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synthesis of the nonatriacontapeptide corresponding to the entire amino acid sequence of ostrich adrenocorticotropic hormone. 19826284392
beta-endorphin. synthesis and radioreceptor-binding activity of the ostrich hormone.ostrich beta-endorphin has been synthesized by the solid-phase method. opiate activity in a radioreceptor binding assay is about seven times that of human beta-endorphin. structural differences within positions 6-15 account for the increased binding potency.19826288586
beta-endorphin: analgesic and receptor binding activity of non-mammalian homologs.analgesic potencies of turkey, ostrich and des-acetyl salmon beta-endorphins have been measured in the tail-flick test and binding affinities determined by radio-receptor assay. the duration of analgesia and the slope of the dose-response curves generated by these peptides are similar to those elicited by mammalian beta-endorphins. this suggests that they act in vivo and in vitro on the same population of opiate receptors. the ratio of binding to analgesic potencies observed for these peptides v ...19826288596
adrenocorticotropin. 57. synthesis and biological activity of ostrich and turkey hormones.synthesis of ostrich and turkey corticotropin (acth) has been accomplished by the solid-phase method. each was identical to the natural hormone in high performance liquid chromatography. relative potencies in a lipolytic assay in isolated rabbit fat cells were: human acth, 100; ostrich acth, 53; turkey acth, 28. in isolated rat fat cells relative lipolytic potencies were: human acth, 100; ostrich acth, 2; turkey acth, 13. it was concluded that lipolytic potency is sensitive to alterations in str ...19846321369
biological and binding activities of pituitary hormones from the ostrich, struthio camelus.biological and binding activities of adenohypophysial hormones purified from the ostrich (ost), struthio camelus, were compared to those of the corresponding hormones derived from mammalian and other avian species. the potency of ostrich prolactin was comparable to those of other avian preparations and slightly less active than the ovine hormone when tested in the pigeon crop-sac assay, but ostrich growth hormone (gh) was more potent than several other avian preparations and was comparable to ma ...19836411519
organic phosphates increase the solubility of avian haemoglobin d and embryonic chicken haemoglobin.the isolated minor haemoglobin fractions (haemoglobin d) of ostrich, chicken and duck haemoglobin, which constitute about 30% of total intracellular haemoglobin, form crystalline aggregates upon deoxygenation at physiological temperature, ionic strength and ph and at haemoglobin concentrations even well below those present in the red cell. the aggregation is reversed by oxygenation, and can be inhibited by addition of organic phosphates or the corresponding major haemoglobin fraction in a stoich ...19846424651
two avian luteinizing hormone radioimmunoassay procedures compared by measurement of changes during the ovulatory cycle of turkey and broiler hens.two radioimmunoassay (ria) procedures for measuring avian luteinizing hormone (lh) were compared using divided aliquots of plasma samples collected during the ovulatory cycles of turkey and broiler breeder hens in three separate experiments. the ria systems compared were the homologous turkey lh assay wentworth et al. (1976) and the homologous chicken lh assay of follett et al. (1972). both assays provided the same assessment of circulating lh changes. the preovulatory surge of lh was observed 6 ...19846429660
studies on the specificity of thyroid response to pituitary glycoprotein hormones.thyrotropins (tsh) and gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, lh, and follicle-stimulating hormone, fsh) purified from ovine, bovine, ostrich, sea turtle, and bullfrog pituitary glands were tested for their ability to simulate the thyroid glands of four species of amphibians (three anurans and a urodele), a reptile (the slider turtle), and a bird (the cockerel). all animals tested responded specifically to mammalian, sea turtle, and ostrich thyrotropins; any thyroid-stimulating activity of the gona ...19846436141
ratites as oldest offshoot of avian stem--evidence from alpha-crystallin a sequences.one of the most disputed issues in avian phylogeny is the origin of the ratites, the large flightless birds of the southern hemisphere (reviewed in refs 1-3). it is still not generally agreed whether the ostriches, rheas, emus and cassowaries, and probably kiwis, form a natural, monophyletic group, although much recent evidence supports this view. also, their phylogenetic relationship with the other avian orders remains unresolved, comparative protein sequence studies might shed new light on thi ...19846482951
intussusception in an ostrich chick.intussusception of the distal small intestine was observed in a 5-week old ostrich chick. the intussusception occurred at the point of attachment of the yolk sac and was speculated as being a predisposing cause to the problem, as a result of localised infection. other predisposing causes seen in poultry such as enteritis, tumours, parasites and diet, were not evident in this case.19846492056
function of the lower intestine and osmoregulation in the ostrich: preliminary anatomical and physiological observations.the gross anatomy of the lower intestine of the african ostrich (struthio camelus) was investigated in four adult birds shot in the wild. the presence of 80 cm long paired caeca, and approximately 10 m of colon between ileum and the cloaca was confirmed. urine, but not faeces, was found in the coprodeum. retrograde flow into the colon was not observed. samples of contents from the lower intestine were secured from these birds and the water content, osmolality and concentrations in the supernatan ...19846514998
[nutritional muscular dystrophy in a clutch of ostrich chicks].six 1 1/2-month old ostrich chickens in the upington district of the cape province developed lameness. two died and pathological examination of one of them revealed lesions identical to those of white muscle disease in the larger muscle groups. vitamin e-selenium therapy cured the other 4. the diet of the animals consisted mainly of lucerne (alfalfa).19846545370
suspected vitamin e-selenium deficiency in two ostriches.paresis of the limbs of two 4-month-old ostriches fed a diet predominantly of crushed maize was investigated. raised levels of serum aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase were demonstrated in both birds. the less severely affected ostrich recovered after a single intramuscular injection of a vitamin e-selenium preparation but the other died despite therapy. an autopsy of the latter revealed focal pale areas in the thigh muscle. microscopically affected muscle fibres showed degeneration, nec ...19836631892
the autopsy versus the ostrich. 19846724757
the coronary circulation of the heart of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the distribution of the coronary arteries of the ostrich is described and compared with existing accounts of other species of birds. the blood supply to the ventricular walls, part of the interventricular septum and atria comes from the superficial branches of the left and right coronary arteries. the deep branches are small, supplying most of the interventricular septum and part of the right atrioventricular valve. the left and right coronary arteries are of equal size, forming a balanced circu ...19846735902
biochemical and immunological characterization of pituitary hormones from the ostrich (struthio camelus). 19826814981
[primary structures of the alpha and beta chains from the major hemoglobin component of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and american rhea (rhea americana) (struthioformes). aspects of respiratory physiology and taxonomy].the primary structures of the alpha a- und beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and american rhea (rhea americana) are given. the minor component with the alpha d-chains was detected in ostrich in several concentrations, in american rhea as in chicken and pheasant (about 40%). by homologous comparison, greylag goose (anser anser) hemoglobin and ostrich alpha a-chains differ by 15 amino acids or 16 nucleotide (1 two-point mutation) exchanges, beta-chai ...19836840701
determination of the primary sequence of the duck alpha d globin mrna and comparison of all adult duck and chick globin mrna sequences.the nucleotide sequence of the duck alpha d globin mrna was determined. its main feature is an exceptionally short 3' non-coding segment of only 46 nucleotides, placed after the coding sequence of 141 codons. the last of the 6 adult globin mrna of duck and chicken being thus sequenced, a comparison of all their features has become possible. comparing the duck alpha d mrna to the related sequence in the chicken, we found greater homology than comparing it to the linked alpha a globin sequence in ...19836888376
aspergillus pneumonia in an ostrich (struthio camelus). 19817020676
complete amino acid sequence of ostrich (struthio camelus) egg-white lysozyme, a goose-type lysozyme.the complete amino acid sequence (185 amino acid residues) of the good-type lysozyme from the egg white of ostrich (struthio camelus) has been determined from the study of tryptic and staphylococcus aureus v8 protease peptides as well as of cnbr and bnps-skatole fragments. a slight sequence homology between the goose-type and chicken-type lysozymes has been observed.19827075596
the bursa cloacae (fabricii) of struthioniforms in comparison with the bursa of other birds.the late embryonic and postembryonic genesis of the bursa cloacae (fabricii) of struthioniforms and other birds is described and discussed. the bursa of ostrich and emu is a wall organ of the caudal cloacal chamber. the bursa of rhea is, like the bursa of gallus, a cranial appendix of the proctodeum. lobuli bursales of struthioniforms are composed of a peripheral pars lymphoepithelialis (ple) and a central pars lymphoreticularis (plr). by contrast, lobuli bursales of gallus are composed of a per ...19827077679
energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. iv. total mechanical energy changes as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.this is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. in this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (eke, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ecm, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. the minimum mass-specific power required of the mus ...19827086351
isolation and characterisation of a novel peptide from ostrich adenohypophyses.a novel peptide has been isolated from ostrich pituitary glands using acid acetone extraction, salt fractionation, ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and preparative paper electrophoresis. the homogeneous fraction contained a large proportion of hydrophobic amino acids apparently concentrated in a portion of the polypeptide. an amino-terminal isoleucine and carboxyl-terminal glutamine were found. the molecular weight was determined as 15 024 (ultracentrifugation) and 16 185 (amino ac ...19827118433
pulmonary blood flow distribution in panting ostriches.ostriches (struthio camelus) are the only birds known that can increase post-dead space ventilation during severe heat stress without experiencing hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis. to determine whether this phenomenon occurs due to redistribution of pulmonary blood flow during panting, thus creating an extreme ventilation-perfusion (v/q) imbalance, the distributions of pulmonary blood flow in ostriches at rest (15 degrees c) and in severe panting (45 degrees c) were determined using radioact ...19827153138
beta-endorphin: primary structure of the hormone from the ostrich pituitary gland. 19817213380
the epididymis and its development in ratite birds (ostrich, emu, rhea).the epididymis of ratitae is subdivided into a main part and a appendix epididymidis. the appendix epididymidis consists of the ductus aberrans and ductuli aberrantes. the ductus aberrans is the cranial continuation of the ductus epididymidis. the appendix epididymidis is cranially attached to the adrenal gland. in the main part of the epididymis the largest part of the rete testis is found. the rete testis is composed of an intratesticular rete (also named tubuli recti), and intracapsular rete ...19817270904
isolation and characterization of beta-lipotropin from the pituitary gland of the ostrich, struthio camelus.avian beta-lipotropin (beta-lph) was purified from adenohypophyseal glands of the ostrich struthio camelus by a procedure involving acid/acetone extraction, nacl fractionation, cm-cellulose chromatography, sephadex g-75 chromatography and paper electrophoresis (ph 6.7). the 90-amino acid peptide behaved as a single substance during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing (pi of 6.0) and n-terminal analysis, the n-terminal amino acid being alanine. ostrich beta-lph exhibited lipo ...19817309374
beta-lipotropin: primary structure of the hormone from the ostrich pituitary gland.the amino acid sequence of beta-lipotropin from the ostrich pituitary has been determined. it consists of 79 amino acids. the amino acid sequence has been determined as follows: h-(1)ala-leu-pro-pro-ala-ala-met-leu-pro-(10)ala-ala-ala-glu-glu-glu-glu-gly-gl u-glu-(20)glu-glu-glu-gly-glu-ala-glu-lys-glu-asp-(30)gly-gly-ser-tyr-arg-met-a rg-his-phe-arg-(40)trp-gln-ala-pro-leu-lys-asp-lys-arg-tyr-(50)gly-gly-phe-met- ser-ser-glu-arg-gly-arg-(60)ala-pro-leu-val-thr-leu-phe-lys-asn-ala-(70)ile-val -l ...19817309375
in vivo thyroxine release in day-old cockerels in response to acute stimulation by mammalian and avian pituitary hormones.thyroxine (t4) level in the blood of newly hatched cockerels were measured at different times after the injection of bovine thyrotropin. a linear response to increasing doses of mammalian thyrotropin was seen when a two-injection protocol was used with a fifteen-hour interval between injections. blood t4 levels peaked 5 hr after the second injection and declined thereafter. this response was shown to be highly specific for thyrotropin from both mammalian and avian sources; gonadotropins, prolact ...19817322997
studies on avian erythrocyte metabolism. ix. relationship of changing organic phosphate composition to whole blood oxygen affinity during development of the ostrich (struthio camelus camelus). 19807372012
isolation and characterization of three lutropin isohormones from the pituitary gland of the ostrich (struthio camelus).avian lutropin has been isolated from pituitary glands of the ostrich (struthio camelus) in three homogeneous forms (designated isohormones). the different homogeneous forms of ostrich lutropin were characterized physically and chemically in terms of molecular weight, electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric points, amino acid and carbohydrate composition. from these characteristics it was evident that the isohormones are very similar. the differences between these isohormones can be attributed to ...19807372410
an outbreak of pasteurellosis in kano zoo.an outbreak of pasteurellosis caused by pasteurella multocida is reported in which six elands (taurotragus oryx), a gnu (connochaetes taurinus albojubatus), a zebra (equus bruchelli), five kangaroos (macropus rufus), an ostrich (struthio camelus camelus) and a bateleur eagle (terathopius ecaudatus) died in kano zoological gardens toward the end of the rainy season of 1978. confirmation was based on cultural isolation of p. multocida. analysis of likely factors that could have contributed to the ...19807373722
[the sequence of the hemoglobin of barheaded goose (anser indicus) and ostrich (struthio camelus). inositol pentaphosphate as a modulator of the evolution rate: the surprising sequence alpha 63 (e12) valine (author's transl)]. 19807399417
isolation, characterization and opiate activity of beta-endorphin from the pituitary gland of the ostrich, struthio camelus.1. avian beta-endorphin was purified from adenohypophyseal glands of the ostrich struthio camelus by a procedure involving acid/acetone extraction, nacl fractionation, cm-cellulose chromatography, sephadex g-50 chromatography and paper electrophoresis (ph 6.7). 2. the 31-amino acid peptide behaved as a single substance during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, the isoelectric point being 8.84. 3. ostrich beta-endorphin exhibited significant opiate activity in the guinea ...19807406864
[behavior disorders in relation to food intake in african ostriches].the behaviour of ostriches (struthio camelus) was observed. the most striking behaviour disorders was feather pecking. however, the animals showed four other behaviour patterns, which also must be qualified as behaviour disorders: pecking sand, pecking wire, pecking their own feathers and pecking into air, occurred in a random succession. this is a result of the nutrition, which differs from the natural feeding situation, as the animals are fed exclusively on pellets so that the food consumption ...19957495416
evidence for cryptosporidial infection as a cause of prolapse of the phallus and cloaca in ostrich chicks (struthio camelus).cloacas of male ostrich chicks that had suffered prolapse of the phallus and cloaca were compared with cloacas of normal ostrich chicks of both sexes from the same area. heavy infection of the cloacal and bursal tissue with cryptosporidium sp. was present in all the cases of prolapse, while no cryptosporidia were observed in the normal chicks. histopathological lesions as described in cryptosporidial infection in other species were present in the infected cloacas. these included loss of the micr ...19947501359
the isolation and partial characterization of alpha 2-macroglobulin from the serum of the ostrich (struthio camelus.1. alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2m) activity is present in the serum of the ostrich, struthio camelus. the chromogenic synthetic peptide substrates bapna and atna were hydrolysed by trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively, in the presence of ostrich serum and the alpha 2 m in ostrich serum protected trypsin from being inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor. ostrich alpha 2m proved to be a potent inhibitor of bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin. 2. alpha 2m was purified to apparent homogene ...19947511119
granulomatous lesions caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa in the ostrich (struthio camelus).granulomatous lesions were observed in imported ostriches aged 3 months. clinically, the birds showed lassitude, incoordination, and inappetence. at necropsy, yellowish white nodules often accompanied by a pseudodiphtheritic membrane were found in the oral, pharyngeal, tracheal and air sac mucosae, the lungs, oesophageal serosa, and abdominal peritoneum. histopathological examination revealed purulent granulomatous lesions containing central bacterial colonies with an outer shell and club format ...19957560302
surgical repair of traumatically induced collapsing trachea in an ostrich.a region of tracheal collapse was identified by endoscopy after surgical repair of a traumatic injury to the neck in an ostrich. during periods of excitation, the ostrich would become dyspneic and collapse. a tracheal split-ring prosthesis was placed surgically to support the collapsing trachea. this technique, which is frequently used in dogs, is applicable for use in birds with collapsing trachea.19957591952
the false-positive polymerase chain reaction and the ostrich. 19957594694
cardiomyopathy in ostriches (struthio camelus) due to avocado (persea americana var. guatemalensis) intoxication.nine out of 120 ostriches died from congestive heart failure within 96 h of ingesting avocado leaves and immature fruit in an avocado orchard containing hass and fuerte cultivars. foliage and immature fruit from both cultivars dosed to ostriches (n = 4) and domestic hens (n = 8) resulted in severe cardiomyopathy in all the ostriches. in the hens, which had received a lower dose, milder lesions occurred. macroscopically the intoxication in ostriches resulted in a severe anasarca of the neck and v ...19947595917
serum- and bone-mineral status of ostriches with tibiotarsal rotation.tibiotarsal rotation in ostrich chicks is a serious problem that accounts for considerable financial loss to ostrich farmers. serum- and bone-mineral analyses of 20 ostrich chicks with tibiotarsal rotation were compared with serum- and bone-mineral analyses of eight normal ostrich chicks of comparable age, sex and body mass, and raised under identical conditions. the serum-zinc values were significantly higher and the bone-calcium and phosphorus values significantly lower in the affected group t ...19947596572
ultrastructure of ostrich (struthio camelus) spermatozoa. ii. scanning electron microscopy.the three-dimensional structure and size of ostrich sperm is unknown. in this study, the morphology and dimensions of ostrich sperm were determined by scanning electron microscopy of semen samples obtained from sexually mature males during the breeding season. the results indicate that sperm cells of the ostrich are of the sauropsid type characteristic of non-passerine birds and, in general appearance, resemble those of the chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, budgerigar and tinamou. they differ from t ...19947596577
[the oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation].this work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during incubation. brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass cylinder. reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. a sigmoid curve could be drawn during incubation, with the steepest phase being around day 26. maximum oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. it was slightly decreased until day 39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, follow ...19957600947
factors affecting hatchability during commercial incubation of ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs.1. a batch of 320 ostrich eggs from 9 different farms in zimbabwe were incubated in a single stage operation and the fate of each was recorded. 2. hatchability was only 37.2% and the result of high rates of infertility and contamination (22.2% and 22.8% respectively); it varied between eggs from different farms. 3. embryonic mortality was high at the start and end of incubation, a pattern similar to that of other domestic birds. 4. mortality of late stage embryos was related to percentage water ...19957614026
the hatching sequence of ostrich (struthio camelus) embryos with notes on development as observed by candling.1. the hatching sequence of the ostrich (struthio camelus) was determined by observing embryos during candling, those in the process of hatching and in dead-in-shell eggs. 2. candling showed that there was a progressive increase in dark shadowing within the egg but fine details were not easily seen. nevertheless candling is considered to be an important method of assessing development of ostrich eggs during incubation. 3. the ostrich embryo adopts a hatching position and follows a hatching seque ...19957614027
blood meal sources of glossina pallidipes and g. longipennis (diptera: glossinidae) in nguruman, southwest kenya.in total, 1,952 glossina pallidipes austen and 1,098 g. longipennis corti adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in nguruman, southwestern kenya, by ng2g traps during the dry season of 1992. of these, 339 individuals (11.1%) had blood meals, of which 155 (45.7%) were identified by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the most frequent blood meal source was bushbuck, followed by ostrich, elephant, buffalo, and warthog. few meals were taken from cattle. the findings of frequent b ...19957616534
tourniquet-induced hypertension in an ostrich.surgery was performed on a 3-year-old 110-kg male ostrich (struthio camelus) to remove a sequestrum from the dorsal aspect of the left tarsometatarsal bone. a pneumatic tourniquet was positioned proximal to the surgical site and inflated to 600 mm of hg. systolic blood pressure increased 35% over 105 minutes while the tourniquet was inflated. systolic blood pressure decreased 31.5% within 30 seconds after removal of the tourniquet pressure. recovery from anesthesia and surgery was routine. the t ...19957628940
ostrich anaesthesia: xylazine premedication followed by alphaxalone/alphadolone and isoflurane. 19957646383
ostrich trypsinogen: purification, kinetic properties and characterization of the pancreatic enzyme.trypsinogen is a serine protease zymogen (ec.3.4.21.4) which has proved to be of key significance in a family of about 20 structurally and functionally related pancreatic digestive enzymes. this study was an endeavour to isolate, purify and characterize a stable form of ostrich trypsinogen, which has thus far not yet been accomplished. trypsinogen (anionic) was isolated and purified by alkaline extraction of pancreatic acetone powder, followed by toyopearl deae 650m, hydroxylapatite and lbti-sep ...19957648428
ostrich pepsinogens i and ii: purification, activation and chemical and immunochemical characterization of the enzymes from the proventriculus.pepsins are a series of gastric proteases secreted as inactive precursors (pepsinogens) which are active at acidic ph. the aim of this study was to purify ostrich pepsin(ogen)s and to compare their biochemical and immunological characteristics with those of pepsin(ogen)s of mammalian and avian origin. ostrich pepsinogens were purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation, toyopearl super q-650s chromatography and rechromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography of a ph 8.0 mucosal extract. pep ...19957671140
preliminary studies of primary ostrich fibroblasts for the isolation of ratite viruses.an ostrich egg at 21 days of development was used to propagate primary embryo cell cultures. primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells (for fibroblasts) were prepared by routine typsinization techniques. the ostrich embryo fibroblasts were tested for their ability to propagate stock avian viruses of infectious bronchitis virus, paramyxiovirus-1 (pmv-1), pmv-2, pmv-3, infectious bursal disease virus, quail bronchitis virus, avian reovirus, turkey coronavirus, and two ostrich-originating specimens ...19947702522
[the sexual behavior of the african ostrich (struthio camelus)].the african ostrich (struthio camelus) is different from other birds not only because it is a running bird (ratitae), but also because it urinates and the male bird has a penis. on a specialized farm in israel the sexual behaviour of ostriches was studied. courtship behaviour and mating have a very refined pattern. the copulation, which starts with an immission of the penis and ends with an orgasm, lasts about one minute. most of the copulations take place during the morning morning hours. occas ...19947716751
factors affecting the rate of growth of ostrich (struthio camelus) chicks in captivity.a set of 120 ostrich eggs was imported into the united kingdom under class 1 quarantine restrictions. the chicks hatched were initially reared in mixed size groups and weighed daily to monitor their health. ten days after hatching the chicks were separated into four groups, based on their weight, which were kept under identical conditions, fed ad libitum and weighed daily. at the end of the 35 day quarantine period the growth rates of the chicks were correlated with their weight on day 10: the h ...19947716870
proventricular-ventricular impaction in an ostrich chick. 19957728726
avian pox in ostriches.nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions, resembling avian pox were observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a pox virus was isolated from the lesions. a commercial fowl pox vaccine was used to protect young ostriches in the field.19947745588
a note on the musculature of the proximal part of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (struthio camelus).ostriches (struthio camelus) (n=90) were dissected and the musculature of part of the proximal pelvic limb examined. graphical representation of these muscles are presented. it is evident that the anatomy of the hip and thigh of the ostrich is typically avian, but with only the m. iliofemoralis present. the m. iliotrochantericus medius is not found in ostriches, but both the m. iliofemoralis externus and m. iliofemoralis internus, as well as both parts of the m. flexor cruris lateralis and the m ...19947745594
chemical immobilisation of red-necked ostriches (struthio camelus) under field conditions.sixteen red-necked ostriches (struthio camelus camelus) were darted under field conditions to immobilise them. combinations of etorphine hydrochloride with either medetomidine or ketamine were used on 13 birds; xylazine hydrochloride and metomidate alone were used, respectively, on one and two birds. the times to recumbency and recovery were recorded and compared. the principal complications encountered during the anaesthetic procedure were myopathy due to over exertion and respiratory collapse. ...19957747388
possible effect of microbial infection on yolk utilisation in ostrich chicks. 19957793024
spontaneous cataract resorption in an ostrich. 19957793032
incidence of campylobacters in the intestine of avian species in alabama.avian species necropsied at the c. s. roberts veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama, from december 1993 until may 1994 were examined for the incidence of intestinal campylobacters. ninety-one intestinal swabs, representing 66 separate cases and 17 different avian species, were collected and placed into cary-blair transport medium. selective enrichment and culture media were used for initial isolation of campylobacter spp. presumptive colonies were identified as campylobacter spp. by ...19957794175
mycotic rhinitis in an ostrich.a 2-year-old female ostrich had become gradually emaciated over a 4-month period and subsequently died. gross necropsy revealed a granulomatous mass filling the right nasal passageways. microscopically, the mass contained numerous thin, regular-diameter, septate, branching fungal hyphae consistent with aspergillus sp. and foreign plant material. this appears to be the first report of a mycotic granuloma limited to the nasal cavities of an ostrich or any other ratite species.19957794183
[the circadian rhythm of african ostriches (struthio camelus) in captivity].one hundred and twenty ostriches, kept as domestic animals on a farm in israel were observed. three behaviour categories were recorded: standing/walking, sitting/lying and eating/drinking. the animals spent more than 60% of the day standing and walking; activities with a non-life preserving function. before we begin with the husbandry of ostriches in central europe the behaviour needs of the animals must be determined. only then can we assess whether the welfare of the animals is compatible with ...19947802622
isolation and characterization of serum immunoglobulin classes of the ostrich (struthio camelus).immunoglobulins were separated from ostrich sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. two classes of immunoglobulin could be identified, corresponding to igg and igm of other species, based on elution profiles from ion-exchange columns and molecular mass estimation on gel-filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). on sds-page, the heavy chains of igg and igm were shown to have molecular masses of 67.5 kda and ...19947832717
a serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (struthio camelus) from zimbabwe.horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-ostrich igg was raised and used in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to detect antibodies reactive with 11 poultry pathogens in sera from 149 ostriches from nine farms around zimbabwe. antibodies were detected to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (99%), newcastle disease virus (23%), avian reovirus (19%), infectious bursal disease virus (15%), avian encephalomyelitis virus (15%), mycoplasma gallisepticum and/or m. synoviae (11%), reticuloend ...19947832718
proventriculitis and ventriculitis associated with zygomycosis in ostrich chicks.this report describes eight cases of proventriculitis and ventriculitis in ostrich chicks less than 2 months old. clinical signs included acute onset of lethargy and anorexia in three cases, and chronic weight loss with lethargy and anorexia in four cases; no history was available in one case. there was limited antibiotic therapy in two cases; a third case was treated for giardiasis. concurrent bacterial, yeast, and viral infections were common. lymphoid depletion and/or necrosis of bursa, thymu ...19947832720
isolation of an adenovirus from an ostrich (struthio camelus) causing pancreatitis in experimentally infected guinea fowl (numida meleagris).an adenovirus was isolated from the pancreas, kidney, and lung of a dead 4-month-old ostrich (struthio camelus). experimental infection of week-old guinea fowl (numida meleagris) was carried out in order to study transmission. of the infected keets, six out of 15 died; these exhibited pancreatitis, presence of a hemorrhagic liquid in the abdominal cavity, kidney degeneration, and pulmonary lesions. the remaining birds, euthanatized on day 21 postinoculation, showed chronic pancreatitis. the viru ...19947832722
use of a full-thickness autograft on the tarsus of an ostrich.full-thickness, cutaneous autografting was successfully performed on an adult female ostrich to heal a granulomatous wound on the right tarsus. with surgical techniques used in domestic species such as dogs and horses, skin grafting is an alternative in avian species when conventional wound closure is not appropriate.19947852156
favus in an ostrich. 19947879374
from the centers for disease control and prevention. ostrich fern poisoning--new york and western canada, 1994. 19957884940
[comfort behavior of the african ostrich (struthio camelus)].comfort behaviour of ostriches exists in care of plumage and sand bathing. both are essential for the animals. 120 animals were observed in this respect. some remarks concern the chances of ostrich production in central europe. care of plumage will be possible here. special devices must be constructed to allow sand bathing of the animals at every season.19947924972
diversity of vertebrate class i alcohol dehydrogenase. mammalian and non-mammalian enzyme functions correlated through the structure of a ratite enzyme.class i alcohol dehydrogenase has been characterized from ostrich liver in order to evaluate enzyme variability between two independent lines, mammalian forms of class i alcohol dehydrogenase as a group, and a sufficient number of the enzyme from the most recent animal class (aves, birds) as another. between the two enzyme groups, patterns are consistent and mutually similar. this indicates conserved metabolic and catalytic properties of class i alcohol dehydrogenase, suggesting its metabolic ro ...19947925350
centriole development and formation of the flagellum during spermiogenesis in the ostrich (struthio camelus).the formation and development of the ostrich sperm tail follows the general pattern described for vertebrate sperm but differs in a number of important aspects when compared with other nonpasserine birds. midpiece formation is characterised by the development of a long (3 microns) distal centriole which determines the length of the midpiece. the distal centriole surrounds a pair of microtubules embedded in a core of dense material. a prominent annulus, which remains stationary during spermiogene ...19947961137
an ostrich dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the vias-os2 locus. 19947985858
ostrich fern poisoning--western canada and new york, 1994. 19947994286
an occurrence of stomach impaction in ostriches (struthio camelus) on a farm in zambia associated with high mortality.fifty-one ostriches (struthio camelus), 6 weeks old, were imported from namibia and introduced onto a farm in zambia. soon after introduction, most of the birds manifested clinical symptoms such as anorexia and diarrhea and 19 birds died within 1 week. the proventriculus and gizzard in the 4 dead birds were full of solid masses of lucerne hay mixed with maize and consequently the gizzard was extremely impacted by them. neither pathogenic bacteria nor parasites were detected from the autopsied bi ...19947999912
ostrich (struthio camelus) carboxypeptidase a: purification, kinetic properties and characterization of the pancreatic enzyme.1. carboxypeptidase a beta and carboxypeptidase a tau-type from the pancreas of the ostrich were purified by water extraction of acetone powder, aminobenzylsuccinic acid affinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. 2. the final preparations were homogeneous when subjected to sds-page and page. the m(r) values obtained from sds-page for cpa beta and cpa tau-type were 34,600 and 34,400, respectively. 3. the effects of inhibitors (1,10 phenanthroline and indole-3-acetic acid), ph and temperature on ...19948013741
[ostrich-like policy?]. 19948023107
the isolation and partial characterization of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from the serum of the ostrich (struthio camelus).1. native and cleaved alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was purified from ostrich serum using sepharose-blue dextran chromatography, ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography on deae-toyopearl 650 m at ph 8.8 and 6.5. ostrich alpha 1-pi displayed m(r) values of 68,100 using gradient page and 66,200 using ferguson plots. isoelectric focusing of ostrich alpha 1-pi in the ph range 3-10 revealed pi values of 4.84 and 4.91, and in the ph range 4-6 the characteristic microheterogeneity ...19948063009
aortic rupture in ostrich associated with copper deficiency.four cases of aortic rupture in ostrich associated with deficient levels of copper in the liver are presented. the aortic lesions are consistent with vascular lesions described in turkeys and chickens with copper deficiency.19948066971
ostrich fern poisoning--new york and western canada, 1994.fiddleheads (crosiers) of the ostrich fern (matteuccia struthiopteris) are a seasonal delicacy harvested commercially in the northeastern united states and in coastal provinces of canada. although some common ferns may be poisonous or carcinogenic, this species has been considered to be nontoxic. however, in may 1994, outbreaks of food poisoning were associated with eating raw or lightly cooked fiddlehead ferns in new york and western canada. this report summarizes the investigations of these ou ...19948078456
the nutcracker and the ostrich. 19938123087
cowdria ruminantium identified in amblyomma gemma using a dna probe pcs20.amblyomma gemma ticks were collected from wild animals on a 20,000 acre game ranch in a heartwater endemic area in kenya, close to nairobi. a. variegatum is the main vector of heartwater in kenya. e.a. lewis, 1947, in a one sentence report has implicated a. gemma to be a vector of heartwater without giving any details. adult a. gemma were collected from giraffe giraffa camelopardalis, hartebeest alcephalus busephalus, eland taurotragus oryx and ostrich struthio camelus during cropping exercises. ...19938134629
seasonal plasma levels of luteinizing and steroid hormones in male and female domestic ostriches (struthio camelus).ostriches are low-latitude birds and can be considered to be seasonal breeders. however, they are also opportunistic in that they can breed all year round. monthly hormonal plasma concentrations were measured in six female and six male domestic ostriches kept at a latitude of 31 degrees 20'n. measurements were made over a year, during which time each female laid an average of 28.7 eggs. egg laying occurred between march and september, with peak numbers in may-june. concentrations of plasma lutei ...19948138115
postmortem findings of ostriches submitted to the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory.a review of 121 ostrich necropsies from the files at the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory was conducted. the birds ranged in age from unhatched embryos to 4 years; the majority were less than 3 weeks old. the most common cause of death was ostrich chick fading syndrome (ocfs). ocfs is characterized by depression, anorexia, and death 3-5 days after onset of clinical signs in ostriches less than 3 weeks old. escherichia coli and/or klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from various orga ...19938141745
maybe a pot watcher, but never an ostrich. 19948147415
aspergillosis in an ostrich.a 4-month-old sexually intact blue-neck ostrich was examined because of chronic respiratory tract disease and poor performance. the bird was coughing and dyspneic on physical examination. thoracic radiographs were consistent with air sacculitis. bronchoscopy was used to view and to biopsy plaques within the bronchus and lower airways. aspergillus spp was identified in culture and in biopsy specimens examined microscopically. aspergillosis was confirmed on postmortem examination. bronchoscopy may ...19948175476
prolapse of the phallus and cloaca in the ostrich (struthio camelus).the incidence of cloacal prolapse in ostrich chicks hatched and raised on the oudtshoorn experimental farm during the 1992-1993 breeding season was investigated. the condition which occurred primarily in male chicks, affected 14.65% of the total number of chicks hatched. the mortality rate amongst chicks with cloacal prolapse was very high. although the pathogenesis and aetiology of the condition is unknown, a species of cryptosporidium was present in large numbers in affected cloacas. treatment ...19938176694
the incidence of tibiotarsal rotation in the ostrich (struthio camelus).abnormal lateral tibiotarsal rotation has been reported as one of many abnormalities affecting the pelvic appendicular skeleton of birds. in this study, lateral rotation of the tibiotarsus affected 89 out of 1,407 ostrich chicks between 2 weeks and 6 months of age raised at the oudtshoorn experimental farm. there was no sexual preference, but the lesion affected the right pelvic limb almost exclusively and very rarely the left limb. pelvic appendicular skeletal abnormalities make a significant c ...19938176695
morphology of blastocystis sp. from domestic birds.a study of blastocystis sp. from domestic birds was undertaken to determine if morphological differences occurred. fresh faecal material from domestic chickens, ducks and geese and from commercially farmed ostriches was obtained. blastocystis sp. from chickens was morphologically very different from that from the other hosts, having within the nucleus discrete spots of chromatin rather than a crescentic band (ducks and geese) or an elliptical band (ostrich). a thick surface coat surrounded all b ...19948202452
[ostriches--an agricultural domestic animal?].since more than 100 years ostriches have been used as farm animals in south africa. at present there are ca. 200 000 ostriches in 350 farms. well known have been ostrich feathers which had formerly been equally previous (around 1900) as gold. today, however, ostrich meat and leather are much appreciated. since more than 10 years experiments with ostriches have been also carried out in other countries of the world, mainly in hot areas e. g. australia, usa, israel and italy. maybe the african ostr ...19948205959
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ulcers, and histamine2 blockers. the ostrich phenomenon! 19938215746
isolation and primary structure of a novel avian pancreatic polypeptide from five species of eurasian crow.chicken pancreatic polypeptide is the prototype of the neuropeptide y (npy)/pp superfamily of regulatory peptides. this polypeptide was appended the descriptive term avian, despite the presence of some 8600 extant species of bird. additional primary structures from other avian species, including turkey, goose and ostrich, would suggest that the primary structure of this polypeptide has been highly-conserved during avian evolution. avian pancreatic polypeptides structurally-characterised to date ...19938234905
high mortality associated with megabacteriosis of proventriculus and gizzard in ostrich chicks. 19938236692
isolation of chlamydia spp. from ostriches (struthio camelus) (short report).post mortem examination of ostrich chicks (struthio camelus) originating from a flock with a high mortality rate is described. the main pathological lesions found, indicated colibacillosis which was further corroborated by the isolation of pure culture e. coli. furthermore chlamydia spp. was isolated for the first time from ostriches. a detailed isolation procedure is presented. the association of colibacillosis with chlamydia and the latency of chlamydia is discussed.19938261920
diagnosis of enteritis and enterotoxemia due to clostridium difficile in captive ostriches (struthio camelus). 19938286467
the spiral fold of the caecum in the ostrich (struthio camelus).the caecum of the ostrich was observed to contain a fold that spiralled approximately 30 times, transforming the lumen into a long, spiral-shaped cavity. the fold consisted of mucosa, muscularis mucosa and submucosa. the proximal part of the fold also contained a central core of muscle originating from the inner circular muscle layer of the caecal wall. the distal part was expanded to form a 'frill', thereby enlarging the surface area of the fold. blood vessels entered the fold at the mesenteric ...19938300435
ultrastructure of ostrich (struthio camelus) spermatozoa: i. transmission electron microscopy.the origin and relationships of the tinamous (order tinamiformes), ratites (order struthioniformes, rheiformes, casuariiformes, apterygiformes) and birds of the order galliformes and anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. this paper describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with published information for other non-passerin ...19938332322
the production of the ostrich nh2-terminal pomc fragment requires cleavage at a unique signal peptidase site.the nh2-terminal fragment of ostrich proopiomelanocortin was isolated and purified following acid/acetone extraction. the amino acid sequence was deduced by automatic edman degradation of the native as well as cnbr-, tryptic-, and s. aureus protease-derived peptides. primary structure analysis reveals its close resemblance to other known sequences, especially to amphibian pomc. the usual trp/gln-cys nh2-terminal sequence found in all other homologous sequences, is replaced here by an his-gly-pro ...19938332551
observations on the commercial production of ostrich (struthio camelus) in the united kingdom: incubation.two sets of ostrich eggs (60 and 120 eggs) were imported into the united kingdom under class 1 quarantine restrictions. single stage incubation was carried out and the eggs were weighed before and during incubation in order to control weight loss. in the two hatches the weight losses during the incubation of viable eggs were 13.4 per cent and 11.4 per cent, respectively. the development of the eggs was followed by candling and although only dark shadows were observed a pattern could be recognise ...19938337808
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