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molecular evolution of glycogen phosphorylase and aminotransferases of vertebrate muscle tissue.comparative biochemical studies on phosphorylase b, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in muscles of various vertebrates (the lamprey lampetra fluviatilis, dogfish squalus acanthias, rays dasyatis pastinaca and raja clavata, teleosts scorpaena porcus, spicara smaris, esox lucius, tinca tinca, abramis brama, lucioperca lucioperca, cyprinus carpio, salmo ischchan, frog rana temporaria, tortoise testudo horsfieldi) revealed some peculiarties of their molecular evolution. it was ...197717251
[immunohistochemical identification of specific antigens in stained and balsam-embedded eye lens sections].localization of specific proteins at preliminary stained with azan and embedded in balsam sections of amphibian eye lens (rana temporaria, xenopus laevis) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence. the analysis was performed on the lens of intact animals as well as on lens induced in amphibia gastrula ectoderm in vitro. to remove balsam the lens sections were successively washed by xylene, ethanol and saline (ph 7.1). then they were treated according to the general principles of immunohistochem ...197993003
[a comparative study of the fatty acid composition of the sphingomyelins in the whole brain and its parts in vertebrates].the fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin (spm) was studied in the total brain, the forebrain and the brain stem in frogs (rana temporaria and rana ridibunda), the tortoise (emys orbicularis), the hen and the cat. a typical fatty acid pattern of spm was revealed irrespectively of the brain part examined. regular differences in fatty acid composition of spm between various brain parts were found irrespectively of the level of development of the nervous system. it may be concluded that correspon ...197995835
[cholinergic and adrenergic innervation of the arteries of the base of the brain in certain lower vertebrates].the arteries in the encephalon base have been investigated by koelle's and falck's methods in teleostei (anarhichas lupus, eleginus navaga, leuciscus brandti, pelingas), amphibians (rana temporaria, rana semiplicata, bufo bufo) and in reptiles (testudo horsfieldi, trionyx chinensis). cholin- and adrenergic nerve fibres of the encephalic arteries have been revealed in all the vertebrates studied, but their concentration is far from being equal. in fishes and reptiles neural conductors from scarse ...1979116627
[sodium reabsorption and the membrane systems of vertebrate kidneys].sodium reabsorption is low in coldblooded animals (the lamprey lampetra fluviatilis, red salmon oncorhynchus nerka, carp cyprinus carpio, frog rana temporaria, tortoise agryonemis horsfieldi) being much higher in warmblooded ones (chicken, pigeon, rat). high level of na transport in warmblooded animals is paralleled by high activity of succinate dehydrogenase as compared with the activity of na,k-atpase. the content of monoenoic fatty acids in the glycerophosphatides from frog and tortoise kidne ...1975125513
[glucose-6-phosphatase activity of the pia mater of several representative vertebrates].studies have been made on the glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the pial matter of the lamprey lampetra fluviatilis, carp cyprinus carpio, frog rana temporaria, tortoises emys orbicularis and testudo horsfieldi, hen, rabbit and cat. the data obtained not only confirmed earlier observations on extremely high activity of the enzyme in lamprey's brain, but also demonstrated high activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in the pial matter of other vertebrates, especially in tortoises.1977197748
the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic agents on spleen cell antigen binding in four amphibian species.adults of two urodele amphibian species (triturus cristatus carnifex and cynops hongkongensis) and two anuran species (rana temporaria and xenopus laevis laevis) were immunized with a 25% suspension of sheep or horse erythrocytes. after eight or 14 days, splenic lymphocytes were removed, and their specific red cell-binding capacities tested by immunocytoadherence. antigen-binding cells were classified as high-dose nonsecretory (s-) or secretory (s+), according to whether they bound a single laye ...1978211039
tension responses to sudden length change in stimulated frog muscle fibres near slack length.1. apparatus for applying a step change of length to an isolated muscle fibre is described. the step was complete in about 0.2 ms.2. effects of tendon compliance were eliminated by using a spot-follower device and by gripping the tendons with metal clips close to the fibre ends.3. the natural frequency of the force transducer was above 10 khz.4. steps of various amplitudes and in either direction were applied to isolated muscle fibres about 6 mm long from the anterior tibial muscle of rana tempo ...1977302333
early steroid metabolism in xenopus laevis, rana temporaria and triturus vulgaris embryos.embryos of xenopus laevis, rana temporaria and triturus vulgaris exposed to radioactive pregnenolone have been found to convert it to progesterone. incubations with radioactive progesterone showed that it was actively metabolized by oocytes and embryos. in xenopus incubations progesterone was converted to 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione, 17alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and 17alpha-20alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregne-3-one, indicating 5alpha-reductase, 17alpha-hydroxylase, 19-20-desmol ...1977303192
directional selectivity and colour coding in the frog retina.the impulse discharge of ganglion cells was recorded with extracellular micro-electrodes in the excised and opened eye of the common frog, rana temporaria. the responses of different ganglion cell types to a standard moving spot with various spot-background contrasts are described. information about such stimulus parameters as the size and contrast as a moving object is given by different classes of ganglion cells with preferences for different stimulus features. of 171 sustained cells with smal ...1978307098
an o2-hb "paradox' in frog blood? (n-values exceeding 4.0).o2-hb dissociation curves have been determined for the anurans, rana temporaria and rana catesbeiana, and compared with human blood for the specific purpose of defining the n-value (hill's cooperativity coefficient) at high o2 saturations. the p50 values at normal conditions (see fig. 1) for each species were 24.6 mm hg for human blood, 37.0 mm hg for rana temporaria blood and 53.5 mm hg for rana catesbeiana. for human blood the n-value was 2.7 at saturations from 36% to 98% levelling off at the ...1978311071
[nag infection in rana temporaria with suppressed normal intestinal microflora].frogs of the rana temporaria species with disturbed biocenosis induced by combined effects of hypothermia (+4 degrees c) and tetracycline were used as an experimental model. the animals were inoculated orally with cultured nad-vibrios and subjected to clinical, bacteriological, immunomorphological and electron microscopical examinations. the lymph-blood system was shown to be a possible pathway for generalization of the infection. several causes of long-term persistence of the vibrios in rana te ...1979378287
the effect of karbatox 75, a carbaryl insecticide, upon the development of tadpoles of rana temporaria and xenopus laevis. 1977414939
effect of season, temperature acclimation and starvation upon plasma ffa and glycerol levels in the frog, rana temporaria, and in the toad, bufo bufo. 1975804377
[ultrastructure of the tegumnet of the slow-growing larva of polystoma integerrimun (frohlich 1798). evolutionary significance].the ultrastructure of the integument of the gill living post-larva of polystoma integerrimum (monogenea) from the common frog rana temporaria is investigated for the first time; it has been compared with those of the adult stage, of other juvenile stages of marine monogenea and of some digeneans adapted to frog urine.1975816491
comparative studies on the temperature dependence of lactic and malic dehydrogenase from a homeotherm, guinea pig (cavia porcellus); two hibernators, hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus) and bat (nyctalus noctula); and two poikilotherms, frog (rana temporaria) and cod (gadus callarias). 19751079762
[histochemical studies of oxidative enzymes in the gastric mucosa of sheat-fishes, frogs, tortoises and pigeons].oxyntic cells of gastric glands of the sheat-fish silurus glanis, frog rana temporaria, tortoise agrionemis horsfieldi and pigeon columba livia exhibit intensive reactions on dehydrogenases of lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamate, succinate, malate and glucose-6-phosphate which indicate high energy metabolism necessary for the production of hcl by these cells. cytoplasm of these cells is stained for the presence of nucleic acids, which may be associated with the other function of the oxyntic ...19751082694
[determination of choleragen activity in tadpoles].a method of titration of the v. cholerae toxin obtained from the broth culture filtrates is presented. in difference from the earlier methods, the larvae of rana temporaria were used as a test object. the tadpoles were placed in the vessels with water containing graded concentrations of the toxin. the titer of the toxin activity was evaluated by the percentage of dead tadpoles. the concentration causing the death of 50 per cent of the tadpoles in the course of the 24 hours was taken as a unit of ...19751082777
aspects of tail muscle ultrastructure and its degeneration in rana temporaria.1. tail muscles of larval rana temporaria and to a lesser extent xenopus laevis, at prometamorphosis, were investigated by light and electron microscopy. in the case of rana their degeneration is described at metamorphic climax. 2. the non-degenerate tail muscles of both genera are generally similar in their ultrastructure and likewise similar to those striated muscles of other adult vertebrates including amphibians. 3. at climax tail muscles of rana degenerate by autolysis. it seems likely that ...19751081119
innervation of the male genital tract and kidney in the amphibia, xenopus laevis daudin, rana temporaria l., and bufo bufo l.the innervation of the male genital tract and kidney in three anuran species was studied by the fluorescence histochemical method of falck-hillarp for the demonstration of monoamines whose identity was secured by thin-layer chromatography, and by electron microscopy including administration of 5- or 6- hydroxydopamine (5- and 6-odha). the genital tract comprises testis, intra- and extratesticular and intrarenal seminal efferent ducts, bidder's canal, renal dorsal transverse ducts, and ureter. in ...1975807332
[oocyte maturation and activation in the common frog and the clawed toad under the action of divalent cations].maturation of rana temporaria and xenopus laevis oocytes was induced by solutions containing mn2+ and co2+ ions. completion of oocyte maturation was estimated by the following criteria: (1) appearance of the maturation promoting factor (mpf) in the oocyte cytoplasm and (2) oocyte capacity to activation and formation of male pronuclei from the injected sperm nuclei. x. laevis oocytes matured under the effect of co2+ ions were shown to contain mpf. oocytes of both species matured under the effect ...19921294929
sodium fluxes in single amphibian oocytes: further studies and a new model.1. the kinetics of na efflux were studied in oocytes of bufo bufo, rana temporaria and r. pipiens. 2. rate constants for na efflux into ringer solution varied from 0-002 min-minus 1 to 0-017 min-minus 1 and did not vary significantly from one species to another. 3. na efflux is rapidly reduced by 30-50% on removing external k or applying ouabain but is reduced by 90% on cooling to 0 degrees c. the effects of k and cooling are also rapidly reversible. 4. substitution of external na by li produces ...1975805838
fine structure of the male genital tract and kidney in the anura xenopus laevis daudin, rana temporaria l. and bufo bufo l. under normal and experimental conditions.the ultrastructure of the main cellular components of testicular interstitial spaces in three anuran species was studied during two short periods of the seasonal cycle and after treatment with 5- and 6-hydroxydopamine (5- and 6-ohda). in early december when seminiferous tubules are completely filled with resting spermatozoa in rana, leydig cells display a well developed smooth- and rough-surfaced er, numerous granular vesicles being untypical of mammalian leeydig cells, metochondria with tubular ...1975805666
[arterial monoaminocytes of the base of the brain in vertebrates].by falck's method monoaminocytes of the arteries in the encephalon base were studied in teleostei (anarhichas lupus, eleginus navaga, leuciscus brandti liza soiuy in amphibians (rana temporaria, rana semiplicata, bufo bufo), in reptiles (testudo horsfiedli, trionyx chinensis) and in birds (blue rock pigeon, hen). specific and individual peculiarities in chromaffinocyte, labrocyte and melanophore distribution were revealed in the vertebrate cranial arteries. in all the animals studied chromaffin ...1979518336
[distribution of lithium in the plasma and erythrocytes of frogs following a single injection of different doses of lithium carbonate].on administration of lithium carbonate to grass frogs (rana temporaria) in doses of 50-100 mg/kg its concentration in the plasma after 1 hour (2.9 +/- 0.48-8.7 +/- 0.43 mekv/l) far exceeded the therapeutic concentration in man and also in other animal species after administration of the comparable doses of lithium concentration ratio in the erythrocytes and plasma comprising 0.1-0.2. on administration of lithium in doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg its concentration in the plasma corresponded after a lap ...1979421887
comparative studies on the nonprotein but nondialysable sugar-peptide fraction isolated from the plasma of various classes of vertebrates.1. the nonprotein but nondialysable ninhydrin-positive substances isolated from plasma of some species belonging to four classes of vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, birds and mammals) were studied. 2. in all species studied (cyprinus carpio, salmo gairdneri, rana esculenta, rana temporaria, gallus domestica and rattus rattus) a similar group of nondialysable ninhydrin-positive substances may be isolated from the plasma by sephadex g-25 filtration followed by dialysis. 3. thin-layer sephadex g-25 ...1977318251
somitogenesis in amphibian embryos. i. experimental evidence for an interaction between two temporal factors in the specification of somite pattern.somitogenesis is described in two species of anuran amphibians, xenopus laevis and rana temporaria, in which the cellular mechanics of somite formation are distinctly different. heat shocks are employed to demonstrate a wave of cellular change which precedes somite formation down the body axis. this prior wave is shown to be kinematic. it is not a propagated wave. it is a consequence of the temporal activities of the cells laid out in space, but there is no evidence that these activities depend ...1979314486
[seasonal changes in the concentration of catecholamines in the diencephalon of the lamprey lampetra fluviatilis and the frog rana temporaria]. 1979314211
the hatching rhythm of polystoma integerrimum, a monogenean from the frog rana temporaria.1. eggs of polystoma integerrimum incubated in alternating periods of light and darkness at a constant temperature hatch in the light. 2. eggs incubated and hatched in continuous light (10 degrees or 18 degrees c) hatch without a rhythm. eggs incubated and hatched in continuous darkness at 18 degrees c hatch without any circadian rhythm but fail to hatch at 10 degees c until 1 month later than expected. 3. at both 10 degrees and 18 degrees c the hatching rhythm persists in conditions of continuo ...1978309814
[mitochondrial membrane proteins of lower vertebrates].mitochondria from the liver, heart and skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates were studied with the method of ir-spectrometry in the spectral region of amide i and amide ii bands. the kinetics of h--d exhange of peptide protons was measured with the same method before and after low-temperature gradual extraction of lipids. it was revealed that mitochondria of different tissues taken from several species of lower vertebrates have a similar stable configuration of amide i band and similar kinetics ...1977301336
regulation of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase in the frog rana temporaria.the regulation of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (l-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, ec 2.6.1.5) in the rat has been extensively studied but little is known about the enzyme from other sources. we have studied the regulation of this enzyme in the frog rana temporaria and in this paper we report that: 1. cortisone acetate, adrenocorticotropic hormone and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, an agent known to induce hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase in the rat via activation of the pituitary-adren ...1975238638
the neural retina of the frog contributes a slow cornea-positive potential to the electroretinogram.a c-wave-like cornea-positive potential in the isolated rabbit retina has been described. in this study, frog retinas were investigated to see if the neural retina contributes a slow cornea-positive component to the c-wave of the electroretinogram. the eye cups of both rana esculenta and rana temporaria exhibited a normal electroretinogram with c-wave, a larger proximal light-induced extracellular potassium increase, a small distal extracellular potassium increase and an extracellular potassium ...19921633749
[concanavalin-binding proteins and cytokeratins in different tissues of the early amphibian gastrula (rana temporaria, xenopus laevis)].concanavalin a (con a), a lectin which specifically interacts with ad-mannose and ad-glucose, has a neutralizing effect on the explants of the early gastrula ectoderm of several amphibian species. consequently, it was interesting to study con a-binding protein spectrum of the ectoderm and compare it to those of other early gastrula tissues. animal pole ectoderm (ape), dorsal blastopore lip (dbl) and vegetal pole endoderm (vpe) were dissected from early gastrulae of rana temporaria and xenopus la ...19911717912
[comparative study of the fatty acid composition of glycerophosphatides from whole vertebrate brain and portions of it].fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and monophosphoinositide were studied in the whole brain, in the forebrain and the brain stem in the frog rana temporaria, tortoise emys orbicularis, hen and cat. every family of phospholipids (pl) possesses a characteristic fatty acid pattern irrespectively of the brain part. there are regular topologic differences in the fatty acid composition of pl, namely the relative amount of saturated and polyenoic acids is h ...1978216195
[effect of imidazole compounds on the activity of adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphoric acid phosphodiesterase].the effect of 24 imidazol derivatives on the activity of phosphodiesterase (3', 5'-amp-phosphohydrolase; kf3.1.4.1) was studied in the experiments with the homogenates of the rat brain and of the rana temporaria skeletal muscles. imidazol derivatives could produce both the activating and inhibitory influence on the enzyme. imidazol and seven of its alkyl-substituted derivatives activated the phosphodiesterase. ttfb (tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazol) produced the greatest inhibitory effe ...1976186138
[physiological polymorphism of a population of the common frog. ii. the polymorphism of the type of muscle tissue heat resistance in stress].a study was made of the dynamics in the heat resistance of m. interphalangealis of individual grass frogs under stress. the response of muscle tissue to injury can be differentiated into three types according to the initial heat resistance level: increase, decrease and phase change of the resistance. the pattern of response of muscle tissue of individual frogs to stress is one of manifestationss of physiological polymorphism of the population.1978153024
morphological distinction between filaments that converge upon desmosomes and those that are attached to hemidesmosomes in the epidermis of anuran larvae and lampreys.two populations of morphologically distinct intermediate filaments which are segregated into different compartments of the cytoplasm and which may attach to different junctional specialisations were observed in the basal layer cells of the epidermis of tadpoles of rana catesbeiana, rana temporaria, bufo bufo, leptodactylus flavopictus and pseudis paradoxus and in the skin of the adult lamprey, lampetra planeri. these two distinct populations of cytokeratin intermediate filaments were recognised ...19912050573
the complete primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from the european common frog, rana temporaria.using an antiserum directed against the highly-conserved c-terminal hexapeptide amide of mammalian pancreatic polypeptide (pp), numerous immunoreactive endocrine cells were identified within the pancreas of the european common frog, r. temporaria. an acidified ethanolic extract of pancreatic tissue (0.859 g, n = 35) contained 26.2 nmol equivalents/g of tissue. gel permeation chromatography of the extract resolved a single peak of immunoreactivity co-eluting with synthetic bovine pp standard. rev ...19902091068
[the distribution of insulin-containing cells in the developing tissues of the common frog (rana temporaria)].monoclonal antibodies to pig insulin were used to follow the changes in localization of insulin-containing cells during the ontogenesis of the brown frog, rana temporaria l., from stage 20 (dabagian, sleptsova, 1975) until completion of metamorphosis and beginning of active nutrition. insulin-containing were localized in brain, surface epithelium, intestine, olfactory epithelium, taste teats, kidney tubules, ciliated epithelium of the oral cavity, pancreas, jacobson and interjaw glands was found ...19902095482
purification and characterization of rho-crystallin from japanese common bullfrog lens.in a previous paper, we reported that the partial amino acid sequence (225 residues) from the cooh terminus of rho-crystallin from european common frog lens shows 77% similarity to that of prostaglandin (pg) f synthetase, an aldo-keto reductase, from bovine lung (watanabe, k., fujii, y., nakayama, k., ohkubo, h., kuramitsu, s., kagamiyama, h., nakanishi, s., and hayaishi, o. (1988) proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a. 85, 11-15). here rho-crystallin was purified to apparent homogeneity from the eye len ...19902190986
genesis and regression of the figures of eberth and occurrence of cytokeratin aggregates in the epidermis of anuran larvae.in tadpoles of rana temporaria, bufo bufo and xenopus laevis the development of the massive skeins of tonofilaments (cytokeratin intermediate filaments) that form the figures of eberth follows a similar sequence in all species studied. increase in the number of filaments is preceded by increase in polyribosomes and rer in the basal layer cells of the epidermis. a filamentous zone develops proximally in the cells concurrently with hemidesmosomes, which assume the typical larval bobbin form as the ...19862422986
[physiological polymorphism in a population of the common frog. i. the polymorphism of a population of the common frog for the trait of muscle tissue heat resistance].a study was made of heat resistance (36+/-0.2 degrees c) of m. interphalangealis of the third finger of a hind extremity in animals of one population of rana temporaria l. living on the boundary between leningrad region and pskov region. within this population, the existence of three groups of individuals differing in heat resistance levels of their m. interphalangealis is postulated. this conclusion is based on the distribution curve of heat resistance values and on the application of the probi ...1978153023
preparation and characterization of frog muscle myosin subfragment 1 and actin.the preparation, structural and steady-state kinetic characteristics of contractile proteins from the leg muscle of frogs rana temporaria and rana pipiens are described. actin and myosin from the two frog species are indistinguishable. the proteins have structural and steady-state kinetic properties similar to those from rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle. chymotrypsin digestion of frog myosin or myofibrils in the presence of edta yields subfragment 1, which is separated by chromatography into t ...1978148276
[analysis of the structural features of the sperm chromatin of amphibia].deoxyribonucleoproteid (dnp) organisation of the sperm from amphibian species (rana temporaria, triturus vulgaris, bufo bufo) with different sperm chromosomal basic proteins has been analysed by nuclease fragmentation. electrophoretic distribution of chromatin fragments reveals regular organisation of dnp in the sperm of the species investigated. in spermal dnp of the frog rana temporaria, 3 sub-fractions of histone h1 were found. in the sperm of the newt triturus vulgaris and the toad bufo bufo ...1979116455
[morphometric studies of prepyramidal and pyramidal neurons of various vertebrates].praepyramidal and pyramidal neurons were demonstrated in homologous telencephalic areas of salmo irideus (gibbons 1855), rana temporaria l., rattus norvegicus, forma alba, by means of the golgi-technique. a comparative morphometrical analysis was made concerning the following parameters: main dendritic length, length of the pericaryon, number of dendritic spines in the first 50-micrometer-dendritic segment and length of the spines-free zone. from these data a quotient was calculated and expressi ...19761088566
[nag-infection in grass frogs (rana temporaria) subjected to hypothermia].rana temporaria kept under hypothermic conditions approaching anabiosis were inoculated with nag-vibrios and examined clinically, bacteriologically, histologically, and electron microscopically. oral inoculation of hypothermic frogs with nag-vibrios resulted in 18 to 24 hours in the development of acute nag-infection resembling the cholera-like syndrome, and characterized by general intoxication and local enteropathogenic effects. nag-vibrios persisted in the frog gastrointestinal tract for a lo ...19761088086
[nag infection of grass frog (rana temporaria) tadpoles].rana temporaria tadpoles (2250) were contaminated with three types of nag vibrio cultures. clinical, bacteriological and morphological examinations showed the larvae to be suffering from an acute infection during the first 2 days after the contamination. then the vibrios persisted in the tadpole organism for a long time and were excreted in the feces.19761085183
[structural organization of nephrons in the kideny and proximal reabsorption in representatives of different vertebrate classes (according to microdissection and micropuncture studies)].by microdissection method, single nephrons have been isolated from the river lamprey lampetra fluviatilis, teleost fish myoxocephalus scorpius (white sea), frog rana temporaria, lizard agama caucasica, hen gallus domesticus and albino rat rattus norvegicus (wistar strain). tubular reabsorptive capacity was measured in kidneys of lampreys and rats by the split oil droplet method. in the animals studied, each of the nephrons consists of the glomerulus, proximal, thin and distal segments. relative ...19761085080
electrical properties of frog motoneurons in the in situ spinal cord.electrical properties of the spinal motoneurons of rana temporaria and r. esculenta were investigated in the in situ spinal cord at 20-22 degrees c by means of intracellular recording and current injection. input resistance values depended on the method of measurement in a given cell but were generally inversely related to axon conduction velocity. the membrane-potential response to a subthreshold current pulse was composed of at least two exponentials with mean time constants of 2.5 and 20 ms. ...19761084916
one-sided polymerase chain reaction: the amplification of cdna.we report a rapid technique, based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), for the direct targeting, enhancement, and sequencing of previously uncharacterized cdnas. this method is not limited to previously sequenced transcripts, since it requires only two adjacent or partially overlapping specific primers from only one side of the region to be amplified. these primers can be located anywhere within the message. the specific primers are used in conjunction with nonspecific primers targeted eithe ...19892788276
structural similarity of bovine lung prostaglandin f synthase to lens epsilon-crystallin of the european common frog.cloned cdna sequences specific for prostaglandin f (pgf) synthase have been isolated from a cdna library of bovine lung mrna sequences. nucleotide-sequence analyses of cloned cdna inserts have revealed that pgf synthase consists of a 969-base pair open reading frame coding for a 323-amino acid polypeptide with a mr of 36,666. the sequence analysis indicates that bovine lung pgf synthase shows 62% identical plus conservative substitutions compared with human liver aldehyde reductase [wermuth, b., ...19882829166
fast calcium currents in cut skeletal muscle fibres of the frogs rana temporaria and xenopus laevis. 19882853684
seasonal variation in prolactin and tsh releasing activity in the hypothalamus of rana temporaria. 19761084845
[choleragenic intoxication in hydrobionts].experiments were conducted on rana temporaria in which cholerigenic intoxication was induced. administration of high doses of choleragen caused in the epithelial cells of the small intestine of frogs structural-functional changes analogous to those observed in suckling rabbits used as a classic model for studying the mechanisms of cholerigenic intoxication.19751083750
induction of micronuclei in tadpoles of rana temporaria and xenopus laevis by the pyrethroid fastac 10 ec.the mutagenic properties of the pyrethroid fastac 10 ec were estimated using the micronucleus test in tadpoles of rana temporaria and xenopus laevis. the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei was examined in blood smears obtained from animals kept for 14 days in water containing 3 different concentrations of fastac 10 ec. the study was accompanied by a positive control using the known mutagens cyclophosphamide and n-methyl-n-nitrosourea. the results obtained showed that at high concentratio ...19921279413
[the characteristics of the interaction of glycogenolytic enzymes with glycogen in endothermic and ectothermic animals].it has been shown that the dependence of glycogenphosphorylase kinase activity on the quantity of glycogen added corresponds to the glycogenphosphorylase saturation curve by glycogen obtained during investigation of complex formation with the muscle glycogenphosphorylase of the animals: rat, frog rana temporaria and fish raja clavata under identical conditions. we suggest that glycogenolytic enzymes organize regular structure on glycogen particle. glycogenphosphorylases of heat-loving animals ha ...19921300015
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone as a potent stimulator of the thyroidal axis in ranid frogs.plasma concentrations of t4, measured by radioimmunoassay, were raised significantly 2 and 4 hr after intravenous injection of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) in rana ridibunda (1 and 10 micrograms on 2 consecutive days) and in rana esculenta (10 micrograms). a dose of 1 microgram lhrh was not so effective as 50 micrograms synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) when injected in rana ridibunda in november. however 10 micrograms lhrh was equipotent to 50 micrograms tr ...19883133281
chemical identification and morphological characterization of the inferior olive in the frog.tritiated d-aspartate was injected into the cerebellar cortex of grassfrogs, rana temporaria. retrograde labeling was observed in a cell column of the contralateral caudal medulla, but not in other areas known to give rise to cerebellar mossy fibers. the aspartate-positive neurons are therefore considered to represent the origin of cerebellar climbing fibers in the inferior olive, as reported earlier for rat and turtle by other investigators. contrary to earlier reports we found no extraolivary ...19921383892
atrial natriuretic factor (anf) binding sites in frog kidney and adrenal.atrial natriuretic factor (anf) binding sites were localized and quantified in kidney and adrenal of the frog rana temporaria by quantitative in vitro autoradiography. [125i]-rat anf(99-126) binding was present in kidney glomeruli and in the outer layer of interrenal tissue in the adrenal gland. anf binding exhibited positive cooperativity with a half-maximal binding concentration (ec50) of 102 +/- 16 pm in glomeruli and 93 +/- 19 pm in interrenal tissue (n = 8). the corresponding maximal bindin ...19921409008
angiotensin ii binding sites in frog kidney and adrenal.angiotensin ii (aii) binding sites were localized and quantified in kidney and adrenal of the frog rana temporaria by quantitative in vitro autoradiography. aii binding was present in kidney glomeruli and in interrenal tissue of the outer zone of the adrenal gland. saturation experiments showed that [125i]-[val5]aii binds to a single class of binding sites with a dissociation constant (kd) of 548 +/- 125 pm in glomeruli and 593 +/- 185 pm in interrenal tissue (n = 8). the corresponding maximal b ...19921409013
maturation of rana temporaria and acipenser stellatus oocytes induced by the cytoplasm of embryos at different cell cycle phases and at different stages of cleavage and blastulation.experiments involving injections of cytoplasm from the cleaving embryos of rana temporaria and acipenser stellatus into fully grown oocytes of the same species and of xenopus laevis, show that at all mitotic phases, and throughout the period of synchronous cleavage divisions, the cytoplasm is characterized by high activity of the germinal vesicle breakdown factor. this activity decreases during nuclear division desynchronization and drops sharply after the mitotic index fall upon blastulation. a ...19863484433
[the seasonal dynamics of the adenine nucleotide level in the liver mitochondria of the frog rana temporaria].atp, adp and amp content of liver mitochondria has been determined in frogs immediately after isolation during autumn, winter and spring periods. seasonal changes in adenine nucleotides in frogs are similar to those observed in rat liver mitochondria during early postnatal ontogenesis. it is suggested that in frogs seasonal changes in liver intramitochondrial adenine nucleotides depend on the hormonal condition of animals.19921441801
[the nuclei of follicular cells do not control oocyte maturation in amphibians induced by gonadotropic hormones in vitro].the inhibitory effect of actinomycin d (5 micrograms/ml) on maturation of the follicle-enclosed oocytes of rana temporaria and xenopus laevis induced in vitro by pituitary suspension and human chorionic gonadotropin, respectively, is not observed at low concentrations of the hormones. these data suggest that nuclei of the follicle cells are not involved in the control of the pituitary-dependent oocyte maturation in amphibians.19921461634
the primary structure and tissue distribution of an amphibian neuropeptide y.neuropeptide y (npy) has been isolated and sequenced from brain extracts of the european common frog, rana temporaria. plasma desorption mass spectroscopy of the purified peptide indicated a molecular mass of 4243.3 da which was in agreement with that deduced from the sequence (4243.7 da), incorporating a c-terminal amide. the primary structure of frog npy was established as: ypskpdnpgedapaedmakyysalrhyinlitrqry-nh2. frog npy contains a single, highly-conservative amino acid substitution (lys fo ...19921539111
the main adenosine triphosphate-binding component of amphibian oocytes is ferritin.after fractionation of mitochondrion-free extracts of xenopus laevis and rana temporaria oocytes in sucrose gradients, a distinct peak of adenosine triphosphate (atp)/guanosine triphosphate (gtp)-binding activity in the 50-70 s range has been detected. this substance has a boyant density in cs2so4 of 1.45 g/cm3. the nucleotide-binding substance has been purified to apparent homogenety. by means of electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis and other methods it has been identifie ...19921562327
excretion and metabolism of phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 2-methylphenol by the frogs rana temporaria and xenopus laevis.1. rana and xenopus excrete 90-95% dose, and metabolize 50-65% dose of phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 2-methylphenol within 24 h, to about the same extent. 2. kinetic data for the excretion of phenols from both species fit a two-compartment model. the elimination constants of rana and xenopus are not significantly different. 3. metabolism is mostly conjugation by glucuronidation and sulphation of the original phenols. additionally, oxidations leading to dihydroxyphenols and benzoic acid from 2-methyl ...19873501639
isolation and primary structure of an amphibian neurotensin.using a radioimmunoassay system employing an antiserum which recognises the common c-terminal tripeptide (yil) of neurotensin (nt) and neuromedin n (nn), immunoreactivity was identified in extracts of brain (65.8 pmol/g), small intestine (44.2 pmol/g) and rectum (13.2 pmol/g) of the european common frog (rana temporaria). no immunoreactivity was detected in extracts of stomach and skin. reverse-phase hplc analysis of each tissue extract resolved a single immunoreactive peptide with identical ret ...19921574601
[characteristics of gene family encoding gamma-crystallins in rana temporaria]. 19873501749
ecg and electrodermal response in rana temporaria and bufo bufo under the influence of autonomic-acting drugs. 19921630497
immunological identification of the karyophilic, histone-binding proteins n1 and n2 in somatic cells and oocytes of diverse amphibia.a polypeptide pair designated n1/n2 (mr 100 000 and 110 000) is an exceptionally acidic and abundant nuclear protein of oocytes of the toad, xenopus laevis, and is characterized by a pronounced karyophilia. these proteins have been shown to form specific complexes with free, i.e., non-chromatin-bound histones h3 and h4 (kleinschmidt & franke, cell 29 (1982) 799) [3]. in order to study these proteins and their possible counterparts in other species, antibodies were produced in guinea pigs against ...19853888645
seasonal and age variation in the metabolism of the common frog, rana temporaria l. in northern finland. 19744156224
intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations in toad and frog oocytes during development.1. during growth of oocytes of bufo bufo from approximately 700-2000 mum in diameter, intracellular na rose from 20 to 120 m-mole/l. cell water while k fell from 120 to 15 m-mole/l. cell water.2. in rana temporaria na similarly rose from 9 to 190 m-mole/l. cell water and k fell from 126 to 28 m-mole/l. cell water.3. at the same time in both bufo and rana the ouabain-sensitive na efflux, the ouabain-insensitive na efflux, and the total na influx all increased.4. it is concluded that the predomina ...19744216627
effect of necrogenic doses of isoproterenol on the heart of the tench (tinca tinca--osteoichthyes), the frog (rana temporaria--anura) and the pigeon (columba livia--aves). 19714261967
fatty acid composition of phospholipids of myelin and synaptosomal proteolipid complexes from vertebrate brain.1. fatty acid composition of five main phospholipids of vertebrate brain myelin and synaptosomal proteolipids and membranes was studied. 2. higher content of monoenoic and lower content of saturated and polyenoic fatty acids was found to be characteristic of phospholipids from myelin and myelin proteolipids as compared to phospholipids from synaptosomal proteolipids and membranes of vertebrates (from fishes to mammalians). fatty acid composition of phospholipids of proteolipid complexes and of t ...19911773885
[immunoelectrophoretic analysis of soluble proteins in normal and denervated striated muscle tissue of the red frog (rana temporaria l.)]. 19724541099
isolation of neurointermediate pituitary proteins of the frog (rana temporaria) and their tentative identification as neurophysins. 19744544437
comparative study of the development of myosin specificity in two amphibian species (immunofluorescence-rana temporaria-xenopus laevis). 19724552920
[antibody formation in rana temporaria l. ii. immune cell formation in various organs of the frog]. 19704926022
antibody production in the common frog, rana temporaria. 19654954258
the fine structure of ultimobranchial secretory cells in the anurans: rana temporaria l. and bufo bufo l. 19705000388
comparison of the antigen composition of oocytes and mature eggs of the frog rana temporaria by the immunodiffusion method. 19715005247
the growth of some tick-borne arboviruses in cell cultures derived from tadpoles of the common frog, rana temporaria. 19715102835
[sensitivity to tritox-30 (ddt, gamma-hch, dmdt) of tadpoles of xenopus laevis daudin and rana temporaria l]. 19715316473
[variations in time of populations of helminth parasites of rana temporaria l]. 19715317281
[electron microscopic findings on the chorda dorsalis of the tadpole tail in rana temporaria and xenopus laevis]. 19695378583
morpho-functional study of hypothalamic neurosecretion. iv. the effect of osmotic stress on the preoptico-neurohypophysial system of rana esculenta, rana temporaria, and xenopus laevis. 19705493990
a study of the relationship between the thyroid and larval growth in rana temporaria and xenopus laevis. 19675613320
a cytological study of mauthner's cells in xenopus laevis and rana temporaria during metamorphosis. 19685667411
[effects of anti-cholinoceptor antibodies on the frog heart].research on isolated hearts of rana temporaria has shown that upon treating them with anti-cholinoreceptor antibodies, there occurs a considerable reduction of inhibition effect on cardiac activity of acetylcholine or carbacholine. a reduction of inhibition effect was noticed after incubation of frog's heart with antibodies against cholinoreceptors obtained from motor-denervated muscles of frogs as well as from muscles of mice balb/c. cholinoreceptor protein was obtained and purified by a. sobel ...19911786381
immunocytochemical localization of somatostatin-containing neurons in the brain of rana temporaria.the brain of the frog rana temporaria was studied at the light microscopic level with the use of a double immunocytochemical staining method. the telencephalon, diencephalon and rhombencephalon contain somatostatin perikarya and fibers. in the telencephalon, the location of the somatostatin neurons largely corresponds to that of mammals. in the hypothalamus, the somatostatin perikarya are located in and near the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and also in the pars ventralis of the tuber cinereum. ...19806102494
the loop diuretic furosemide as non-competitive inhibitor of c1-/hco3-atpases of vertebrate kidneys and insect rectum.1. the effect of the diuretic drug furosemide was studied in detail on ouabain-insensitive, scn- and ocn- -sensitive c1-/hco-3-atpase in homogenates from larval dragonfly rectum (aeshna cyanea), frog (rana temporaria) and mouse (mus musculus) kidney. 2. the in vitro inhibition by the drug studied on the hco-3-activated enzyme is non-competitive with an inhibitor constant of ki=4.3 mm furosemide in the case of insect rectum and ki=0.9 mm furosemide in the case of frog and mouse kidney. 3. furosem ...19826121670
[gamma-glutamyltransferase activity of different sections of the vertebrate brain].the activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase (ggtf; ec 2.3.2.2) has been measured in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, hippocamp and brain stem of mature wild and laboratory rodents (oryctolagus cuniculus, cavia porcellus, rattus norvegicus, var. alb., ochotona pusilla, mesocricetus auratus, clethrionimus glareolis, mus musculus. var. alb.), as well as in homogenates of the whole brain of the tortoise testudo horsfieldi, frog rana temporaria and loach misgurnus fossilis. in wild rodents the ac ...19826126976
immunoreactive tamm-horsfall protein in the kidney and skin of the frog rana temporaria.tamm-horsfall protein (thp) is the main protein in normal human urine, and is found in the thick limb of the loop of henle in human kidney, and in other mammalian species. the skin of the frog. rana temporaria, has similar physiological properties to this mammalian kidney tissue. in the present study, an immunohistological method involving an antibody to human thp was used to investigate the distribution of this distinctive protein in frog kidney and skin, and to compare its distribution with th ...19911878936
[the effect of anions on spectral properties of iodopsin and native cones in the frog retina (microspectrophotometric study)].absorption spectra of single outer segments of the frog rana temporaria photoreceptors were registered. effects of nitrate and chloride ions on spectral properties of cone and rod pigments were compared. these pigments proved to differ in structure of the native photoreceptor membrane and, therefore, in effect of hydrophile environment on the chromophore centrum. substitution of chloride by nitrate ions led to the hypochromic shift of the cone absorption spectrum (20-25 nm) but does not affect t ...19892590248
the distribution, purification, and pharmacological action of an amphibian neuromedin u.the distribution, primary structure, and relative biological activity of neuromedin u has been determined from the frog rana temporaria. following sequential column chromatography of a gastrointestinal extract, the peptide was sufficiently pure to enable characterization by micro-sequence analysis. the entire sequence was found to be an icosapentapeptide which displays marked sequence similarity to both porcine and rat neuromedin u. the sequence of the biologically active, cooh-terminal region i ...19892592357
morphological and physiological changes in dissociated adult frog muscle fibres after prolonged culturing.adult frog (rana temporaria) muscle fibres, denervated in vivo, were dissociated and maintained in culture for several weeks. light and electron microscopical studies showed that the fibres developed striated muscle sprouts. these sprouts were in cytoplasmic continuity with the parent muscle fibre. to judge by the presence of miniature endplate potentials, embryonic xenopus laevis neurons were able to form functional neuromuscular junctions, both on the muscle sprouts and on the parent fibre. in ...19836137829
a comparison of the distribution of muscle type in the tadpole tails of xenopus laevis and rana temporaria: an histological and ultrastructural study.the types and the distribution of muscle fibres were analysed and compared in the tails of xenopus laevis and rana temporaria tadpoles. the filter feeding tadpoles of x. laevis were found to have both white muscle fibres adjacent to the notochord used for normal locomotory swimming and a superficial layer of small red fibres. the red fibres are probably used for the continuous flickering movement of the tail associated with the maintenance of the mid-water filter feeding position. r. temporaria, ...19892617517
hydrins, hydroosmotic neurohypophysial peptides: osmoregulatory adaptation in amphibians through vasotocin precursor processing.from neurointermediate pituitary glands of xenopus laevis and rana esculenta, previously unreported peptides termed hydrins, active on water permeability of frog urinary bladder and frog skin (brunn or "water-balance" effect), have been isolated and sequenced. these peptides seem to be derived from the pro-vasotocin-neurophysin precursor. hydrin 1, found in xenopus, has been identified as vasotocin c-terminally extended with the gly-lys-arg sequence; hydrin 2, found in rana, has been identified ...19892787509
[histochemical detection of acetylcholinesterase in neurons with retrograde horse-radish peroxidase labeling of the telencephalon of the frog rana temporaria]. 19846203265
in vitro formation of neuromuscular junctions between adult rana muscle fibres and embryonic xenopus neurons.adult muscle fibres of the frog rana temporaria were cultured with neurons from embryos of the frog xenopus laevis. electron microscopical and electro-physiological examination of the cultures showed that hetero-specific (xenopus-rana) neuromuscular junctions were formed in vitro. nerve processes, without any schwann cell covering, made contacts anywhere along a muscle fibre, and the junctions resembled those seen during early regeneration of neuromuscular synapses in situ. functional contacts, ...19872885850
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