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fem analysis in excellent cushion characteristic of ostrich (struthio camelus) toe pads.african ostrich (struthio camelus) is the largest and fastest extent bipedal animal. the ostrich mainly relies on the 3rd toe to support the entire body under high-speed motion. the short and severe impact concentrated on the limited area would produce tremendous momentary internal stress and strain, which may contribute to the phalanges disloaction, soft tissue damage and the like. the vibration and excessive negative acceleration caused by the ground reaction force also affect the stability of ...201931116736
first report of libyostrongylus douglassii (strongylida: trichostrongylidae) in ostriches (struthio camelus) from mexico.nematodes of the libyostrongylus genus are hematophagous parasites found under the ostrich's proventriculus membrane: they are frequent and can cause 50% of mortality in chicks and occasionally death in adults. with the aim of determining the presence of the libyostrongylus genus in two private collections, one located in ayapango, state of mexico and the other in amacuzac, morelos, a total of 27 fecal samples were collected between august and december of 2016. samples were analyzed using the fl ...201831014804
effects of water supplementation of an organic acid-trace mineral complex on production and slaughter parameters, intestinal histomorphology, and macronutrient digestibility in growing ostriches.an experiment was conducted to study the effect of water supplementation of organic acid-chelated trace minerals (otm) on production traits, carcass characteristics, intestinal histomorphology, and nutrient digestibility in african ostrich chicks from 8 to 12 mo of age. a total of 20 growing ostriches, with almost similar body weight (73.4 to 75.8 kg), were individually distributed in outdoor paddocks of ≈ 24 m2 and were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 treatments: (1) control/basal ...201930995297
major shifts in gut microbiota during development and its relationship to growth in ostriches.the development of gut microbiota during ontogeny is emerging as an important process influencing physiology, immunity and fitness in vertebrates. however, knowledge of how bacteria colonize the juvenile gut, how this is influenced by changes in the diversity of gut bacteria and to what extent this influences host fitness, particularly in nonmodel organisms, is lacking. here we used 16s rrna gene sequencing to describe the successional development of the faecal microbiome in ostriches (struthio ...201930916826
feather and skin development of ostriches struthio camelus.information on feather and skin growth is important for the development of mathematical optimisation nutritional models for ostriches. ostriches (n = 65) were subjected to a four-stage formulated growth diet programme (pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher), with declining protein and energy content. nine birds were weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered, skinned and eviscerated at 1, 54, 84, 104, 115, 132 and 287 days of age. feathers from four pre-selected locations on the body were ...201830551704
sperm macrocephaly syndrome in the ostrich struthio camelus: morphological characteristics and implications for motility.sperm macrocephaly syndrome (sms) is characterised by a high percentage of spermatozoa with enlarged heads and multiple tails, and is related to infertility. although this multiple sperm defect has been described in other mammalian species, little is known about this anomaly in birds. morphological examination of semen from nine south african black ostriches (struthio camelus var. domesticus) involved in an ai trial revealed the variable presence of spermatozoa with large heads and multiple tail ...201930458919
systematization, description, and territory of the middle cerebral, rostral, and cerebroethmoidal arteries on the surface of the brain of the ostrich (struthio camelus).thirty ostrich specimens were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries (aa.) the middle cerebral and cerebroethmoidal arteries and their branches were systematized. the middle cerebral artery (a.) was always a single large vessel. on the right side, it had two, three, or one developed medial hemispheric branches in 46.6%, 26.7%, and 26.7% of cases, respectively. on the left side, one (36.7%), two (33.3%), and three (30%) developed medial hemispheric branches were observed. ...201930378772
highly deleterious variations in cox1, cytb, scg5, fk2, prl and pgf genes are the potential adaptation of the immigrated african ostrich population.because of variable inconvenient living conditions in some places around the world, it is difficult to collect reliable physiological data for ostriches. therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive in silico insight for the nature of polymorphism of important genetic loci that are related to physiological and reproductive traits. sixty-nine mature ostriches ranging over half of iraq were screened. six exonic genetic loci, including cytochrome c oxidase i (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb), se ...201829960146
the use of ostrich eggs for in ovo research: making preclinical imaging research affordable and available.in ovo studies are a valuable option in preclinical research, but imaging studies are severely limited by the costs of dedicated equipment needed for small-sized eggs. we sought to verify the feasibility of using larger, ostrich, eggs (struthio camelus) for imaging on the pet/ct scanners used for routine clinical investigations. methods: ostrich eggs were incubated until shortly before hatching, prepared for intravitelline venous injection of contrast medium or radiotracer, and imaged using nati ...201829934406
mineral profiling of ostrich (struthio camelus) seminal plasma and its relationship with semen traits and collection day.successful assisted reproduction techniques, with specific focus on in vitro semen storage for artificial insemination, are dependent on certain key elements which includes the biochemical profiling of semen. the objective of this study was to complete an ostrich seminal plasma (sp) evaluation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icp-ms) among seven males at different daily intervals (day 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28) for a period of 28 days during spring (august to se ...201829653829
ostrich specific semen diluent and sperm motility characteristics during in vitro storage.the dilution of semen is a very important initial process for semen processing and evaluation, storage and preservation in vitro and efficient artificial insemination. the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic diluents (os1 and os2) on ostrich sperm motility parameters during in vitro storage. formulation of os1 was based on macro minerals (na, k, p, ca, mg) and os2 on the further addition of micro minerals (se and zn), based on mineral concentration determined in the ostr ...201829653828
first record of the nematode libyostrongylus dentatus hoberg, lloyd & omar, 1995 (trichostrongylidae) in ostriches (struthio camelus linnaeus, 1758) (struthionidae) outside the americas.libyostrongylus douglassii, libyostrongylus dentatus and libyostrongylus magnus are nematodes that infect ostriches. the first species has been identified in ostriches from africa, europe, americas and oceania. although the natural range of ostriches is africa, l. dentatus was first described in birds from the usa and later identified in brazil, where co-infections with l. douglassii have been commonly reported. libyostrongylus magnus is known from the original description only. there are a few ...201829653600
morphology of the extraocular muscles (m. bulbi) in the pre-hatchling and post-hatchling african black ostriches (struthio camelus domesticus l., 1758) (aves: struthioniformes).the aim of the study was to describe the morphology and the development of the extraocular muscles (eoms) in the pre-hatchling and post-hatchling african black ostrich. the study involved 50 birds aged between 28 days and 3 years. the eoms were analyzed morphologically with respect to the location and length of the straight and oblique muscles and the third eyelid muscles, the length and breadth of their tendons as well as the distance and shape of the muscle tendon insertions at the corneal lim ...201829575917
sex-related differences of bone properties of pelvic limb and bone metabolism indices in 14-month-old ostriches (struthio camelus).1. sex-related differences of long pelvic limb bones and serum bone metabolism indices were evaluated in 14-month-old female (n = 7) and male (n = 7) ostriches of similar body weights. 2. densitometric parameters of femur, tibia and tarsometatarsus were determined using quantitative computed tomography (volumetric bone mineral density, calcium hydroxyapatite density and mean volumetric bone mineral density) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (bone mineral density and bone mineral content) meth ...201829553805
boron affects the development of the kidney through modulation of apoptosis, antioxidant capacity, and nrf2 pathway in the african ostrich chicks.the nuclear-related factor 2 (nrf2) pathway is the most important mechanism in antioxidant capacity, which regulates the cell's redox homeostasis. in addition, nrf2 pathway also can inhibit cell apoptosis. the mechanism of boron actions on various organs is well documented. but, it is not known whether boron can also regulate the nrf2 pathway in the kidneys. therefore, in this research, the actions of boron on the kidneys of ostrich chicks, especially the antioxidant effects, have been studied. ...201829536335
phalangeal joints kinematics in ostrich (struthio camelus) locomotion on sand.in ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. however, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. the results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system simi motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angl ...201829489844
tibiofibular junction of the south african ostrich (struthio camelus australis).the tibiofibular junction of the south african ostrich (struthio camelus australis) consists of the ligg. tibiofibularia caudale, craniale proximale and distale, obliquum, and interosseum. the motion range of the fibula, respective to the tibiotarsus, averaged 35°. this junction is, however, not freely mobile as there is a resting position from which the fibula can be pronated an average of 14° (counterclockwise motion of the right fibula from the proximal view) and supinated an average of 21°. ...199629852602
differentiation of the acrosomal complex in ostrich (struthio camelus) spermatids.the acrosomal complex of ostrich sperm consists of a small, cone-shaped acrosome and a slender, cylindrical perforatorium housed within a deep endonuclear canal. the perforatorium is almost exclusively endonuclear in location and is only covered by the acrosome at its point of origin in the apical subacrosomal space. the development of the acrosome is generally similar to that described in other non-passerine birds. small proacrosomal granules (vesicles) emanating from the golgi apparatus coales ...199629852609
cruciate ligaments of the avian knee: insight into a complex system.the avian cruciate ligaments were examined in gallus domesticus, anas platyrhynchos, meleagris gallopavo, and struthio camelus australis. the ligaments proved to be deviated around the intercondylar groove (cranial cruciate) and around the medial femoral condyle (caudal cruciate). four functionally different fiber groups could be differentiated: fibers taut only in maximal extension, fibers taut only in maximal flexion, fibers taut in ranges from an intermediate position to an extreme position, ...199229865604
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