preliminary results on the use of diagnostic ultrasonography as a management tool to quantify egg production potential in breeding ostrich (struthio camelus australis) ostrich breeding flock, joined as individual breeding pairs (n = 136 pairs), was used to investigate the possibility of diagnostic ultrasonography as a method to predict the reproductive performance of ostrich females during a breeding season. follicular activity was easily detected and quantified by using diagnostic ultrasonography. one to 8 follicles were recorded in 25% of females scanned at the beginning of the 9-month breeding season. at the end of the breeding season, 1-3 follicles were ...200212240768
comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization test for detection of antibodies to avian pneumovirus.two different whole-virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas), developed in ohio (oh) with apv/minnesota/turkey/2a/97 and in minnesota (mn) with apv/colorado/turkey/97, and the virus neutralization (vn) test were used to test 270 turkey serum samples from 27 minnesota turkey flocks for avian pneumovirus (apv) antibodies. in addition, 77 turkey serum samples and 128 ostrich serum samples from ohio were tested. none of the turkey samples from ohio had antibodies to apv by the vn test and o ...200212243535
stomach impaction in ostriches (struthio camelus): blood chemistry, hematology, and treatment.this study involved 14 ostriches of both sexes between 3 and 24 mo of age. some hematologic and biochemical parameters were studied in animals with stomach impaction. clinical examination of the birds revealed anorexia, emaciation, decreased defecation, listlessness, separation from the flock, and recumbence. the total number of leukocytes (10.4 x 10(3) mm3), the concentrations of serum glucose (166 mg/dl), and total protein (2.4 g/dl) decreased; serum creatine phosphokinase (1240 u/l) and alkal ...200212243548
turlock-like bunyavirus associated with encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in an ostrich the fall of 1995, a 20-day-old female ostrich chick, 1 of a group of 20, was presented live with clinical signs of 2 days duration characterized by unsteady gait, circling to the left, and walking backward. another bird with similar clinical signs had died and another had recovered. the bird was euthanized and examined at necropsy. twenty-five milliliters of serous fluid was in the abdominal cavity and there was increased pericardial fluid. histopathology of the brain revealed mild to moderat ...200212296386
large scale sex typing of ostriches using dna extracted from feathers.ostrich (struthio camelus) breeds have been gaining increasing significance around the world. the large-scale sex determination of chicks is an important task in the development of these breeds. to date, two pcr-based methods have been established for ostrich sex typing, neither of them intended for large-scale analyses. here, we report on a protocol adapted to carry out large-scale gender scoring using dna obtained from chick feathers.200212359044
the hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos.the problem of resolving the homology of the digits of the avian hand has been framed as a conflict between paleontological and embryological evidence, the former thought to support a hand composed of digits i, ii, iii, because of similarity of the phalangeal formulae of the earliest known bird archaeopteryx to that of mesozoic pentadactyl archosaurs, while embryological evidence has traditionally favored a ii, iii, iv avian hand. we have identified the critical developmental period for the majo ...200212435089
purification and characterization of the 20s proteasome from ostrich skeletal muscle.the proteasome is a high molecular weight, multisubunit and multicatalytic enzyme. here we report the purification and characterization of ostrich skeletal muscle 20s proteasome. it was purified to homogeneity with mr 700,000, pi 6.67 and a 'ladder' of 22.2-33.5 kda bands on sds-page. the amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequences showed large identities to those of other species. for the three major activities, ph and temperature optima ranged between 8.0-11.0 and 40-70 degrees c, and ...200212437115
a study of the immunohistochemical localization of the progesterone and oestrogen receptors in the magnum of the immature ostrich, struthio camelus.the immunolocalization of the progesterone (pr) and oestrogen receptors (or), in the magnum of the immature ostrich, was investigated during periods of ovarian activity and inactivity. in the immature ostrich, with an active ovary, numerous well-developed tubular glands were present in the lamina propria. significantly, pr immunostaining was strong in the surface epithelium and tubular glands of these birds. in contrast, weak staining for the pr was observed in the surface epithelium of birds wi ...200212484428
characterization and chromosomal distribution of novel satellite dna sequences of the lesser rhea (pterocnemia pennata) and the greater rhea (rhea americana).two different types of novel satellite dna (stdna) sequences were cloned from the lesser rhea (ptercnemia pennata) and the greater rhea (rhea americana) after digestion of genomic dnas with a restriction endonuclease pvu ii, and characterized by filter hybridization and in-situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. these nucleotide sequences consisted of gc-rich 288-bp and 332-bp repeated elements in p. pennata and 288-bp and 336-bp repeated elements in r. americana, all of which were organize ...200212489832
a molecular genetic analysis of the communal nesting of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the ostrich breeding system is complex and unique; communal clutches are laid by several females, although only one female, the major female, and the resident territorial male provide parental care. more eggs are laid in the nest than can be incubated and the major female ejects surplus eggs from the incubated central clutch. microsatellite markers were used to analyse the parentage of communal nests in nairobi national park. this revealed that major females contributed a disproportionate number ...200312492891
gastrointestinal parasites in ostriches (struthio camelus). 200112503598
impact of offsite sediment transport and toxicity on remediation of a contaminated estuarine bay.sediment of ostrich bay, an arm of dyes inlet on puget sound, was historically contaminated with ordnance compounds from an onshore us navy facility. an initial recommendation for a sediment cover to mitigate benthic risks was followed by studies of sediment transport and deposition to determine whether contaminated sediment from dyes inlet or other offsite sources in puget sound may contribute to ostrich bay impacts. a sediment trend analysis (sta) identified net sediment transport pathways thr ...200212523517
comparative pharmacokinetics of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in five bird species.information on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-inflammatory drugs in birds is scarce. choice of drug and of dosage is usually empirical, since studies of anti-inflammatory drugs are lacking. in this study, three common veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) were administered intravenously to five different bird species. sodium salicylate, flunixin and meloxicam were selected as anti-inflammatory drugs. these nsaids were administered intravenously to chickens ...200312524015
the telescoping suture--part ii: a novel method to improve the mechanical behavior of a new biomaterial: ostrich pericardium.ostrich pericardium, sutured using a telescoping or overlapping technique, was studied to determine its mechanical behavior. from each of 12 pericardial sacs, four contiguous strips were cut longitudinally, from root to apex, and another four contiguous strips were cut in transverse direction. one of the strips in each set of four was used as an unsutured control and the remaining three were sutured by overlapping 0.5 cm of the tissue and sewing with gore-tex, prolene or pronova. these 96 sample ...200212557997
characterization of poultry egg-white avidins and their potential as a tool in pretargeting cancer treatment.chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins used in a wide variety of applications in the life sciences due to their strong affinity for biotin. a new and promising use for them is in medical pretargeting cancer treatments. however, their pharmacokinetics and immunological properties are not always optimal, thereby limiting their use in these applications. to search for potentially beneficial new candidates, we screened egg white from four different poultry species for avidin. avidin ...200312558501
comparison of the mechanical behaviors of biological tissues subjected to uniaxial tensile testing: pig, calf and ostrich pericardium sutured with gore-tex.the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical behavior of calf pericardium, pig pericardium and ostrich pericardium when subjected to tensile testing. tensile stress was applied to 108 tissue samples, 36 of each type of tissue, until rupture. groups of three adjacent strips measuring 12 x 2 cm(2) were cut longitudinally. each group consisted of an unsutured center sample, or control, and the two contiguous samples, that on the right sutured with gore-tex at a 90 degrees angle with resp ...200312559827
a morphological study of simple testicular cysts in the ostrich (struthio camelus).simple testicular cysts are rare in mammals and of unknown aetiology, but dietary conditions have been implicated in this phenomenon in poultry. this study characterises the structural features of simple intratesticular cysts in the ostrich. seven testes from a total of 15 sexually mature ostriches slaughtered during the breeding season were used. the testes contained multifocal, fluid-filled, unilocular cysts which were lined by a simple squamous or low cuboidal epithelium and surrounded by a t ...200312589740
variability in brain and arterial blood temperatures in free-ranging ostriches in their natural habitat.we used implanted miniature data loggers to measure brain (in or near the hypothalamus) and carotid arterial blood temperatures at 5 min intervals in six free-ranging ostriches struthio camelus in their natural habitat, for a period of up to 14 days. carotid blood temperature exhibited a large amplitude (3.0-4.6 degrees c) circadian rhythm, and was positively correlated with air temperature. during the day, brain temperature exceeded carotid blood temperature by approx. 0.4 degrees c, but there ...200312604577
water absorption in relation to fermentation in the colon of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the colon is a major site for fermentation and water absorption in the ostrich. water absorption along the colon was evaluated and its relationship to osmolality, na+ concentration, short chain fatty acid (scfa) concentration and carbohydrate content of digesta analysed. mean water content decreased from 5.30 +/- 0.99 to 2.51 +/- 0.13 mf/g dry mass in the first 5 m of the colon. correspondingly, mean carbohydrate content fell from 529.85 +/- 46.61 to 434.99 +/- 29.89 mg/g dry mass. a significant ...200212625384
immunohistochemical localization of s100-like protein in non-mammalian kidney.the immunolocalization of s100-like protein was investigated in the kidney of saltwater fishes (dicentrarchus labrax; coris julis; serranus cabrilla; scorpaena porcus), amphibia (rana aesculenta), reptiles (lacerta viridis), and aves (gallus domesticus; strutio camelus). s100-like immunoreactivity was detected in the juxtaglomerular cells of all saltwater fishes studied. no immunoreactivity was observed in other tracts of the nephron or in the interstitial tissue. in frog kidney, s100-like immun ...200312645012
insight into residues critical for antithrombin function from analysis of an expanded database of sequences that includes frog, turtle, and ostrich antithrombins.complete sequences were determined for frog, turtle, and ostrich antithrombins. protein sequence comparisons with the other 10 known antithrombin sequences and with sequences of other serpins have provided striking evidence for the conservation of the heparin activation mechanism and new insight into those residues important for heparin binding, for heparin activation, and for reactive center loop function, as well as an indication of which glycosylation sites might be needed for function. impor ...200212645893
effects of hemolysis on serum chemistry analytes in ratites.since hemolysis has been a common problem in submitted ratite serum samples, a study was performed to determine interference by hemolysates. nine chemistry analytes including glucose, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase (ck), gamma-glutamyl transferase (ggt), aspartate aminotransferase (as7), calcium (ca), phosphorus, and uric acid were evaluated on a wet reagent analyzer (ciba corning express 550) and on a dry slide reagent analyzer (vettest 8008). in emus, increasing hemoglobin concentrati ...199712658578
disulfide pairings and secondary structure of porcine beta-microseminoprotein.a sperm motility inhibitor isolated from porcine seminal plasma is identical to porcine beta-microseminoprotein (msp). circular dichroism (cd) and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) data showed that the native and recombinant porcine msps exhibit very similar structure. the five disulfide pairings on porcine msp were unambiguously assigned based on nmr data and further confirmed using structural calculations. surprisingly, our derived pairings differ from those recently reported for ostrich msp ba ...200312706823
on the sensitive innervation of the ostrich's foot pads.the sensitive and autonomic innervation of foot pads in the ostrich was studied employing an usual histological technique as hematoxylin-eosin or different gold chloride impregnations. the autonomic innervation is represented by isolated or grouped ganglion cells located along the course of nerve bundles. the sensitive somatic innervation is composed by free and capsulated nerve endings usually distributed in the thickness of the connective arrangement of the foot pads, in the most superficial p ...200312737513
possible modes of allergen-specific sensitization and boosting in an atopic child.several studies document that allergen-specific ige levels are boosted by allergen contact via the respiratory tract in allergic patients. only few data are available on whether other routes of allergen contact have an influence on systemic ige responses. we report the case of a boy who developed egg allergy after heavy consumption of eggs by the mother during pregnancy and breast feeding. in contrast to other children who outgrow egg allergy during the first years of life, the boy experienced f ...200312740528
hepatitis associated with clostridium difficile in an ostrich chick.a live 19-day-old male ostrich chick was euthanized and necropsied. it was one of 12 chicks in a group in which 8 had died with history of anorexia, diarrhoea and weight loss. the birds had been treated with amikacin, piperacillin and enrofloxacin. necropsy of the ostrich revealed dehydration, mild ascites and serous atrophy of fat around the heart. the liver had numerous yellow tan foci on the capsular surface as well as on the cut surface. caecal contents were watery. microscopic examination o ...200312745381
microbial quality of ostrich carcasses produced at an export-approved south african abattoir.the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of ostrich carcasses produced in a south african export-approved ostrich abattoir. ninety surface samples were collected from 30 ostrich carcasses at three processing points in the abattoir: after skinning, after evisceration, and after chilling. samples were evaluated for aerobic plate counts, for levels of pseudomonas spp., enterobacteriaceae, and staphylococcus aureus, and for the presence of escherichia coli. surface counts (means + ...200312747700
expression of a synthetic gene coding for ostrich egg-white lysozyme in pichia pastoris and its enzymatic investigate the structure-function relationships of goose-type lysozyme, a gene coding for ostrich egg-white lysozyme (oel) was designed based on the published amino acid sequence and constructed by assembling 32 chemically synthesized oligonucleotides. to obtain the recombinant oel (roel), the synthetic gene was fused to the alpha-factor signal peptide in the expression vector ppic9k and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the secreted protein from the transformed yeast wa ...200312761207
intravenous pharmacokinetics of penicillin g and antipyrine in ostriches (struthio camelus) and emus (dromaius novaehollandiae).penicillin g and antipyrine, which served as model drugs to assess the relative capacities of renal and hepatic elimination pathways, respectively, were each administered intravenously to six ostriches (struthio camelus) and to six emus (dromaius novaehollandiae). drug concentrations in blood samples collected over a period of 12 hr after administration were assayed, and elimination half-life, mean residence time, clearance, and steady-state volume of distribution were calculated. mean values fo ...200112790398
mycobacterium avium infection in an ostrich (struthio camelus).acid-fast organisms were identified by histopathology of granulomatous lesions in an ostrich (struthio camelus). the organisms were grown in herrold's egg media with and without mycobactin and identified as mycobacterium avium. an agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test for mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis was performed for detection of antibody for m. avium in this infected ostrich and seven other ostriches that were in contact. the results of the agid were consistent with the pathologic diagn ...200112790402
immunohistochemical localization of chromogranin a in gonadotrophs and somatotrophs of the turkey and chicken the course of producing monoclonal antibodies to turkey prolactin, three monoclonal antibodies to turkey chromogranin a (cga) were also produced, apparently arising from minor contamination of the turkey prolactin immunogen with peptide fragments of cga. the identity of the antigen recognized by these antibodies was established by tandem mass spectrometry de novo sequencing of seven tryptic peptides from a turkey pituitary protein purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. these peptides show ...200312812778
does the ostrich (struthio camelus) coprodeum have the electrophysiological properties and microstructure of other birds?the ostrich is unique among birds in having complete separation of urine and faeces. the coprodeal epithelium is thus during dehydration exposed to a fluid 500 mosm hyperosmotic to plasma. we have investigated whether the coprodeum is adapted like a mammalian bladder. the coprodeal epithelium was studied by electrophysiology in the ussing chamber, and the anatomy by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. electrophysiology: the short-circuit current (scc) and open circuit electrical p ...200312814783
a study on the morphological structure of syrinx in ostriches (struthio camelus).the aim of this study was to investigate the topographical, anatomical and histological characteristics of syrinx in five ostriches. it was observed that the syrinx in the ostrich was tracheobronchial type and was composed of three different cartilage groups, namely tympanum, cartilagines (cartt.) tracheosyringeales and cartt. bronchosyringeales. tympanum and cartt. tracheosyringeales were formed from three and four cartilage rings, respectively, while cartt. bronchosyringeales was formed from t ...200312823107
insight into the mechanism of short chain fatty acid absorption in the ostrich (struthio camelus) proximal colon.1. occurrence of short chain fatty acids (scfa) in anionic form limits their diffusion across the absorptive membrane. the present study sought to establish the mechanism of scfa absorption in the ostrich. 2. epithelial tissues were taken from the sacculated part of the colon and mounted in ussing chambers in a bathing solution. the tissues were voltage-clamped and allowed to equilibrate to obtain a baseline short circuit current (isc). 3. propionate (23 mm) on the mucosal side increased the isc ...200312828218
ultrasonography of the female reproductive organs in farmed ostriches (struthio camelus spp.).the main objective of this study was to determine whether transcutaneous ultrasonography could be used as a diagnostic tool to monitor the reproductive organs of female breeding ostriches. an additional aim was to investigate whether the use of this technique could facilitate prediction of the start or end of the egg production season. a technique for on-farm ultrasound scanning is described and examples of ultrasonographic images of different ovarian structures, developing ova and eggs within t ...200312832012
a note on endoparasites of wild ostriches (struthio camelus) in the mokolodi nature reserve, gaborone, botswana.a study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of endoparasites of wild ostriches at mokolodi nature reserve, gaborone, over a 7-month period. large numbers of strongyle eggs were recovered from faecal material in april and september and a decline in the strongyle egg counts was evident during june and july. noteworthy was the absence of helminth eggs in faecal samples collected from chicks and coccidia oocysts from any of the ostriches.200312836743
detection of circovirus with a polymerase chain reaction in the ostrich (struthio camelus) on a farm in the netherlands.this study describes for the first time the presence of circoviruses in ostrich tissue including embryos. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used for the detection of the virus in liver samples. the use of a polymerase for low copy detection significantly increased the sensitivity of the test as well as a southern blot. viral dna could be detected in chicks and eggs that did not hatch. for localisation of the virus in the liver in situ hybridisation was performed on a selection of positive li ...200312860074
evaluation of the potential beneficial effects of ostrich eggshell combined with eggshell membranes in healing of cranial defects in rabbits.potential beneficial effects of outer and inner ostrich eggshell membranes alone and in combination with the shell powder on bone regeneration in cranial defects of 18 rabbits were investigated using radiological, clinical and histological methods. three 6 mm wide, half-thickness defects were made in the calvarial bones of each rabbit. one defect remained empty as a control; prepared eggshell membranes were extended across the other two defects; and prepared eggshell powder was inserted inside t ...200312870376
development of the digestive tract in the ostrich (struthio camelus).a study was conducted to investigate changes in the development of the gastrointestinal tract (git) in relation to body growth of growing ostriches. there was an 11-fold increase (p < 0.001) in body weight between 3 and 72 days of age. the relative (to body weight) weight of the proventriculus/gizzard, caeca and colon also increased (p < 0.001) with age. the relative weight of the small intestine peaked at 41 days of age and then tended to decline (p < 0.05) subsequently. the relative weight of ...200312903866
severe ocular and periocular injuries caused by an adult was attacked by an ostrich and suffered severe ocular and periocular injury, with permanent loss of vision. fragments of ostrich beak were removed from the right periorbital laceration. unprovoked severe bird injuries are rare. to the best of our knowledge, ocular injury caused by an ostrich has never been reported in the ophthalmic literature.200312918566
outbreak of aspergillosis in a flock of adult ostriches (struthio camelus). 200312918831
effects of some egg characteristics on the mass loss and hatchability of ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs.1. this study was conducted to examine some egg characteristics and determine the effects of eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity on water loss and hatchability of eggs in ostriches. 2. shell thickness did not correlate significantly with hatchability. however, eggs of low shell thickness lost more mass (13.03%) than those with intermediate (11.22%) and high (10.36%) shell thickness. mass loss during incubation was higher in hatched (11.98%) than unhatched eggs (11.09%). shell thickness was ...200312964621
physical and chemical quality of ostrich eggs during the laying season.1. fifteen ostrich females were monitored for a full breeding season. at 30, 70, 110, 150 and 210 d from the beginning of laying, one egg per female was taken to the laboratory to assess its physical and nutritive characteristics. 2. the average length was 15.4 cm, while the width was 12.9 cm. average shell thickness ranged from 2.20 mm at the equator to 2.24 mm at the small pole. the three principal components of the egg (albumen, yolk and shell) amounted to 57.1, 23.3 and 19.6%, respectively. ...200312964622
young's modulus varies with differential orientation of keratin in feathers.feathers are composed of a structure that, whilst being very light, is able to withstand the large aerodynamic forces exerted upon them during flight. to explore the contribution of molecular orientation to feather keratin mechanical properties, we have examined the nanoscopic organisation of the keratin molecules by x-ray diffraction techniques and have confirmed a link between this and the young's modulus of the feather rachis. our results indicate that along the rachis length, from calamus to ...200312972348
animal fats. 3. the component acids of ostrich fat. 195413181860
an epithelial ependymoma in an ostrich. 195613286177
operation ostrich: is mass evacuation strictly for the birds. 195613358629
the eagle and the ostrich. 196113754771
arteriosclerosis in the ostrich, rhea, and emu: naturally occurring lesions of the aortas and coronary arteries. 196514254909
spore germination and development of the young gametophyte of the ostrich fern (matteuccia struthiopteris). 196514265546
arteriosclerosis in the ostrich, rhea, and emu. 196514318834
the morphological features of the rete testis of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the epithelium of the rete testis of the ostrich is simple cuboidal to columnar in nature, unlike the more flattened epithelium encountered in other non-passerine birds. a solitary cilium projects into the ductal lumen. a unique lateral cell membrane modification, similar, in some respects, to a hemi-desmosome, occurs frequently along the length of this membrane. the lateral cell membrane is complexly folded, and the cell contains an abundance of intermediate filaments, particularly in the vicin ...200314530972
characterization of serum 'glycosaminoglycan (gag) chains' and 'native proteoglycan' fractions in the ostrich. 200314535476
clinical, gross, and microscopic findings in different avian species naturally infected during the h7n1 low- and high-pathogenicity avian influenza epidemics in italy during 1999 and 2000.from the end of march to the beginning of december 1999, an epidemic of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai), caused by a h7n1 type a influenza virus, affected the intensively reared poultry population of northeastern italy. a total of 199 flocks were diagnosed with influenza infection. the highest number affected flocks were in meat turkeys (164), with only a limited number of turkey breeder, chicken (breeders, broilers, and table egg layers), and guinea fowl flocks infected. following the ...200314575075
pathogenesis of h7 influenza a viruses isolated from ostriches in the homologous host infected experimentally.infections of ostriches with avian influenza a viruses are generally associated with clinical disease, but the occasional high mortality in young birds does not appear to be related directly to virus pathotype. in this study we investigated the pathogenesis of two h7 viruses for 11-wk-old ostriches inoculated intranasally, and clinical symptoms, virus excretion, and immune response were studied. one of the viruses (a/ostrich/italy/1038/00) was highly pathogenic for chickens, whereas the other (a ...200314575132
pathogenicity of a ratite-origin influenza a h5 virus in ostriches (struthio camelus).ostriches were inoculated with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of ratite origin, a/emu/texas/39924/93 (h5n2) done clb. the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of this isolate for ostriches and to assess the ability of routine virologic and serologic tests to detect infection. avian influenza virus (aiv) was isolated from tracheal swabs from 2 to 12 days postinfection and from cloacal swabs from 3 to 10 days postinfection. aiv was also isolated from a wide range o ...200314575143
cloacal prolapse in ostrich chicks with histomoniosis. 200314582734
method for collecting semen from the ostrich (struthio camelus) and some of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.1. four methods of semen collecting that involved interruption of mating in two breeding ostrich pairs were tested: an artificial vagina was tested without promising results; the funnel method, in which a funnel was placed under the phallus of the tested male immediately after mating allowing semen drips to be collected; the vacuum method, using a turkey semen collector, inserted into the seminal canal; and the tube method, conducted by placing a test tube inside the seminal canal, allowing seme ...200314584851
distribution of spermatozoa in the outer perivitelline layer from above the germinal disc of emu and ostrich the present study, we determined the distribution of spermatozoa in the perivitelline layer above the germinal disc (gd) of emu and ostrich eggs that had been laid at random intervals after mating. eggs were opened, the perivitelline layer overlying the gd region was collected and sperm were visualized with 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole under a fluorescence microscope. to map the distribution of sperm, the gd was divided into six areas (a-f), with a being the centre of the gd and f the area ...200314588183
radiographic gastrointestinal contrast study in the ostrich (struthio camelus).ten gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed with barium on seven clinically healthy ostriches. concentrations of 25-100% w/vol liquid barium sulfate at 7 and 10 ml/kg were administered by stomach tube after withholding food for 16 h. a 6-frame technique for left-to-right lateral views in standing and a 3-frame technique for the dorsoventral views in sternally recumbent adult ostriches were used for survey and contrast radiographs. objectives were to describe the appearance of the normal ...200314599167
isolation and characterization of 70 novel microsatellite markers from ostrich (struthio camelus) genome.microsatellite markers are widely used in linkage mapping, parentage testing, population genetic studies, and molecular evolution studies in many agricultural species, while only a limited number of ostrich (struthio camelus) microsatellites have been isolated. thus, we constructed a random small-insert genomic library and a microsatellite-enriched library containing ca repeats. fourteen clones containing ca repeats were isolated from 3462 clones in the non-enriched library by radioactive screen ...200314608400
[a case of trichinellosis with spontaneous remission].we experienced a case of trichinellosis that had traveled in kenya. the initial symptoms of the patient were myalgia and fever which started 2 weeks after she came back from kenya, and blood examination showed marked eosinophilia (14,300/mm3) and elevated creatinine kinase (826iu/l). when we made serological diagnosis of trichinellosis 3 weeks after onset, symptoms started to resolve spontaneously and we observed the patient without any medication. as of 2 months after onset, symptoms and abnorm ...200314608917
effects of moisture content and drying temperature on the physicochemical properties of ostrich jerky.the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of temperature (50, 60, and 70 degrees c) and moisture content (18, 21, and 24%) on the quality ofjerky products from ostrich meat. the jerky products were evaluated by physicochemical and sensory methods. the tensile strength of the samples prepared to 24% w.b. moisture content at 50 degrees c was lowest (p < 0.05; 124 n) while those prepared under other conditions were in the range of 208-268 n (p > 0.05). the water activity of the j ...200314609089
sperm supply and egg fertilization in the ostrich (struthio camelus).we used egg break-out and spermatozoa trapped in the perivitelline layer of eggs to test the hypothesis that sperm supply and egg fertilization rate are high in the ostrich. egg fertilization status was determined at break-out by the appearance of the germinal disc (gd) and then the perivitelline layer overlying the gd region was collected to count sperm (spermopvl) under fluorescence following staining with 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenyindole (dapi). the study was carried out on commercial ostrich fa ...200314629663
granulomatous conjunctivitis in an ostrich.ostriches lack meibom glands, but have small lacrimal glands ventral to the lateral canthus, with ductules that open into the inside of the lower eyelid. chalazion is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the meibom glands that may develop from blockage of the ductules into the conjunctiva. a 2-year-old female ostrich presented with chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis, with clinical and histopathologic findings similar to chalazion of other species. the granulomatous dacryoadenitic mass was e ...200314641833
immunohistochemical localization of the progesterone and oestrogen receptors in the shell gland of sexually immature ostriches (struthio camelus) with active or inactive ovaries.the immunohistochemical localization of progesterone and oestrogen receptors was studied in the shell gland of the immature ostrich (struthio camelus) during periods of ovarian activity and inactivity. in birds with active ovaries moderate to strong immunostaining for the progesterone receptor was observed in the surface epithelium and tubular glands. in contrast faint progesterone receptor immunostaining was observed in the surface epithelium of the shell gland in ostriches with inactive ovarie ...200414659731
ostrich (struthio camelus) eggshell matrix contains two different c-type lectin-like proteins. isolation, amino acid sequence, and posttranslational contrast to chicken and goose, the ostrich calcified eggshell layer matrix contained two different c-type lectin-like proteins as major components. these proteins, named struthiocalcin-1 (sca-1) and struthiocalcin-2 (sca-2), were isolated and their amino acid sequence was determined. sca-1 clearly was the ortholog of goose eggshell ansocalcin. its amino acid sequence had the same length as that of ansocalcin (132 aa) and showed 65% sequence identity with the goose eggshell protein compared to ...200414726203
the primary structure of a novel goose-type lysozyme from rhea egg white.g-type lysozyme is a hydrolytic enzyme sharing a similar tertiary structure with plant chitinase. to discover the relation of function and structure, we analyzed the primary structure of new g-type lysozyme. the complete 185 amino acid residues of lysozyme from rhea egg white were sequenced using the peptides hydrolyzed by trypsin, v8 protease, and cyanogen bromide. rhea lysozyme had sequence similarity to ostrich, cassowary, goose, and black swan, with 93%, 90%, 83%, and 82%, respectively. the ...200414745179
l-o-caffeoylhomoserine from matteuccia struthiopteris.a caffeic acid derivative was isolated from matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern) as a major radical scavenger. the compound consisted of caffeic acid and l-homoserine. nmr and ms analysis revealed the structure as l-o-caffeoylhomoserine.200414759535
[transforming the sintered ostrich cancellous bone to multiphasic calcium phosphate ceramic].to transform the sintered ostrich cancellous bone(ostrich true bone ceramic, otbc) to multiphasic calcium phosphate ceramic and study its components and characterization.200314966641
effects of periodate and chondroitin 4-sulfate on proteoglycan stabilization of ostrich pericardium. inhibition of calcification in subcutaneous implants in rats.chemical modification of biological materials used in the manufacture of cardiac valves tends to reduce the relatively high degree of biodegradation and calcification of the implanted bioprostheses. the most widely used treatment to reduce biodegradability of the valves is glutaraldehyde fixation. however, this treatment is potentially toxic and induces tissue calcification. in order to minimize these undesirable effects, we have analyzed the effect of a pre-fixation of endogenous proteoglycans ...200415020108
anatomical description of the muscles of the pelvic limb in the ostrich (struthio camelus).dissections of 12 formalin-fixed ostriches were performed to give anatomical descriptions of the muscles and tendons of the pelvic, femoral, tibiotarsal, tarsometatarsal and digital regions. in the pelvic limb of the ostrich, 36 muscles can be determined. the ostrich lacks those muscles to the first and second toes (with exception of the m. flexor hallucis longus), which can be found in birds with four toes. the mm. iliotrochantericus medius, plantaris, extensor proprius digiti iv and adductor d ...200415027951
fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium, bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris in the ostrich (struthio camelus).the fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium (rpe), bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris in the ostrich (struthio camelus) was investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. in this species, the rpe consisted of a single layer of low columnar cells. the epithelial cells were joined laterally by two type junctions, zonulae occludentes and zonulae adherentes located in the midregion of the cells. these cells displayed numerous deep basal infoldings and thick ...200415027961
severe ocular trauma caused by an ostrich. 200415031193
aspergillus fumigatus infection in an ostrich (struthio camelus).an 11-month-old female ostrich (struthio camelus) had become gradually emaciated over a 2-week period and subsequently died. necropsy revealed white to green mold growth on the walls of caseous thickened air sac membranes and multiple white necrotic foci in the lungs and liver. histologically, the multiple exudative, necrotic and granulomatous lesions were compatible with mycotic infection in the air sacs and lungs, and hyphae positively reacted with a monoclonal antibody (mab-wf-af-1) to asperg ...200415031551
the use of comet assay to assess dna integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees c and 16 degrees c.the comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of dna integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in dna double-strand breaks. here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis), to our knowledge for the first time, to assess dna integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees c and 16 degrees c. in this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid i ...200415046401
incubation temperature for ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs.the impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs was studied. eggs were obtained from 3 farms in texas. three incubation temperatures (36.5, 37.0, or 37.5 degrees c) with relative humidity ranging from 20 to 30% were used. results showed that incubation of fertile eggs at 36.5 degrees c increased hatchability and incubation period in comparison with other treatments. the incidenc ...200415049504
extinct ostrich eggshell (aves: struthionidae) from the pliocene chiwondo beds, malawi: implications for the potential biostratigraphic correlation of african neogene deposits. 200415066381
pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after single intravenous and intramuscular administration in young domestic ostrich (struthio camelus). 200415096111
resistance to tearing of calf and ostrich pericardium: influence of the type of suture material and the direction of the suture line.the tearing of the valve leaflet of a cardiac bioprosthesis can cause early failure of this device, which is employed to replace a diseased native valve. this report involves the study of the behavior of 312 tissue samples (152 of calf pericardium and 160 of ostrich pericardium) treated with glutaraldehyde and subsequently subjected to tear testing. the samples were cut in the two principal directions: longitudinally, or root to apex, and transversely. they included a series of control samples t ...200415116401
the fine structure of the harderian gland in the ostrich (struthio camelus).the harderian gland of the ostrich (struthio camelus) is a tubuloalveolar gland containing holocrine secreting epithelial cells. the gland epithelium is composed of two different cell types, which can be classified as type i and type ii. these cells contain dense secretory vesicles in their cytoplasm and they are connected laterally with desmosomes. at the basal site of these cells, myoepithelial cells are present. plasma cells are observed in the subepithelial region of the gland. in the interl ...200415144280
paraoxonase-1 inhibits oxidised ldl-induced mcp-1 production by endothelial cells.the upregulation of endothelial cell mcp-1 production by ox-ldl is a major initiating event in atherogenesis. hdl and pon1 retard the oxidation of ldl and therefore may retard endothelial cell mcp-1 production. the endothelial cell line eahy926 was incubated with ox-ldl in the presence and absence of hdl and pon1 and the production of mcp-1 was measured by elisa. human hdl and pon1 significantly inhibited the in vitro oxidation of ldl and completely prevented the ox-ldl induced increase in mcp-1 ...200415144891
entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (sarcomastigophora: endamoebidae) from ostriches (struthio camelus).in the present work we identify the species of entamoeba from ostriches (struthio camelus). the complete sequence of the small subunit ribosomal rna gene from this organism has been compared with those published for other species of the genus and clear differences have been found. these results confirm previous data which showed differences on parasite morphology and class of host with the other entamoeba species. taking all these data together, it can be concluded that the organism from ostrich ...200415154597
reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (struthio camelus) in turkey.the aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, alpha 1-globulin, alpha 2-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and alpha-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein), pre-beta-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein) and beta-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein) fractions of normal ostriches (struthio camelus) in turkey. five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. all the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14% crude prote ...200415185578
traumatic oesophageal perforation in a male ostrich (struthio camelus australis). 200415198319
four-legged ostrich (struthio camelus) chick. 200415214526
a granulomatous conjunctivitis associated with morexella phenylpyruvica in an ostrich (struthio camelus).the aim of study was to evaluate a case of granulomatous conjunctivitis, clinically and pathologically, in the right eye of a 2-year-old, female ostrich. a mass measuring 5 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm was removed surgically from the eye of the ostrich. morexella phenylpyruvica was recovered from the mass. on histopathological examination, hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia in some area of conjunctival palpebra, and a granulomatous inflammation in the submucosa were observed. the lesion was described as a g ...200415276987
gait selection in the ostrich: mechanical and metabolic characteristics of walking and running with and without an aerial has been argued that minimization of metabolic-energy costs is a primary determinant of gait selection in terrestrial animals. this view is based predominantly on data from humans and horses, which have been shown to choose the most economical gait (walking, running, galloping) for any given speed. it is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic costs is associated with the selection of other prevalent forms of terrestrial gaits, such as grounded running (a widespread gait in birds). us ...200415293864
the processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications: part 1: modifiable porous implants from bovine condyle cancellous bone and characterization of bone materials as a function of processing.a study on the development of a process to form materials suitable for biomedical xenograft implants from bovine cancellous bone is presented. bone cubes cut from the condyle portion of bovine femurs sourced from abattoir waste were subjected to a defatting and subsequent deproteination procedure to produce shape-modifiable materials in which the biocompatible mineral calcium hydroxycarbonate apatite component was preserved in the original osseous architecture of the bovine bone. optimum defatti ...200015348008
histochemical and morphometrical characterization and distribution of fibre types in four muscles of ostrich (struthio camelus).a staining procedure used for simultaneously determining three different fibre types in single sections bovine, porcine or ovine skeletal muscle was modified for use with ostrich skeletal muscle. the muscle fibres of gastrocnemius pars externa, tibialis cranialis caput tibiale, tibialis cranialis caput femorale and fibularis longus tendo caudalis were studied. the histochemical results revealed the presence of three types of fibre only in the gastrocnemius pars externa muscle: fast-twitch glycol ...200415352876
avian antimicrobial peptides: the defense role of beta-defensins.avian antimicrobial peptides, classified as beta-defensins, have been identified from bloods of chicken, turkey, and ostrich; epithelial cells of chicken and turkey; and king penguin stomach contents. beta-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides characterized by six cysteine residues forming beta-defensin motifs that are also found in bovine, ovine, pig, and human. these peptides are active against a wide range of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, ...200415381059
identification of the major proteins of the organic matrix of emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) and rhea (rhea americana) eggshell calcified layer.1. the eggshell is a composite consisting of 95% calcite and an organic matrix. 2. while many proteins of the chicken eggshell matrix have already been identified, little is known about the matrix of other birds. 3. isolation of the emu and rhea eggshell matrix and analysis of its major constituents showed that the predominant components were c-type lectin-like proteins related to those of ostrich, chicken and goose. 4. serum albumin, vitelline membrane outer layer protein i (vmo-i) and the turp ...200415484722
mechanical resistance of a new biomaterial, ostrich pericardium, and a new method of joining tissues combining suturing and a biological adhesive.we studied the mechanical behavior in response to tensile stress of samples of ostrich pericardium bonded with a cyanoacrylate glue or sewn with a rectangular, overlapping suture that was subsequently sealed with the same bioadhesive. seventy-two trials were performed in three series of 24 samples each: series ag, glued with an overlap of 1 cm2; series asg, sewn with a rectangular, overlapping suture and sealed; and series ac, control samples that were left intact. the mean stress at rupture in ...200515490469
bacteriologic findings in ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs from farms with reproductive failures.from january 2001 to december 2002, 543 ostrich eggs were submitted for bacteriologic investigation. the eggs were laid by 387 domesticated ostriches that suffered fertility disorders and that came from 44 farms located in different areas of northern and central italy. microbiologic investigations showed bacterial isolation in 105 (19.3%) of 543 eggs examined, with a high prevalence of enterobacteria from albumen and yolk. in only a few cases did bacterial isolation result from yolk or albumen a ...200415530000
2004 presidential address: the sheep, the ostrich, the ant, diabetes, and the tragedy of the common. 200415562228
prevalence of libyostrongylus douglassii in commercially reared ostriches in the highveld region of zimbabwe.a total of 435 freshly dropped faecal samples were collected from 11 randomly selected ostrich farms during september and november 2002 to determine the prevalence of libyostrongylus douglassii (ostrich wireworm) in the highveld region of zimbabwe. samples, which consisted of 339 samples from breeder birds and 96 samples from pre-slaughter grower birds were screened for nematode eggs using the modified mcmaster technique before being individually cultured in an incubator at 28 degrees c. culture ...200415575991
yolk sac utilization in ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks.the mass of residual yolk sac expressed as a percentage of initial mass of the egg from which the chick hatched decreased sharply in the first 2 days post-hatching. a gradual reduction occurred between 3 and 10 days after which a sharp decline was noted between 11 and 13 days post-hatching. the highest number of chicks with unabsorbed yolk sac was noted on day 5 post-hatching followed by days 6 and 7. chick mortality followed the same pattern. the dynamics, causes and clinical consequences of yo ...200415580775
effects of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants on biochemical characteristics of boar semen.the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of providing a supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (prosperm) on the biochemical characteristics of boar semen. two sexually mature boars were fed a standard diet with prosperm (250 g daily) for a 24-week period. ejaculates collected prior to supplementation were used as the control. semen quality and biochemical parameters were analyzed. the dietary supplementation enhanced sperm characteristics, including the pe ...200415592586
effect of breeder age and breeding season on egg production and incubation in farmed ostriches.(1) this research was carried out to investigate changes in egg production and hatchability as influenced by age and breeding season of 10 trios (two females, one male) of ostrich (struthio camellus) during 1998 to 2002. (2) breeding season affected number of eggs laid per female per season, average egg weight, length of laying period and clutch sequence. (3) the number of eggs laid per female per season was 25 in the first breeding season and 57 by the fifth breeding season. the laying period l ...200415623218
an outbreak of necrotic enteritis in the ostrich farm in acute disease with high mortality occurred in the ostrich farm and characterized by depression, severe diarrhea and sternal recumbency. four dead ostriches of the farm were submitted to the national veterinary research & quarantine service, and diagnosed as necrotic enteritis. in the gross and histopathological examination, extensive diffuse fibrinonecrotic enteritis was found in the small intestine, especially jejunum. clostridium perfringens was isolated from a pure culture from the duodenu ...200415644620
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