onset paresis and were unable to stand up when disturbed. after treatment with selenium and vitamin e, one of the birds could stand and move normally. the others died and post mortem examination revealed pale patches in the thigh muscles. histopathological examination showed degeneration of skeletal muscles as seen in nutritional myopathy. serum selenium and vitamin e levels were low whereas aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels were very hig ...199818484008
isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (struthio camelus) and emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) in europe with inconsistent serology.during a 95-day study period in 1995 in denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died. clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the flock. management failures and indoor housing were believed to have contributed significantly to the number of deaths. samples from 17 of the dead ostriches were examined virologically. three isolates of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (apmv-1) were obtained fr ...199818484013
experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza a h5 viruses in ostrich chicks (struthio camelus) and chickens.virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza a viruses of subtype h5. one of the viruses, a/turkey/england/50-92/91 (h5n1) (50/92), was highly pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation. the other virus, a/ostrich/denmark-q/72420/96 (h5n2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in denmark during 1996, was of ...199818484019
risk factors for seropositivity to h5 avian influenza virus in ostrich farms in the western cape province, south a 2005 serological survey, carried out in response to an outbreak of h5n2 avian influenza (ai) in ostriches in the eastern cape province, 16.3% of ostrich farms in the western cape province of south africa were found to be seropositive to h5 ai virus. we subsequently carried out a questionnaire-based census survey on all available registered western cape ostrich farms that still existed at the end of 2005 (367 farms, of which 82 were seropositive), in order to identify risk factors associated ...200818486977
factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs.the ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37,740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. roughly 10,000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. although infection may have played a ro ...200718507217
ostrich (struthio camelus) production in egypt.this review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in egypt. in the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: alexandria, al-behera, al-dakahlia, al-wadi al-gadid, aswan, cairo, el-sh ...200818509943
light and scanning electron microscopic study of the structure of the ostrich (strutio camelus) tongue.the ostrich's tongue is situated in the posterior part of the oropharyngeal cavity and its length is only about a quarter of the beak cavity. the triangular shortened tongue has retained the usual division into the apex, the body and the root. there are no conical papillae between the body and the root of the tongue, and the presence of the flat fold with lateral processes sliding over the tongue root in the posterior part of the lingual body is a unique morphological feature. all lingual mucosa ...200818533750
structural and immunohistochemical features of the epididymal duct unit of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the epididymal duct unit, comprising the ductus conjugens, ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens, was studied histologically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically in five sexually mature and active birds. the main morphological features of the pre-dominant non-ciliated (type iii) cell of the epithelial lining of this duct unit include, but are not limited to, a moderately abundant smooth or sparsely granulated endoplasmic reticulum, electron-dense secretory granules and numerous mitocho ...200818537946
a preliminary microsatellite genetic map of the ostrich (struthio camelus).molecular genetic maps can provide information for the identification and localization of major genes associated with quantitative traits. however, there are currently no published genetic linkage maps for any ratites. herein, a preliminary genetic map of ostrich was developed using a two-generation ostrich reference family by linkage analysis of 104 polymorphic microsatellite markers, including 40 novel markers reported in this study. a total of 35 microsatellite markers were placed into 13 lin ...200818544936
predicting biodegradable volatile solids degradation profiles in the composting process.this paper presents a new method for the prediction of the pattern of biodegradable volatile solids (bvs) degradation in the composting process. the procedure is based on a re-arrangement of the heat balance around a composting system to numerically solve for the rate of bvs carbon (bvs-c) disappearance. input data for the model was obtained from composting experiments conducted in a laboratory-scale, constant temperature difference (ctd) reactor simulating a section of an aerated static pile, a ...200918572400
an immunohistochemical study of ovarian innervation in the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae).the present study investigated the distribution of nerves in the ovary of the emu. the neuronal markers, protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and neuron specific enolase demonstrated the constituents of the extrinsic and intrinsic ovarian neural systems. the extrinsic neural system was composed of ganglia in the ovarian stalk, as well as nerve bundles, which were distributed throughout the ovary. isolated neuronal cell bodies, in the medulla and cortex, formed the intrinsic neural sys ...200818575065
assessment of the stresses imposed on adult ostriches (struthio camelus) during handling, loading, transportation and unloading.the stresses imposed during the handling, loading and unloading of 250 adult ostriches (struthio camelus) transported by road were evaluated, weighted, scored and later compared with some objective physiological indices of stress measured after the journey. during handling, the numbers of slips and falls, incidents of aggressive behaviour, the calculated behavioural points, the number of injuries recorded per ostrich and the time spent were significantly (p<0.01) greater than the values recorded ...200818587061
pancreatic proteolytic enzymes of ostrich purified on immobilized protein inhibitors. characterization of a new form of chymotrypsin (chtr1).four forms of chymotrypsin (chtr1, chtr2, chtr3, chtr4), one form of trypsin and one form of elastase were purified from a slightly alkaline extract of ostrich (struthio camelus) pancreas. the zymogens in the crude extract were activated with immobilized trypsin and then separated by affinity chromatography using immobilized inhibitors and ion exchange chromatography. one of the purified forms of chymotrypsin (chtr1) exhibited an unusual interaction with the highly selective protein trypsin inhi ...200818598777
a retrospective study on the prevalence of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in botswana.a retrospective study on the prevalence of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in botswana was conducted by reviewing meat inspection records available at the botswana ostrich company abattoir in gaborone for the 3 year period that the abattoir had been in operation. the most frequently condemned organs were lung (85.1%), liver (8%), intestine (3.3%), heart (2.7%) and kidney (0.8%). the most frequently encountered macroscopic findings were contamination (80%), congestion (10%), enteritis (3% ...200918622734
animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in santa cruz do capibaribe, brazil.the use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. in northeastern brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern brazil, especiall ...200818647413
isolation of an influenza a virus from ostriches (struthio camelus).an influenza a virus of the h7 n1 subtype was isolated from young ostriches which died after developing a syndrome characterized by a green discolouration of the urine, weakness and signs of respiratory distress. mortality varied, depending on the age of the ostriches, the presence of other infectious agents and the amount of stress to which they were exposed. using the haemagglutination inhibition test, an amnestic response was recorded in ostriches which recovered from the disease. pathogenici ...199318670997
botulism in ostriches (struthio camelus).an outbreak of botulism in ostriches (struthio camelus) is described. some birds became totally paralysed, and many developed paresis and ataxia. clostridium botulinum type c and its toxin were found in the remains of an ostrich carcass collected from the camp in which the birds were kept. toxin could not be demonstrated in the serum of affected ostriches. treatment with specific antitoxin resulted in total recovery of almost all the birds.199418671084
tentative identification of the species of balantidium from ostriches (struthio camelus) as balantidium coli-like by analysis of polymorphic dna.the characteristics of balantidium from ostriches (struthio camelus) are similar to those of balantidium coli; however, the species balantidium struthionis was proposed on the basis of the host species (ostriches) and the shape of the macronucleus (with a deep depression in one side). in the present work, we have performed morphological and genetic comparisons between isolates of balantidium from ostriches and b. coli from pigs to determine the specific status of b. struthionis. the morphologica ...200818675516
newcastle disease in ostriches (struthio camelus): field case and experimental outbreak of newcastle disease (nd) in ostriches is described. in a flock aged 5 to 9 months of age 13 out of 46 ostriches died, whereas a neighbouring flock of 11-month-old birds remained unaffected. the main clinical signs were nervous. hemagglutination inhibition (hi) titres reached log(2) 8. the virus was isolated from the brain only. experimental infection of five, 3-month-old ostriches with virulent nd virus caused the death of three birds within 5 to 10 d. another had to be killed after ...198918679855
haematological parameters of the otrich (struthio camelus).haematological reference values according to age and sex, were obtained from healthy ostriches (struthio camelus) held under intensive conditions. erythrocytic parameters and indices demonstrated an age-related trend: the packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte count were lowest in ostriches of 1 to 3 months of age. the mean corpuscular volume increased with age until adulthood. no sex-linked differences were demonstrated in regard to the erythrocytic parameters. leukocyte ...198918679863
effect of water restriction on renal function in ostriches (struthio camelus).the production of a white urine by ostriches can be indicative of illness or water deprivation. a metabolic renal study was carried out by dehydrating young, healthy ostriches for 2 days, the period during which urine was still excreted. it was found that the normally copious colourless urine changed to a thick, white excretion after 2 days dehydration and no fluid was excreted after 3 days. from the blood and urine analyses it is concluded that the ostrich conserves body water by an excellent r ...199018679946
pox in ostriches.clinical signs suggesting pox were observed in a flock of ostrich chicks (struthio camelus), 10 to 60 days old. the disease was confirmed by isolation of the agent from affected ostriches and reproduction of typical pox lesions in turkeys. further infection of young ostriches was prevented by vaccination with fowl pox vaccine.198818766730
further study of codiostomum struthionis (horst, 1885) railliet and henry, 1911 (nematoda, strongylidae) parasite of ostriches (struthio camelus linnaeus, 1758) (aves, struthioniformes).codiostomum struthionis is a nematode parasite of the ostrich caecum. little is known about its pathology, being considered by many authors as a non-pathogenic parasite. infections by c. struthionis are sometimes overlooked because its eggs are indistinguishable from another ostrich nematode, libyostrongylus spp. fecal cultures and infective larvae identification are necessary for proper identification. the aim of this study is to provide improved morphological characterization of adults and inf ...200818774651
survey of plasma and liver mineral concentrations and enzyme activities in ostriches (struthio camelus) under farmed conditions in new generate clinical biochemical data to aid diagnosis of suboptimal performance in ostriches farmed under pastoral systems in new zealand.200818836502
novel reovirus isolation from an ostrich (struthio camelus) in orthoreovirus was isolated from an ostrich (struthio camelus) and rapidly identified as orthoreovirus by the rapid determination of viral rna sequences (rdv) system and electron microscopy. phylogenetic analysis of the sigma a protein indicated that the isolate belonged to avian species and was closely related to chicken orthoreovirus strain 138. the results of the present study indicated that an ostrich orthoreovirus is slight different from other chicken orthoreoviruses and provided evidenc ...200918838232
a comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (struthio camelus).commercially reared ostriches at msengi farm situated in the chinhoyi area of mashonaland west province in zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. this was the ist record of the fluke in zimbabwe. trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. a total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into ...200818846856
primary chondrification foci in the wing basipodium of struthio camelus with comments on interpretation of autopodial elements in crocodilia and aves.the present analysis consists of (1) description of the primary chondrification patterns and their transformation into ossified elements in the basipodium of struthio camelus; (2) comparison of these with the conditions found in alligator and gallus; and (3) interpretation of the autopodial elements of archaeopteryx. conclusions: (1) the existence of five discrete metacarpal condensations in the 16-day embryo of struthio argues for unique linear patterning process for each, and these are interpr ...200918942113
the paranasal air sinuses of predatory and armored dinosaurs (archosauria: theropoda and ankylosauria) and their contribution to cephalic structure.the paranasal air sinuses and nasal cavities were studied along with other cephalic spaces (brain cavity, paratympanic sinuses) in certain dinosaurs via ct scanning and 3d visualization to document the anatomy and examine the contribution of the sinuses to the morphological organization of the head as a whole. two representatives each of two dinosaur clades are compared: the theropod saurischians majungasaurus and tyrannosaurus and the ankylosaurian ornithischians panoplosaurus and euoplocephalu ...200818951476
a simple and rapid pcr-based method for ostrich sexing using micro amounts of dna.the aim of the present study is to identify ostrich sex by using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) on micro amounts of dna from blood, bloodstain and feathers. sixteen male and 18 female ostriches were used as test individuals. genomic dna as a template was extracted by the chelex method. ostrsex-p1 and p2 primers were designed to perform pcr amplification on the template. pcr products were checked using agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining and ostrich sex was determined dire ...200818954377
differential localization of libyostrongylus douglassii (cobbold, 1882) lane, 1923 and l. dentatus hoberg, lloyd, and omar, 1995 (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) in ostrich (struthio camelus linnaeus, 1758) proventriculi.libyostrongylus is composed of 3 species, l. douglassii, l. dentatus, and l. magnus, which are differentiated based on the morphology of the adults worms. of these, only the first 2 species have been described in brazilian ostriches (struthio camelus). there are very few citations regarding the occurrence of l. dentatus, having been reported only in north america and brazil, while l. douglassii is distributed worldwide. reports on differences in the localization of libyostrongylus species inside ...200918990000
ultrastructure and melatonin 1a receptor distribution in the ovaries of african ostrich chicks.healthy 90-day-old ostrich chicks were used in the present study. the ultrastructure and melatonin 1a receptor (mt1) distribution in the ovaries of ostrich chicks was observed by transmission electron microscope and light microscope. the results showed that the ostrich chick ovary contained primordial follicles, primary follicles and secondary follicles, but no mature follicles. there are some unique ultrastructural characteristics observed in the secondary follicle, such as the cortical granule ...200819002857
plasma biochemistry of ostrich (struthio camelus): effects of anticoagulants and comparison with serum.the effects of various types of anticoagulants on plasma biochemistry were studied in man and various animals, but limited information is existing for ostrich plasma biochemistry. ten clinically healthy ostrich were blood sampled in different tubes containing each anticoagulant and plain tube for harvesting plasma and serum. the concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium and the activity of aspartate aminotr ...200919011988
developmental morphology of the small intestine of african ostrich chicks.the objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of african ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. the bw; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. our results revealed that the weig ...200819038820
straightforward and de novo peptide sequencing by maldi-ms/ms using a lys-n this work, we explore the potential of the metalloendopeptidase lys-n for maldi-ms/ms proteomics applications. initially we digested a hek293 cellular lysate with lys-n and, for comparison, in parallel with the protease lys-c. the resulting peptides were separated by strong cation exchange to enrich and isolate peptides containing a single n-terminal lysine. maldi-ms/ms analysis of these peptides yielded cid spectra with clear and often complete sequence ladders of b-ions. to test the applica ...200919043101
ultrastructure and electrolyte transport of the epithelium of coprodeum, colon and the proctodeal diverticulum of rhea americana.the structure and function of the lower intestinal tract of rhea americana were characterized to evaluate the evolutionary relationship to other struthioniform and avian species. in 5 rheas the gross anatomy and the light and transmission electron microscopy were studied in parallel to in vitro electrophysiological measurements of ion transport. the mucosa in the colon was amplified with villi, often branched, and in the coprodeum with folds. in both tissues the epithelium was a monolayer compos ...200919059357
qofing whine. don't be an ostrich. 200819073674
blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.the effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. blood samples were collected without sedation. there was a significant (p<0.05) age difference in blood values of base excess (be), plasma hco(3)(-), total co(2) (tco(2)), na(+), k(+), cl(-) ...200919181354
ocurrence of philophthalmus gralli (trematoda: philophthalmidae) in farmed ostriches in brazil.this paper reports the occurrence of parasitism by the oriental eye-fluke, philophthalmus gralli in ostriches reared in a commercial flock from the state of minas gerais state, southeastern brazil. the two affected birds presented lacrimation, inflammatory reaction and loss of body condition. after physical examination the birds revealed, 17 and 15 trematodes each, only in the right eyes. the economic impact of this parasite on brazilian ostrich industry is still undetermined, requiring further ...200919184508
newcastle disease in ostriches (struthio camelus) - a review.newcastle disease (nd) in ostriches was first reported in zoo birds in the 1950s. an outbreak of nd in commercial ostriches in israel was reported in 1989, but of more significance were the nd infections of ostriches in southern africa during the 1990s as a result of assumed spread from commercial domestic fowl. the latter outbreaks were of particular concern due to the boom in international trade in ostriches and their products at that time. nd virus appeared to spread only slowly through affec ...200019184794
polymyxin e-1 (colistin sulphate) (neuro-)intoxication in young ostriches ( struthio camelus spp.).colistin (polymyxin e) is a cyclic polypeptide with a potent bactericidal action against most gramnegative bacilli. when used parenterally, polymyxins should be given with great care as they have a very small safety range, and easily induce neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. a dose of 39.5mg/kg body weight colistin sulphate injected subcutaneously induced rapid (within 1 to 3 h) mortality in young ostriches. clinical signs of apathy, lethargy and hypotonia indicative of neurotoxicity of the compo ...200019184856
highly pathogenic avian influenza (h7n1) in ostriches (struthio camelus).the clinical, virological and pathological findings observed in a natural outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in intensively farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) are reported. clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, nervous and enteric signs were observed in young birds, which resulted in death of 30% of the affected birds. virus isolation performed in accordance with the guidelines listed in european union directive 92/40/eec yielded an influenza a virus of the h7n1 subty ...200019184863
assessment of the pathogenicity of an emu-origin influenza a h5 virus in ostriches (struthio camelus).ostriches were inoculated with a laboratory-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of emu origin, a/emu/tx/39924/93 (h5n2) clone c1b. the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of this isolate for ostriches and assess the ability of routine virological and serological tests to detect infection. avian influenza virus (aiv) was isolated from cloacal and tracheal swabs from 2 to 12 days post-infection. aiv was also isolated from brain, thymus, eyelid, spleen, ovary/test ...200119184878
trichostrongylid nematode infections in ostriches (struthio camelus) in belgium. 200919202176
distribution and developmental changes in ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of african ostrich chicks.ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghs-r), has been found in the gastrointestinal tract of many vertebrates, but little is known about its distribution in the gastrointestinal tract of african ostrich chicks. in the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract of african ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry. ghrelin-immunopositive ...200919232371
[occurence of ectoparasites in ostriches (struthio camelus) reared in semi-arid region of bahia].in the period of may to august of 2005, 19 ostrich's farms were visited in the semi-arid area of the irecê, bahia, in order to describe the ectoparasites. the african black ostriches were reared in intensive system, and distributed for age group, in colonies, trio, couple or cráche. in each farm, after visually inspection of the ostrich, the feathers were taken in several areas of the body and were kept in plastic bags. the screwworms found were collected and stored in 70% ethanol. in 74% (14/19 ...200819245762
the morphological study on the adrenal gland of african ostrich chicks.the morphology of the adrenal gland has been studied for a number of animal species all over the world, yet the detailed data about ostrich chick has not been reported. in the present study, the morphological features of the adrenal gland in african ostrich chicks were investigated by means of gross anatomy, light and electron microscope. differences between the left and right adrenal glands were found in shape, size and location. the interrenal tissue and chromaffin cell interdigitated irregula ...200919251295
macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich (struthio camelus).the macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich were studied in six pre-pubertal and three sexually mature and active birds. each testis was drained by one to four testicular veins. the right testicular veins drained the right testis and epididymis and its appendix to the caudal vena cava and to the right common iliac vein, whereas the left testicular veins drained the left testis and epididymis and its appendix exclusively to the left common iliac ...200819294985
a rapid and sensitive real-time reverse transcription pcr for the pathotyping of south african h5n2 avian influenza viruses.a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) real-time reverse-transcription (rrt-pcr) assay was developed that distinguishes stains of south african and european highly pathogenic (hpai) from low pathogenicity (lpai) h5 avian influenza viruses in the absence of virus isolation, irrespective of the length of insertion at the hemagglutinin cleavage site (h0). the assay was used to pathotype h5-type viruses detected by rrt-pcr in ostrich tracheal swabs collected during the 2006 hpai h5n2 outbre ...200819294990
wild ostrich (struthio camelus australis) reproduction in orbata, a nature reserve in tunisia.the aim of the current investigation was to determine wild ostrich reproductive behaviour in orbata nature reserve by observing 16 hens and 28 cocks over a seven-year period. intense laying commenced in january, one month after the cessation of the rainy season, and 92% of the eggs were produced during the dry season (january to may, peaking in march). over the seven years, 1,322 eggs were laid in 69 nests, which corresponded to an annual average production of 19.2 +/- 9.1 eggs/nest and 11.8 egg ...200919340601
fine structure of the dorsal surface of ostrich's (struthio camelus) tongue.the tongue of birds fills the oral cavity and has a beak-like shape. morphological studies of birds reveal a correlation between the structure of the tongue and the mechanism of food intake and the type of food. however, several studies have shown morphological differences among the tongues of bird species. the aim of this study was to analyze ostrich tongue morphology and ultrastructural features using scanning electron microscopy. tongues from 12 adult ostriches were examined. six tongues were ...200919341333
a giant ornithomimosaur from the early cretaceous of china.ornithomimosaurs (ostrich-mimic dinosaurs) are a common element of some cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of asia and north america. here, we describe a new species of ornithomimosaur, beishanlong grandis, from an associated, partial postcranial skeleton from the aptian-albian xinminpu group of northern gansu, china. beishanlong is similar to another aptian-albian ornithomimosaur, harpymimus, with which it shares a phylogenetic position as more derived than the barremian shenzhousaurus and as sist ...201019386658
search for salmonella spp. in ostrich productive chain of brazilian southeast region.we analyzed ostriches from an equipped farm located in the brazilian southeast region for the presence of salmonella spp. this bacterium was investigated in 80 samples of ostrich droppings, 90 eggs, 30 samples of feed and 30 samples of droppings from rodents. additionally, at slaughter-house this bacterium was investigated in droppings, caecal content, spleen, liver and carcasses from 90 slaughtered ostriches from the studied farm. also, blood serum of those animals were harvested and submitted ...200919390983
use of random amplified polymorphic dna analysis and single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism in molecular typing of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains.ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ort) is a bacterium common to commercial poultry and wild birds throughout the world. it is also known as a causative agent of respiratory diseases. a total of 93 ort isolates originating from chickens, pigeons, ostriches, quail, turkeys, and an asian crested goshawk (accipiter trivirgatus) in taiwan, between 2004 and 2006, were used in this study. high genetic similarity (97%-100%) in 16s rrna sequence was revealed among the 50 randomly selected isolates, in add ...200919432012
the wild ostrich (struthio camelus): a review.the aim of the current report was to study the literature pertinent to wild populations of ostriches and their ecological and behavioural adaptations in the wild. selected areas included palaeontology; ostrich distribution; conservation status and relationships with humans and habitat. there is an immediate and urgent need to conserve and protect the apparently rapidly declining populations of wild ostriches with the committed involvement of governments and funding bodies. wildlife management is ...200919440853
evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (or) genes. both the total number of or genes and the proportion of intact or genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. there is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with goo ...200919467156
engraved ochres from the middle stone age levels at blombos cave, south africa.powerful categories of evidence for symbolically mediated behaviour, variously described as 'modern' or 'cognitively modern' human behaviour, are geometric or iconographic representations. after 40,000 years ago such evidence is well documented in much of the old world and is widely considered as typifying 'modern human culture,' but earlier evidence is rare. in africa, this includes two deliberately engraved ochre pieces from c. 75,000 year old levels at blombos cave, western cape, south africa ...200919487016
characterisation of a highly pathogenic influenza a virus of subtype h5n2 isolated from ostriches in south africa in 2004.the hpai h5n2 strain that caused an outbreak in ostriches of the eastern cape province, south africa in 2004 was characterized.200919496843
Displaying items 601 - 700 of 1019