necrotizing typhlocolitis associated with a spirochete in rheas (rhea americana).necrotizing typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 13 juvenile common rheas (rhea americana) from three separate of geographically isolated ohio flocks, with mortality ranging from 25% to 80%. at postmortem examination, a diphtheritic membrane covered ulcerated cecal mucosa. histologically, cecal sections showed necrosis and granulomatous-to-suppurative inflammation that extended into the submucosa and often surrounded large eosinophilic colonies of bacteria. warthin-starry staining showed these colonie ...19921627100
the inner ear of the common rhea (rhea americana l.).the morphology of the inner ear in rheas was examined by light and electron microscopy. the shape is typically bird-like with very long semicircular canals. the anterior and posterior cristae have small septa cruciata. the vestibular sensory epithelia contain two main types of hair cell innervation; bouton-innervated hair cells and calyceal hair cells characterized by a surrounding nerve calyx. the utricular macula has a single zone of calyceal hair cells, while all other previously examined bir ...19892575429
the expression of alpha d-chains in the hemoglobin of adult ostrich (struthio camelus) and american rhea (rhea americana). the different evolution of adult bird alpha a-, alpha d- and beta-chains.the hemoglobin of adult american rhea (rhea americana) and ostrich (struthio camelus) contains two components identified to be hba (alpha 2a beta 2) and hbd (alpha 2d beta 2). the amino-acid sequence of alpha d-chains from hbd of adult american rhea and ostrich has been determined. the sequence was studied by edman degradation of tryptic peptides and chemical cleavage products in a liquid phase sequencer. by homologous comparison with pheasant hbd (phasianus colchicus colchicus), the alpha d-cha ...19863741627
disease patterns in the detroit zoo: a study of the avian population from 1973 through 1983.a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate disease patterns in birds at the detroit zoo from 1973 through 1983. data were derived from the zoo's medical and animal census records; the mean (+/- sd) population of birds during the study period was 469 +/- 42. overall annual morbidity rates were 12.5% to 21.5%, with spring months having the highest morbidity rates. annual mortality rates were 3.1% to 15.2%; 23.9% of the deaths were caused by microbial agents (particularly erysipelothrix rhusio ...19853878351
struthiolipeurus rheae (mallophaga: philopteridae), an ectoparasite of the common rhea (rhea americana). 19744430961
[microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in the nandu (rhea americana)]. 19724658627
traumatic proventriculitis in a rhea (rhea americana). 19715104158
histomoniasis in a captive great rhea (rhea americana). 19836685779
[primary structures of the alpha and beta chains from the major hemoglobin component of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and american rhea (rhea americana) (struthioformes). aspects of respiratory physiology and taxonomy].the primary structures of the alpha a- und beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and american rhea (rhea americana) are given. the minor component with the alpha d-chains was detected in ostrich in several concentrations, in american rhea as in chicken and pheasant (about 40%). by homologous comparison, greylag goose (anser anser) hemoglobin and ostrich alpha a-chains differ by 15 amino acids or 16 nucleotide (1 two-point mutation) exchanges, beta-chai ...19836840701
[avian heart disease in the blijdorp zoological gardens; partial heart block in a nandu (rhea americana) (author's transl)]. 19827089944
hypophosphatemic rickets in rheas (rhea americana).rickets was diagnosed in 11 rheas from four flocks in ohio. at necropsy, had pliable bones with prominent valgus or varus deformation of the femoral bone and/or the tibiotarsal bone, marked thickening of the metaphyseal plates, and frequent fractures. histopathologically, bones of rachitic birds showed marked retention of cartilage core within the growth plate, mainly because of a significant lengthening of the hypertrophied zone of the growth plate in relationship to the remaining zones. feed a ...19957604503
chlamydiosis in commercial rheas (rhea americana).mild to marked splenomegaly was observed in three of four rheas that died acutely in three unrelated commercial ratite facilities in southeastern louisiana. mortalities occurred within a 5-week period in birds ranging from 2 months to 3 years of age. multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis with mononuclear cell infiltrates, typical of chlamydiosis in other avian species, was present on histopathologic sections. the diagnoses were confirmed by demonstration of inclusion bodies in splenic impressi ...19947832726
hemoglobinuric nephrosis in a rhea (rhea americana).an eighteen-month-old female rhea (rhea americana) was presented dead for necropsy. the owner reported having observed blood in the droppings. gross examination revealed a rhea in good body condition with a copious amount of frank blood in the cloaca. large masses of matted fescue grass (festuca spp.) distended the ventriculus and jejunum. no hemorrhage was evident in the digestive tract, which was otherwise void of ingesta. the kidneys were dark brown in color. renal histopathology revealed a s ...19958561758
identification of the swine pathogen serpulina hyodysenteriae in rheas (rhea americana).recently intestinal spirochetes were isolated from rheas in ohio and iowa with a necrotizing typhlocolitis. these intestinal spirochetes, strains r1 and niv-1, were characterized and compared with other intestinal spirochetes, including strains of s. hyodysenteriae. both rhea spirochetes were indole positive, strongly beta-hemolytic, grew under a 1% o2:99% n2 atmosphere, and were morphologically similar to spirochetes in the genus serpulina. analysis of rrna gene restriction patterns (ribotypes) ...19968972051
extreme axial equalization and wide distribution of recombination nodules in the primitive zw pair of rhea americana (aves, ratitae).pachytene oocytes from the ratite bird rhea americana were used for synaptonemal complex analysis with a surface spreading technique and phosphotungstic acid staining. the zw bivalent is slightly smaller than the fourth autosomal bivalent and clearly shows unequal w and z axes only in 27% of the bivalents. most of the zw pairs are completely adjusted and thus the w and z axes are almost equal in length. a sample of 134 recombination nodules (rns) from 63 zw pairs showed a striking departure of n ...19979364944
the complete mitochondrial genome of rhea americana and early avian divergences.the complete mitochondrial dna, mtdna, molecule of the greater rhea, rhea americana, was sequenced. the size of the molecule is 16,710 nucleotides. the organization of the molecule conforms with that described for the chicken and the ostrich. it has been shown previously that relative to other vertebrates the nadh3 gene of the ostrich has an insertion of one nucleotide in position 174 of the gene. the same observation was made in the rhea and in the newly sequenced nadh3 gene of the emu, dromaiu ...19989608049
deletrocephalus dimidiatus in greater rheas (rhea americana) in the uk. 200010661457
detection and quantification of antibodies to newcastle disease virus in ostrich and rhea sera using a liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a liquid phase blocking elisa (lpb-elisa) was adapted for the detection and quantification of antibodies to newcastle disease virus. sera from vaccinated and unvaccinated commercial flocks of ostriches (struthio camelus) and rheas (rhea americana) were tested. the purified and nonpurified virus used as the antigen and the capture and detector antibodies were prepared and standardized for this purpose. the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test was regarded as the reference method. the cutoff poin ...200011063502
physical characteristics and chemical composition of greater rhea (rhea americana) eggs from wild and captive populations.1. eggs from wild and captive populations of greater rhea (rhea americana) were studied to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. 2. significant differences were found among populations in almost all chemical parameters studied, whereas within physical parameters only shell weight (as a proportion of the entire egg) and density showed differences. 3. eggs from wild populations had the highest protein and linolenic acid and the lowest total lipid contents, while cholesterol levels ...200111811919
the primary structure of hemoglobin d from the aldabra giant tortoise, geochelone gigantea.the complete primary structures of alpha d-2- and beta-globin of hemoglobin d (hb d) from the aldabra giant tortoise, geochelone gigantea, have been constructed by amino acid sequencing analysis in assistance with nucleotide sequencing analysis of pcr fragments amplified using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. using computer-assisted sequence comparisons, the alpha d-2-globin shared a 92.0% sequence identity versus alpha d-globin of geochelone carbonaria, a 75.2% versus alpha d-globin of aves ...200212012783
pulmonary aspergillosis in a great rhea (rhea americana).a 5-mo-old great rhea (rhea americana) gradually became emaciated over a 1-wk period and died. necropsy revealed several small yellow nodules in the lungs. microscopically, the nodules consisted of granulomas containing numerous thin, 4-microm-diameter, septate, branching fungal hyphae. aspergillus fumigatus grew readily on sabouraud dextrose agar. this report appears to be the first of mycotic pneumonia in great rheas.200212243547
characterization and chromosomal distribution of novel satellite dna sequences of the lesser rhea (pterocnemia pennata) and the greater rhea (rhea americana).two different types of novel satellite dna (stdna) sequences were cloned from the lesser rhea (ptercnemia pennata) and the greater rhea (rhea americana) after digestion of genomic dnas with a restriction endonuclease pvu ii, and characterized by filter hybridization and in-situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. these nucleotide sequences consisted of gc-rich 288-bp and 332-bp repeated elements in p. pennata and 288-bp and 336-bp repeated elements in r. americana, all of which were organize ...200212489832
pulmonary aspergillosis outbreak in rhea americana in southern brazil.commercial raising of rheas is currently in expansion in the south of brazil, and many diseases previously restricted to other avian species are currently emerging on rhea farms, especially as a result of careless management of these animals. the objective of the present article is to report a pulmonary aspergillosis outbreak that occurred in great rhea (rhea americana) in the south of brazil. about 50 birds aged 30 to 60 days died suddenly and one of them was submitted to autopsy which revealed ...200415180154
observations on helminth infections of free-living and captive rheas (rhea americana) in brazil.the present work describes helminth infection of eight free-living and 12 captive rheas (rhea americana) from, respectively, pantanal of mato grosso do sul state, and jaboticabal, sao paulo state, brazil. captive birds were young and had a high mortality rate, while free-living birds were adult and apparently healthy. infections were evaluated by post-mortem examination of internal organs and recovery of helminths using standard parasitological procedures. seven species of nematodes (sicarius un ...200515817218
macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the oviduct in the sexually mature rhea (rhea americana).the morphological characteristics of the oviduct of 12 sexually mature rheas (rhea americana) were studied. only the left oviduct is developed as a long tube with a length of 122 +/- 23.1 cm, and is subdivided into infundibulum (15.2 +/- 4.0 cm), magnum (63.3 +/- 9.4 cm), isthmus (5.6 +/- 3.1 cm), uterus (16.0 +/- 4.2 cm) and vagina (11.5 +/- 1.4 cm). the mucous membrane of the oviduct, as a whole, possesses luminal folds covered by ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory cells. the infundib ...200818070241
the molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birds.palaeognathous birds (struthioniformes and tinamiformes) have morphologically conserved karyotypes and less differentiated zw sex chromosomes. to delineate interspecific chromosome orthologies in palaeognathous birds we conducted comparative chromosome painting with chicken (gallus gallus, gga) chromosome 1-9 and z chromosome paints (gga1-9 and ggaz) for emu, double-wattled cassowary, ostrich, greater rhea, lesser rhea and elegant crested tinamou. all six species showed the same painting pattern ...200717605112
successful treatment of suspected exertional myopathy in a rhea (rhea americana).a 7-yr-old, adult, female greater rhea (rhea americana) from the national zoological park presented with a 24-hr history of severe left leg lameness that progressed to an inability to stand. blood work revealed creatine phosphokinase (cpk) above 50,000 u/l and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. the bird's condition deteriorated over the next week. the bird's cpk increased to over 208,400 u/l. aggressive intravenous fluids and physical therapy along with oral anxiolytic and muscle-relaxant drugs wer ...200517323576
chronic fascioliasis in farmed and wild greater rheas (rhea americana).from 50 farmed rhea americana slaughtered for human consumption, adult forms and eggs of fasciola hepatica were found in 4. the other three livers were free of flukes but did show lesions caused by larval fluke migration. histological lesions were similar to those caused by flukes in cattle and sheep. the rheas were from an endemic area of ruminant fascioliasis in southern brazil. f. hepatica eggs were also found in faecal samples of wild rheas from another endemic area in southern brazil. it is ...200717257760
evaluation of the health of free-ranging greater rheas (rhea americana) in argentina.the health of 22 free-ranging adult rheas (rhea americana) examined and sampled during a translocation/reintroduction project and six juvenile rheas kept in semicaptivity was investigated, and details of their haematology and plasma biochemistry are presented. serological testing for antibodies to infectious agents was negative for infectious laryngotracheitis, avian adenovirus, avian influenza, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease, infectious bronchitis virus, paramyxovirus types 1, 2, and ...200616517822
evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (or) genes. both the total number of or genes and the proportion of intact or genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. there is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with goo ...200919467156
may captive populations of greater rhea (rhea americana) act as genetic reservoirs in argentina?the greater rhea (rhea americana) is a characteristic bird of the argentine pampas. despite the increasing farming interest of this ratite, their natural populations are progressively decreasing in size and range. the object of this study was to evaluate the status of captive populations as potential genetic reservoirs. using inter-simple sequence repeats as molecular markers, levels of genetic variability of f1 individuals from two captive populations were estimated and compared with those of w ...201120235106
rearing greater rhea (rhea americana) chicks: is adoption more effective than the artificial intensive system?(1) survival and weight gain of farmed greater rhea (rhea americana) chicks reared by the adult males that adopted them were compared with those of chicks reared under an artificial intensive system. (2) both variables were periodically recorded up to the age of 3 months. gompertz growth curves were fitted to individual growth data using the average adult weight of this population as asymptote. (3) no significant differences in survival rate were detected between systems (adoption=47%, intensive ...200515835248
entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (sarcomastigophora: endamoebidae) from ostriches (struthio camelus).in the present work we identify the species of entamoeba from ostriches (struthio camelus). the complete sequence of the small subunit ribosomal rna gene from this organism has been compared with those published for other species of the genus and clear differences have been found. these results confirm previous data which showed differences on parasite morphology and class of host with the other entamoeba species. taking all these data together, it can be concluded that the organism from ostrich ...200415154597
location of the ureteral openings in the cloacas of tinamous, some ratite birds, and crocodilians: a primitive character.cloacas of 67 avian species, of both sexes, from various habitats and differing dietary habits, were examined macro- and microscopically to investigate possible variation in the location of the ureteral openings. differing from most birds studied, in adult male rhea americana and several tinamous species the ureters were found to open into the coprodeum. in these species the urodeum receives only the vas deferens or oviduct. similarly, in crocodiles caiman crocodilus yacare, but not in lizards t ...200415108162
virtual reconstructions of the endocranial cavity of rhea americana (aves, palaeognathae): postnatal anatomical changes.we examined the external anatomy of the endocast of the greater rhea (rhea americana, palaeognathae), during 3 main stages of its postnatal life, and compared it with information available on other palaeognathous birds. series of scans with spiral computed tomographies were obtained from 3 skulls of different ages (chick, juvenile and adult) of r. americana; digital 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed and brain volumes were calculated from the models obtained. qualitative assessment of th ...201021042004
effect of age and body weight of greater rhea (rhea americana) females on egg number, size and composition.1. a study was conducted to evaluate how body weight and age of each female are related to the number and physical and chemical characteristics of the eggs produced throughout a breeding season in a captive-bred population of greater rheas (rhea americana). 2. reproductive performance of 15 females of three age classes (5 individuals per class) was monitored; female body weight was recorded before laying-onset. all the eggs laid were collected and identified, and different morphometric variables ...201021161792
brachyspira hyodysenteriae and other strongly beta-haemolytic and indole-positive spirochaetes isolated from mallards (anas platyrhynchos).the aims of the current study were to collect intestinal spirochaetes (genus brachyspira) from farmed and wild mallards (anas platyrhynchos) and to identify and classify those isolates that phenotypically resembled brachyspira hyodysenteriae, an enteric pathogen of pigs. the isolation rate of brachyspira spp. was high from both farmed (93 %) and wild mallards (78 %). in wild mallards, it appeared that brachyspira spp. were more likely to be found in migratory birds (multivariate analysis: rr = 1 ...200415017285
measurement of maximum oxygen consumption in guinea fowl numida meleagris indicates that birds and mammals display a similar diversity of aerobic scopes during running.judgement of exercise performance in birds has been hampered by a paucity of data on maximal aerobic capacity. we measured the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (vo2,max) in running guinea fowl numida meleagris, a bird that has been used in several previous studies of avian running. mean vo2,max during level treadmill running was 97.5+/-3.7 ml o(2) kg(-1) min(-1) (mean+/-sem, n=5). vo2,max was on average 6% higher when the birds ran uphill compared with the value during level running (paired t- ...200314671717
effect of frozen storage duration and cooking on physical and oxidative changes in m. gastrocnemius pars interna and m. iliofiburalis of rhea americana.this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of frozen storage time (30, 60, 90 or 180 days) and cooking (100 °c, 30 min) on the physical characteristics and oxidative stability of m. gastrocnemius pars interna (gn) and m. iliofiburalis (if) of rhea americana. physical parameters measured included thawing and cooking loss, colour parameters (l*a*b*), while oxidation was assessed by determining the tba-rs, carbonyl and aromatic amino acid content. prolonged frozen storage of rhea meat decrease ...201121429676
philophthalmus aweerensis n. sp. (trematoda: philophthalmidae) found in a rhea (rhea americana) in the united arab emirates.philophthalmus aweerensis, a new eye fluke species, was discovered in the conjunctival cavities of a rhea in the uae. this fluke was described and differentiated from other eye flukes that had been found in birds in the middle east such as philophthalmus palpebrarum, philophthalmus nocturnus, philophthalmus gralli, philophthalmus lucipetus, philophthalmus distomatosa, and philophthalmus hegeneri. the new species lacks spination and is characterized by a long cirrus pouch extending behind the cau ...201121472402
microbial contamination of artificially incubated greater rhea (rhea americana) eggs.1. this paper is a report of biological agents that contaminate greater rhea (rhea americana) eggs during artificial incubation. 2. the cleanliness of eggs when collected, and the period of storage prior to incubation, were investigated to assess their effects on microbial contamination and hatchability. 3. a total of 14 bacteria and 4 fungi species were isolated within the egg in the laboratory. 4. microbial contamination was higher (24%) in very dirty eggs than in eggs which were clean or dirt ...200312964617
retinal photoreceptors of paleognathous birds: the ostrich (struthio camelus) and rhea (rhea americana).microspectrophotometry was used to determine the absorbance spectra of both rod and cone visual pigments and oil droplets from the retinae of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and rhea (rhea americana). light and fluorescence microscopy of whole fresh tissue mounts were used to determine the relative numbers and distribution of oil droplets in the retinae. both species possessed rods, double cones and four classes of single cone identified by their oil droplets. the rods had lambda max at about 505 ...200111163611
recovery of arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.the genus arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees c. arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either campylobacter or leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (dicer ...201122950328
a single camera roentgen stereophotogrammetry method for static displacement analysis.a new method to quantify motion or deformation of bony structures has been developed, since quantification is often difficult due to overlaying tissue, and the currently used roentgen stereophotogrammetry method requires significant investment. in our method, a single stationary roentgen source is used, as opposed to the usual two, which, in combination with a fixed radiogram cassette holder, forms a camera with constant interior orientation. by rotating the experimental object, it is possible t ...200010807998
carcase and component yields of rheas.1. three greater rheas (rhea americana) and 5 lesser rheas (pterocnemia pennata) were slaughtered, using the procedures conventional for ostriches in south africa, in order to determine the expected yield of by-products and saleable lean meat, fat and bone of rheas. 2. differences (p < 0.05) between species were found in the proportional weight of the wings, feet, skin and liver. the wings, feet and head of rheas form a higher proportion of the carcase than in ostriches, whereas the skin of the ...19979347146
detection of candida species resistant to azoles in the microbiota of rheas (rhea americana): possible implications for human and animal health.there is growing interest in breeding rheas (rhea americana) in brazil. however, there are no data on the yeast microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of this avian species, and the phenotypic characteristics of these yeasts are not known. therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate candida species from the digestive tract of rheas and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and secretion of phospholipases of the recovered isolates. for this purpose, 58 rheas from breeding operat ...201323493027
use of computed tomography for investigation of rhinitis and sinusitis in a greater rhea (rhea americana).sinusitis is a common finding in avian species; however, it presents unique treatment challenges in ratites. a 6-yr-old male greater rhea ( rhea americana ) presented acutely with right infraorbital sinus swelling and chemosis. oral antibiotics were prescribed based on bacterial culture results with incomplete resolution of clinical signs. a computed tomography scan of the skull demonstrated a mixed-density soft tissue mass with extensive destruction of the right nasal bone, hard palate, maxilla ...201628080910
multiple intussusceptions in a juvenile rhea (rhea americana) with proventricular impaction.multiple intussusceptions of the small intestine were identified in a 4-mo-old rhea (rhea americana) that died acutely after chronically poor growth. the chick was one of a group of 12 chicks that exhibited musculoskeletal deformities, poor growth, and subsequent death. gross necropsy findings of this chick revealed proventricular impaction by sticks and stones accompanied by multiple intussusceptions of the small intestine. this finding identifies a disease process that may afflict ratites when ...19979201419
cases of spirochete-associated necrotizing typhlitis in captive common rheas (rhea americana).ceca from greater or common rheas (rhea americana) with gastrointestinal disease were collected from diagnostic labs and avian pathologists across the united states. the ceca were evaluated for the presence of spirochetes and necrosis using hematoxylin and eosin stain or warthin-starry silver-stained tissue sections and anaerobic culture. spirochete-associated necrotizing typhlitis was documented in 11 states. most cases were reported in the summer and fall and occurred in rheas less than 5 mo o ...19979087331
tuberculosis in farmed rheas (rhea americana).avian tuberculosis was diagnosed in two mature rheas on different ratite farms over a 2-year period. both birds had died after progressively losing body condition. caseonecrotic granulomas were scattered throughout the liver and spleen in both birds. similar granulomas were in the lung of one bird and bilaterally in the subcutis cranial to the shoulder in the other bird. smears of several granulomas from both rheas revealed large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. histologically, the granulomas had c ...19948002893
presence of avian influenza virus (aiv) subtypes h5n2 and h7n1 in emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) and rheas (rhea americana): virus isolation and serologic findings.avian influenza virus (aiv) subtypes h5n2 and h7n1 were isolated from emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) and rheas (rhea americana) in texas and north carolina. all the rheas and emus had a history of respiratory disease except one emu, which was clinically normal. the isolates were not pathogenic for chickens and turkeys under the conditions of the experiment. humoral antibodies to all known hemagglutinin (h) subtypes except h10, h13, and h14 and to all nine neuraminidase (n) subtypes were found i ...19957794192
intestinal smooth muscle hyperplasia in a rhea (rhea americana).smooth muscle hyperplasia of the small intestine occurred in an 18-month-old rhea (rhea americana). the mucosal thickening was 2-3 mm, and the enlarged muscle layers averaged 5 mm thick. the intestinal villi were lengthened, pleated, and expanded by smooth muscle hyperplasia within the lamina propria. the prominent muscularis mucosa averaged 20 smooth muscle cells thick. the tunica muscularis had symmetrical hyperplasia of both the inner circular muscle layer, which had an excess of 220 cells, a ...19957794184
coefficients for the estimation of fresh weight and volume of greater rhea eggs.1. specific values of constants needed to estimate fresh weight (kw) and volume (kv) of greater rhea eggs were obtained. 2. the average value for the weight coefficient (kw) was 0.57, whereas that for volume (kv) was 0.51. accuracy of results obtained with these values was +/-2.1% and +/-3.5%, respectively. 3. the fresh weight and volume of greater rhea eggs can be easily estimated by means of these specific coefficients when those measurements cannot be taken directly.200717578693
amino acid sequences and phosphorylation sites of emu and rhea eggshell c-type lectin-like proteins.avian calcified eggshell layers contain in their organic matrix one or two c-type lectin-like proteins. previously characterized eggshell proteins of this family are chicken ovocleidin-17 (oc-17), goose ansocalcin and ostrich struthiocalcins 1 and 2 (sca-1, sca-2). in this report we present the amino acid sequences of two emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) (dromaiocalcin-1 and -2; dca-1, dca-2) and of two rhea (rhea americana) (rheacalcin-1 and -2; rca-1, rca-2) c-type lectin-like eggshell proteins, ...200616403478
the kinematics of feeding and drinking in palaeognathous birds in relation to cranial morphology.cranial kinesis is an important feature in avian feeding behaviour and involves the transmission of quadrate movement to the upper bill by the pterygoid-palatinum complex (ppc). the ppc in palaeognathae is remarkably different from that found in neognathae. in this study we analyse whether the special morphology of the ppc is an adaptation to the feeding behaviour of the palaeognathae. behavioural analyses of the rhea rhea americana showed that the feeding behaviour of the rhea is typical ;catch ...200516109899
effects of storage time on hatchability of artificially incubated greater rhea (rhea americana) eggs.(1) a study was conducted to determine the effects of the length of the storage period on the hatchability of artificially incubated greater rhea eggs. hatchability was evaluated in eggs gathered daily from a captive population and in eggs collected less frequently from a semi-captive population. (2) eggs form both sites were either immediately incubated after being collected or were stored for 1 to 9 d prior to incubation. (3) the maximum number of days for which an egg could be stored without ...200415623217
identification of the major proteins of the organic matrix of emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) and rhea (rhea americana) eggshell calcified layer.1. the eggshell is a composite consisting of 95% calcite and an organic matrix. 2. while many proteins of the chicken eggshell matrix have already been identified, little is known about the matrix of other birds. 3. isolation of the emu and rhea eggshell matrix and analysis of its major constituents showed that the predominant components were c-type lectin-like proteins related to those of ostrich, chicken and goose. 4. serum albumin, vitelline membrane outer layer protein i (vmo-i) and the turp ...200415484722
parasites from farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) and rheas (rhea americana) in europe.during a 4-year-period, more than 500 ostriches and several rheas, all born in european countries and raised in spain and portugal, have been analyzed for the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites. a total of 29 parasite species have been found, most of them of the gastrointestinal tract. some of the helminth species found may represent spureous parasitosis, as only the eggs (of an ascarid and a trematode) were found in some samples. from the organisms identified, the ectoparasites (lice-s ...200212072221
chemical composition and fatty acid profile of rhea (rhea americana) meat.the purpose of this work was to determine the proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of the gastrocnemius pars interna intramuscular fat (imf) of rhea (rhea americana) thighs. the birds were bred in captivity, fed with balanced feed (nutriavestruz crescimento - purina) and kept in a pen with grass ad lib. the birds of both sexes used in the research weighed 23 kg on average and were aged about twelve (12) months old. they were subjected to hydric diet (12 h) before slaughtering by electri ...200818833999
hematological, morphological and morphometric characteristics of blood cells from rhea, rhea americana (struthioniformes: rheidae): a standard for brazilian birds.abstractblood exams are an indispensable tool in bird medicine. this study aimed at describing values and aspects of rheas' hematology, rhea americana, as well as analyzing the morphology and morphometry of all blood cells. fifty eight adult rheas of both sexes from two farms, one in cachoeiro de itapemirim, espírito santo state and the other in são carlos, são paulo state, were selected. blood samples were taken and rbc count, pcv and hb levels measured and used in hematimetric indexes calculat ...201526560670
ultrastructure and electrolyte transport of the epithelium of coprodeum, colon and the proctodeal diverticulum of rhea americana.the structure and function of the lower intestinal tract of rhea americana were characterized to evaluate the evolutionary relationship to other struthioniform and avian species. in 5 rheas the gross anatomy and the light and transmission electron microscopy were studied in parallel to in vitro electrophysiological measurements of ion transport. the mucosa in the colon was amplified with villi, often branched, and in the coprodeum with folds. in both tissues the epithelium was a monolayer compos ...200919059357
a new coccidian, isospora rheae sp. nov. (apicomplexa, eimeriidae), from rhea americana (aves, rheidae) from south america.apicomplexa: eimeriidae) obtained from rheas, rhea americana, is reported in brazil. oocysts of isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. the micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. the stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered gra ...201425426418
modeling habitat suitability for greater rheas based on satellite image texture.many wild species are affected by human activities occurring at broad spatial scales. for instance, in south america, habitat loss threatens greater rhea (rhea americana) populations, making it important to model and map their habitat to better target conservation efforts. spatially explicit habitat modeling is a powerful approach to understand and predict species occurrence and abundance. one problem with this approach is that commonly used land cover classifications do not capture the variabil ...200819263890
physiological stress in captive greater rheas (rhea americana): highly sensitive plasma corticosterone response to an acth challenge.up to the present no studies have been conducted either on baseline concentrations of adrenal hormones or on hormonal responses to stress in greater rhea (rhea americana) and most ratite species. the aims of this work were to assess the presence of corticosterone in plasma of greater rhea, to validate a corticosterone (125)i-radioimmunoassay for determining corticosterone levels in plasma samples and to study the activation of the adrenal gland after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (acth) challe ...200919332067
oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.rhea (rhea americana) muscles obturatorius medialis (om) iliotibialis lateralis (il) and iliofibularis (i), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. the mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) expressed as malonaldehyde (mda) content was of 0.84 mg mda/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. tbars level was significantly higher in il than om and i, with the two latter showing similar levels. the mean level of carbonyl proteins ...201020374846
establishment and maintenance of persistent infection by picobirnavirus in greater rhea (rhea americana).a study aimed to determine the infection model that picobirnavirus (pbv) established in birds was conducted in a farm of greater rheas in córdoba, argentina. analysis of stools collected during a longitudinal study involving seven birds provided evidence that pbv is acquired very early in life and establishes a persistent infection in the host, which is characterized by intermingled periods of high, low and silent viral activity. genomic analysis indicated that the rheas excreted virus with nucl ...201222782138
oxygen isotope fractionation between bird bone phosphate and drinking water.oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ(18)op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. these sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. this sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ(18)op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ v-smow) and the local rainfall δ(18)ow values ...201728534252
colour, lipid and protein stability of rhea americana meat during air- and vacuum-packaged storage: influence of muscle on oxidative processes.physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability during storage were determined in gastrocnemius pars interna (gn) and iliofiburalis (if) muscles of rhea americana. glycolytic potential (gp) and ph decline of muscles were measured within the first 24 h post mortem. colour, lipid and protein stability were determined during storage of meat, i.e. 5 days under air-packaging at 4°c, or 28 days under vacuum-packaging at 4°c. in parallel, anti-oxidant status of muscles was estimated by measurin ...201020659783
morphology of the nematode deletrocephalus dimidiatus diesing, 1851 from the rhea, rhea americana linnaeus, 1758, together with a key to species of deletrocephalinae.the family deletrocephalidae consists of three species, from two genera: deletrocephalus dimidiatus, d. cesarpintoi and paradeletrocephalus minor, which differ from one another in terms of the buccal capsule structure, the dorsal ray from the male copulatory bursa and the length of the vagina in the female. all these species are parasites of the gastrointestinal tract of the rhea, rhea americana. only d. dimidiatus was reported to be a parasite of the other rhea species, darwin's rhea, r. pennat ...201727018816
influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive greater rheas (rhea americana).many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. we investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in greater rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (irs) and a semi-extensive (srs) rearing system. after hplc validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) i radio-immunoassay kit. results (mean ± se) showed that eggs collected from the irs exhibited a signific ...201626928950
the hindlimb muscles of rhea americana (aves, palaeognathae, rheidae).summary with 13 figures the greater rhea is the largest cursorial ratitae bird native to south america. due to its increasing importance in farming and therefore in the sustainable use of this species, a comprehensive knowledge of their anatomy is essential. the goal of this study was to provide an anatomical description of the hindlimb muscles of rhea americana. six adult birds of both sexes were macroscopically studied analysing the origin and insertion of thigh and shank muscles. the thigh sh ...201020666746
light and scanning electron microcopy study of the tongue in rhea americana.morphological characteristics of the tongue were studied in adult rhea (rhea americana). the lingual surface and the surface of epithelium-connective tissue interface of rhea tongue were examined macroscopically and by light and scanning electron microscopy. the rhea tongue revealed a triangular aspect, without adjustment of the inferior bill formation, occupying approximately ¼ of the length of the oral cavity. lingual papilla-like structures were not observed over the lingual surface. the tong ...201121186946
morphology of the tongue of the emu (dromaius novaehollandiae). ii. histological features.although a number of brief, fragmented descriptions have been provided on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue, very few studies have documented the histological structure of this organ. this paper presents the first definitive histological description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the histology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. five tongues were removed from heads obtained from birds at slaughter and fixed in 10% neutr ...200921344785
minerals, haem and non-haem iron contents of rhea meat.mineral contents, haem and non-haem iron of rhea (rhea americana) muscles obturatorius medialis (om), iliotibialis lateralis (il) and iliofibularis (i) were determined. no differences between the three muscles were observed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium. there is more potassium, zinc and copper in il muscle than in om and i muscles. for manganese, om and il muscles show a higher content in comparison with i muscle. for selenium, il and i muscles show the highest content compared ...200922063970
a review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in south america.meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in south america. these include the alpaca (lama pacos), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (lama guanicoe), llama (lama glama), nutria (myocastor coypus), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (rhea americana), lesser rhea (rhea pennata), yacare (caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (tupinambis m ...200822063568
hematological, morphological and morphometric characteristics of blood cells from rhea, rhea americana (struthioniformes: rheidae): a standard for brazilian birds.blood exams are an indispensable tool in bird medicine. this study aimed at describing values and aspects of rheas' hematology, rhea americana, as well as analyzing the morphology and morphometry of all blood cells. fifty eight adult rheas of both sexes from two farms, one in cachoeiro de itapemirim, espírito santo state and the other in são carlos, são paulo state, were selected. blood samples were taken and rbc count, pcv and hb levels measured and used in hematimetric indexes calculations. th ...201526675913
gastrointestinal parasites in greater rheas (rhea americana) and lesser rheas (rhea pennata) from argentina.few data exist on the parasites of ratites, especially from regions within their natural range. it is only recently that extensive studies on the parasites of ostriches (struthio camelus) have been published, mainly from european countries where commercial farming has expanded. two species of ratites are native in south america: the lesser rhea also known as darwin's rhea (rhea pennata) and the greater rhea (rhea americana). both species are considered near threatened by the iucn and are include ...201223305970
thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (rhea americana).ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (rhea spp.). an intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexme ...201223272347
antifungal susceptibility of emerging opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi from rhea americana.opportunistic yeasts and yeast-like fungi have been recognized as important pathogens in high-risk patients. this study aimed to evaluate the presence of these microorganisms in the microbiota of captive rheas and to investigate the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated strains. isolates representing magnusiomyces capitatus (geotrichum capitatum, n = 11), trichosporon mucoides (n = 11), trichosporon asteroides (n = 5), rhodotorula mucilaginosa (n = 4), trichosporon asahii (n = 3), trichospor ...201323899001
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 february 2012 - 31 march 2012.this article documents the addition of 171 microsatellite marker loci and 27 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) sequencing primers to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: bombus pauloensis, cephalorhynchus heavisidii, cercospora sojina, harpyhaliaetus coronatus, hordeum vulgare, lachnolaimus maximus, oceanodroma monteiroi, puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, rhea americana, salmo salar, salmo trutta, schistocephalus solidus, sousa p ...201222642264
occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in rheas (rhea americana) and ostriches (struthio camelus) from farms of different brazilian regions.this study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in rheas (rhea americana) and ostriches (struthio camelus) commercially breeding in brazil. blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults) were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (mat) at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. antibodies against t. gondii were found in 50% (10/20) of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400 ...201324142180
the influence of diet composition on egg and chick traits in captive greater rhea females.1. this study was conducted to evaluate the influence of diet composition on egg number, physical and chemical characteristics of eggs and weight and survival of chicks throughout a breeding season in a captive-bred population of greater rheas (rhea americana). 2. from august to december, individuals were offered two diets: processed feed for rheas and processed feed for chicken (which is the feed most commonly offered to farmed rheas in argentina). reproductive performance of 15 females was mon ...201323796119
hematological and morphometric differences of blood cells from rheas, rhea americana (struthioniformes: rheidae) on two conservation, blood tests are an indispensable tool in avian medicine. this study aimed to describe and compare hematological and morphometric data of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of rhea, rhea americana. to do so, 58 rheas of both sexes on two farms, one in cachoeiro do itapemirim, espírito santo (es), and the other in são carlos, são paulo (sp), were selected. blood samples were taken and their rbc counts, pcv and hb levels were determined and used in hematimetric index calculations. the ...201728099573
greater rhea (rhea americana) external morphology at different stages of embryonic and fetal development.knowledge of wild species embryonic development is important for their maintenance in captivity or the wild. the objective of the present study was to characterize the external morphology and define the biometry of greater rhea embryos and fetuses at different stages of development. a total of 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed to describe their external morphology using a stereoscopic microscope. the crown-rump (cr), total length (tl), cephalocaudal length (ccl), biparietal diameter (bpd), be ...201526432389
ontogenetic scaling of the hindlimb muscles of the greater rhea (rhea americana).the greater rhea (rhea americana) is the largest south american bird. it is a cursorial, flightless species with long powerful legs and reduced forelimbs. the goal of this study was to explore how hindlimb muscles scale with body mass during postnatal growth and to analyze whether the specialized locomotion of this species affects the growth of muscle masses. the mass of 19 muscles and body mass were weighed in 21 specimens ranging from 1-month-old individuals to adults. seventeen muscles scaled ...201525348420
sicarius uncinipenis and deletrocephalus cesarpintoi in captive greater rheas of minas gerais state, brazil.the present study details the pathological and parasitological findings of parasitic ventriculitis and nematode infections in the large intestines of two female rhea americana americana birds. the birds were housed in captivity, and both exhibited poor body condition and lethargy. the rheas were sent to the veterinary hospital of the veterinary school, universidade federal de minas gerais (ufmg) and, despite medical care, the clinical condition of the birds did not improve. the birds died two da ...201625271456
influence of breeding season on fecal glucocorticoid levels in captive greater rhea (rhea americana).sex hormones and stress-related changes can be seasonally influenced. we investigate whether fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fgm) levels can differ between male and female captive greater rheas during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. over a 3-year-period, fresh fecal samples from 10 individuals (five of each sex) were collected during the breeding months (october, november, and december) and non-breeding months (april and june). a total of 960 samples were assayed using a commercial radio ...201525182661
aspects of the macroscopic testicular and epididymal morphology in the greater rhea, rhea americana (linneaus - 1758) birds.the purpose of this research was to study the macroscopic testicular and epididymal morphology of the greater rhea. the testicles of 54 greater rhea bred in captivity were utilized. the samples were collected november 2005 (n = 14), december 2006 (n = 20) and may 2007 (n = 20). during commercial slaughter, the testicles and epididymides were collected and their following morphometric parameters were immediately measured: length, width, thickness, circumference, volume, weight of the parenchyma a ...201525091030
macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of rhea americana , linnaeus, 1758 (aves: rheidae) naturally infected by sicarius uncinipenis (molin, 1860) (nematoda: habronematidae).there are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. however, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. deletrocephalus dimidiatus, deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, paradeletrocephalus minor, and sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within th ...201425001213
seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater rhea (rhea americana), a south american ratite with a complex mating system.seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. the greater rhea (rhea americana), a south american ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. the present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. we used hplc and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identi ...201424837464
allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater rheas (rhea americana) with tiletamine and zolazepam.chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. in such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal's body mass. the objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through inte ...201424625103
evidence of exposure to usuv and wnv in zoo animals in france.west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv) are zoonotic arboviruses. these flaviviruses are mainly maintained in the environment through an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds. horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. nevertheless, there is little data regarding the involvement of other mammals in the epidemiology of these arboviruses. in this study, we performed a serosurvey to assess exposure to these viruses in captive birds ...202033266071
behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female greater rheas (rhea americana) reared in captivity.animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. however, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. the aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult greater rheas (rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. eight males and 8 females were placed in individual ...201323472006
corticosterone stress response of greater rhea (rhea americana) during short-term road transport.the effect of transport stress on blood corticosterone levels in captive greater rheas was investigated. twelve adult individuals (7 males; 5 females) were loaded in pairs inside wooden crates and transported along a paved road for 30 min. blood samples were taken before the individuals were introduced into the crate (baseline value) and immediately after they were unloaded (30 min after capture). to assess whether corticosterone levels were affected by the blood sampling procedure per se, anoth ...201323243231
efficiency of the cloacal sexing technique in greater rhea chicks (rhea americana).1. the feasibility and accuracy of the cloacal sexing technique in greater rhea chicks was assessed using chicks of two captive populations of greater rhea in córdoba, argentina. 2. a total of 46 greater rhea chicks of 2 to 3 months of age were randomly arranged into three groups and the members of each group were sexed by a different operator. 3. a feather of each chick was plucked for sexing through a molecular method and results were used as controls. 4. sex was correctly assigned by cloacal ...201222978597
visitor influence on the behavior of captive greater rheas (rhea americana, rheidae aves).visitors can affect and reduce the welfare of nonhuman animals. the belo horizonte zoo, brazil, had a group of greater rheas intended for reintroduction to the wild. because this group received public visitation, evaluating its effect on the birds' behavior and welfare was important. the study conducted 60 hr of behavioral observations: 30 with, and 30 without, visitors in front of the birds' enclosure. the study, conducted april-december 2009, collected data using scan sampling with instantaneo ...201222458873
outbreak of philophthalmus gralli in four greater rheas (rhea americana).using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, conjunctival biopsy, and morphological identification, a flock of four greater rheas (rhea americana) in arizona were diagnosed with conjunctivitis secondary to philophthalmus gralli (p. gralli) infection. aquatic snails from the exhibit's water source were identified as melanoides tuberculatus, a known vector for p. gralli. comparison of partial sequences of dna regions from p. gralli adults removed from the rheas and metacercariae from the aquatic snails demonstr ...201322429741
genetic factors for short life span associated with evolution of the loss of flight ability.acquisition or loss of flying ability is evolutionarily linked with maximum life span (mls) in mammals and birds. although ecological factors, such as extrinsic mortality, may lead to either shortened or extended life spans through natural selection, mls is influenced by complex molecular and metabolic processes, and the genetic changes associated with flying ability that have led to either a longer or shorter mls are unknown. here, we examine the parallel evolution of flight in mammals and bird ...202032607209
comparative methane emission by ratites: differences in food intake and digesta retention level out methane production.ratites differ in the anatomy of their digestive organs and their digesta excretion patterns. ostriches (struthio camelus) have large fermentation chambers and long digesta retention, emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) have a short gut and short retention times, and rheas (rhea americana) are intermediate. a recent study showed that ostriches produce as much methane (ch4) as expected for a similar-sized, non-ruminant mammalian herbivore. we hypothesized that emus and rheas produce less ch4 than ost ...201526123777
pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin in greater rheas following a single-dose intramuscular administration.the pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin in greater rheas was investigated after intramuscular (im) administration of 15 mg/kg. plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. enrofloxacin peak plasma concentration (c(max)=3.30+/-0.90 microg/ml) was reached at 24.17+/-9.17 min. the terminal half-life (t(1/2lambda)) and area under the curve (auc) were 2.85+/-0.54 h and 4.18+/-0.69 microg h/ml, respecti ...200817303451
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