measuring the gut microbiome in birds: comparison of faecal and cloacal sampling.the gut microbiomes of birds and other animals are increasingly being studied in ecological and evolutionary contexts. numerous studies on birds and reptiles have made inferences about gut microbiota using cloacal sampling; however, it is not known whether the bacterial community of the cloaca provides an accurate representation of the gut microbiome. we examined the accuracy with which cloacal swabs and faecal samples measure the microbiota in three different parts of the gastrointestinal tract ...201729205893
localization of thrombospondin-1 and its receptor cd36 in the ovary of the ostrich (struthio camelus).angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a decisive role for the rapid growth of avian follicles. compared to mammals, few data on the angiogenesis in the avian ovary are available. however, whereas several pro-angiogenic factors in the avian ovary have been recently studied in detail, little information is available on the localization of anti-angiogenic factors. the aim of this study was to determine the localization and possible function of the ant ...201729205453
quasi-static and dynamic motions of the columellar footplate in ostrich (struthio camelus) measured ex vivo.the nature of the movement of the columellar footplate (cfp) in birds is still a matter of ongoing debate. some sources claim that rocking motion is dominant, while others propose a largely piston-like motion. in this study, motions of the cfp are experimentally investigated in the ostrich using a post-mortem approach. for quasi-static loads, micro-ct scans of ostrich heads were made under positive and negative middle-ear pressures of 1 kpa. for dynamic loads, laser doppler vibrometry was used t ...201829154211
macroscopic and microscopic analyses in flexor tendons of the tarsometatarso-phalangeal joint of ostrich (struthio camelus) foot with energy storage and shock absorption.flexor tendons function as energy storage and shock absorption structures in the tarsometatarso-phalangeal joint (tmtpj) of ostrich feet during high-speed and heavy-load locomotion. in this study, mechanisms underlying the energy storage and shock absorption of three flexor tendons of the third toe were studied using histology and scanning electron microscopy (sem). macroscopic and microscopic structures of the flexor tendons in different positions of tmtpj were analyzed. histological slices sho ...201829148083
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in farm-reared ostriches (struthio camelus) in china.the parasites toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii) and neospora caninum (n. caninum) are globally distributed; they infect warm-blooded animals, including many avian species. the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of these parasites in ostriches from central china. in total, 402 ostrich (struthio camelus) samples (293 hearts, 77 brains, and 32 serum) from slaughterhouses of the henan province and hebei province were collected. the heart juice (n = 283) and serum samples (n = 32) were tested ...201729020952
radiographic anatomy of the metatarsophalangeal joint and digits of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the aim of this study was to develop a detailed and accessible set of reference images of the normal radiographic anatomy of the digits of the ostrich (struthio camelus), with emphasis on the metatarsophalangeal joint and its arthrography. the distal excised pelvic limbs of 10 normal ostriches of different ages (ranging from 10 to 365 days of age) obtained from an abattoir were radiographed, and 2 arthrograms were performed. to illustrate the normal radiographic anatomy of the tarsometatarsal bo ...201728891699
effects of boron supplementation on expression of hsp70 in the spleen of african ostrich.increased synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) occurs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in response to physiological, environmental, and chemical exposures, thus allowing the cell survival from fatal conditions. hsp70 cytoprotective properties may be clarified by its anti-apoptotic function. boron has been reported to play an essential role in various organ developments and metabolisms. however, it is not known if boron is also able to modulate the hsp70. in the present study, the actions of b ...201728730576
finite-element modelling of mechanobiological factors influencing sesamoid tissue morphology in the patellar tendon of an ostrich.the appearance and shape of sesamoid bones within a tendon or ligament wrapping around a joint are understood to be influenced by both genetic and epigenetic factors. ostriches (struthio camelus) possess two sesamoid patellae (kneecaps), one of which (the distal patella) is unique to their lineage, making them a good model for investigating sesamoid tissue development and evolution. here we used finite-element modelling to test the hypothesis that specific mechanical cues in the ostrich patellar ...201728680670
adsorption behavior and mechanism of sca-1 on a calcite surface: a molecular dynamics study.the crystallization mechanism for natural mineral, especially the role of biological molecules in biomineralization, is still under debate. protein adsorption on material surfaces plays a key role in biomineralization. in this article, molecular dynamics (md) simulations were performed to systematically investigate the adsorption behavior of struthio camelus eggshell protein struthiocalcin-1 (sca-1) on the calcite (104) surface with several different starting orientations in an explicit water en ...201728666388
distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the pancreas of african ostrich chicks (struthio camelus).ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghs-r), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. in the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. however, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of african ostrich chicks (struthio camelus). in the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and ...201728595319
a fossil protein chimera; difficulties in discriminating dinosaur peptide sequences from modern cross-contamination.a decade ago, reports that organic-rich soft tissue survived from dinosaur fossils were apparently supported by proteomics-derived sequence information of exceptionally well-preserved bone. this initial claim to the sequencing of endogenous collagen peptides from an approximately 68 myrtyrannosaurus rexfossil was highly controversial, largely on the grounds of potential contamination from either bacterial biofilms or from laboratory practice. in a subsequent study, collagen peptide sequences fro ...201728566488
developmental morphology study on the stomach of african ostrich chicks.this study investigates the developmental morphology changes on the proventriculus and gizzard of african ostrich chicks using gross anatomy, and light and transmission electronic microscopy. the body weight; the weight of the proventriculus and gizzard; the thickness of simple tubular glands, muscularis mucosae, compound tubular glands, and muscular layer of the proventriculus; and the thickness of the gizzard glands and muscularis mucosae were measured on postnatal d one, 45, 90, and 334. unde ...201728339939
developing a female-only flock for artificial insemination purposes in ostriches: progress and future directions.the development of a flock of females that can produce eggs and maintain egg production rate without the presence of males is a prerogative for a viable artificial insemination protocol in ostriches. over six consecutive breeding seasons (may-december, 2009-2014), we recorded the egg production performance of 40 single-penned (art) south african black ostrich females (2-9 years of age), and compared these records with the egg production of 162 pair-mated females of comparable age from the breedi ...201728330767
ancient dna reveals late pleistocene existence of ostriches in indian sub-continent.ancient dna (adna) analysis of extinct ratite species is of considerable interest as it provides important insights into their origin, evolution, paleogeographical distribution and vicariant speciation in congruence with continental drift theory. in this study, dna hotspots were detected in fossilized eggshell fragments of ratites (dated ≥25000 years b.p. by radiocarbon dating) using confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm). dna was isolated from five eggshell fragments and a 43 base pair (bp) ...201728273082
phalangeal joints kinematics during ostrich (struthio camelus) locomotion.the ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. in this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking) to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ...201728097064
ostrich (struthio camelus) embryonic development from 7 to 42 days of incubation.1. hatching success of ostrich eggs is poor (50-60% of fertile eggs). the current study was designed to identify the timing of key stages in the development of the ostrich embryo. 2. growth of both embryo and wing length during 42 d of incubation was comparable and approximately linear, with a more or less weekly doubling in size up to 35 d of incubation. 3. the embryo eye size increased more rapidly than beak length and reached a maximum of ~16.2 mm by 28 d of incubation, whereas beak length in ...201727845558
role of his101 in the protein folding/unfolding of a goose-type lysozyme from ostrich (struthio camelus) egg understand the role of his101 in protein structure stabilization of goose-type (g-type) lysozyme, we conducted thermal unfolding/refolding experiments using native g-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (noel), the recombinant g-type lysozyme (roel), and the mutant lysozyme, in which his101 is mutated to alanine (h101a-oel). thermal stability on lytic activity and in-gel refolding experiments provided similar profiles for all three oels. circular dichroism (cd) spectroscopy was used to determ ...201627826810
localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 in the ovary of the ostrich (struthio camelus).vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (fgf-2) play a paramount role in the regulation of normal and pathologic angiogenesis in the ovary of mammals. very little is known on the expression of these two growth factors in the avian ovary. the aim of this study was to determine for the first time the localization of vegf and fgf-2 in the ovary of the ostrich using immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the vascularization of the rapidly growing huge ostrich ...201626497821
evaluation of the sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration in juvenile ostriches ( struthio camelus ).the sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches ( struthio camelus ), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months. the birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24), then each group was further subdivided to 4 subgroups (n = 6). for each drug, 4 different doses were chosen and the total calculated dose was equally administered into either naris of the individual bird. the appropriate ...201627736233
proteins from the past.some fragments of ancient protein are less prone to degradation because they bind strongly to the surfaces of minerals.201627668514
effect of climate region and stocking density on ostrich (struthio camelus) productive performances.the effects of three climates (hot and dry, mild and humid and alpine) and three flock densities (<100, 100-300 and >300 m2) on ostrich reproductive and productive traits were studied. data were compared with the benchmark target sets by the world ostrich association (ostrich benchmark performance targets. version 2, may, 2008) for reproductive qualifications of ostrich. no significant difference was observed on egg production, weight, fertility, hatchability and day-old chicks weight among the ...201727641731
respiratory pores on ostrich struthio camelus (aves: struthionidae) eggshells.respiratory pores are essential for the survival of the embryo within the eggshell. distribution patterns of such pores on ostrich (struthio camelus) eggshells show remarkable variations in bird group. eggshells preserved in the museum of new zealand have long, superficial, winding grooves and ridges, with pores distributed densely in the bottom of grooves. both the grooves and ridges that separate them are twisted. by contrast, the surfaces of eggs from farmed ostriches are mostly smooth, with ...201727526124
acoustic input impedance of the avian inner ear measured in ostrich (struthio camelus).in both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. in this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. to determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. in the fre ...201627473506
conjunctival mucinous adenocarcinoma in an ostrich (struthio camelus).a 2-year-old male ostrich (struthio camelus) presented with a rapidly growing soft tissue mass protruding from the ventromedial aspect of the right eye (od). the initial physical examination revealed a soft tissue mass attached to the medial inferior conjunctiva. the mass was excised with cryosurgery, and the conjunctival tissue margins were treated with cryoablation. histopathological examination diagnosed granulomatous inflammation associated with scattered acid-fast bacteria. the ostrich reco ...201727362604
morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of pelvic limb bones in 14-month-old female ostriches (struthio camelus).limited information on physiological characteristic of bones in ostrich skeleton are available, even though bone weaknesses in ostriches are commonplace. thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of pelvic limb long bones (femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus) in 14-month-old female ostriches (struthio camelus var. domesticus). after the slaughter procedure, all bones were isolated, cleaned of soft tissues, and bone weight and length were de ...201627333973
multiple igh isotypes including igd, subclasses of igm, and igy are expressed in the common ancestors of modern birds.although evolutionarily just as ancient as igm, it has been thought for many years that igd is not present in birds. based on the recently sequenced genomes of 48 bird species as well as high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we demonstrate in this work that the ostrich (struthio camelus) possesses a functional δ gene that encodes a membrane-bound igd h chain with seven ch domains. furthermore, δ sequences were clearly identified in many other bird species, demonstra ...201627183632
inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization.owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. these capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. this study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to g ...201627146688
micro-focus x-ray tomography study of the microstructure and morphometry of the eggshell of ostriches (struthio camerus).in ostrich husbandry, economic losses have mainly been attributed to low hatchability of eggs, which has mostly been attributed to the structure of the eggshell. the main aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and the morphometry of the ostrich eggshell using micro-focus x-ray computer tomography and scanning electron microscopy. the mean weight and volume of the eggs were 1,312 ± 56se g and 1,333 ± 44se cm(3) , respectively. the mean thickness and the mean surface area of the eggsh ...201627097768
classification of ostrich sperm characteristics.the success of assisted reproduction techniques is dependent on a sound foundation of understanding sperm characteristics to evaluate so as to improve semen processing. this study offers a descriptive basis for ostrich semen quality in terms of sperm function characteristics (sfc) that include motility, measured by computer assisted sperm analysis casa (sca(®)), viability (sybr14/pi) and membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test). relationships among these sfc's were explored and described ...201627039985
biochemical characterization of a novel antioxidant and angiotensin i-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from struthio camelus egg white protein hydrolysis.a peptide from ostrich (struthio camelus) egg white protein hydrolysate (oewph) was purified, characterized, and its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties were evaluated. the oewph was prepared using pepsin and pancreatin, and then fractionated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. the antioxidant activity of the wg-9 peptide was investigated based on its scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) radical, 2,20-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-su ...201628911587
the tarsometatarsus of the ostrich struthio camelus: anatomy, bone densities, and structural mechanics.the ostrich struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. an elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. the internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function.201627015416
osteological and soft-tissue evidence for pneumatization in the cervical column of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and observations on the vertebral columns of non-volant, semi-volant and semi-aquatic birds.postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (psp) is a condition most notably found in birds, but that is also present in other saurischian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. in birds, skeletal pneumatization occurs where bones are penetrated by pneumatic diverticula, membranous extensions that originate from air sacs that serve in the ventilation of the lung. key questions that remain to be addressed include further characterizing (1) the skeletal features that can be used to infer the presence/absence and extent ...201526649745
validation experiments on finite element models of an ostrich (struthio camelus) cranium.the first finite element (fe) validation of a complete avian cranium was performed on an extant palaeognath, the ostrich (struthio camelus). ex-vivo strains were collected from the cranial bone and rhamphotheca. these experimental strains were then compared to convergence tested, specimen-specific finite element (fe) models. the fe models contained segmented cortical and trabecular bone, sutures and the keratinous rhamphotheca as identified from micro-ct scan data. each of these individual mater ...201526500813
effect of boric acid supplementation on the expression of bdnf in african ostrich chick brain.the degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf). bdnf plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. one-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on ...201626226831
gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of rio de janeiro, brazil.the ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of rio de janeiro. for this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. from each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (epg) count, by means of the mcmaster technique. part of the feces ...201726154957
musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion.we developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. we first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities of ...201526082859
functional anatomy of the lacrimal gland in african black ostrich struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatal period.the aim of the present study was morphological and histochemical analysis of the lacrimalgland (lg) in african black ostrich struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatalperiod. studies were conducted on 50 ostriches aged between the 28th day of incubation until7 months old. tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, azan trichrome,periodic acid-schiff, alcian blue ph 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and hale's dialysed iron. the lgin ostrich was classified as a tubulo-acinar ty ...201526017903
improving the ostrich genome assembly using optical mapping data.the ostrich (struthio camelus) is the tallest and heaviest living bird. ostrich meat is considered a healthy red meat, with an annual worldwide production ranging from 12,000 to 15,000 tons. as part of the avian phylogenomics project, we sequenced the ostrich genome for phylogenetic and comparative genomics analyses. the initial illumina-based assembly of this genome had a scaffold n50 of 3.59 mb and a total size of 1.23 gb. since longer scaffolds are critical for many genomic analyses, particul ...201525969728
structure of struthiocalcin-1, an intramineral protein from struthio camelus eggshell, in two crystal forms.biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals. one remarkable example is the formation of eggshells in birds. struthiocalcins present in the ostrich (struthio camellus) eggshell matrix act as biosensors of calcite growth during eggshell formation. here, the crystal structure of struthiocalcin-1 (sca-1) is reported in two different crystal forms. the structure is a compact single domain with an α/β fold characteristic of the c-type lectin family. in contrast to the r ...201525849392
functional anatomy of the lacrimal gland in african black ostrich <i>struthio camelus domesticus</i> in the embryonic and postnatal period.the aim of the present study was morphological and histochemical analysis of the lacrimalgland (lg) in african black ostrich struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatalperiod. studies were conducted on 50 ostriches aged between the 28th day of incubation until7 months old. tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, azan trichrome,periodic acid-schiff, alcian blue ph 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and hale's dialysed iron. the lgin ostrich was classified as a tubulo-acinar ty ...201528235256
craniocervical myology and functional morphology of the small-headed therizinosaurian theropods falcarius utahensis and nothronychus mckinleyi.therizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the cretaceous of north america and asia. following descriptions of the basicrania of the north american therizinosaurs falcarius utahenisis and nothronychus mckinleyi, the craniocervical musculature in both taxa is reconstructed using tyrannosaurus, allosaurus, and some extant birds as models. these muscles are subdivided into functional groups as dorsiflexors, lateroflexors, and ventroflexors. lateroflexors and dorsi ...201525706764
an identified antioxidant peptide obtained from ostrich (struthio camelus) egg white protein hydrolysate shows wound healing properties.ostrich (struthio camelus) egg possesses a high amount of food proteins and thus plays an important role in nutrition.201525697606
effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of foxn1 in thymus.foxn1 is essential for thymus development. the relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of foxn1 were investigated in the present study. thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: group i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/l, 40 mg/l, 80 mg/l, 160 mg/l, 320 mg/l, 640 mg/l, respectively. the histological changes in thymus ...201525665795
methane emission by adult ostriches (struthio camelus).ostriches (struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. if this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. we individually measure ...201525446146
effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in african ostrich investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. for 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. the highest final bw (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), adfi (376 ± 1.83 g), and adg (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/l boron (group 4). 160 mg/l boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.5 ...201425363572
predicting ejaculate quality and libido in male ostriches: effect of season and age.the success of artificial breeding program depends largely on the reproductive performance of males. male performance can vary with season and age impacting on quality and quantity of semen collected for artificial insemination purposes and therefore fertility of inseminated females. we examined variation in semen output and male libido of seven male ostriches (aged 2-5 years) over a period of 24 months. we collected ejaculates using a dummy female and measured semen characteristics (ejaculate v ...201425282554
comparative morphology of the species of libyostrongylus and codiostomum, parasites from ostriches, struthio camelus, with a identification key to the of the most common problems in breeding of ostriches in captivity is the control of parasitic diseases. this work presents keys for the identification of adult nematodes and infective larvae by morphologic and morphometric characteristics. these keys will allow the scientific community to identify the species that infect the ostriches either based on the characteristics of the posterior end of the infective larvae found through a simple fecal exam or by observing the morphology and morphomet ...201625271447
the effect of dietary energy concentrations on production variables of ostrich chicks (struthio camelus var. domesticus).the effects of different dietary energy concentrations on ostrich production variables were examined in two separate trials. the first trial tracked changes in production variables from the pre-starter phase through the starter phase and grower phase. the second trial was based on the finisher phase per se. in both trials, the influence of dietary energy on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (fcr) and growth variables was investigated. additionally, basic abattoir weights were recorded, and meas ...201425266635
the growth response of ostrich (struthio camelus var. domesticus) chicks fed on diets with three different dietary protein and amino acid concentrations.1. feeding costs are the largest expense in an ostrich production system, and protein is one of the more expensive components of the diet. this study evaluated the growth response of ostrich chicks on diets containing different concentrations of protein (amino acids). the diets were formulated to contain three concentrations of protein (one diet with 20% less protein than the conventional concentration, l; one diet with the conventional concentration of protein, m and one diet with 20% more prot ...201425132424
morphological studies on the harderian gland in the ostrich (struthio camelus domesticus) on the embryonic and post-natal period.the present investigation was performed on 50 ostriches from 28th day of incubation until the 7th month of life. the morphological (morphometric, histological, histometric and histochemical) studies were conducted. tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, methyl green-pyronin y, periodic acid-schiff, alcian blue ph 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and hale's dialyzed iron studies. the harderian gland becomes macroscopically visible on the 28th day of incubation. it is situated in the ventronas ...201524995381
harderian gland in canadian ostrich (struthio camelus): a morphological and histochemical study.heads of ten healthy adult ostrich obtained from slaughter house were the constituted materials of the study. the harderian gland (hg) was dissected out, and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight of left and right glands were recorded. tissue sections were stained, using haematoxylin and eosin, masson trichrome, periodic acid-schiff and alcian blue (ph 2.5) techniques. in ostrich, hg was an orbital organ located ventromedially around t ...201524895087
systematization, description, and territory of the caudal cerebral artery in surface of the brain of the ostrich (struthio camelus).brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries, and the caudal cerebral arteries and their branches were systematically described. on the right side, the caudal cerebral artery was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 73.5%, 23.3%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively; on the left side, it was double-, triple-, quadruple-, and single-branched in 76.7%, 20%, 3.3%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively. the dorsal tectal mesencephal ...201424890607
effects of pretransport handling stress on physiological and behavioral response of ostriches.ostrich (struthio camelus) production is a relatively young industry and there has been little research on ostrich welfare during pretransport handling and the transportation process. a heavy body with a high center of gravity makes ostriches' handling and transportation problems different from other livestock. the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the pretransport holding time duration on ostrich behavior and physiological responses. a second objective was to identi ...201424795306
embryonic development in the ostrich (struthio camelus) during the first 7 days of artificial incubation.1. early development of ostrich embryos was investigated in relation to time of egg collection and genotype. 2. a total of 321 ostrich eggs were collected during the 2008 and 2009 breeding seasons and the development of the embryo for up to the first 168 h of incubation was described and analysed. a sample of the incubated eggs was weighed and opened daily to investigate developmental changes. 3. in fresh eggs, the blastoderm contained a round, translucent dark area pellucida (ap) in the centre, ...201424735472
sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric, and geometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsal bone in 14-month-old ostriches (struthio camelus).the aim of the current study was to investigate basic morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old male and female ostriches, and interrelationships between these parameters. the study was conducted on 20 tibiae and 20 tarsometatarsal bones of the left pelvic limb derived from 20 healthy 14-mo-old ostriches (struthio camelus): 10 males and 10 females. the following parameters were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography: bon ...201324135601
morphological development of testes in ostrich (struthio camelus) embryo.although the histological structure of ostrich testis has been studied, very little information is currently available on the embryonic development of this organ. the aim of this study was to determine the sequence of the histological changes in diverse components of the testis in ostrich embryo from embryonic day (e) 20 to e42. the main findings were categorized into four histological features, i.e., development of sex cords, interstitial tissue and rete ducts, and the appearance of defective s ...201424127229
inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.the flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. this study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of m ...201323967284
an immunohistochemical study of somatostatin in the stomach and the small intestine of the african ostrich (struthio camelus).the aim of the present study was to clarify the distribution and relative frequencies of somatostatin (sst)-producing cells in the stomach and the small intestine of the ostrich by using immunohistochemistry. the results indicated that somatostatin-immunoreactive (sst-ir) cells were distributed in mucosal layers of the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. however, no immunoreactivity was observed in the gizzard. sst-ir cells were found at the lower part of glandular lobule in the provent ...201323928218
expression of somatostatin and cdna cloning in the thymus of the african ostrich.the thymus in addition to being a central lymphoid organ is also an endocrine organ which produces various neuropeptides that influence the function of this gland. somatostatin is a neuropeptide that was isolated initially in the hypothalamus and which inhibits the release of growth hormone. the distribution of somatostatin-producing cells and the sequence of somatostatin have been determined in many species. in the present study, we investigated the expression of somatostatin in the thymus of t ...201423915476
an immunohistochemical study of the presence and distribution of neuronal and glial markers in simple testicular cysts in the ostrich (struthio camelus).simple testicular cysts are rare in birds and mammals. however, the condition has recently been reported in the ostrich (struthio camelus), an economically important farmed bird. the innervation of normal and cryptorchid testes, unlike the simple testicular cysts of birds and mammals, has received considerable attention. this study, therefore, immunohistochemically demonstrates the presence and the general distribution pattern of neuronal and glial markers in the simple intratesticular cyst, and ...201323898577
[structural organization of anterior corneal epithelium of the african ostrich eye].this investigation was aimed at the histological study of anterior corneal epithelium (ace) of adult male ostrich struthio camelus linnaeus, 1758 (struthioniformes). the total thickness of ace was equal to 48.5+/-1.1 microm. the geometry of epithelial cells was investigated. the basal cells had columnar shape; their average height was equal to 21.4+/-1.8 microm, average width - to 5.94+/-0,45 microm, configuration index was 3.84+/-0,50. the intermediate cells were predominantly ellipsoidal in sh ...201323805612
de novo sequence analysis of cytochrome p450 1-3 genes expressed in ostrich liver with highest expression of cyp2g19.the cytochrome p450 (cyp) 1-3 families are involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and are expressed primarily in the liver. ostriches (struthio camelus) are members of palaeognathae with the earliest divergence from other bird lineages. an understanding of genes coding for ostrich xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme contributes to knowledge regarding the xenobiotic metabolisms of other palaeognathae birds. we investigated cyp1-3 genes expressed in female ostrich liver using a next-generation sequencer. w ...201323732888
the effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (struthio camelus).a two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. a total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. in the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h ...201323575919
microanatomical study of testis in juvenile ostrich (struthio camelus).the majority of investigations on the testis, as the main organ of male reproductive system, have been performed in mammalian species, with few studies on bird species. thus, the structure of the ostrich testis remains largely unknown. the aim of this study was to investigate the microanatomical characteristics of the testis in five juvenile ostriches. a stereological study was performed according to the delesse principle. the mean volume fraction of the seminiferous tubules was 0.569, and the m ...201323558799
endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (struthio camelus).a seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. the animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. they were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. the left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. the lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nut ...201326623324
growth curves for ostriches (struthio camelus) in a brazilian population.the objective of this study was to fit growth curves using nonlinear and linear functions to describe the growth of ostriches in a brazilian population. the data set consisted of 112 animals with bw measurements from hatching to 383 d of age. two nonlinear growth functions (gompertz and logistic) and a third-order polynomial function were applied. the parameters for the models were estimated using the least-squares method and gauss-newton algorithm. the goodness-of-fit of the models was assessed ...201323243259
mechanical and energetic scaling relationships of running gait through ontogeny in the ostrich (struthio camelus).it is unclear whether small animals, with their high stride frequency and crouched posture, or large animals, with more tendinous limbs, are more reliant on storage and return of elastic energy during locomotion. the ostrich has a limb structure that appears to be adapted for high-speed running with long tendons and short muscle fibres. here we investigate biomechanics of ostrich gait through growth and, with consideration of anatomical data, identify scaling relationships with increasing body s ...201323155079
prevalence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in ostriches (struthio camelus) on a farm in central vietnam.this study was performed to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in ostriches on a farm in khanh hoa province, central vietnam. a total of 464 ostrich fecal samples were examined cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified ziehl-neelsen staining method, and 110 (overall prevalence 23.7%) were identified as positive by microscopy. prevalence of cryptosporidium in animals of <45 days, 45-60 days, 61-90 days, 91 days-12 months and >12 months was 23.5% (16/68), 3 ...201323142549
prosopis farcta beans increase hdl cholesterol and decrease ldl cholesterol in ostriches (struthio camelus).ten blue-neck male ostriches (struthio camelus) were fed prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (hdl) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (ldl) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-gt). from days 0 to 30 ...201322843283
follicular ovarian torsion in an ostrich (struthio camelus). 201222838960
distribution and morphology of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the cerebellum of the african ostrich.ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been found in the cerebellum of many vertebrates and in the gastrointestinal tract of african ostrich chicks, but little is known about its distribution in the cerebellum of the african ostrich. in the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-producing cells in the cerebellum of the african ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. the results indicate that the cerebel ...201222795873
determination of reference values for intraocular pressure and schirmer tear test in clinically normal ostriches (struthio camelus).the purpose of this study was to establish normal physiologic reference values for intraocular pressure (iop) and schirmer tear test (stt) results in clinically normal ostriches (struthio camelus). twenty ostriches of both sexes, 10 juveniles (1.5-2 yr of age) and 10 adults, were included in this study. complete ophthalmic examination was performed prior to this investigation. stt was performed by inserting a standard sterile stt strip over the ventral lid margin into the ventral conjunctival sa ...201222779224
the composition of egg yolk absorbed by fasted ostrich (struthio camelus l.) chicks from 1 to 7 days posthatching and for ostrich (struthio camelus l.) chicks from 1 to 16 days posthatching on a prestarter broiler diet.this study was performed to obtain information on yolk utilization in fasted and fed ostrich chicks posthatching. the fasted trial lasted for 7 d, whereas the fed trial continued for 16 d. fasted ostrich chicks showed a decrease of 31.3 g of bw, with yolk weight decreasing by 28.9 g daily after hatching. yolk weight comprised 28% of 1-d-old ostrich chick bw and decreased to 12% at 7 d of age. only 44.4% of the fasted ostrich chick yolk was assimilated over the trial period. crude protein content ...201222582291
a search for genetic markers associated with egg production in the ostrich (struthio camelus).the aim of the current study was to search for genetic markers, microsatellite loci associated with laying performance in ostriches. the material consisted of two groups of ostrich hens characterized by high or low laying performance (over 75 and less than 25 eggs per season, respectively). the investigation covered 30 microsatellite loci characteristic for the ostrich (the cau group) and led to identification of significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies between the two groups o ...201222544574
the ostrich (struthio camelus) ejaculate--effects of the method of collection, male age, month of the season, and daily frequency.1. over three breeding seasons on a farm in poland, semen was collected from 11 ostriches using the dummy and the teaser method to study the effects of the method of collection, male age, month in the breeding season, and daily collection frequency on ejaculate characteristics. 2. a total of 259 ejaculates were collected, with an average volume of 1·28 ± 0·6 (±sem) ml. sperm concentration was 3·34 ± 0·08 × 10(9)/ml, the total number of spermatozoa 4·32 ± 0·22 × 10(9), and motility 4·56 ± 0·04. 3 ...201222404814
macro-microscopic study on the toepad of ostrich (struthio camelus).the ostrich foot has four toepads, two on the 3rd digit, one on the 4th digit and one at metatarso-phalangeal joint. previous studies have not detailed the histo-morphological structure of these toepads. in this study, we have described the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the toepad of ostrich (struthio camelus). numerous papillae with different direction, length and thickness have been observed grossly on the ventral surface of each toepad. histological examinations have revealed that ...201222382528
pancreatic atrophy due to zinc toxicosis in two african ostriches (struthio camelus).two of three captive adult african ostriches exhibited inappetance and weakness. in spite of treatment, the two birds were euthanized because of lack of clinical improvement. postmortem examination demonstrated exocrine pancreatic degeneration, necrosis, and atrophy. grossly, one ostrich had a markedly diminished pancreatic mass. histologically, there was massive pancreatic acinar (exocrine) atrophy, marked interstitial fibrosis, and tubular complex formation in one animal, and the second ostric ...201122946410
midazolam/butorphanol/ketamine and the clinically effective dose of isoflurane anesthesia of ostriches (struthio camelus). 200128404343
the effect of extensive human presence at an early age on stress responses and reactivity of juvenile ostriches towards humans.the effect of extensive human presence and regular gentle handling performed at an early age (0⁻3 months old) on stress responses and reactivity of juvenile ostriches towards humans was investigated. a total of 416 ostrich chicks over two years were exposed to one of three treatments for three months after hatching; namely, human presence 1 (hp1, n = 144): extensive/prolonged human presence with physical contact (touch, stroking), gentle human voice, and visual stimuli; human presence 2 (hp2, n ...201830301126
osteological description of casque ontogeny in the southern cassowary (casuarius casuarius) using micro-ct imaging.extant cassowaries (casuarius) are unique flightless birds found in the tropics of indo-australia. they have garnered substantial attention from anatomists with focus centered on the bony makeup and function of their conspicuous cranial casques, located dorsally above the orbits and neurocranium. the osteological patterning of the casque has been formally described previously; however, there are differing interpretations between authors. these variable descriptions suggest that an anatomical und ...202032558300
putative adult neurogenesis in palaeognathous birds: the common ostrich (struthio camelus) and emu (dromaius novaehollandiae).in the current study, we examined adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the common ostrich (struthio camelus) and emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers pcna which labels proliferating cells, and dcx, which stains immature and migrating neurons. the distribution of pcna and dcx labelled cells was widespread throughout the brain of both species. the highest density of cells immunoreactive to both markers was observed in the olfactory bulbs and th ...202032767787
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ratites from brazil.the prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated among 104 ratites: 68 rheas (rhea americana), 16 emus (dromaius novaehollandiae), and 20 ostriches (struthio camelus) in 4 brazilian states. the prevalence in rheas was 26.5% (18 of 68), and titers were 1:100 (n = 8), 1:200 (n = 1), 1:400 (n = 4), 1:800 (n = 4), and 1:1,600 (n = 1). in emus, the prevalence was 50% (8 of 16), and titers were 1:50 (n = 1) and 1:100 (n = 7). the ostriches were slaughtered for human consumption, an ...201931584862
retrospective study of mortality in captive struthioniformes in a french zoo (1974-2015).the husbandry and medical records, and necropsy reports, of 1,002 captive struthioniformes that died at the réserve africaine de sigean (france) from 1974 to 2015 were examined. the goal of this study was to determine the most common causes of mortality in ostriches ( struthio camelus), emus ( dromaius novaehollandiae), and american rheas ( rhea americana), in order to highlight common causes of mortality, as well as the influence of age, gender, and rearing methods on mortality. the most preval ...201830592921
a preliminary study on the glycosylation of the reproductive tract in the ostrich (struthio camelus camelus).glycosylation of the reproductive tract of an adult female red-necked ostrich (struthio camelus camelus) carrying a fully formed calcified egg in her uterus when accidently killed by a blow to the head, was examined using lectin histochemistry on samples from the infundibulum, magnum, uterus and vagina. glycans in the luminal epithelium and underlying glands were described after staining with 23 lectins after neuraminidase pretreatment in some cases. ciliated and non-ciliated cells were evident ...202033174273
isolation and characterization of clostridium perfringens strains isolated from ostriches (struthio camelus) in vietnam.clostridium perfringens can cause enteritis in ostriches. the toxin release is believed to play a major role in determining pathogenesis properties of these pathogenic bacteria. this study was conducted to isolate and characterize c. perfringens strains from ostriches in vietnam for identifying if particular virulence factors of these pathogenic bacteria are associated with enteritis progress in ostriches.202033061245
the effect of dietary energy and protein level on feather, skin and nodule growth of the ostrich (struthio camelus).accurate diet formulations are required to fulfil the nutrient requirements of birds in order to achieve optimal production. knowing how the skin, nodule and feather production characteristics vary with diets of different nutrient densities will help in least-cost modelling. feather growth and nodule development are factors that were previously neglected in ostrich diet formulation, both of which are essential for the development of a predictive production model. in this trial, 120 birds were pl ...202033054248
early-life gut dysbiosis linked to juvenile mortality in ostriches.imbalances in the gut microbial community (dysbiosis) of vertebrates have been associated with several gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases. however, it is unclear which taxa are associated with gut dysbiosis, and if particular gut regions or specific time periods during ontogeny are more susceptible. we also know very little of this process in non-model organisms, despite an increasing realization of the general importance of gut microbiota for health.202033046114
the immune regulatory effect of boron on ostrich chick splenic lymphocytes.boron is a trace element which plays important roles in immune response. the relationship between boron and splenic lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, secretion of cytokines, and genes potentially related to immune response in ostrich chicks were investigated in the present study. different concentrations of boron (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/l) were applied to splenic lymphocytes of african ostrich, respectively. the effect of boron on lymphocyte proliferation was checke ...202032984939
meat quality, skin damage and reproductive performance of ostriches exposed to extensive human presence and interactions at an early age.the effect human presence and interactions performed after hatch to 3 months of age has on ostrich meat quality, skin damage and reproductive performance at a later age was investigated in 416-day-old ostrich chicks. the chicks were allocated to one of the three treatments, which varied with regard to exposure to human presence and care for 3 months post-hatch: hp1-extensive human presence with physical contact (touch, stroking), gentle human voice and visual contact; hp2-extensive human presenc ...202032914345
anatomy of the tarsometatarsal region and digits in the ostrich (struthio camelus): a computed tomography and cross-sectional study.the ostrich is the largest living bird and has unique characteristics in its locomotor system that differentiate it from other bird species. the purpose of this study was to provide a reference atlas of reference-interval computed tomography (ct) and cross-sectional anatomy of the tarsometatarsal region and digits in the ostrich (struthio camelus). the pelvic limbs of 25 ostriches were used for this imaging study. the transverse ct images were obtained from the middle third of the tarsometatarsa ...202032702953
boron supplementation promotes osteogenesis of tibia by regulating the bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in african ostrich chicks.the present study aimed to explore the effects of supplemental boron on osteogenesis of tibia and to investigate the possible relationship between additional boron and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (bmp-2) in tibia of ostrich chicks. therefore, forty-eight african ostrich chicks (15 days old) were supplemented with 0 mg/l, 40 mg/l, 80 mg/l, 160 mg/l, 320 mg/l, and 640 mg/l of boron in drinking water for 75 days. the paraffin sections of tibia used to measure histomorphometric pa ...202032676937
arterial blood supply of the ostrich (struthio camelus) heart.the current work was focused on giving a full morphological description of the arterial supply of the heart of the ostrich (struthio camelus). the purpose of this work was achieved on eight ostrich hearts. the arterial blood supply of the ostrich heart occurred through the two coronary arteries that originated from the aorta at the left and right aortic sinus. each coronary artery gave off a deep and a superficial branch. the main arterial blood supply of the ostrich heart came from the superfic ...202032653167
does the renal portal valve exist in a raptor species? a study aimed at further evaluating the mechanism of toxicity of diclofenac in vultures.diclofenac has been responsible for the deaths of millions of vultures on the asian subcontinent. while the pathology of toxicity is well described, the mechanism of toxicity remains elusive. however, it was postulated that toxicity could be related to the unique avian renal vascular structure known as the renal portal valve and that that diclofenac altered valve functionality with subsequent renal ischaemia. while plausible, the valva renalis portalis has only been described in a small number o ...202032608095
normal anatomical and diagnostic imaging techniques of the musculotendinous structures of the ostrich (struthio camelus) foot.the objective of this work was to study the normal musculotendinous structures of the ostrich foot.202032607356
ostrich ejaculate characteristics and male libido around equinox and solstice dates.the study evaluated the effect of time of the year in which changes in photoperiod occurs on ostrich semen characteristics and male libido. semen was collected for 5 days before, on and 5 days after winter solstice (21 june 2016), spring equinox (22 september 2016), summer solstice (21 december 2016) and autumn equinox (20 march 2017) in the southern hemisphere. semen was collected from 10 south african black ostrich males (average age ± standard deviation; 4.5 ± 2.27 years) using the dummy fema ...202032451835
systematization, description, and territory of arteries that promote vascularization of the midbrain and rhombencephalon in the ostrich (struthio camelus).brain specimens from 30 ostriches were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries (aa.). the ventral tectal mesencephalic artery (a.), invariably a medium-sized single vessel, was, on the right side, a collateral branch of the caudal branch of the carotid artery (53.4%), a direct branch of the carotid artery (43.3%) and a direct branch of the basilar artery (3.3%) and on the left side, a collateral branch of the caudal branch of the carotid artery (66.7%), a direct branch of ...202032133791
ostrich (struthio camelus) primordial germ cells in embryonic blood and presumptive gonad: characterization by pas and immunohistochemistry.among the birds, chicken was the model used in the majority of studies on germ cells and other birds like quail, turkey and pheasant had some interest but ostrich has been lacking from these researches.201932042296
mycoplasma nasistruthionis sp. nov. and mycoplasma struthionis sp. nov. isolated from ostriches with respiratory disease.twelve mycoplasma (m.) strains isolated from the nose, the trachea, and the lung of ostriches (struthio camelus) displaying respiratory disease were investigated. analysis of 16s rrna gene sequences placed five of these strains within the m. synoviae cluster, and seven strains within the m. hominis cluster of genus mycoplasma, which was further confirmed by analyses of the 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer region, and partial rpob gene and amino acid sequences. genomic information as well as phenot ...202031859015
ontogenetic scaling of pelvic limb muscles, tendons and locomotor economy in the ostrich (struthio camelus).in rapidly growing animals there are numerous selective pressures and developmental constraints underpinning the ontogenetic development of muscle-tendon morphology and mechanical properties. muscle force generating capacity, tendon stiffness, elastic energy storage capacity and efficiency were calculated from muscle and tendon morphological parameters and in vitro tendon mechanical properties obtained from a growth series of ostrich cadavers. ontogenetic scaling relationships were established u ...201931350301
extensive human presence and regular gentle handling improve growth, survival and immune competence in ostrich chicks.a total of 416 day-old ostrich chicks were randomly allocated to one of the three different husbandry practices for 3 months after hatch; hp1 (extensive human presence with gentle human voice, visual and gentle physical stimuli), hp2 (similar to hp1 but without physical stimuli) and s (human presence limited to supply of feed and water). chick weight (kg) was measured at 6 and 12 weeks of age, while mortalities were recorded daily to calculate the survival rate. finally, chicks' antibody respons ...202031296055
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