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selected hematologic values of farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) in botswana. 199910424657
pharmacokinetics of clenbuterol in the ostrich.the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of clenbuterol in the ostrich as no such data is available. clenbuterol (2 mg) was given as a single oral dose to nine ostriches. blood samples were collected over a period of 96 h after administration and urine for a period of 5 d. plasma and urine samples were frozen at -20 degrees c pending analysis. clenbuterol was quantified using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. the method for quantification of clenbuterol in plasma ...199810435330
when does an ostrich become a bird? the role of typicality in early word comprehension.which objects and animals are children willing to accept as referents for words they know? to answer this question, the authors assessed early word comprehension using the preferential looking task. children were shown 2 stimuli side by side (a target and a distractor) and heard the target stimulus named. the target stimulus was either a typical or an atypical exemplar of the named category. it was predicted that children first connect typical examples with the target name and broaden the extens ...199910442875
forssman penta- and tetraglycosylceramide are xenoantigens of ostrich kidney and liver.the heterophile antigens galalpha1-->3gal and n-glycolylneuraminic acid are the major obstacle to grafting mammal organs, especially from pig, to man. lack of expression of these common xenoantigens by birds has raised interest in ostrich as a potential organ donor for xenotransplantation. glycosphingolipids of ostrich liver and kidney were investigated for their carbohydrate determinants. both organs were found similar in their glycolipid composition with three major species, mono-, di-, and pe ...199910460829
experimental infection of vaccinated slaughter ostriches in a natural, open-air feedlot facility with virulent newcastle disease virus.the presence of virulent newcastle disease virus (ndv) since the 1993-94 epidemic in southern africa holds major implications for the export of ostrich products from this region. a challenge experiment with this field strain was conducted in open-air feedlot facilities under strict biosecurity measures. the experiment was designed to follow vaccination and preslaughter quarantine regulations currently enforced in south african export ostrich facilities in order to determine the viremia period an ...199910494412
factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability.ostrich eggs often have low hatchability (hatch) rates because they do not lose sufficient weight during incubation. because egg size, eggshell porosity and thickness (thick), and length of preincubation egg storage are known to affect egg weight loss during incubation (ewl) and hatch of chicken eggs, these factors were examined using ostrich eggs. the effects of eggshell porosity (number of large pores per cm2 of shell; lp); and thick on ewl and hatch were assessed by categorizing the eggs as h ...199910515354
comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.apparent (amen) and true (tmen) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (atriplex nummularia), common reed (phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (sbocm), sunflower oil cake meal (sfocm) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature south african black ostriches and 10 adult australorp cockerels per ingredient. tmen values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 mj/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common r ...199910579407
development of body temperature regulation in ostrich chicks.information in the literature indicates that young ostrich chicks, despite being precocial, are poor thermoregulators and may take between 8 and 12 weeks to develop efficient homeothermy. we measured the body temperatures (tb) of young ostrich chicks (1 to 10 d) at ambient temperatures between 13 degrees and 28 degrees c under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under typical farm-rearing conditions to assess their ability to thermoregulate. even 1-d-old ostriches could maintain a tb abo ...199910579413
evidence of sperm storage in the female ostrich.to determine the length of time following mating that fertile eggs can be laid by an ostrich (struthio camelus).199910590789
male-driven evolution among eoaves? a test of the replicative division hypothesis in a heterogametic female (zw) system.because avian females are heterogametic, the reverse of mammals, avian sex chromosomes undergo significantly different patterns and numbers of dna replications than do those in mammals. this makes the w (female-specific) and the z chromosomes an excellent model system for the study of the replicative division hypothesis, which purports that dna substitution rate is determined by the number of germline replications. the sex-specific chromosome in birds (the w) is predicted to change at the slowes ...199910594176
limb deformities of farmed ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in botswana.limb deformities were detected in 135 out of 885 ostrich chicks, giving a prevalence of 15.3%. tibiotarsal rotation affected 73% of the chicks with limb deformities, whereas rolled toes accounted for 36%. the right leg was more often affected than the left leg. the incidence of limb deformities was highest in 2- to 3-week-old ostrich chicks. the incidence of limb deformities was highest at the beginning of the breeding season and lowest towards the end, when it was relatively warmer. the mean se ...199910599135
molecular identification of encephalitozoon hellem in an ostrich.microsporidia are obligate, intracellular, eukaryotic parasites found in a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. scientific literature contains a small number of reports of these parasites in psittacine hosts, and recently microsporidiosis was reported in the first nonpsittacine host, an ostrich. dna was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ostrich tissues, and a portion of the small subunit ribosomal rna gene was sequenced to identify the microsporidian species. the org ...199910611995
comparative blood coagulation studies in the ostrich.blood coagulation of the ostrich was compared to that of mammalian (man and sheep), avian (chicken) and reptilian (puff adder) systems. the international normalised ratio (inr), partial thromboplastin time (ptt), thrombin time and fibrin degradation were determined, as well as the various coagulation factors in venous ostrich plasma, using human physiological substrates. thromboplastin was isolated from fresh brain tissue with the exception of the reptile for which lung tissue was used. the leve ...199910614993
surgical removal of ventricular foreign bodies from an adult ostrich (struthio camelus). 199910619611
unusual manifestation of tuberculosis in an ostrich (struthio camelus). 199910638801
ground ostrich: a comparison with ground beef. 200010670402
haematological and immunological variables in a domesticated and wild subspecies of ostrich (struthio camelus).1. domesticated ostriches have been selected rigorously for productive traits with little concern for immunological responses, in contrast to wild ostriches. 2. we hypothesised that the immunological responses of wild and domesticated ostriches would differ. total leucocyte counts, differential counts, heterophil: lymphocyte ratios, phagocytic activity, lysosome levels and anti-sheep red blood cell (srbc) antibody titres (total, igg, igm) were compared between domesticated (n=3) and wild (n=3) o ...199910670672
ostrich eggshell as a bone substitute: a preliminary report of its biological behaviour in animals--a possibility in facial reconstructive surgery.the aim of this study was to assess the biological behaviour of an implant of ostrich eggshell in various animal models of facial bone reconstruction. the implant was first bioassayed in a rat muscle pouch (n=10), and then tested as an interpositional graft in rat (n=10) and rabbit (n=5) cranial defects. it was finally used as an onlay graft on rabbit mandibles (n=5). animals were killed after two months in the bioassay, three months in the interpositional model, and six months in the onlay mode ...199910687909
an anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches.an accurate description of the number, location and relative position of the air sacs and their diverticula in the ostrich is essential for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of air sacculitis in this bird. the air sacs were studied in ten ostriches of varying ages by latex or silicone casting of the respiratory tract and dissection. results revealed that the air sacs of the ostrich conform to the general pattern in birds. cervical, lateral and medial clavicular, cranial and caudal thora ...199910689704
effects of fusarium mycotoxins on levels of serotonin, melatonin, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in pineal cell cultures.analysis of melatonin (mel) in pineal cell cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed its concentration was increased by fusaric acid (fa), a mycotoxin produced by fusarium species and associated with toxic duck and ostrich feeds. subsequent cell culture studies demonstrated the precursors of mel, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5htp) and serotonin (5ht), were also affected by fa as well as other fusarium mycotoxins. herein we describe a technique for the analysis of 5htp and 5ht in pineal cell c ...199910721085
enterocin 012, a bacteriocin produced by enterococcus gallinarum isolated from the intestinal tract of ostrich.enterococcus gallinarum strain 012, isolated from the duodenum of ostrich, produced enterocin 012 which is active against ent. faecalis, lactobacillus acidophilus, lact. sake, listeria innocua, propionibacterium acidipropionici, propionibacterium sp., clostridium perfringens, pseudomonas aeruginosa and salmonella typhimurium. one of the four pathogenic strains of escherichia coli isolated from the intestinal tract of ostrich was inhibited by enterocin 012. no antimicrobial activity was recorded ...200010736005
mycobacterial infection in an ostrich. 199910812400
hatching success of ostrich eggs in relation to setting, turning and angle of rotation.1. three trials were designed to study the effects of axis of setting, turning frequency and axis and angle of rotation on the hatching success of ostrich eggs. the joint effects of axis of setting and angle of rotation were investigated in a fourth trial. 2. the hatchability of fertile ostrich eggs artificially incubated in electronic incubators (turned through 60 degrees hourly) was improved substantially in eggs set in horizontal positions for 2 or 3 weeks and vertically for the rest of the t ...200010821522
[review of the production of ostrich meat].ostrich meat was originally considered to be a by-product of the leather industry. ostrich farming focused on the production of good quality hides and was mainly based on experience. since a few years there has been a move from hide production to meat production; however, little is known about ostrich meat production which has consequences for legislation. there is insufficient knowledge about the factors influencing muscle growth. the strong growth of ostrich meat production in the eu member st ...200010822827
zygomycotic proventriculitis and ventriculitis in ostriches (struthio camelus) with impaction.three young ostriches (struthio camelus), aged 4 months, were found to have zygomycotic proventriculitis and ventriculitis associated with impaction. clinical signs were anorexia, chronic weight loss, weakness and lethargy followed by scant faeces for seven days. proventriculi and ventriculi from birds were full of masses of hay, grass, leaves and other fibrous materials in combination with sand, gravel and plastic. erosions and haemorrhagic ulcers of varying number and severity were present in ...200010840569
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in ostriches (struthio camelus).serum samples from 973 ostriches (struthio camelus) in canada were examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol and formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. twenty-eight (2.9%) of the 973 birds were found to be seropositive for antibodies to t. gondii at titers of 1:25 in 15 birds, 1:50 in 12 birds, and 1:500 in 1 bird. this is the first record of t. gondii exposure in ostriches, and it supports the hypothesis that all avian species are s ...200010864266
fracture healing after stabilization with intramedullary xenograft cortical bone pins: a study in pigeons.to investigate the effectiveness of intramedullary xenograft cortical bone pins compared with stainless steel kirschner wire for the repair of a standardized avian humeral fracture.200010871225
antibody responses to la sota strain vaccines of newcastle disease virus in ostriches (struthio camelus) as detected by enzyme-link ed immunosorbent assay.because of the fact that south africa is a newcastle disease virus (ndv)-endemic country, major concerns exist that the export of ostrich meat could transmit velogenic strains of this disease. the ability to transmit the virus could be reduced by effective vaccination of south african ostriches. in this study, two vaccination trials were conducted to assess serum antibody production in response to vaccination with la sota strain ndv vaccines. to this end, a commercially available chicken anti-nd ...200010879920
lymphoid leukosis in an ostrich (struthio camelus). 200010883860
the true metabolisable energy content of canola oilcake meal and full-fat canola seed for ostriches (struthio camelus).1. the true metabolisable energy (tme) of canola oilcake and full-fat canola seed was determined for ostriches to broaden our knowledge of canola as a potential protein and energy source for ostriches. 2. both test materials were diluted with a basal diet, fed to ostriches and tme-values estimated by multiple regression analysis. 3. the tme values for canola oilcake meal and full-fat canola seed for ostriches were respectively 13.76 mj kg(-1) and 22.5 mj kg(-1). 4. the tme values obtained for th ...200010890217
carbonic anhydrase in the utero-vaginal junction of immature and mature ostriches.1. sperm storage tubules in the ostrich start to develop at an early stage of oviductal growth. concurrently, membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase was found in the cells of the storage tubules. 2. in mature ostriches the utero-vaginal junction averaged 11.5+/-2.1 cm in length and primary mucosal folds were extremely long and slender. membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase was present in the cells of the sperm storage tubules. in the non-ciliated cells of the surface epithelium both membrane-bound and cy ...200010890224
the surface features of the epithelial lining of the ducts of the epididymis of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the luminal appearance of the various ducts of the epididymis of the ostrich was studied by scanning electron microscopy in tissues fixed by immersion in glutaraldehyde. the ductal types were similar to those previously described for some other species of birds. numerous short microvilli, as well as a single cilium, projected from the apical surface of the rete testis cell. the ciliated cells of the efferent ductules projected tufts of cilia into the ductal lumen, while the non-ciliated cells bo ...200010932389
ostrich diseases.scientific knowledge of ostrich diseases is incomplete and very fragmented, with specific details on technical aspects of diagnostic and/or screening tests completely absent in most cases. salmonella typhimurium is common in multispecies collections and causes mortality in chicks younger than three months on commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks older than six months, or slaughter birds of twelve to fourteen months in southern africa. campylobacter jejuni and chlamydia psittaci are occ ...200010935285
[maintenance of african ostriches (struthio carnelus) under hessian climatic conditions--analysis of metereological data for the application of bml's expert recommendations of 1996].a report is given on an analysis of meteorological data on five locations in the region of hessia in order to apply the bml's expert recommendation concerning ostrich farming. according to this recommendation black ice, very strong frost and continuous rain should not make it necessary to keep the animals in pens longer than 3 days or more often than 10 days per month. otherwise a dry paddock must be provided. it was investigated whether and how often the above mentioned weather conditions excee ...200010954999
entamoeba sp. (sarcomastigophora: endamoebidae) from ostriches (struthio camelus) (aves: struthionidae).the first case of entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. trophozoites and cysts of entamoeba have been found in ostriches (struthio camelus) from farms located all over spain. the cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differe ...200010962154
a novel pentaglycosylceramide in ostrich liver, iv4-beta-gal-nlc4cer, with terminal gal(beta1-4)gal, a xenoepitope recognized by human natural antibodies.thin layer chromatograms of ostrich liver neutral glycosphingolipids were immunostained with human sera. in addition to the expected staining of the forssman pentaglycosylceramide by some sera, more polar and less abundant unknown glycolipids could be stained. among them, the shortest carbohydrate chain glycolipid was purified and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry, proton nmr and methylation analysis. it was a novel pentaglycosylceramide of the neolactoseries terminated with the ga ...200010988247
newcastle disease and avian influenza a virus in wild waterfowl in south africa.in an intensive ostrich farming area in south africa with a history of ostrich influenza outbreaks, we conducted a survey of avian influenza virus (aiv) and newcastle disease virus (ndv) in wild aquatic birds. during late autumn and winter 1998, the time of year when outbreaks in ostriches typically start to occur, 262 aquatic birds comprising 14 species were sampled and tested for both virus infections. from eight samples, aiv, serotype h10n9, could be isolated. all isolates were apathogenic as ...200011007015
ultrastructural characteristics of ostrich eggshell: outer shell membrane and the calcified layers.the ultrastructure of the eggshell of the domestic hen has been well researched and structural studies of other avian species, such as the ostrich, often base their interpretation of egg shell structure on that of the chicken. in the ostrich, lowered hatchability and hatching trauma may be due to shell ultrastructural abnormalities. in the present study the ultrastructure of the calcified portion, and the outer shell membrane (osm), of domesticated ostrich eggshells was investigated using standa ...200011030359
detection and quantification of antibodies to newcastle disease virus in ostrich and rhea sera using a liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a liquid phase blocking elisa (lpb-elisa) was adapted for the detection and quantification of antibodies to newcastle disease virus. sera from vaccinated and unvaccinated commercial flocks of ostriches (struthio camelus) and rheas (rhea americana) were tested. the purified and nonpurified virus used as the antigen and the capture and detector antibodies were prepared and standardized for this purpose. the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test was regarded as the reference method. the cutoff poin ...200011063502
identification of ostrich and chicken cholecystokinin cdna and intestinal peptides.the cdnas encoding the preprohormones of the regulatory peptides cholecystokinin (cck) and the related gastrin have been identified in a number of vertebrate species. however, from birds only chicken preprogastrin is known. in the present study preprocck cdna was identified in two species of birds, ostrich and chicken. in addition, the molecular forms of the bioactive peptides expressed in the small intestine were characterized. both preproccks contain mono basic processing sites for the product ...200011072120
purification and characterization of ostrich prothrombin.the work focused on the penultimate enzyme, prothrombin, in the coagulation cascade. prothrombin was purified and characterized from ostrich plasma. the results obtained contribute to a better understanding of blood coagulation in the ostrich and the evolution of prothrombin and the coagulation cascade. prothrombin was purified from ostrich plasma by barium chloride precipitation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and deae-cellulose and cu(2+)-chelate sepharose chromatography. ostrich prothrombin ...200011137455
retinal photoreceptors of paleognathous birds: the ostrich (struthio camelus) and rhea (rhea americana).microspectrophotometry was used to determine the absorbance spectra of both rod and cone visual pigments and oil droplets from the retinae of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and rhea (rhea americana). light and fluorescence microscopy of whole fresh tissue mounts were used to determine the relative numbers and distribution of oil droplets in the retinae. both species possessed rods, double cones and four classes of single cone identified by their oil droplets. the rods had lambda max at about 505 ...200111163611
hydrolysis of platelet-activating factor by human serum paraoxonase.human serum paraoxonase (human pon1) has been shown to be important in the metabolism of phospholipid and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, thereby preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (ldl) and retarding atherogenesis. however, the exact substrate specificity of pon1 has not been established. in the present study we show that purified pon1 hydrolyses platelet-activating factor (paf). we could find no evidence for contamination of our preparation with authentic platelet-activating ...200111171072
serologic survey of slaughter-age ostriches (struthio camelus) for antibodies to selected avian pathogens.serum samples from 163 slaughter-age ostriches (struthio camelus) in ohio and indiana were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (aiv), newcastle disease virus (ndv), paramyxovirus (pmv) 2, pmv3, pmv7, infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv), bordetella avium, mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepticum, ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, salmonella pullorum, salmonella gallinarum, and salmonella typhimurium. one ostrich had antibodies to aiv h5n9, 57% of the ostriches had antibodies to ...200011195659
gastrointestinal parasites in ostriches (struthio camelus). 200111271923
the amino acid sequence of pancreatic alpha-amylase from the ostrich, struthio camelus.the amino-acid sequence of alpha-amylase isolated from the pancreas of the ostrich, struthio camelus was determined. the alpha-amylase (opa) consisted of 497 amino acid residues with pyroglutamic acid at the n-terminus and no oligosaccharide. amino acid identity between opa and chicken, porcine and human pancreatic alpha-amylases individually, was found to be 88, 82 and 86%, respectively.200011281265
resorption kinetics of eggshell: an in vivo study.eggshell has been recently introduced as a bone substitute candidate in reconstructive surgery. the aim of this experimental study study was to determine its degradation rate in both a skeletal and extraskeletal site. in experiment 1, eggshell particles with four different sizes (50, 75, 150, and 300 microns in diameter) were implanted in subcutaneous pouches of 30 rats. in experiment 2, a fragment of ostrich eggshell was implanted on the nasal dorsum of 10 rats. animals were sacrificed at 1 (n ...200111314188
radiography of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (struthio camelus).a standard radiographic procedure was developed for the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female nonbreeding ostriches. positioning, collimation, centering and a technique chart were defined to give reproducible and consistently good quality radiographs. radiographs were obtained from one adult ostrich cadaver, two adult female ostriches as well as two growing ostriches at various stages. a 6-frame technique was established for lateral views taking the topographic tissue distribution into consideratio ...200111327361
proximal aortic dissection (dissecting aortic aneurysm) in a mature ostrich.the gross and histopathologic lesions observed in a case of spontaneous proximal aortic dissection (dissecting aortic aneurysm) in a mature ostrich are reported. at necropsy, a dissecting intramural hematoma was seen in the proximal aorta, extended about 12 cm distally from the aortic valves. histopathologic changes in aortic dissection included fragmentation and disruption of elastic laminae, presence of cystic extracellular spaces, and pooling of ground substance in the tunica media. hepatic c ...200111332491
development of the refractive state in eyes of ostrich chicks (struthio camelus).to follow the development of the refractive error in the eyes of ostrich chicks from age 0 to day 37 after hatching.200111341409
complete mitochondrial dna genome sequences of extinct birds: ratite phylogenetics and the vicariance biogeography hypothesis.the ratites have stimulated much debate as to how such large flightless birds came to be distributed across the southern continents, and whether they are a monophyletic group or are composed of unrelated lineages that independently lost the power of flight. hypotheses regarding the relationships among taxa differ for morphological and molecular data sets, thus hindering attempts to test whether plate tectonic events can explain ratite biogeography. here, we present the complete mitochondrial dna ...200111370967
adenovirus pathogenicity in immature ostriches.two group i avian adenoviruses implicated as the possible cause of "fading chick syndrome" in ostriches less than 8 wk of age were isolated in primary chicken embryo liver cells. these viruses were identified by virus neutralization and further characterized by a pathogenicity trial in immature ostriches. the results showed that these isolates were noninfectious in ostrich chicks.200111417825
purification and partial characterisation of alpha(2)-antiplasmin and plasmin(ogen) from ostrich plasma.this study reports the isolation and partial characterisation of the ostrich serpin, alpha(2)ap, and its target enzyme, ostrich plasmin, in its active and inactive proenzyme, namely plasminogen, forms. ostrich alpha(2)ap was purified using l-lysine-sepharose chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and super q-650s and ostrich lbsi-sepharose chromatographies. it revealed a m(r) of 84 k (thousand) and had one and two n-terminal amino acids in common with 11 of those of human and bovine alp ...200111435135
trichinella spp. in ostrich meat: a public health risk?in the present work the biological behaviour of t. spiralis and t. pseudospiralis in ostriches is reported. oral infections were performed in eight ostriches with two infective doses (10,000 and 80,000 larvae) for each species of trichinella. on day 0, 30 and 60 p.i. blood samples were collected to assay the serum changes concerning specific muscle enzyme activities and total proteins. the immunological study, to determine specific igg in sera, was conducted employing a monoclonal blocking elisa ...200111484356
sediment toxicity identification evaluation (tie) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination.a sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (tie) study was conducted at several sites in puget sound, washington. the sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. the initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, thre ...200111503066
a qualitative and quantitative study of the lung of an ostrich, struthio camelus.the ostrich lung, with its lack of interparabronchial septa, the presence of very shallow atria and exceptional morphometric refinement, structurally resembles those of small, energetic flying birds, whereas it also displays features characteristic of the flightless ratites in which the neopulmo is relatively poorly developed and a segmentum accelerans may be generally lacking. the large size of the bronchial system of the ostrich may help explain the unique shifts in the airflow pathways that m ...200111507114
[libyostrongylus douglassii in ostriches (struthio camelus ssp.) in the netherlands: case report and review].several types of worms can parasitize ostriches, the most pathogenic of which is the wire worm (libyostrongylus douglassii). this worm, which occurs in the stomach, can cause severe lesions which can lead to a high mortality, especially among young birds. this article describes mortality due to this parasite on an ostrich farm and discusses relevant literature on l. douglassii.200111510368
palaeontology. the beaks of ostrich dinosaurs.primitive ornithomimids, a ubiquitous group of specialized cretaceous dinosaurs nested within a clade of predominantly carnivorous theropods, are known to have had teeth, whereas derived ornithomimids had an edentulous beak, which has prompted speculation about their dietary habits. here we describe two new ornithomimid specimens in which soft-tissue structures of the beak have been preserved. these creatures probably used their beaks to strain food sediment in an aqueous environment, rather tha ...200111528466
identification of the sex of a wide range of carinatae birds by pcr using primer sets selected from chicken ee0.6 and its related sequences.a 0.6 kb ecori fragment (ee0.6), cloned from the w chromosome of chickens, is a nonrepetitive sequence and contains an exonlike sequence, et15, which is likely a part of a pseudogene. the ee0.6 sequence is conserved in all species of birds examined both in carinatae and ratitae. a counterpart sequence of ee0.6 is present on the z chromosome. the extent of diversity between the w- and z-linked sequences are variable among species. the w- and z-linked ee0.6 sequences, cloned from 12 different spec ...200111535643
ostrich pericardium, a biomaterial for the construction of valve leaflets for cardiac bioprostheses: mechanical behaviour, selection and interaction with suture materials.the mechanical behavior of ostrich pericardium was studied for the purpose of assessing its utility in the construction of bioprosthetic cardiac valve leaflets. the tissue was tested biaxially using a hydraulic simulator that subjected it to increasing stress until rupture. one hundred eighty trials were performed, 36 with unsutured pericardium and four series of 36 trials each with pericardium sutured with silk, prolene, nylon or gore-tex. the samples were tested in pairs from three different p ...200111545307
biochemical composition of urine from farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) in botswana.biochemical and qualitative evaluation of the supernatant of urine from hydrated farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) indicated that the urine was comparable to that described by other workers. the disparities obtained between the biochemical constituents in the present and previous studies were partly attributed to the state of hydration influenced by climatic factors. results of the cytological examination of the supernatant and the sediment concurred with the observations of other workers. it ...200111563720
prevalence of salmonella, campylobacter, and escherichia coli on ostrich carcasses and the susceptibility of ostrich-origin e. coli isolates to various antibiotics.there has been limited research on the prevalence of foodborne pathogens such as escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, and campylobacter on ostrich carcasses. likewise, few studies have been done in ostriches to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of common bacteria, like e. coli. in this study, ostrich carcasses were sampled from eight slaughterhouses in ohio and one in indiana. although results demonstrated no e. coli o157:h7 from the carcasses sampled, 91% (116/128) of the dressed ca ...200111569746
characterization of ostrich (struthio camelus) beta-microseminoprotein (msp): identification of homologous sequences in est databases and analysis of their evolution during speciation.beta-microseminoprotein, alternatively called prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids, is a hydrophilic, unglycosylated, small protein rich in conserved half-cystine residues. originally found in human seminal plasma and prostatic fluids, its presence was later shown in numerous secretions and its homologs were described in many vertebrate species. these studies showed that this protein had rapidly evolved, but they failed to unambiguously identify its biological role. here, we show that a ...200111604528
[an example of practical medicine in al-andalus: abū-l- 'alā' zuhr's kitāb muŷarrabāt al-jawāss (c. 1060-1131)].this article reports a preliminary study of abu-l-ala: his life, his works and his significance as a writer, scientist and physician. all existing arab manuscripts on the kitāb muŷarrabāt al-jawāss are cited, and arabic manuscript no. 520 from the bodleian library in oxford is described. finally, the translation is given, and folios 41v., 42r., 52v., 53r., 81v., 82v., 93r., 94v., 97v., 100r. and 100v. reproduced, from the bodleian library manuscript of the kitāb muŷarrabāt al-jawāss. this materi ...199311639595
legal aspects of artificial human reproduction: can the law afford to play ostrich? 198211658651
first report of the genus retortamonas (sarcomastigophora: retortamonadidae) in birds.in studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (struthio camelus) in spain, trophozoites of retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. the species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. however, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus retortamonas in birds.200111685262
evidence for reductive acetogenesis and its nutritional significance in ostrich hindgut as estimated from in vitro incubations. 200111686800
gas exchange and energy metabolism of the ostrich (struthio camelus) embryo.we measured oxygen consumption (v(o(2))) and carbon dioxide emission (v(co(2))) rates, air-cell gas partial pressures of oxygen (p(a)o(2)) and co(2) (p(a)co(2)), eggshell water vapour conductance and energy content of the ostrich (struthio camelus) egg, 'true hatchling' and residual yolk, and calculated rq and total oxygen consumption (v(o(2)tot)) for ostrich eggs incubated at 36.5 degrees c and 25% relative humidity. the v(o(2)) pattern showed a drop of approximately 5% before internal pipping. ...200111691605
plasma thyroid hormones and growth hormone in embryonic and growing emus (dromaius novaehollandiae).growth hormone (gh), thyroxine (t4) and tri-iodothyronine (t3) are known to be involved in the regulation of growth and development in a variety of avian species. it has been suggested that an absence of gh and thyroid hormones in ostriches is the cause of their neoteny, a phenomenon in which juvenile characteristics are retained into adulthood. neoteny is typical of all ratites, the single group of flightless birds that includes the ostrich, but similar endocrine studies have not been performed ...200111720129
transcutaneous ultrasonography of the coelomic viscera of the ostrich (struthio camelus).ultrasonographic examinations were performed on clinically healthy growing and adult nonbreeding female ostriches. multiple acoustic windows and the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic viscera were described. good images of the heart and its major vessels, proventriculus, ventriculus, intestines, liver, and kidneys could be obtained. additionally, an anechoic structure, believed to function as an urinary bladder, could be imaged in the cloacal region. the pancreas, spleen, thyroid ...200111768524
effects of storage length and weight loss during incubation on the hatchability of ostrich eggs (struthio camuelus).a total of 150 ostrich eggs was collected from two commercial ostrich farms. the eggs were brushed to remove soil and placed into one storage area (15.51 to 15.56 c without controlling humidity) for different periods of time (up to 19 d) before being incubated. after storage, the eggs were kept for 12 h at room temperature, and then washed, disinfected, and dried before being placed into a commercial incubator to determine the effect of length of storage on hatchability. the two supply farms var ...200111771879
ostrich ocular optics.the optical structure of the eyes of ostriches (struthio camelus; struthionidae; struthioniformes) was determined by the construction of a schematic eye model for paraxial optics. the eye is large (axial length = 38 mm) and of globose shape with an anterior focal length (posterior nodal distance) of 21.8 mm. the optical design of the eye is such that the lens and cornea contribute equally to its total optical power. interspecific comparison shows that optically the ostrich eye is a larger scaled ...200111805377
plasma chemistry reference values in ostriches.reference values for 18 plasma chemical variables in blue neck ostriches (struthio camelus australis, n = 60, age 24-36 mo) were established for use in veterinary clinical practice using nonparametric statistics. the following values were established for the percentiles p2.5 and p97.5: sodium 147-157 mmol/l, calcium 2.4-4.8 mmol/l, inorganic phosphate 1.3-2.3 mmol/l, chloride 94-105 mmol/l, glucose 10.3-13.7 mmol/l, urea 0.5-0.8 mmol/l, uric acid 351-649 mumol/l, bile acids 8-33 mumol/l, total p ...200211838206
amino acid sequence of kalinowaski's tinamou (nothoprocta kalinowskii) hemoglobin and the rate of evolution of bird alphad-globin.two hemoglobin components are recognized in erythrocytes of the adult tinamou. we determined the amino acid sequences of tinamou alphad-, alphaa-, and beta-globins from intact globin chains and several chemically cleaved fragments. a remarkable feature of tinamou hemoglobin was a deletion in the alphad-globin chain. this has not been reported in the literature, except in pigeon embryonic alphad-globin. the amino acid sequences of tinamou globin were highly similar to those of ostrich and rhea he ...200111838542
the purification and characterisation of m-calpain from ostrich brain.calpains are intracellular cysteine proteases activated in a ca(2+)-dependent manner. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the physico-chemical and kinetic properties of ostrich brain m-calpain. m-calpain was purified by successive chromatographic steps on toyopearl-super q 650s and pharmacia mono q hr 5/5 columns. a ca(2+) concentration of 5mm and a casein concentration of 5mg/ml were found to be necessary for optimum calpain activity. ostrich m-calpain exhibited a m(r) of 84k us ...200211854033
the primary structure of cassowary (casuarius casuarius) goose type lysozyme.the complete amino acid sequence of cassowary (casuarius casuarius) goose type lysozyme was analyzed by direct protein sequencing of peptides obtained by cleavage with trypsin, v8 protease, chymotrypsin, lysyl endopeptidase, and cyanogen bromide. the n-terminal residue of the enzyme was deduced to be a pyroglutamate group by analysis with a lc/ms/ms system equipped with the omaldi ionization source, and then confirmed by a glutamate aminopeptidase enzyme. the blocked n-terminal is the first repo ...200211866097
cloning and gene expression of a cdna for the chicken follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh)-beta-subunit.follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) is a member of pituitary glycoprotein hormones that are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of fsh-beta in avian species. for better understanding of the phylogenic diversity and evolution of fsh molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complete complementary dna (cdna) encoding chicken fsh-beta precursor molecule by reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...200211884082
semen collection, examination and spermiogram in ostriches.the level of fertility in the male ostrich exerts considerable influence on the efficiency of the fertilization procedure, and thus also on reproductive performance. the determination of the reproductive capacity is of particular interest with regard to the selection of single individuals for optimizing reproduction ratios. although the breeding and raising of ostriches has become increasingly important in many countries, little research has been completed on reproductive parameters and factors ...200111885740
oozing ostrich egg: omphalitis caused by enterobacter sp. 200211910395
the purification and characterization of mu-calpain and calpastatin from ostrich brain.calcium-activated neutral proteinases (canps) and their endogenous specific inhibitor calpastatin are found in a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. the canps are cysteine proteinases that have an absolute requirement for ca(2+) for activity. mu-calpain and calpastatin were purified by successive chromatographic steps on toyopearl-super q 650s and pharmacia mono q hr 5/5 columns. the enzyme has a m(r) of 84kda using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds ...200211943592
a dna test to sex ratite birds.dna-based sex tests now exist for many avian species. however, none of these tests are widely applicable to ratites. we present dna sequence data for a locus that is w chromosome-linked in the kiwi, ostrich, cassowary, rhea, and emu. at the amino acid level, this sequence has significant homology to x-linked genes in platyfish and caenorhabditis elegans. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers designed to this locus allow the assignment of sex in all species of living ratites.200211972770
diseases of farmed crocodiles and ostriches.crocodiles and ostriches are very sensitive to stress, and the ideal conditions for intensive rearing have not yet been established. consequently, mortality is often directly linked to conditions on the farm. crocodile and caiman pox, adenoviral hepatitis, mycoplasmosis, chlamydiosis and coccidiosis are crocodile-specific infections with reservoirs in wild populations and adult wild-caught breeding stock. other important conditions are salmonellosis, non-specific septicaemia, trichinellosis, the ...200211974614
winter survival in sweden of l(3)-stage larvae of the ostrich wireworm libyostrongylus douglassii.libyostrongylus douglassii, a pathogenic trichostrongylid nematode of the ostrich, was recently identified as a potentially important parasite in ostriches on swedish farms. this parasite is well adapted to the hot and dry climates of sub-saharan africa, the natural habitat of the ostrich. the influence of low temperatures in colder climates, such as in sweden, on free-living stages of l. douglassii is however insufficiently known. in this study, parasite free ostrich faeces were mixed with infe ...200211992712
relationship between seasonal changes in spermatogenesis in the juvenile ostrich (stuthio camelus) and the presence of the lh receptor and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.the immunohistochemical localization of the lh receptor and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-hsd) was studied in the testis of the juvenile ostrich (stuthio camelus) throughout a 1 year period. spermatogenic activity of juvenile birds changed throughout the year, as has been reported previously for sexually mature birds. during the active stage of the testicular cycle, from september to january, spermatogenesis progressed up to the stage of formation of spermatozoa, although spermatozoa ...200212006102
ostrich antithrombin iii: kinetics and mechanism of inhibition of ostrich thrombin.a kinetic investigation of ostrich thrombin specificity, its regulation and evolutionary development in comparison to those of other well-characterised species may contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationships of thrombin. antithrombin iii (atiii) was purified from ostrich plasma by heparin-sepharose and super q-650s chromatography. it exhibited a m(r) of 59.2k and a pi in the range of 5.2-6.0. the ostrich n-terminal sequence was compared to those of other known species ...200212009311
quantitative analysis of the retinal ganglion cell layer in the ostrich, struthio camelus.the total number, distribution and peak density of ganglion cells were evaluated in the nissl-stained retina of the ostrich (struthio camelus). the mean (n = 4) total number of retinal ganglion cells (rgc) was estimated at 2,274,128 (s.d. = 273, 152). the ostrich retina exhibited a prominent horizontal visual streak along which a central area located nasal to the pecten had a peak density of 9,500 cells/mm2. a high concentration of cells with a peak density of 2,646 cells/mm2 was also observed i ...200112016353
the ostrich, the albatross, and public health: an ecosocial perspective--or why an explicit focus on health consequences of discrimination and deprivation is vital for good science and public health practice. 200112042606
genetic and antigenic characterization of a poxvirus isolate from ostriches.avian poxvirus was isolated from nodules on the heads and conjunctiva of two 3-to-4-wk-old ostrich chicks. the ostriches from which poxvirus was isolated had been placed on premises where turkeys that had shown evidence of poxvirus infection had been raised earlier. microscopically, the nodules from the ostriches were composed of proliferating and hypertrophic epithelial cells that formed large fronds. most of the hypertrophic epithelial cells contained large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclus ...200212061654
parasites from farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) and rheas (rhea americana) in europe.during a 4-year-period, more than 500 ostriches and several rheas, all born in european countries and raised in spain and portugal, have been analyzed for the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites. a total of 29 parasite species have been found, most of them of the gastrointestinal tract. some of the helminth species found may represent spureous parasitosis, as only the eggs (of an ascarid and a trematode) were found in some samples. from the organisms identified, the ectoparasites (lice-s ...200212072221
assessing the cretaceous superordinal divergence times within birds and placental mammals by using whole mitochondrial protein sequences and an extended statistical framework.using the set of all vertebrate mtdna protein sequences published as of may 1998, plus unpublished examples for elephant and birds, we examined divergence times in placentalia and aves. using a parsimony-based test, we identified a subset of slower evolutionary rate placental sequences that do not appear to violate the clock assumption. analyzing just these sequences decreases support for marsupionta and the carnivore + perissodactyl group but increases support for armadillo diverging earlier th ...199912078636
morphological and histochemical observations of the organic components of ostrich eggshell.the organic component of the avian eggshell can be divided into 3 portions, the shell membranes, the matrix and the cuticle. these have been well characterised in the chicken but little has been published with regard to the ostrich (struthio camelus). a number of recent studies have indicated that the cause of intra-shell embryonic deaths in the ostrich is similar to intra-shell embryonic deaths that occur in the chicken. these deaths in the chicken are associated with the loss of or damage to t ...200212088066
septicaemic pasteurellosis in ostriches (struthio camelus) in central saudi arabia. 200212093199
the effect of mixing and translocating juvenile ostriches (struthio camelus) in botswana on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio.the possibility was investigated that translocation of juvenile ostriches from concrete-paved to sandfloored pens and mixing of batches of ostriches after such translocation constitute a stress strong enough to evoke changes in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes. blood smears were obtained from 15 ostriches out of a group of 25 birds 4 and 2 days before and then 2 and 4 days after translocation. the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio changed from 0.27 and 0.37 on days 4 and 2, respectively, bef ...200212094680
mechanical behavior of chemically treated ostrich pericardium subjected to uniaxial tensile testing: influence of the suture.the mechanical behavior of sutured ostrich pericardium was studied by uniaxial tensile testing. one hundred forty-four tissue specimens were assessed: 96 sutured samples (48 in which a centrally located suture was placed at an angle of 90 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis, whereas in the remaining 48, a centrally located suture was placed at a 45 degrees angle to the longitudinal axis, in sets of 12 samples each, sewn with sutures made of gore-tex, nylon, prolene, or silk), and 48 un ...200212124788
phylogenetic relationships of southern african west nile virus isolates.phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern african west nile virus (formal name west nile virus [wnv]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. in addition, sequence data were retrieved from genbank for another 23 wnv isolates and kunjin and japanese encephalitis viruses. all isolates belonged to two lineages. lineage 1 isolates were from central and north africa, europe, israel, and north america; lineage 2 isolates were from central and southern africa a ...200212141968
an ostrich on a rock: commentary on christie and barresi (2002).there are problems with both the theoretical logic and the interpretation of data in christie and barresi's (2002) interesting article. the general pattern of results (described as orwellian) is easily incorporated into an information-processing framework compatible with dennett's analysis. in particular, different aspects of the illusory motion event are queried at different times and these aspects (line extent and manner of appearance) are not in conflict, so no revision of conscious content i ...200212191956
progesterone and oestrogen receptor immunoreactivity in the vagina of the immature ostrich, struthio camelus.1. the presence of sperm storage tubules in the cranial, middle and caudal regions of the vagina in the immature ostrich was studied. in addition, progesterone and oestrogen receptor immunoreactivity in these regions was investigated. 2. sperm storage tubules were observed only in birds with active ovaries. progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was more intense in birds with active ovaries, whilst immunostaining for the oestrogen receptor was absent in birds with both active and inactive ovarie ...200212195805
pentadactyl pattern of the avian wing autopodium and pyramid reduction hypothesis.we report herein that a pentadactyl developmental pattern is evident in early wing morphogenesis of gallus (chicken) and struthio (ostrich). five avascular zones (spatially predestined locations of contiguous metacarpal and phalangeal aggregation) and four interdigital vascular spaces are established by the regression patterns of autopodial vasculature. transient vestiges of the first and fifth metacarpals are confirmed histologically and histochemically. they lie within the preaxial-most and po ...200212210116
factors related to high levels of ostrich chick mortality from hatching to 90 days of age in an intensive rearing system.ostrich chick mortality was studied in 2522 chicks that were hatched artificially during the 1999/2000 breeding season. high levels of mortality were observed, with 1978 (78.4 %) of these chicks dying before 90 days after hatching. a total of 46.7 % (1,177) of these chicks died before 28 days of age, and a further 30.7% (801) died between 28 and 90 days post-hatching. chick mortality to 28 days of age could not be conclusively related to sex, day of external pipping or breeder diet. mortality ra ...200112219914
radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (struthio camelus).this study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. one ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. differences from other avian species and unique featu ...200112219915
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