observations on the commercial production of ostrich (struthio camelus) in the united kingdom: rearing of chicks.two sets of ostrich eggs (60 and 120 eggs) were imported into the united kingdom under class 1 quarantine restrictions. the eggs were incubated and observations were made on the growth, survival and sex ratio of the chicks hatched. the chicks decreased in weight for five days after hatching before they began a sustained period of exponential growth. they reached a liveweight of 4 kg five weeks after hatching. female chicks grew significantly faster than male chicks. the survival rates of the chi ...19938351781
ostrich chick survival presents challenge. 19938407526
a cryptosporidium sp in an ostrich. 19938410943
a survey of libyostrongylus douglassi on ostrich farms in eastern victoria. 19938457182
a paralytic-like disease of the ostrich (struthio camelus masaicus) associated with clostridium chauvoei infection.two adult masai ostriches in a zoological collection became recumbent. the birds could not raise the neck or the head, had difficulties in breathing, and died eight and 13 days, respectively, after the first clinical signs appeared. on post mortem examination the heart had a globous appearance accompanied by gelatinous atrophy. the lungs were hyperaemic and oedematic, while the intestines had prominent haemorrhages in their mucosa. the liver and kidney were enlarged, and the former had also necr ...19938465505
ingestion of metal objects by ostriches (struthio camelus). 19958533252
ostrich slaughter and fabrication: 1. slaughter yields of carcasses and effects of electrical stimulation on post-mortem ph.a commercial ostrich slaughter protocol was developed. ostriches (n = 7 males and n = 7 females) averaged 95.54 kg live weight and yielded 55.91-kg carcasses. by-product yields were measured. the most significant by-products by weight were full viscera (8.29 kg), hide (6.71 kg), full gizzard and crop (5.80 kg), and abdominal fat (4.11 kg). sex had no effect on slaughter yields. post-mortem temperature declines were measured on five separate muscles and showed that chilling for 24 h was sufficien ...19958559734
ultrastructural organization of avian stratum corneum lipids as the basis for facultative cutaneous waterproofing.the ultrastructure of naked neck epidermis from the ostrich (struthio camelus) and ventral apterium from watered, and water-deprived, zebra finches (taeniopygia [poephila] guttata castanotis) is presented. the form and distribution of the fully differentiated products of the lipid-enriched multigranular bodies are compared in biopsies post-fixed with osmium tetroxide or ruthenium tetroxide. the fine structure of ostrich epidermis suggests it is a relatively poor barrier to cutaneous water loss ( ...19968568904
ostrich pepsins i and ii: a kinetic and thermodynamic investigation. 19958581825
[a myologic dissection of the leg and foot of the ostrich (struthio camelus)].a 7-month-old female ostrich (struthio camelus) was studied. on the left leg, muscles of the shank and foot were dissected and the right leg was frozen and cut into slices for topographical examination. some muscles and skeleton measurements were also noted. no trace was found of the following muscles: m. plantaris, m. extensor hallucis longus, m. extensor hallucis brevis, m. flexor hallucis brevis, m. adductor d. ii, m. abductor d. ii, m. flexor phalangis secundi d. iii and m. adductor d. iv. s ...19958588704
ratites (ostrich, emu) as potential heart donors for humans: immunologic considerations. 19968623271
sperm-storage tubules in the vagina of the ostrich (struthio camelus).sperm-storage tubules have been described in a number of species of birds. the presence of these tubules in the rhea has been mentioned, but no description of these structures in ratites is available. the purpose of this study was to determine the presence and morphology of sperm-storage tubules in the vagina of the ostrich. the study was performed with the use of conventional light- and electron-microscopic techniques. sperm-storage tubules were located in a 200-mm-wide band of the vagina adjac ...19958628573
pox in ostrich chicks. 19968660190
effect of oxidative stress on avian erythrocytes.avian erythrocytes differ from mammalian erythrocytes in being nucleated and oval. in the circulation, chicken cells survive for only 35 days, compared to 120 days for human cells. in humans, red cell oxidation processes, involving methemoglobin formation, have been correlated with cellular aging. this study compared oxidative resistance of two avian red cells (chicken and ostrich) to that of discoid enucleated human cells. reduced glutathione levels (gsh) and methemoglobin were higher in chicke ...19938679516
ostrich (struthio camelus) carboxypeptidase b: purification, kinetic properties and characterization of the pancreatic enzyme.carboxypeptidase b has been isolated from numerous mammalian and invertebrate species. in contrast, very little is known about carboxypeptidases of avian origin. to provide information for a comparative study, we have undertaken an investigation of the kinetic and physical properties of ostrich carboxypeptidase b. carboxypeptidase b from the pancreas of the ostrich was purified by water extraction of acetone powder and aminobenzylsuccinic acid affinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. the eff ...19968697097
stepfamilies. an "ostrich" concept in nursing education.little attention has been given to the concept of stepfamilies in nursing literature. however, nurse educators can help their students to assist natural parents and stepparents create a more supportive and loving environment for themselves and their biological children and their stepchildren. the author identifies key issues that nurse educators need to teach student nurses related to stepfamilies based on research and a review of the literature, offering interventions that include material reso ...19958700393
what is your diagnosis? intussusception in an ostrich. 19968707669
causes of losses including a borna disease paralytic syndrome affecting young ostriches of one breeding organization over a five-year period (1989-1993).necropsy records and causes of mortality of ostriches up to 3 months old over a 5-year period (1989-1993) are presented. the data relate to one ostrich enterprise that comprises 10 breeding flocks, five rearing farms, and one hatchery. causes of mortality are classified into nine major categories. the annual mortality percentages of all hatched ostriches over the 5-year period were 61%, 58%, 30%, 29%, and 16.6%, and the most significant cause of death was a paresis syndrome that accounted for 20 ...19968713043
[the african ostrich--a "useful animal" in germany?].farming of the ostrich--a non domesticated species--cannot be done species-conforming; it is even a cruelty to the animals. keeping in captivity leads to a steady rank order stress; the biology of their reproduction is heavily impaired and their typical moving requirements can only be poorly satisfied. the specific habit of food intake cannot be performed accordingly, and the early deprivation, caused by the absence of parents during the weanling period, creates extremely abnormal behaviour. sum ...19968721328
[ostrich farming from the perspective of veterinarians].the present paper is an attempt to relate the etiology of 54 cases with diseased/deceased ostriches to criterions of keeping, feeding, climate and infectious diseases. despite the fact that some of the damages diagnosed seem to be avoidable the criterions of the law for the prevention of cruelty to animals are not to be fulfilled since the adverse climatic circumstances in germany.19968721329
[alcohol measurement in traffic accidents: how long will the ostrich strategy last?]. 19968755155
high mortality in ostrich eggs and hatchlings due to egg-washing. 19968786614
serosurvey for cowdria ruminantium, coxiella burnetii, and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ostriches (struthio camelus) from zimbabwe.sera from 216 ostriches on nine farms around zimbabwe were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) testing for the presence of antibodies reactive with cowdria ruminantium, coxiella burnetii, and rickettsia africae, a spotted fever group rickettsia. although no reactive antibodies could be detected to c. ruminantium or c. burnetii, 51/216 (35%) sera reacted with r. africae. the seroprevalence in ostriches from the south of zimbabwe was significantly higher than in birds from the north (p ...19968790897
plasma thyroxine concentrations in farmed ostriches in relation to age, body weight, and growth hormone.thyroid hormones are of interest in ostriches because, in common with other ratites, ostriches are believed to have evolved through neoteny, a process which, in amphibia, is related to thyroid function. farmed ostriches show marked differences in growth rates, a problem which also could be related to abnormal thyroid function. in adult farmed ostriches (more than 3 years old), mean plasma thyroxine concentration was 1.8 nmol middle dot liter-1 (range 0.2 to 6.5 nmol middle dot liter-1). this is ...19968812401
mortality in near-term ostrich embryos during artificial incubation.1. the ostrich industry in south africa (and elsewhere) experiences a high rate of embryo mortality during artificial incubation of eggs. most of this mortality takes place in the last l0-l4 d of incubation. 2. we carried out post-mortem examinations on 111 embryos that died within this period to assess the causes of this mortality. 3. malpositioning and severe oedema were the predominant symptoms of dead-in shell embryos with 55% being malpositioned and 41% showing severe oedema. of these, 22 e ...19968833529
time budget and colour preferences (with specific reference to feeding) of ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in captivity.1. time budget analysis of the typical behaviours of young ostrich chicks showed that chicks spent over 50% of their time foraging and walking. 2. food presented in bowls was largely ignored whereas food scattered on the floor was readily taken. 3. a colour preference test showed that green was the preferred colour.19968842461
microbial spoilage of ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs.1. the incidence of microbial spoilage was investigated in three batches of ostrich eggs, one from africa and two from europe. 2. 18% to 21% of eggs in each batch were contaminated with bacteria and fungi, with the latter being found more often in eggs which contained more advanced embryos. 3. although infertility and prolonged storage reduced hatchability, the high incidence of microbial contamination in ostrich eggs is deemed to be a significant problem. 4. improving nest hygiene is considered ...19968842475
purification and characterization of ostrich pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor.ostrich pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor was isolated and purified using acid extraction, salt fractionation. sp-sephadex c-50 and qae-sephadex a-25 chromatography and rp-hplc. the amino acid sequence of ostrich psti showed it is a single peptide chain containing 69 amino acid residues with the highest homology between ostrich and chicken psti. the molecular weight, as determined by electronspray mass spectrometry and from amino acid sequence data, is 7650 da. the isoelectric point of ostr ...19968872536
estimation of the weight and body condition of ostriches (struthio camelus) from body measurements.the body dimensions and weights of over 100 ostriches were analysed to investigate which body measurements provided the best estimators of bodyweight. the data were divided between growing and adult birds (below and above two years old) for regression analyses. the residual standard deviation of weight was 0.117 for growing birds, using tibiotarsal length and abdominal girth as predictors. the analogous figure for adults was 0.078 using back length and abdominal girth. an assessment of body cond ...19968883337
development of a method for the identification, using the polymerase chain reaction, of aspergillus fumigatus isolated from develop a method for identifying dna of aspergillus fumigatus from ostriches, using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a fumigatus is the principal causative agent of avian aspergillosis.19968894006
macroscopic blood supply to the hypophysis and hypothalamus of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the branching pattern of the aa. carotes internae and the macroscopic blood supply to the hypophysis and hypothalamus of the ostrich were studied on ten dissected acrylic vascular-injected heads and ten corrosion preparations of acrylic vascular casts of the head. the a. carotis cerebralis was found to be the only source of blood supply to the hypophysis and hypothalamus. the neurohypophysis was supplied by the caudal hypophyseal and infundibular arteries. the pars distalis was supplied by porta ...19968917862
husbandry practices as related to infectious and parasitic diseases of farmed ratites.over the past decade, there has been a world-wide increase in the number of farm-raised ratites. the focus of ostrich production remains in south africa, but other countries are initiating production of this bird in addition to the emu and rhea. ostriches, emus and rheas are being produced commercially outside their native habitat, resulting in new and unique disease presentations. the authors describe bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases which are emerging in production settings. biosecurity ...19968924717
complete amino acid sequences of follitropin and lutropin in the ostrich, struthio camelus.we determined the complete amino acid sequences of two pituitary gonadotropins, follitropin and lutropin in the ostrich, thereby providing the first information on the structure of avian follitropin. ostrich follitropin and lutropin both consist of two subunits: a common alpha-subunit and a hormone-specific beta-subunit. the alpha-subunit is composed of 96 amino acid residues and has 70-80% sequence identity with the alpha-subunits of most vertebrates. the ostrich follitropin beta-subunit consis ...19968925835
comparative effects of diverse vertebrate gonadotropins on estradiol-17 beta formation in vitro in an immature rat sertoli cell bioassay.the biopotencies of pituitary gonadotropins (gths) from various vertebrate classes were examined in an in vitro rat sertoli cell bioassay which was previously established for mammalian follicle-stimulating hormones (fshs). potencies of the gonadotropins were determined by incubation of sertoli cells obtained from 10-day-old rats, with increasing doses of gths, which resulted in dose-related and parallel estradiol-17 beta formation converted from added 19-hydroxy-androstenedione. in general, mamm ...19968930616
eggshell conductance and other functional qualities of ostrich eggs.eggshell conductance was measured and eggshell conductance constants were calculated for eggs from ostriches. in addition, egg water, yolk, albumen, shell, and total solids were measured in an effort to determine the maternal investment of ostrich eggs. the results of the study suggest that the optimal incubator humidity for ostrich eggs is less than 25% to allow a 15% loss of initial egg mass during the 45-d incubation period. this low humidity does not preclude increasing humidity during the a ...19968933594
isolation of paramyxovirus serotype 7 from ostriches (struthio camelus).paramyxovirus serotype 7 (pmv-7) was isolated from pooled intestinal contents of two 5-month-old ostriches (struthio camelus). the pathogenicity of the virus was comparable with lentogenic strains of newcastle disease virus (pmv-1) in chicken and chicken embryo pathogenicity tests. the relationship of the virus to the observed pathology of proliferative nonsuppurative enteritis is unknown; the campylobacter jejuni isolated was presumably the primary pathogen. to our knowledge, this is the first ...19968980831
repeatability and phenotypic correlations for body weight and reproduction in commercial ostrich breeding pairs.1. reproduction is an important aspect of ostrich farming, where income is mainly derived from hides and meat. no estimates of repeatability or phenotypic correlations for reproduction and body weight are currently available for commercial ostriches. 2. means, standard deviations, repeatability coefficients and phenotypic correlations for and among reproductive traits and body weight were computed for the average yearly production of 42 to 67 mixed age ostrich breeding pairs maintained on the kl ...19969034585
diagnosis of proliferative enteritis in frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from a hamster, horse, deer and ostrich using a lawsonia intracellularis-specific multiplex pcr assay.proliferative enteritis (pe) is an enteric disease that has been reported in a variety of animals. it is caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium identified in swine as lawsonia intracellularis. the organism can be detected ante-mortem in swine with pe using molecular diagnostic methods. the disease can be diagnosed post-mortem in all species by gross examination of tissues and special histologic staining procedures. in this study we extracted total dna from frozen or formalin-fixed, paraff ...19979050170
drug metabolizing enzymes in the ostrich (struthio camelus): comparison with the chicken and the rat.the activities of selected hepatic and renal drug-metabolizing enzymes of the ostrich, chicken and rats were compared. the concentration of glutathione in the liver and kidneys of the avian species was significantly lower than in the rat. the activity of ostrich hepatic glutathione s-transferase was 2-fold higher than that of the chicken and the rat and the renal glutathione s-transferase of the ostrich was 10 times higher than that of the rat. the activity of ostrich hepatic udp-glucuronyl tran ...19979080672
a comparative study between mature ostriches (struthio camelus) and adult cockerels with respect to true and apparent metabolisable energy values for maize, barley, oats and triticale.1. in three successive trials with cockerels and mature ostrich males the apparent and true metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention (amen and tmen) were determined by a balance method for malting barley, oats, triticale and yellow maize. all these ingredients were used as sole dietary components with the exception of triticale for ostriches which was diluted with 440 g/kg lucerne meal. the balance trial lasted for 5 d after an adaption period of 7 d for ostriches, and 3 d a ...19979088620
some blood chemical, electrolyte and mineral values from young ostriches.haematocrit, plasma osmolality and plasma calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were measured in 10 healthy ostrich chicks at 2-weekly intervals between 8 and 26 weeks of age. plasma sodium, potassium and zinc concentrations were measured in an additional 50 chicks between 2 and 6 months of age. with the exception of calcium, blood constituents did not change significantly with age. overall, haematocrit was lower and phosphorus and magnesium were slightly higher than previou ...19969120851
isolation and identification of adenoviruses from ostriches (struthio camelus). 19979141225
feeding and pecking behaviour in ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in captivity.1. three sets of experiments were performed on two batches of ostrich chicks to investigate the factors affecting the pecking and feeding behaviour of grouped individuals. 2. chicks showed no significant alteration of their feeding behaviour in response to raising pen walls in the rearing facility from 30 to 60 cm. 3. further analysis on a different set of birds revealed consistent short term individual differences in the frequency of feeding and non-feeding pecks. 4. there were significant pen ...19979158888
hypophosphataemic rickets and nephrocalcinosis in ostrich chicks brooded and reared on limestone sand. 19979178485
nuclear morphogenesis and the role of the manchette during spermiogenesis in the ostrich (struthio camelus).nuclear condensation during spermiogenesis in the ostrich follows the basic pattern established in other vertebrates. the fine granular nuclear substance of early spermatids is gradually replaced by numbers of coarse dense granules which appear to arise by aggregation of smaller dispersed elements of the chromatin. the granules increase in size and eventually coalesce to form the compact homogenous mass of chromatin typical of the mature sperm. in ostrich spermatids, however, the aggregation of ...19979183679
acute clostridial hepatitis in an ostrich. 19979211246
the mtdna sequence of the ostrich and the divergence between paleognathous and neognathous birds.the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) molecule of the ostrich, struthio camelus, was sequenced. the size of the molecule is 16,591 nucleotides. since the ostrich represents the paleognathous birds, comparison with the mtdna of the neognathous chicken, the only avian species reported so far in databases, made it possible to identify common and, probably, general avian mtdna characteristics. relative to other vertebrates, the avian nadh6 and trna-glu genes are positioned upstream of the control r ...19979214748
prevalent diseases of ostrich chicks farmed in canada, ostriches are now slaughtered for their meat and hides. the mortality rate in ostrich farming is highest in chick units. an increased chick survival rate impacts positively on production and profit. this paper will focus on common health disorders that affect chick production costs. these are discussed under the following categories: digestive, orthopedic, respiratory, and integumentary disorders. methods for elimination or reduction of these mortality factors are also discussed.19979220131
comparison of the 16s ribosomal dna sequences from the intracellular agents of proliferative enteritis in a hamster, deer, and ostrich with the sequence of a porcine isolate of lawsonia intracellularis.proliferative enteritis is an enteric disease that affects a variety of animals. the causative agent in swine has been determined to be an obligate intracellular bacterium, lawsonia intracellularis, related to the sulfate-reducing bacterium desulfovibrio desulfuricans. the intracellular agents found in the lesions of different animal species are antigenically similar. in addition, strains from the pig, ferret, and hamster have been shown to be genetically similar. in this study we performed a pa ...19979226893
use of rabbits in ostrich rearing. 19979234558
a comparative study between mature ostriches (struthio camelus) and adult cockerels with regard to the true and apparent digestibilities of amino acids.1. a study was conducted to compare apparent and true digestibility of amino acids in a high protein experimental diet between young ostriches (7 months of age) and cockerels. 2. a mean value for true digestibility of amino acids (taad) of 0.837 +/- 0.0073 (range 0.780 to 0.862) was derived for ostriches, compared with a mean value of 0.795 +/- 0.0258 (range 0.723 to 0.825) for cockerels. 3. true retention of dietary protein was 0.646 +/- 0.0114 and 0.609 +/- 0.0643 for ostriches and cockerels r ...19979280361
monitoring the health and productivity of farmed ostrich flocks. 19979293341
animal health risks associated with ostrich products.five diseases recorded in ostriches are regarded as posing a potential animal health threat to meat-importing countries. newcastle disease causes an atypically low mortality in ostriches: infected birds display typical nervous symptoms but no pathognomonic lesions which could be detected during post-mortem inspection. the vaccination of feedlot birds and a thorough ante-mortem examination are regarded as necessary precautions to ensure virus carriers are not among those animals destined for slau ...19979329111
purification and partial characterization of an ostrich alpha 1-antichymotrypsin-like serum inhibitor.alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, a member of the serpins, is the predominant plasma inhibitor of neutrophil cathepsin g. the aim of this study was to purify ostrich alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and to compare its biochemical properties with those of other species. ostrich alpha 1-antichymotrypsin was purified from serum by ammonium sulphate fractionation, qae-sephadex c-50 and phenyl-toyopearl chromatography. n-terminal sequence, amino acid composition, molecular mass, isoelectric point and reaction with c ...19979363637
purification and characterization of proteasome from ostrich liver.the proteasome (ec is a high molecular mass (approximately 700 kda) multisubunit enzyme complex which is the focus of worldwide research in order to identify the structure, mechanism of action and specificity of the complex. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the tryptic, chymotryptic and peptidylglutamyl-peptide hydrolysing (pgph) activities of ostrich liver proteasome. the proteasome was purified from ostrich liver by employing ammonium sulphate fractionation, follo ...19979363639
outbreak of salmonella give in the province of quebec.salmonellosis due to salmonella give involving cows, a goat, and an ostrich over a 6-month period was investigated. cases were found in 4 different regions. antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, phagetyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses confirmed that all isolates belonged to the same clone. a common source of infection was suspected.19979426945
detection of antibodies to newcastle disease virus in ostriches (struthio camelus) by an indirect elisa.a two-graph receiver operating characteristic analysis, performed on the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test results of a newcastle disease virus (ndv)-positive and ndv-negative control group of ostrich sera, proved that the elisa was superior to the hi in both sensitivity and specificity. comparison of results of the two assays performed on a panel of simulated positive sera ranging from very weak to very strong showed that the elisa was at least ...19979454920
strains of actinobacillus spp. from diseases of animals and ostriches in zimbabwe.among the actinobacillus spp. only a. lignieresii represents a homogenous and well studied taxon. however, haemolytic and non-haemolytic strains of a. equuli and a. suis are also isolated from a wide range of diseases in a variety of hosts. these isolates often pose problems in definitive identification. consequently, several studies have been published, emphasizing the need for detailed studies to reclassify various members of this genus and also to assess their disease significance. we isolate ...19979467174
experimental infection of vaccinated slaughter ostriches with virulent newcastle disease virus.a virulent newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolate from an outbreak in commercial poultry, with virulence indices of mdt = 47-48 h; ivpi = 2,17 and icpi = 1,8; was used to inoculate 10x vaccinated (standard poultry vaccines) as well as 10x unvaccinated slaughter ostriches via intratracheal, ocular and nasal routes, in a controlled environment. all unvaccinated ostriches developed clinical signs (mainly respiratory); two of them died while the other eight recovered. no vaccinated ostriches develope ...19979467177
public health risks of ostrich and crocodile meat.this paper discusses the infectious agents and chemical substances potentially capable of contaminating the meat of ostriches and crocodiles and which thus pose a danger to human handlers and consumers. for ostrich meat, there is no danger from crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever or spongiform encephalopathy. contamination of ostrich meat with salmonellae, chlamydia, pasteurellae, mycobacteria and erysipelas might be possible, but has never been reported. no parasites are known which could be trans ...19979501374
isolation and identification of birnaviruses from ostriches (struthio camelus). 19989501388
development of microsatellite markers for parentage typing of chicks in the ostrich struthio camelus. 19989532764
the location of z- and w-linked marker genes and sequence on the homomorphic sex chromosomes of the ostrich and the emu.perhaps the most striking fact about early cenozoic avian history some 70 million years ago was the rapid radiation of large, flightless, ground-living birds. it has been suggested that, for a time, there was active competition between these large terrestrial birds and the early mammals. probably reflecting the above noted early start of ratitae of the infraclass eoaves, the presumptive sex chromosomes of their present day survivors, such as the emu and the ostrich, largely remained homomorphic. ...19989539751
heart rate in developing ostrich embryos. 19989568316
factors on farms in eastern australia associated with the development of tibiotarsal rotation in ostrich determine the incidence of tibiotarsal rotation (ttr) in ostrich chicks and to identify factors on farms associated with the development of ttr.19989578781
the complete mitochondrial genome of rhea americana and early avian divergences.the complete mitochondrial dna, mtdna, molecule of the greater rhea, rhea americana, was sequenced. the size of the molecule is 16,710 nucleotides. the organization of the molecule conforms with that described for the chicken and the ostrich. it has been shown previously that relative to other vertebrates the nadh3 gene of the ostrich has an insertion of one nucleotide in position 174 of the gene. the same observation was made in the rhea and in the newly sequenced nadh3 gene of the emu, dromaiu ...19989608049
ostrich intestinal glycohydrolases: distribution, purification and partial characterisation.intestinal glycohydrolases are enzymes involved in assimilating carbohydrate for nutrition. the avian forms of these enzymes, in particular the maltase-glucoamylase complex (mg), are not well characterised. this study encompassed characterisation of these enzymes from ostrich intestines, and the first kinetic analysis of an avian mg. proteolytically solubilised mg from ileal brush border membrane vesicles was purified by sephadex g-200 gel filtration and tris-affinity-chromatography, while jejun ...19989611776
[case report. three ostriches (struthio camelus l., 1758), female, 18, 20 and 24 months old]. 19989626741
research note: a comparison of metabolisable energy values of lucerne and barley between young and mature ostriches.apparent and true metabolisable energy (me) values, corrected for zero nitrogen retention, of lucerne and barley were compared in balance studies between young (six months old, 50 to 60 kg bw) and mature (30 months old, 110 to 120 kg bw) ostriches. birds were housed in individual metabolism crates and excreta collection were performed over a five day period after an adaptation period of seven days. apparent metabolisable energy, corrected for zero nitrogen retention, (amen) of 9.17 +/- 0.251 mj/ ...19989638307
lack of protection against oxidative modification of ldl by avian hdl.human and murine high density lipoprotein (hdl) has previously been shown to decrease the accumulation of lipid peroxides on low density lipoprotein (ldl) under oxidising conditions. several lines of evidence, including the ineffectiveness of hdl from paraoxonase knockout mice, suggest that paraoxonase (pon1) located on hdl is responsible for its protective effect against lipid peroxidation. in this report we compare the effect of hdl from chicken, turkey and ostrich with human hdl on lipid pero ...19989642147
feeding and vigilance behaviour of breeding ostriches (struthio camelus) in a farming environment in britain.1. vigilance and feeding behaviour of male and female adult breeding ostriches were recorded to determine feeding and scanning bout lengths, a time budget and the pattern of vigilance immediately after food was provided. 2. males were more vigilant and fed for shorter periods than females immediately after concentrate food was delivered but not throughout the whole day. 3. most interscan periods of males were below 40 s with a maximum of 90 s compared with most interscan periods of females lasti ...19989649867
detection of newcastle disease virus-specific antibodies in ostrich sera by three serological methods.sera from 211 ostriches were tested for the presence of newcastle disease virus (ndv)-specific antibodies by the virus neutralisation test, the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test and a recently developed avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (pmv-1) specific monoclonal antibody blocking elisa (b-elisa). the virus neutralisation test was used as the reference for the estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of the b-elisa and hi tests. of the 211 sera, 140 contained ndv-specific neutralising an ...19989698626
growth rate of ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks under intensive management in botswana.thirty-seven ostrich chicks raised artificially had their weights, lengths of metatarsus and heights measured weekly from hatching to the 16th week. despite weight loss during the first week due to utilization of egg yolk by the chicks, the chicks showed and exponential growth up to the twelfth week with an overall mean weekly weight gain of 1.3 kg. female chicks showed a superior mean weekly gain of 1.6 kg compared to 1.2 kg for males. the metatarsal length grew rapidly at a weekly rate of 2.5 ...19989719849
self-amplification of satellite dna in vitro.we describe a pcr-like reaction in which genomic dna acts as a template as well as a primer. interaction between genomic tandem repeat units leads to self-amplification of satellite dna. this genomic self-priming pcr (gsp-pcr) allowed the rapid amplification of species-specific tandem repeats of horse, cattle, dolphin, and chicken. a novel specific satellite of ostrich with a repeat unit of 60 bp was isolated using this method.19989729777
ostrich microsatellite polymorphisms at the vias-os4, vias-os8, vias-os14, vias-os22, and vias-os29 loci. 19989745685
urinary excretion of diethylstilbestrol in the ostrich.stilboestrol tablets (20 x 1 mg) were given to 4 ostriches. urine was collected over a period of 8 days and stored frozen at-20 degrees c pending analysis. analyses were performed on a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector for the presence of parent compound and/or metabolites. diethylstilbestrol and its metabolite, dienestrol, were detected in urine; dienestrol only for 1 day but diethylstilbestrol for 8 days after administration. residue analysis for the use of diethylstilbestrol as growth ...19989760398
evaluation of a competitive elisa for detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus nucleoprotein.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) employing a baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleoprotein and a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of antibodies to type a influenza virus nucleoprotein. the performance of the c-elisa was evaluated by testing 756 chickens, 1123 turkeys, 707 emus, and 1261 ostriches, for a total of 3847 serum samples. relative to the agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test, the c-elisa had a sensitivity of 100% for all four species. the c- ...19989777152
impaction of the stomachs in farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) in botswana.impaction of the proventriculus, gizzard, and sometimes intestines due to sand was confirmed at postmortem in 25 cases involving ostriches (struthio camelus). although there was no age predisposition, impaction was more common in juvenile over 3 mo old. clinical signs included sternal recumbency, outstretched neck, debility, and inability to stand. palpation of the impacted stomachs gave a gritty sensation. depletion of coronary fat was a consistent postmortem finding. the most common material c ...19989777162
courtship behaviour of ostriches (struthio camelus) towards humans under farming conditions in britain.1. the courtship behaviour of adult male and female ostriches was observed in the presence and absence of human beings. 2. courtship behaviours in both males and females were more prevalent in the presence of humans. 3. exposure to a human for a short period did not stimulate courtship behaviour in the period immediately after the human had withdrawn. 4. courtship behaviour towards humans may be important in the reproductive success of ostriches in a farming environment.19989800029
morphology of the distal tip of the upper mandible of the ostrich (struthio camelus) embryo during hatching.1. the morphology of the distal part of the upper mandible in ostrich embryos was investigated using scanning electron microscopy just prior to and during hatching. 2. although a keel-like structure on the tip of the upper mandible superficially resembles an egg tooth it appears to play no role during hatching. 3. the distal tip of the upper mandible is covered by an amorphous layer, the right side of which disappears during the hatching process. this layer acts to protect the beak during the ru ...19989800047
serum biochemical values of farmed ostrich (struthio camelus) in botswana.reference biochemical values for serum analytes of 126 clinically normal farmed ostriches on one farm in botswana were established. these included sodium, potassium, chloride, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, glucose, triglyceride, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, copper, zinc, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and creatinine kinase. the values obtained in this study can be used as reference values.19989809323
rectal stricture in an ostrich (struthio camelus).exploratory celiotomy of an 18-mo-old female ostrich (struthio camelus) with anorexia, lethargy, and constipation of 5 days' duration showed mesenteric volvulus and a focal narrowing of the rectum approximately 28 cm cranial to the cloaca. the prognosis was poor and the animal was euthanized. necropsy revealed a fibrinonecrotic proctitis and a 3-cm-long circumferential stricture of the rectum. histologically, the rectal wall at the stricture was deeply effaced by fibrovascular connective tissue ...19989809611
experimental infection of ostriches with crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus.following the occurrence of an outbreak of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) among workers at an ostrich abattoir in south africa in 1996, 9 susceptible young ostriches were infected subcutaneously with the virus in order to study the nature of the infection which they undergo. the ostriches developed viraemia which was demonstrable on days 1-4 following infection, with a maximum intensity of 4.0 log10 mouse intracerebral ld50/ml being recorded on day 2 in 1 of the birds. virus was detecta ...19989825796
viruses and virus-like particles identified in ostrich gut contents.samples of either gut content from ostriches showing symptoms of enteritis, or allantoic fluid of eggs inoculated with ostrich isolates, were examined for the presence of viral agents by direct negative-contrast electron microscopy. only a few virus types could be identified with certainty, namely a circovirus (1 sample), a coronavirus (1 sample), a member of either the toga- or bunyaviridae (1 sample), enterovirus (16 samples) and paramyxovirus (26 samples). a large number of samples contained ...19989850509
thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol content of exotic meats and loss due to gamma radiation.changes in thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations due to gamma irradiation were followed in alligator, caiman, bison, and ostrich (exotic) meats. the proximate composition showed that the exotic meats generally had lower fat content than domestic animal meats and that the thiamin content of the reptiles was lower. the changes in the vitamins due to irradiation were similar to those previously observed for domestic species. the results indicate that the loss of vitamins in these ...19989874349
microsporidiosis in a young ostrich (struthio camelus).microsporidia are obligate, intracellular, protozoan parasites of a wide variety of vertebrates and invertebrates. confirmed reports of microsporidial infection of avian species are few (lovebirds, a parrot, and a group of budgerigar chicks). at slaughter, a 14-mo-old ostrich was found to have small intestinal serosal hemorrhages during postmortem inspection. histologic examination of the small intestine revealed a chronic lymphoplasmacytic to purulent enteritis with mucosal hyperplasia, muscula ...19989876859
intussusception in the small intestine of a farmed ostrich (struthio camelus) chick in botswana. 19989881438
the histidine-rich protamine from ostrich and tinamou sperm. a link between reptile and bird protamines.we have characterized for the first time the proteins of two different species of palaeognathous birds, struthio camelus australis (ostrich) and nothoprocta perdicaria sanborni (chilean tinamou). similar to what had been previously reported in neognaths, the electrophoretic mobility, amino acid composition, and primary structure of the main protamine (p-ii) component of these two species of birds are similar. however, in contrast to neognathous birds, the protamines from paleognaths display a hi ...19999890896
can any ostrich fly?: some new data on belief bias in syllogistic reasoning.according to one version of the mental models theory (oakhill, j.v., johnson-laird, p.n., garnham, a., 1989. believability and syllogistic reasoning. cognition 31, 117-140) beliefs exert their influence on reasoning in three ways. first they can affect the interpretation of the premises, for example by conversion. second, they can curtail the search for alternative models of the premises, if an initial model supports a believable conclusion. third, they can act as a filter on any conclusion that ...19989894404
[vaccination of ostriches (struthio camelus, linnaeus, 1758) against newcastle disease: evidence for vaccine compatibility and seroconversion after vaccinations using the hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests].newcastle disease (nd) remains to be the worldwide most important infectious disease of poultry. this epizootic is in germany and many other countries a notifiable disease. prophylactic vaccination is the major tool for the control of nd in poultry and other birds. eighty-three ostriches (struthio camelus) which were kept on farms in germany were checked for the presence of ndv-specific antibodies. some of these birds are said to be vaccinated against newcastle disease. only some of these ostric ...199910085579
ratite production as an agricultural enterprise.the ratite industry remains in the market introduction stage of evolution; basic information on markets and production is limited. it is uncertain when, or perhaps whether, either the ostrich or emu industries will progress to the market growth stage. until significant expansion occurs, ratite operations are likely to be faced with low or even nonexistant profits. it is the authors' observation that the ostrich industry is making slow but significant progress toward introducing products into pot ...199810098232
ratite reproduction.the role of the veterinarian in ostrich production in the future will be to develop least-cost management programs. this article focuses on the ostrich as the only current commercially viable ratite species. managing a successful ranch involves disease prevention, genetic selection, environmental management, and nutrition.199810098236
coccidia oocysts in the faeces of farmed ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in botswana.coccidia oocysts were demonstrated in the faeces of 53 (about 34%) of 156 apparently healthy ostrich chicks. young chicks had the highest proportion of infestation while those more than 9 weeks old had no oocysts at all in their faeces. these coccidia may be considered no pathogenic since the infected chicks grew normally without any evidence of diarrhoea.199810192840
production of a rabbit anti-cockatiel immunoglobulin g and characterization of its cross-reactivities with immunoglobulin g of other psittacine species.the purpose of this work was to produce rabbit anti-cockatiel immunoglobulin g (igg) and compare its cross-reactivity with sera from eight other psittacine birds: quaker parakeet, budgerigar, green-wing macaw, blue-fronted amazon parrot, eclectus parrot, african grey parrot, patagonian conure, moluccan cockatoo. cockatiel igg did not bind to protein a or g; therefore, these proteins could not be used in column chromatography to isolate the igg. a combination of serum igg precipitation by ammoniu ...199910216759
the isolation and partial characterization of precursor forms of ostrich carboxypeptidase.ostrich carboxypeptidases a and b were recently purified and characterized. the aim of this study was to isolate and purify, and partially characterize in terms of molecular weight, pi, amino acid composition and n-terminal sequencing, the precursor forms of carboxypeptidases from the ostrich pancreas. inhibition studies with soybean trypsin inhibitor and activation studies with three proteases (bovine trypsin, bovine chymotrypsin and porcine elastase) were performed on crude ostrich acetone pow ...199910216965
the ostrich syndrome. 197810238821
human resource management and the energy crisis: an ostrich posture? 198110253454
the identification of a sex-specific dna marker in the ostrich using a random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay.pcr-based techniques described to date for sex diagnosis in birds are not useful in ratites. we report here the identification of a w-linked marker in the ostrich (struthio camelus) which allows gender diagnosis in chicks or juvenile birds. dna from 10 females and 11 males was used to prepare two pools for each sex. two-hundred different 10-mer primers of arbitrary sequence were used to screen those pools using a random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay. one primer (d 10) generated a female ...199910327659
straussenhaltung in deutschland / straussenfleisch aus namibia--ein fallbeispiel. [ostrich husbandry in germany / ostrich meat from namibia - a case study].within the european union, academic professions themselves are expected to reach a comparable level of professionalism, a fact that veterinary medicine as well should not ignore. at present, a working group is developing a concept of a teaching module for the socrates programme "education in veterinary public health (vph)", enabling the students by "case studies" to be induced to an integrated approach of tackling problems. in an attempt to demonstrate the didactic procedure, a study of ostrich ...199910337057
culicoides spp. (diptera: ceratopogonidae) associated with farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) in botswana. 199910401721
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