Publications

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developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in daphnia magna.to yield cholinesterase (che) from prokaryotic expression, the che gene that belongs to daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using forward primer 5'-cccyggngcsat gatgtg-3' and reverse primer 5'-gyaagttrgcccaatatct-3'. to express the gene, one sequence of the amplified dna, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector pet-29a(+). the recombinant v ...026834012
characterization of the target of ivermectin, the glutamate-gated chloride channel, from anopheles gambiae.the use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual insecticides targeting adult mosquito vectors is a key element in malaria control programs. however, mosquito resistance to the insecticides used in these applications threatens malaria control efforts. recently, the mass drug administration of ivermectin (ivm) has been shown to kill anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and disrupt plasmodium falciparum transmission in the field. we cloned the molecular target of ivm from a. gambiae, the glutamate- ...025994631
determination of alkali-sensing parts of the insulin receptor-related receptor using the bioinformatic approach.irr (insulin receptor-related receptor) is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the insulin receptor family, which also includes insulin receptor and igf-ir receptor. we have previously shown that irr is activated by extracellular fluid with ph > 7.9 and regulates excess alkali excretion in the body. we performed a bioinformatic analysis of the ph-sensitive potential of all three members of the insulin receptor family of various animal species (from frog to man) and their chimeras with swappi ...026085948
molecular phylogeny of pseudocapillaroides xenopi (moravec et cosgrov 1982) and development of a quantitative pcr assay for its detection in aquarium sediment.we used high-fidelity pcr to amplify a portion of the small ribosomal subunit (18s rrna) of pseudocapillaroides xenopi, a nematode that parasitizes the skin of xenopus laevis. the 1113-bp amplicon was cloned, sequenced, and aligned with sequences from 22 other nematodes in the order trichocephalida; caenorhabditis elegans was used as the outgroup. maximum-likelihood and bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses clustered p. xenopi in a clade containing only members of the genus capillaria. our an ...025650974
agr genes, missing in amniotes, are involved in the body appendages regeneration in frog tadpoles.previous studies have shown that agr genes, which encode thioredoxin domain-containing secreted proteins, play a critical role in limb regeneration in salamanders. to determine the evolutionary conservation of agr function, it is important to examine whether agrs play a similar role in species with a different type of regeneration. here, we refined the phylogeny of agrs, revealing three subfamilies: ag1, agr2 and agr3. importantly, we established that ag1 was lost in higher vertebrates, which co ...023412115
the extraordinary biology and development of marsupial frogs (hemiphractidae) in comparison with fish, mammals, birds, amphibians and other animals.the study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the hemiphractidae. in this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog flectonotus pygmaeus (hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. in addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog g ...029305906
spemann-mangold grafts.in 1924, hans spemann and hilde mangold (née pröscholdt) published their famous work describing the transplantation of dorsal blastopore lip of one newt gastrula embryo onto the ventral side of a host embryo at the same stage. they performed these grafts using two newt species with different pigmentation (triturus taeniatus and triturus cristatus) to follow the fate of the grafted tissue. these experiments resulted in the development of conjoined twins attached through their belly. because of th ...029321278
retinoic acid promotes stem cell differentiation and embryonic development by transcriptionally activating cftr.retinoic acid (ra) plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes; however, the signaling mechanisms mediating the effect of ra are not fully understood. here, we show that ra transcriptionally upregulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) by promoting the direct binding of its receptor rarα to cftr promoter in mouse spermatogonia and embryonic stem (es) cells. the ra/cftr pathway is involved in the differentiation of spermatogonia and organogenesis during the embryo de ...029326073
bisphenol f disrupts thyroid hormone signaling and postembryonic development in xenopus laevis.the safety of bisphenol a (bpa) alternatives has attracted much attention due to their wide use. in this study, we investigated the effects of bisphenol f (bpf), an alternative to bpa, on thyroid hormone (th) signaling and postembryonic development in vertebrates using t3-induced and spontaneous xenopus metamorphosis as models. we found that in the t3-induced metamorphosis assay, higher concentrations of bpf (100-10000 nm) antagonized t3-induced th-response gene transcription and morphological c ...029323886
autocatalytic microtubule nucleation determines the size and mass of xenopus laevis egg extract spindles.regulation of size and growth is a fundamental problem in biology. a prominent example is the formation of the mitotic spindle, where protein concentration gradients around chromosomes are thought to regulate spindle growth by controlling microtubule nucleation. previous evidence suggests that microtubules nucleate throughout the spindle structure. however, the mechanisms underlying microtubule nucleation and its spatial regulation are still unclear. here, we developed an assay based on laser ab ...029323637
reference gene identification and validation for quantitative real-time pcr studies in developing xenopus laevis.reference genes are essential for gene expression analysis when using real-time quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr). xenopus laevis is a popular amphibian model for studying vertebrate embryogenesis and development. further, x. laevis is ideal for studying thyroid signaling due to its thyroid dependent metamorphosis, a stage comparable to birth in humans. when using pcr based studies, a primary concern is the choice of reference genes. commonly used references are eef1a1, odc1, rpl8, and actnb, although ...029323148
cranial neural crest transplants.the transplantation of cranial neural crest (cnc) expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) in xenopus laevis has allowed researchers not only to assess cnc migration in vivo but also to address many other experimental questions. coupled with loss- or gain-of-function experiments, this technique can be used to characterize the function of specific genes during cnc migration and differentiation. although targeted injection can also be used to assess gene function during cnc migration, cnc transp ...029321285
cranial neural crest explants.the cranial neural crest (cnc) explant assay was originally designed to assess the basic requirements for cnc migration in vitro. this protocol describes the key parameters of cnc explants in xenopus laevis, with a focus on how to extirpate cnc cells and assay their migration in vitro. the protocol can be adapted according to the needs of the experimenter, some examples of which are discussed here.029321283
nucleus assembly and import in xenopus laevis egg extract.xenopus egg extract represents a powerful cell-free biochemical tool for studying organelle assembly and function. large quantities of cytoplasm can be isolated, and biochemical manipulation of extract composition and cell cycle state is relatively straightforward. in this protocol, we describe the reconstitution of nuclear assembly by adding a chromatin source to interphasic x. laevis egg extract. intact nuclei assemble within 30-45 min of initiating the reaction, followed by nuclear growth. we ...029321282
analysis of mitotic checkpoint function in xenopus egg extracts.accurate sister chromatid segregation is pivotal in the faithful transmission of genetic information during each cell division. to ensure accurate segregation, eukaryotic organisms have evolved a "mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint" to prevent premature advance to anaphase before successful attachment of every chromosome to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. an unattached kinetochore generates a diffusible signal that inhibits ubiquitination of substrates such as cyclin b and securin ...029321280
whole-mount immunofluorescence for visualizing endogenous protein and injected rna in xenopus oocytes.asymmetric distribution of mrna and protein is a hallmark of cell polarity in many systems. the xenopus laevis oocyte provides many technical advantages to studying such polarity. thousands of oocytes at different stages of maturity can be harvested from a single ovary and, owing to their relatively large size, even the youngest oocytes can be manually microinjected. microinjection of fluorescently labeled rna combined with immunofluorescence of endogenous proteins can provide insight into the c ...029321279
paternal chromosome loss and metabolic crisis contribute to hybrid inviability in xenopus.hybridization of eggs and sperm from closely related species can give rise to genetic diversity, or can lead to embryo inviability owing to incompatibility. although central to evolution, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying post-zygotic barriers that drive reproductive isolation and speciation remain largely unknown. species of the african clawed frog xenopus provide an ideal system to study hybridization and genome evolution. xenopus laevis is an allotetraploid with 36 chromosomes ...029320479
molecular determinants of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors inhibition by triterpenoids.in a previous work, we reported the regulatory role of the triterpenoids on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht)3a receptors activity in xenopus laevis oocytes (eur. j. pharmacol., 615, 2009, lee et al.). in the present report, we studied the modulation of triterpenoids on the activity of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type α3β4. two-electrode voltage clamp experiments were used to test acetylcholine mediated inward current (iach). treatment with triterpenoids (dehydroeburicoic acid, 6α-hydrox ...029311484
exploring the underlying mechanisms of xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle.cell cycle is an indispensable process in the proliferation and development. despite significant efforts, global quantification and physical understanding are still challenging. in this study, we explored the mechanisms of xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle by quantifying the underlying landscape and flux. we uncovered the mexican hat landscape of the xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle with several local basins and barriers on the oscillation path. the local basins characterize the different p ...029310435
a triad of residues is functionally transferrable between 5-ht3 serotonin receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.cys-loop receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that facilitate communication within the nervous system. upon neurotransmitter binding, these receptors undergo an allosteric activation mechanism connecting the binding event to the membrane-spanning channel pore, which expands to conduct ions. some of the earliest steps in this activation mechanism are carried out by residues proximal to the binding site, the relative positioning of which may reflect functional differences among membe ...029298898
dioxin exposure alters molecular and morphological responses to thyroid hormone in xenopus laevis cultured cells and prometamorphic tadpoles.amphibian metamorphosis is driven by thyroid hormone (th). we used prometamorphic tadpoles and a cell line of the african clawed frog (xenopus laevis) to examine immediate effects of dioxin exposure on th. gene expression patterns suggest cross-talk between the thyroid hormone receptor (tr) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr) signaling pathways. in xlk-wg cells, expression of cytochrome p450 1a6 (cyp1a6), an ahr target, was induced 1000-fold by 100 nm tcdd (2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ...029294139
a transgenic reporter under control of an es1 promoter/enhancer marks wound epidermis and apical epithelial cap during tail regeneration in xenopus laevis tadpole.rapid wound healing and subsequent formation of the apical epithelial cap (aec) are believed to be required for successful appendage regeneration in amphibians. despite the significant role of aec in limb regeneration, its role in tail regeneration and the mechanisms that regulate the wound healing and aec formation are not well understood. we previously identified xenopus laevis es1, which is preferentially expressed in wounded regions, including the aec after tail regeneration. in this study w ...029291984
hyperinnervation improves xenopus laevis limb regeneration.xenopus laevis (an anuran amphibian) shows limb regeneration ability between that of urodele amphibians and that of amniotes. xenopus frogs can initiate limb regeneration but fail to form patterned limbs. regenerated limbs mainly consist of cone-shaped cartilage without any joints or branches. these pattern defects are thought to be caused by loss of proper expressions of patterning-related genes. this study shows that hyperinnervation surgery resulted in the induction of a branching regenerate. ...029291977
optimization of mass spectrometric parameters improve the identification performance of capillary zone electrophoresis for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis.the effects of ms1 injection time, ms2 injection time, dynamic exclusion time, intensity threshold, and isolation width were investigated on the numbers of peptide and protein identifications for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis using cze-ms/ms analysis of a xenopus laevis tryptic digest. an electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface was used to couple a linear-polyacrylamide coated capillary to a q exactive hf mass spectrometer. a sensitive method that used a 1.4 th isolation width, ...029291811
increased transcript levels and kinetic function of pyruvate kinase during severe dehydration in aestivating african clawed frogs, xenopus laevis.the african clawed frog, xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. aestivating x. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced atp demands. the present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (pk) in the liver and skeletal muscle of x. laevis. compared to ...029331521
nanoscale correlated disorder in out-of-equilibrium myelin ultrastructure.ultrastructural fluctuations at nanoscale are fundamental to assess properties and functionalities of advanced out-of-equilibrium materials. we have taken myelin as a model of supramolecular assembly in out-of-equilibrium living matter. myelin sheath is a simple stable multilamellar structure of high relevance and impact in biomedicine. although it is known that myelin has a quasi-crystalline ultrastructure, there is no information on its fluctuations at nanoscale in different states due to limi ...029281257
anosmin-1 is essential for neural crest and cranial placodes formation in xenopus.during embryogenesis vertebrates develop a complex craniofacial skeleton associated with sensory organs. these structures are primarily derived from two embryonic cell populations the neural crest and cranial placodes, respectively. neural crest cells and cranial placodes are specified through the integrated action of several families of signaling molecules, and the subsequent activation of a complex network of transcription factors. here we describe the expression and function of anosmin-1 (ano ...029277616
the progestin norethisterone affects thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis of xenopus laevis tadpoles at environmentally relevant concentrations.previously, levonorgestrel (lng) has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor of the amphibian thyroid system. in the present study, we investigated whether anti-thyroidal effects are a common property of progestins other than lng. premetamorphic xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to norethisterone (net) and dienogest die (each at 0.1-10nm) and lng (10nm) until completion of metamorphosis. lng and net at all concentrations caused a significant developmental retardation whereas die did not impai ...029268119
glut characterization using frog xenopus laevis oocytes.xenopus laevis oocytes are a useful heterologous expression system for expressing glucose transporters (gluts) and examining their functions. in this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol on oocyte extraction and preparation for glut9 protein expression. furthermore, we describe the determination of glut9 overexpression level by biotinylation and western blotting analysis. finally, we also describe how glut9-expressing oocytes can be used to measure urate kinetics by radioisotopes as well as t ...029218516
unravelling the mechanisms that determine the uptake and metabolism of magnetic single and multicore nanoparticles in a xenopus laevis model.multicore superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been proposed as ideal tools for some biomedical applications because of their high magnetic moment per particle, high specific surface area and long term colloidal stability. through controlled aggregation and packing of magnetic cores it is possible to obtain not only single-core but also multicore and hollow spheres with internal voids. in this work, we compare toxicological properties of single and multicore nanoparticles. both types of particle ...029242877
effect of imidacloprid on the survival of xenopus tadpoles challenged with wild type frog virus 3.the sensitivity of amphibians to ranavirus may be increased by exposure to other environmental stressors, including chemical contaminants. neonicotinoid insecticides comprise 27% of the global insecticide market and have been detected in wetlands and other aquatic habitats. the present study focused on the effects of exposure of pre-metamorphic xenopus laevis to the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid (imi) on sensitivity to frog virus 3 (fv3) infection. it was hypothesized that exposure of tadpoles to ...029179150
regulation of kv1.4 potassium channels by pkc and ampk kinases.over the last years extensive kinase-mediated regulation of a number of voltage-gated potassium (kv) channels important in cardiac electrophysiology has been reported. this includes regulation of kv1.5, kv7.1 and kv11.1 cell surface expression, where the kinase-mediated regulation appears to center around the ubiquitin ligase nedd4-2. in the present study we examined whether kv1.4, constituting the cardiac ito,s current, is subject to similar regulation. in the epithelial madin-darby canine kidn ...029168928
identification of isthmin 1 as a novel clefting and craniofacial patterning gene in humans.orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects, affecting 1-2 per 1000 births, and have a complex etiology. high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization has increased the ability to detect copy number variants (cnvs) that can be causative for complex diseases such as cleft lip and/or palate. utilizing this technique on 97 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate cases and 43 cases with cleft palate only, we identified a heterozygous deletion of isthmin 1 in one affected case ...029162626
functional differences in transport properties of natural hkt1;1 variants influence shoot na+ exclusion in grapevine rootstocks.under salinity, vitis spp. rootstocks can mediate salt (nacl) exclusion from grafted v. vinifera scions enabling higher grapevine yields and production of superior wines with lower salt content. until now, the genetic and mechanistic elements controlling sodium (na+ ) exclusion in grapevine were unknown. using a cross between two vitis interspecific hybrid rootstocks, we mapped a dominant quantitative trait locus (qtl) associated with leaf na+ exclusion (nae) under salinity stress. the nae locus ...029160564
functional properties and mechanism of action of pptq, an allosteric agonist and low nanomolar positive allosteric modulator at gabaa receptors.the former sedative-hypnotic and recreational drug methaqualone (quaalude) is a moderately potent, non-selective positive allosteric modulator (pam) at gabaa receptors (gabaars) (hammer et al., 2015). in the present study, we have identified a novel methaqualone analog, 2-phenyl-3-(p-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3h)-one (pptq), in a screening of 67 analogs at five αβ2γ2s gabaar subtypes and delineated its functional properties and mechanism of action at wild-type and mutant gabaars expressed in xenopus la ...029155148
effect of isothiocyanates, bitc and peitc, on stress protein accumulation, protein aggregation and aggresome-like structure formation in xenopus a6 kidney epithelial cells.numerous studies have elucidated the health benefits of organosulfur compounds, known as isothiocyanates (itcs), derived from cruciferous vegetables. as electrophiles, itcs have the ability to directly bind and modify thiol-containing compounds such as glutathione and cellular protein, including tubulin. while the biochemical effects of itcs have been well characterized, less information is available regarding their effects on the accumulation of stress-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), heat sh ...029100952
xenbase: a genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic model organism database.xenbase (www.xenbase.org) is an online resource for researchers utilizing xenopus laevis and xenopus tropicalis, and for biomedical scientists seeking access to data generated with these model systems. content is aggregated from a variety of external resources and also generated by in-house curation of scientific literature and bioinformatic analyses. over the past two years many new types of content have been added along with new tools and functionalities to reflect the impact of high-throughpu ...029059324
site-directed unnatural amino acid mutagenesis to investigate potassium channel pharmacology in xenopus laevis oocytes.unnatural amino acid mutagenesis is a useful tool enabling detailed investigation of ion channel structure-function relationships and pharmacology. methods have been developed to apply this technique to different heterologous systems for electrophysiological studies, with each system offering unique advantages and limitations. synthesis of aminoacylated-trna followed by injection into xenopus laevis oocytes is beneficial because it allows for the incorporation of a wide range of unnatural sidech ...029058197
models of convergent extension during morphogenesis.convergent extension (ce) is a fundamental and conserved collective cell movement that forms elongated tissues during embryonic development. thus far, studies have demonstrated two different mechanistic models of collective cell movements during ce. the first, termed the crawling mode, was discovered in the process of notochord formation in xenopus laevis embryos, and has been the established model of ce for decades. the second model, known as the contraction mode, was originally reported in stu ...028906063
the regulation of heat shock proteins in response to dehydration in xenopus laevis.african clawed frogs (xenopus laevis) endure bouts of severe drought in their natural habitats and survive the loss of approximately 30% of total body water due to dehydration. to investigate molecular mechanisms employed by x. laevis during periods of dehydration, the heat shock protein response, a vital component of the cytoprotective stress response, was characterized. using western immunoblotting and multiplex technology, the protein levels of hsp27, hsp40, hsp60, hsp70, hsc70, and hsp90 wer ...028676984
phosphoregulation of k+ -cl- cotransporters during cell swelling: novel insights.the k+ -cl- cotransporters (kccs) belong to the cation-cl- cotransporter family and consist of four isoforms and many splice variants. their main role is to promote electroneutral efflux of k+ and cl- ions across the surface of many cell types and, thereby, to regulate intracellular ion concentration, cell volume, and epithelial salt movement. these transport systems are induced by an increase in cell volume and are less active at lower intracellular [cl- ] (cli ), but the mechanisms at play are ...028276587
roles for xenopus aquaporin-3b (aqp3.l) during gastrulation: fibrillar fibronectin and tissue boundary establishment in the dorsal margin.aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are a large family of membrane channel proteins that allow rapid movement of water and small, uncharged solutes into and out of cells along concentration gradients. recently, aquaporins have been gaining recognition for more complex biological roles than the regulation of cellular osmotic homeostasis. we have identified a specific expression pattern for xenopus aqp3b (also called aqp3.l) during gastrulation, where it is localized to the sensorial (deep) layer of ...029113748
aurora a activation in mitosis promoted by bugz.protein phase separation or coacervation has emerged as a potential mechanism to regulate biological functions. we have shown that coacervation of a mostly unstructured protein, bugz, promotes assembly of spindle and its matrix. bugz in the spindle matrix binds and concentrates tubulin to promote microtubule (mt) assembly. it remains unclear, however, whether bugz could regulate additional proteins to promote spindle assembly. in this study, we report that bugz promotes aurora a (aura) activatio ...029074706
aprotinin prevents proteolytic epithelial sodium channel (enac) activation and volume retention in nephrotic syndrome.volume retention in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to activation of the epithelial sodium channel (enac) by proteolysis of its γ-subunit following urinary excretion of serine proteases such as plasmin. here we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of urinary serine protease activity might protect from enac activation and volume retention in nephrotic syndrome. urine from both nephrotic mice (induced by doxorubicin injection) and nephrotic patients exhibited high aprotinin-sensitive serin ...029042083
negative modulation of the gabaa ρ1 receptor function by l-cysteine.l-cysteine is an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid with multiple and varied roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection and the maintenance of the redox balance. however, it was also suggested as an excitotoxic agent implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as parkinson's and alzheimer's disease. l-cysteine can modulate the activity of ionic channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic nmda receptors, whereas its effects on ga ...029023772
sequence and timing of early cranial skeletal development in xenopus laevis.xenopus laevis is widely used as a model organism in biological research. morphological descriptions of the larval cartilaginous skeleton are more than half a century old and comprehensive studies of early cartilage differentiation and development are missing. a proper understanding of early cranial skeletal development in x. laevis requires a detailed description that can function as a baseline for experimental studies. this basis makes it possible to evaluate skeletal defects produced by exper ...028960402
hmg-box factor soxd/sox15 and homeodomain-containing factor xanf1/hesx1 directly interact and regulate the expression of xanf1/hesx1 during early forebrain development in xenopus laevis.the homeodomain-containing transcription factor anf (also known as rpx/hesx1 in mammals) plays an important role during the forebrain development in vertebrates. here we demonstrate the ability of the xenopus laevis anf, xanf1/hesx1, to directly bind sry-related hmg-box-containing transcription factor soxd/sox15 and to cooperate with the latter during regulating of the expression of xanf1/hesx1 own gene. as we have shown by gst pull-down, emsa and the luciferase reporter assays, xanf1/hesx1 and ...028918251
on the masticatory and hyoid muscles of larvae of xenopus laevis. 193017104267
the topography and histology of the parathyroid glandules in xenopus laevis. 193317104462
the endocrine factors concerned in the control of the ovarian cycle: xenopus laevis as a test animal. 193316745137
a brief survey of the biological pregnancy tests; with particular reference to the xenopus laevis toad test. 194520280126
the normal stages in the development of the south african clawed toad, xenopus laevis. 194521003320
xenopus laevis pregnancy test; report of a series with a small number of frogs. 194621019972
the use of the south african frog (xenopus laevis) in the diagnosis of pregnancy. 194620987513
frog test (xenopus laevis) for pregnancy. 194620999804
a report on the use of the african clawed frog (xenopus laevis daudin) for early diagnosis of pregnancy. 194621002326
comparison of certain cardiac glycosides on xenopus laevis. 194620282013
the xenopus laevis pregnancy test. 194620245990
the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by gonadotropic hormone assay using the south african frog, xenopus laevis. 194720249853
breeding, rearing and care of the south african clawed frog (xenopus laevis). 194720286613
the reaction of the male south african clawed frog (xenopus laevis) to gonadotropins. 194720294408
successful breeding of xenopus laevis, the south african clawed toad-frog. 194720238727
the south african frog xenopus laevis as a test object in hormone analyses. 194818881177
the morphology of the pituitary gland of the south african clawed toad, xenopus laevis daudin. 194818099911
bio-assay of calorigenic substances using tadpoles of xenopus laevis. 194818100248
[not available]. 194818891702
use of xenopus laevis in testing for pregnancy; analysis of 1100 tests. 194918114461
hints in the care of xenopus laevis. 194918138301
finnish experience of the care and use of the clawed frog (xenopus laevis daudin) in the diagnosis of pregnancy. 194915407269
[not available]. 194915397418
an outbreak of red-leg disease in xenopus laevis controlled with penicillin g. 195015400109
the use of xenopus laevis bufo bufo, and rana esculenta as test animals for gonadotrophic hormones; biology, anatomy and handling of the animals. 195015425305
[the dependability of the biological diagnosis of pregnancy by means of xenopus laevis]. 195015426075
the use of xenopus laevis, bufo bufo and rana esculenta as test animals for gonadotrophic hormones; survey of previous investigations. 195015432050
[effect of colchicine on tadpoles of xenopus laevis]. 195014812697
rickets and osteoporosis in xenopus laevis. 195014824374
the ossification process in the long bones of xenopus laevis. 195014776520
the effect of thyroid hormone on the ossification of the femur in xenopus laevis tadpoles. 195014776521
the use of xenopus laevis, bufo bufo, and rana esculenta as test animals for gonadotrophic hormones. iii. quantitative investigations on the sensitivity of the animals to chorionic gonadotrophin. 195114810455
[breeding and use of xenopus laevis in pregnancy tests]. 195114827239
the use of xenopus laevis, bufo bufo, and rana esculenta as test animals for gonadotrophic hormones. iv. comparative investigations on the pregnancy reactions of galli mainini and friedman. 195114829216
[possibility of definite pregnancy diagnosis with xenopus laevis]. 195114836869
[reproduction and care of xenopus laevis]. 195114857594
[pregnancy test with xenopus laevis]. 195114866924
new lateral line sensory organs in xenopus laevis daudin. 195114875129
[considerations on the habits of xenopus laevis victorianus ahl]. 195114878273
[extent and limits of the regenerative power of the extremities in xenopus laevis daudin after metamorphosis]. 195114887140
the spectral sensitivity of the toad xenopus laevis. 195114898528
[the reactive sensitivity of xenopus laevis to the chorionic gonadotrophin in different seasons]. 195114924299
[experimental parthenogenesis in xenopus laevis]. 195114926145
routine pregnancy diagnosis and quantitative estimation of chorionic gonadotropin using female xenopus laevis. 195214928104
[periodicity of reproduction in xenopus laevis daudin and its importance for investigation of environmental damages of the endocrine system]. 195214936958
[involution of the thymus gland of amphibia in aging. i. volumetric determination of the thymus of the claw frog, xenopus laevis daudin]. 195212976719
insufficiency of light as a cause of partial neoteny in xenopus laevis. 195212985174
the use of xenopus laevis, bufo bufo, and rana esculenta as test animals for gonadotrophic hormones. v. experience with the gali-mainini spermiation reaction as a routine test for pregnancy diagnosis and quantitative assay of chorionic gonadotrophin. 195212985195
conditions modifying the release of spermatozoa in male xenopus laevis in response to chorionic gonadotrophin. 195213014258
melanophore reaction and adrenocorticotrophic hormone. iii. the use of tadpoles of xenopus laevis as test animals for the assay of melanophore hormone. 195213016141
[artificial insemination of xenopus laevis without sacrifice of the male generator]. 195313060311
breeding of xenopus laevis in captivity; evidence for the need to exchange tank water for tadpole husbandry on grounds of hygiene and mineral replacement. 195313076633
comparison of xenopus laevis and rana nigromaculata as test animals for the determination of pregnancy. 195313096903
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