blood ion concentrations as a function of developmental stage in the gopher snake, pituophis melanoleucus catenifer. 19695356616
a zygomycotic infection in captive snakes.we report disseminated, fatal fungal disease involving subcutaneous and visceral tissues in 4 captive snakes (1 elaphe guttata, 2 crotalus horridus, and 1 pituophis melanoleucus). the etiologic agent, which was abundant in the lesion, had a rounded form in vivo with a prominent nucleus. these cells averaged 17 microns in diameter and reproduced by fission, forming clusters of two or four daughter cells. the etiologic agent was isolated on sabouraud dextrose agar from one of the snakes. it also g ...19836683876
functional anatomy of the lung of the snake pituophis melanoleucus.the respiratory system in pituophis melanoleucus is composed of a trachea, a single bronchial lung containing the pulmonary vasculature, and a large membranous caudal air sac. total air volume (vl) in a 1-kg snake is 97.5 ml and varies with size (m) according to the equation vl = 0.388 m0.80 where vl is in milliliters and m is in grams. these air volumes are similar to those measured in many lizards and turtles. relative volumes of the trachea, vascular lung, and air sac in pituophis are about 4 ...19827114286
sarcocystis idahoensis sp. n. in deer mice peromyscus maniculatus (wagner) and gopher snakes pituophis melanoleucus (daudin). 19806768882
the mechanics of swallowing and the muscular control of diverse behaviours in gopher snakes.snakes are excellent subjects for studying functional versatility and potential constraints because their movements are constrained to vertebral bending and twisting. in many snakes, swallowing is a kind of inside-out locomotion. during swallowing, vertebral bends push food from the jaws along a substantial length of the body to the stomach. in gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (lampropeltis getula), swallowing often begins with lateral bending of the head and neck as the ja ...200010934002
comparison of renal function of bull and water snakes (pituophis melanoleucus and natrix sipedon). 19705417463
melanosarcoma and rhabdomyoma in two pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus). 194621014307
hibernation site philopatry in northern pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) in new jersey.northern pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. we report the use of hibernacula by pine snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the new jersey pine barrens. we determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. with known-age snakes (n= 120), captured m ...201527011392
arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium concentrations in pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) from the new jersey pine trophic level predators are at risk from bioaccumulation of heavy metals from their prey. using nondestructively collected tissues as a method of assessing metal concentrations in snakes is useful for populations that are threatened or declining. this paper reports concentrations of arsenic (as), cadmium (cd), chromium (cr), lead (pb), mercury (hg), and selenium (se) in tissues of northern pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) from the new jersey pine barrens, a relatively pristine, undisturb ...201728424837
cone-like rhodopsin expressed in the all-cone retina of the colubrid pine snake as a potential adaptation to diurnality.colubridae is the largest and most diverse family of snakes, with visual systems that reflect this diversity, encompassing a variety of retinal photoreceptor organizations. the transmutation theory proposed by walls postulates that photoreceptors could evolutionarily transition between cell types in squamates, but few studies have tested this theory. recently, evidence for transmutation and rod-like machinery in an all-cone retina has been identified in a diurnal garter snake (thamnophis), and i ...201728468872
[cryptosporidiosis in adders (pituiophis melanoleucus sayi)].infection of snakes with cryptosporidia is known to occur as hypertrophic gastritis associated with postprandial regurgitation. this is a report of a severe and fatal intestinal cryptosporidiosis in a group of snakes (pituophis melanoleucus sayi) kept at a zoological garden. the clinical and pathological findings are described and discussed in this paper. pathohistologically fibrinous, diphtheroid and necrotizing enteritides were diagnosed. histological examination was completed by electron micr ...19989531675
blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51cr-labeled red blood cells.blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51cr-labeled red blood cell (rbc) method. the mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 se). previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. the rbc survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. the rbc survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.1978629474
fibrosing adenocarcinoma of the intestine of a gopher snake (pituophis melanoleucus).histologic examination of a mass from the intestine of a gopher snake revealed a neoplastic process with an excessively exuberant fibrous component.19806251283
physiologic and acid-base measures of gopher snakes during ketamine or halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia.arterial acid-base and selected physiologic measures of gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) during ketamine or halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia were compared with base-line values. during ketamine anesthesia, significant decreases in ph and hco-3 concentrations indicated acid-base states of uncompensated metabolic acidosis. in contrast, halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia induced acidosis of respiratory origin, through a significant depression in respiratory rate. in addition to th ...19806778850
kinematics, muscular activity and propulsion in gopher snakesprevious studies have addressed the physical principles and muscular activity patterns underlying terrestrial lateral undulation in snakes, but not the mechanism by which muscular activity produces curvature and propulsion. in this study, we used synchronized electromyography and videography to examine the muscular basis and propulsive mechanism of terrestrial lateral undulation in gopher snakes pituophis melanoleucus affinis. specifically, we used patch electrodes to record from the semispinali ...19989732322
testing an inference of function from structure: snake vertebrae do the twist.the zygapophyses and zygosphene-zygantrum articulations of snake vertebrae are hypothesized to restrict or eliminate vertebral torsion. this hypothesis is apparently based solely on the inference of function from structure, despite the limitations of such inferences, as well as contradictory observations and measurements. in this study, i observed and measured axial torsion in gopher snakes, pituophis melanoleucus. to examine the structural basis of axial torsion, i measured the vertebral articu ...199910461132
molecular systematics of new world gopher, bull, and pinesnakes (pituophis: colubridae), a transcontinental species complex.pituophis melanoleucus (gopher, bull, and pinesnakes) is among the most widely distributed polytypic species complexes in north america, with most authors recognizing from a single transcontinental species (the melanoleucus complex, composed of 15 subspecies) to four (monotypic and polytypic) species. we used mitochondrial gene sequences from the two middle american species, p. deppei and p. lineaticollis, and from 13 subspecies from most of the range of the melanoleucus complex to test various ...200010631041
post-cranial prey transport mechanisms in the black pinesnake, pituophis melanoleucus lodingi: an x-ray videographic study.most previous studies of snake feeding mechanisms have focused on the functional morphology of the highly specialized ophidian jaw apparatus. although some of these studies have included observations of post-cranial movements during feeding, the functional roles of these movements have remained poorly understood. in this study, we used x-ray videography to examine post-cranial prey transport mechanisms in a colubrid snake, pituophis melanoleucus lodingi. we found that prey transport in this spec ...200216351864
comparison of chemistry analytes between 2 portable, commercially available analyzers and a conventional laboratory analyzer in reptiles.advantages of handheld and small bench-top biochemical analyzers include requirements for smaller sample volume and practicality for use in the field or in practices, but little has been published on the performance of these instruments compared with standard reference methods in analysis of reptilian blood.201021198734
ileocolic intussusception in a pine snake (pituophis melanoleucus). 200616714436
ventilation, gas exchange and blood gases in the snake, pituophis melanoleucus.oxygen consumption of pituophis melanoleucus was about 30-50% of values predicted for snakes of similar body mass. following a rise in body temperature there were transient increases in co2 elimination and the respiratory exchange ratio for about 6 hours. lowering body temperature produced transient decreases in co2 elimination and the respiratory exchange ratio for about 24 hours. respiratory exchange ratios measured up to 6 days following these transients were found to be significantly higher ...19826808625
sound production in pituophis melanoleucus (serpentes: colubridae) with the first description of a vocal cord in snakes.the pine, gopher, or bull snake (pituophis melanoleucus) makes two different defensive sounds. hisses are characterized by lack of frequency and amplitude modulation; bellows have a brief initial period of high-amplitude, broad-frequency sound followed by a longer period of lower-amplitude, constant-frequency sound. both defensive sounds contain distinct harmonic elements. the modulation and harmonic nature of these sounds seems to be unique among snakes. the larynx of pituophis is unusual in ha ...19958568501
trace element levels in pine snake hatchlings: tissue and temporal differences.trace element levels have seldom been examined in reptiles, although some large snakes are high on the trophic level pyramid. lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium and manganese levels were examined in skin and whole body tissue of pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) from the new jersey pine barrens between 1985-1990. depending on the element, variations in levels were primarily explained by year and tissue, and not by sex or location. there were significantly higher levels of lead, mercur ...19921536601
oviduct adenocarcinoma in some species of captive snakes.this article reports 5 cases of oviduct adenocarcinoma in adult captive snakes from smithsonian's national zoological park. this neoplasm was found in 1 of each of the following species: emerald tree boa (corallus caninus), amazonian tree boa (corallus enydris enydris), burmese rock python (python molurus bivittatus), northern pine snake (pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus), and corn snake (elaphe guttata). grossly, tan to red firm masses were found within oviducts in 3 cases. in an additional ...200818725476
ground squirrels use an infrared signal to deter rattlesnake predation.the evolution of communicative signals involves a major hurdle; signals need to effectively stimulate the sensory systems of their targets. therefore, sensory specializations of target animals are important sources of selection on signal structure. here we report the discovery of an animal signal that uses a previously unknown communicative modality, infrared radiation or "radiant heat," which capitalizes on the infrared sensory capabilities of the signal's target. california ground squirrels (s ...200717704254
a report of intestinal sarcocystosis in the bullsnake (pituophis melanoleucus sayi) and a re-evaluation of sarcocystis sp. from snakes of the genus pituophis.we report a severe enteric infection of sarcocystis sp. from a wild-caught bullsnake (pituophis melanoleucus sayi). the animal was collected in october 1988 by a commercial dealer, imported into the united kingdom during november 1988 and purchased by the london zoo, in december 1988. the animal was not fed after capture and was anorexic from the time of purchase to the time of death in january 1989. on necropsy, the animal was emaciated and the mucosa of the proximal intestine was markedly thic ...19958592365
transmission studies with sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus).transmission studies with sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) were conducted to determine host specificity of various stages of the parasite. sporocysts were not passed by four dogs or four cats fed infected skeletal muscle from deer mice. seven white mice (mus musculus) and 34 white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts following oral inoculation with s. idahoensis sporocysts; however, ...19806776292
coccidioidomycosis in a sonoran gopher snake, pituophis melanoleucus affinis.coccidioides immitis was isolated from lesions in the lung of a sonoran gopher snake, pituophis melanoleucus affinis. a lactophenol cotton blue mount of a fungal colony grown on sabouraud's agar revealed coarse, branching, septate hyphae with alternating thick-walled arthroconidia. histologically, the lung lesions contained spherical, non-budding, double-walled spherules in various stages of maturity. some spherules contained endospores. spherules were also present in granulomas associated with ...19883418466
effect of experience with pine (pituophis melanoleucus) and king (lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings.the abilities of hatchling pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated iny-maze experiments. pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. th ...199124258435
following of conspecific and avoidance of predator chemical cues by pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus).the ability of hatchling pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) to follow or avoid the chemical trails of conspecifics and a king snake (lampropeltis getulus) on paper substrates was investigated iny-maze experiments. hatchlings entered the arm with the adult conspecific trail and avoided the arm containing the king snake trail at a frequency much greater than that due to chance. the data support the hypotheses that pine snakes follow the chemical trails of adult conspecifics and avoid the chemica ...198924271885
characterization of bradykinin-related peptides generated in the plasma of six sarcopterygian species (african lungfish, amphiuma, coachwhip, bullsnake, gila monster, and gray's monitor).incubation of heat-denatured plasma from six species occupying different evolutionary positions within the sarcopterygian lineage [the dipnoan, protopterus annectens (african lungfish); the urodele, amphiuma tridactylum (three-toed amphiuma); the colubrid snakes, pituophis melanoleucus sayi (bullsnake) and masticophis flagellum (coachwhip); and the lizards heloderma suspectum (gila monster) and varanus grayi (gray's monitor)] with trypsin generated bradykinin-related peptides that were detected ...19989748409
parasites of prairie rattlesnakes (crotalus viridis viridis) and gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of new mexico.three prairie rattlesnakes (crotalus viridis viridis) and two gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of new mexico (usa) were examined for parasites. one cestode (oochoristica osheroffi), and two nematode (kalicephalus inermis and physoloptera retusa) species were recovered from two infected rattlesnakes. one female gopher snake was infected with two nematode (k. inermis and rhabdias spp.) and one mite (entonyssus halli) species.19892716118
response to prey chemical cues by hatchling pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus): effects of incubation temperature and experience.the ability of hatchling pine snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) to select and follow or avoid chemical odors of prey (mice,mus musculus) on a shavings and paper substrate was investigated in y-maze experiments, as a function of incubation temperature and experience. incubation temperature affected behavior in the maze, and the maze choices of naive snakes, but not of snakes that had already eaten a mouse. the data indicate that snakes that have eaten, preferentially enter the arm bearing chemical ...199124259168
antipredator behaviour of hatchling snakes: effects of incubation temperature and simulated predators.all animals that are exposed to predators must distinguish dangerous from nondangerous threats and respond correctly. in reptiles, emerging hatchlings are vulnerable to a wide range of predators, particularly if they emerge during daylight. in these experiments i tested the response of pine snake, pituophis melanoleucus, hatchlings incubated at 22-23, 27-28, or 32-33 degreesc to visual and vibratory stimuli to examine antipredator behaviour. emerging hatchlings were exposed to one of five condit ...19989784202
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