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a nonclassical mhc class i u lineage locus in zebrafish with a null haplotypic variant.three sequence lineages of mhc class i genes have been described in zebrafish (danio rerio): u, z, and l. the u lineage genes encoded on zebrafish chromosome 19 are predicted to provide the classical function of antigen presentation. this mhc class i locus displays significant haplotypic variation and is the only mhc class i locus in zebrafish that shares conserved synteny with the core mammalian mhc. here, we describe two mhc class i u lineage genes, mhc1ula and mhc1uma, that map to chromosome ...201526254596
nesfatin-1 as a new positive inotrope in the goldfish (carassius auratus) heart.the hypothalamic neuropeptide nesfatin-1 is present in both mammals and teleosts in which it elicits anorexigenic effects. in mammals, nesfatin-1 acts on the heart by inducing negative inotropism and lusitropism, and cardioprotection against ischemic damages. we evaluated whether in teleosts, nesfatin-1 also influences cardiac performance. in the goldfish (carassius auratus), mature, fully processed nesfatin-1 was detected in brain, gills, intestine and skeletal muscle, but not in the cardiac ve ...201526248227
physiological and condition-related traits in the gynogenetic-sexual carassius auratus complex: different investments promoting the coexistence of two reproductive forms?carassius auratus complex is an extraordinary species complex including the diploid and polyploid forms exhibiting asexual and sexual reproduction modes. the coexistence of both forms in the same habitats is currently reported. the stable coexistence of asexual and sexual forms assumes some disadvantages for asexuals that balance the costs of sex. in our study, we hypothesized and tested the differences in physiological (including heamatological and immunological), growth-related, condition-rela ...201526245328
induced all-female autotriploidy in the allotetraploids of carassius auratus red var. (♀) × megalobrama amblycephala (♂).following activation by uv-irradiated bsb sperm, the fertilized eggs of tetraploid hybrids (abbreviated as 4nf1) (4n = 148, aabb) of carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as rcc) (2n = 100, aa) (♀) × megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as bsb) (2n = 48, bb) (♂) developed into normal live gynogenetic offspring without chromosome doubling treatment. some of these were autotriploids with three sets of red crucian carp chromosomes (abbreviated as g1) (3n = 150, aaa). g1 were all-females, and can ...201526242753
short-term exposure to l-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, carassius auratus.the influx of calcium ions (ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. the l-type voltage dependent calcium channels (l-type vdccs) transport ca(2+) across the membrane. calcium-binding proteins (cabps) bind free cytosolic ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic ca(2+). the present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal cabps, namely, calretinin (cr) and par ...201526215640
(1)h nmr based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of dichlorvos on goldfish (carassius auratus).dichlorvos (ddvp), one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (ops), has caused serious pollution in environment. in this study, (1)h nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, and biochemical assays were used to investigate toxicities of ddvp on goldfish (carassius auratus). after 10 days' exposure of ddvp at three dosages of 5.18, 2.59 and 1.73 mg/l, goldfish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidn ...201526210017
art, fisheries and ethnobiology.nature is perceived in a variety of forms, and the perception of nature can also be expressed in different ways. local art may represent the perception of nature by humans. it can embody perception, imagination and wisdom. local art, in particular, reflects how people interact with nature. for example, when studying the representation of fish by different cultures, it is possible to access information on the fish species found in the environment, on its relative importance, and on historical eve ...201526187281
anatomical distribution and daily profile of gper1b gene expression in brain and peripheral structures of goldfish (carassius auratus).the functional organization of the circadian system and the location of the main circadian oscillators vary through phylogeny. present study investigates by in situ hybridization the anatomical location of the clock gene gper1b in forebrain and midbrain, pituitary, and in two peripheral locations, the anterior intestine and liver, in a teleost fish, the goldfish (carassius auratus). moreover, the daily expression profiles of this gene were also studied by quantitative real time-pcr. goldfish wer ...201526171989
effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and β-carotene on the semen quality of goldfish (carassius auratus).this study was conducted to investigate the effects of two carotenoids (astaxanthin and β-carotene) on the sperm quality of goldfish carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1758). for this purpose, six diets containing concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin and β-carotene were added to a basic carp diet. one group of fish was also fed with a control diet (no added carotenoids). osmolality, spermatocrit value, and sperm concentration significantly increased in the treatment supple ...201526166170
toxicity of environmental gesagard to goldfish may be connected with induction of low intensity oxidative stress in concentration- and tissue-related manners.prometryn is a selective herbicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation, gesagard. goldfish (carassius auratus) exposure for 96h to 0.2, 1, or 5mgl(-1) gesagard 500fw (corresponding to 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5mgl(-1) of prometryn) on indices of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, and thiol content) and activities of antioxidant and related enzymes in gills, liver, and kidney was studied. gills appeared to be the most resistant to gesagard treatment, reacting to o ...201526133465
morphological and molecular characterization of thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (myxozoa) infecting goldfish carassius auratus auratus.a new species of the genus thelohanellus kudo, 1933 (myxosporea, bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish carassius auratus auratus (linnaeus 1758). the fish had been imported from china by an austrian retailer. nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. in valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. in sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. the polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a pol ...201526119298
hepatotoxicity of herbicide sencor in goldfish may result from induction of mild oxidative stress.the effects of 96 h exposure to 7.14, 35.7, or 71.4 mg l(-1) of sencor were studied on liver and plasma parameters in goldfish, carassius auratus l. goldfish exposure to 71.4 mg l(-1) of sencor for 96 h resulted in a decrease in glucose concentrations in plasma and liver by 55%, but did not affect liver glycogen levels. an increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase (by 24-27%, 32-72%, and 87-102%, respectively) occurred in plasma of ...201526071809
biological fate and effects of propranolol in an experimental aquatic food chain.the aim of this study was to evaluate the trophic transfer of the β-blocker propranolol (prp) in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea daphnia magna and the crucian carp carassius auratus, as well as the metabolism and effects of prp in the liver of crucian carp. after a 48 h prp aqueous exposure for algae, with a subsequent 48 h dietary exposure for daphnia and an 8d dietary exposure for crucian carp, prp was observed in each trophic l ...201526057722
two cholecystokinin receptor subtypes are identified in goldfish, being the cckar involved in the regulation of intestinal motility.cholecystokinin (cck) plays a key role in the digestive physiology of vertebrates. however, very little is known about the role of cck on intestinal functions in fish. the present study identifies two cck receptor subtypes in a stomachless teleost, the goldfish (carassius auratus), and investigates by using an in vitro system their involvement mediating the effects of the sulfated octapeptide of cck (cck-8s) on the motility of isolated proximal intestine. partial-length mrnas encoding two cck re ...201526051613
development of a lipovitellin-based sandwich elisa for quantification of vitellogenin in surface mucus and plasma of goldfish (carassius auratus).goldfish (carassius auratus) vitellogenin (vtg) is an efficient biomarker for estrogen contamination in aquatic environments. in this study, vtg and lipovitellin (lv) were purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (e2)-induced male goldfish and unfertilized eggs of females, and were used to generate polyclonal antibodies against vtg (anti-vtg) and lv (anti-lv), respectively. sds-page and western blot were performed to confirm the specificity of the two antibodies and the immunological similarity ...201526036419
hepatic oxidative stress biomarker responses in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to four benzophenone uv filters.benzophenone (bp) type uv filters are widely used in many personal care products to protect human from uv irradiation. despite the estrogenic potencies to fish and the environmental occurrences of bp derivatives in aquatic systems, little information is available regarding their effects on the antioxidant defense system in fish. in this work, the oxidative stress induced in livers of carassius auratus was assessed using four biomarkers. the integrated biomarker response (ibr) was applied to asse ...201525996523
survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in iran.parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. in this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: goldfish (carassius auratus), guppy (poecilia reticulate), angelfish (pterophyllum scalare), discus (symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of iran during 2011 to 2012. the primary purpose of this study w ...201525992255
physiological and molecular responses of the goldfish (carassius auratus) kidney to metabolic acidosis, and potential mechanisms of renal ammonia transport.relative to the gills, the mechanisms by which the kidney contributes to ammonia and acid-base homeostasis in fish are poorly understood. goldfish were exposed to a low ph environment (ph 4.0, 48 h), which induced a characteristic metabolic acidosis and an increase in total plasma [ammonia] but reduced plasma ammonia partial pressure (pnh3). in the kidney tissue, total ammonia, lactate and intracellular ph remained unchanged. the urinary excretion rate of net base under control conditions change ...201525987732
expression characterization, genomic structure and function analysis of fish ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (usp18) genes.in mammals, usp18 (ubiquitin-specific protease 18) is an interferon (ifn) inducible protein and plays a role in regulation of ifn response upon viral infection. in this study, we first cloned a usp18 homologous gene from virally-infected crucian carp (carassius auratus) blastula embryonic (cab) cells, and later found in other fish species including zebrafish. all fish usp18 genes have 10 exons and 9 introns comparable to 11 exons and 10 introns in non-fish vertebrates. expression analysis reveal ...201525981749
acute and chronic toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol a to three aquatic species under different ph conditions.tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbpa) is a well-known brominated flame retardant. it has been detected in the environment and shows high acute toxicity to different organisms at high concentrations. in this work, the effects of ph and dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) on the acute toxicity of tbbpa to daphnia magna and limnodrilus hoffmeisteri were tested, and the oxidative stress induced by tbbpa in livers of carassius auratus was assessed using four biomarkers. the integrated biomarker response (ibr) was appl ...201525980965
increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (hp) in their natural habitats. additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in hp due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. accordingly, variations in hp are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. however, little information is available on how hp information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. the present study examined the effect of hp (water depth of 1.3  ...201525975379
body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (carassius auratus).the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. we observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. the results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian ...201525966213
behavioral and biochemical responses in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to sertraline.sertraline is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. however, knowledge regarding relationships among molecular or biochemical endpoints involved in modes of action (moas) of sertraline and ecologically important behavioral responses of fish is insufficient. the present study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration and possible adverse outcomes pathways (aops) in crucian carp (carassius auratus) exposed ...201525950408
fish lice (argulus japonicus) in goldfish (carassius auratus).fish lice (argulus spp; family argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. in addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. during rounds at our facility, argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (carassius auratus). these goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional ...201525926394
organization and variation analysis of 5s rdna in gynogenetic offspring of carassius auratus red var. (♀) × megalobrama amblycephala (♂).the offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as grcc) have been obtained in the first generation of carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as rcc, 2n = 100) (♀) × megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as bsb, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in grcc which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence.201525879826
development of a lipovitellin-based goldfish (carassius auratus) vitellogenin elisa for detection of environmental estrogens.the susceptibility of vitellogenin (vtg) to degradation is a major problem affecting the robustness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for goldfish (carassius auratus) vtg. in this study, a phospholipoglycoprotein with molecular mass of ∼420kda was purified from goldfish egg extracts and it produced a single band corresponding to ∼112kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). additionally, the amino acid composition of the purified protein was comparable to that of lipov ...201525855009
di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish.di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dehp) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. we evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10, and 100μg/l dehp. to examine dehp estrogenic activity, one group of goldfish was exposed to 17β-estradiol (5μg/l e2) for comparison. following 30d of exposure, sperm production was decreased and suppre ...201525827748
antagonistic joint toxicity assessment of two current-use phthalates with waterborne copper in liver of carassius auratus using biochemical biomarkers.di-n-butyl phthalate (dbp) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (dehp) are two kinds of widely-used phthalates, whereas cu (ii) is a common valence state of copper. they have been ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, but information on their joint toxicity on aquatic organisms is scarce. in this study, we evaluated the combined effects of copper and these two phthalates to the goldfish (carassius auratus) by detecting the antioxidant responses in liver after exposure for 7 and 21 days. the ...201525791665
variations in temperature acclimation effects on glycogen storage, hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance with seasonal acclimatization in juvenile chinese crucian carp.the aim of this study was to test whether temperature acclimation (10 vs 20 °c) effects on tissue glycogen content, hypoxia tolerance, and swimming performance of chinese crucian carp (carassius auratus) varied with seasonal acclimatization (winter vs spring) and potential combined interactions. both the routine metabolic rate (mo(2rout)) and critical oxygen tension (p(crit)) of the mo(2rout) increased significantly with temperature, whereas the seasonal acclimatization showed no significant eff ...201525776929
neurotoxic effect of triazophos on goldfish (carassius auratus) and tissue specific antioxidant responses.due to the high chemical and photochemical stability, an organophosphorus pesticide triazophos might enter aquatic ecosystems and impose negative effect on aquatic organisms. in order to investigate short-term toxicity of triazophos on goldfish (carassius auratus), antioxidant response in brain, spleen, kidney and liver was tested in this study. as a confirmation, the impact of triazophos on acetyl cholinesterase (ache) activity was found a reduction in all studied tissues, especially in brain. ...201525768424
distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in the food web of nansi lake, china.the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were analyzed in water, sediment, and biota (aquatic plant, shrimp, and fish) of nansi lake by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the concentrations of total pahs were 27.54-55.04 ng l(-1) in water, 80.31-639.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 20.92-192.78 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants, and 67.3-533.9 ng g(-1) dw in fish and shrimp muscles. the ratios of phenanthrene to anthracene (ph/an), fluoranthene to pyrene (flu ...201525762425
evaluation of the potential for trophic transfer of roxithromycin along an experimental food chain.pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a new class of environmental pollutants in recent years. but data about their potential for transfer and biomagnification in aquatic food chains are still lacking. in this study, bioaccumulation of the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (rox) was determined in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea daphnia magna and the crucian carp carassius auratus. after 48 h of exposure, s. obliquus accumulated ...201525739841
spatial learning associated with stimulus response in goldfish carassius auratus: relationship to activation of creb signalling.earlier, we reported spatial learning ability in goldfish (carassius auratus) by using spatial paradigm with food reward. therefore, we hypothesized that goldfish may use associated cue to integrate "where" and "what" for spatial memory. to test our hypothesis, we first trained goldfish to learn to cross the gate1, which is associated with spatial task. subsequently, they were trained to learn to enter the task chamber and to identify the food reward chamber associated with visual cue (red/green ...201525739351
time-dependent bidirectional effects of chronic caffeine on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex after hemilabyrinthectomy in the goldfish carassius auratus.caffeine works through a variety of complex mechanisms to exert an often bidirectional set of functional and structural neurological changes in vertebrates. we investigated the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex (dlr) in hemilabyrinthectomized common goldfish, carassius auratus. in this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the vestibular organs results in a temporary loss of gravitationally modulated postural control which is quantifiable vi ...201525727640
evaluation of single and joint toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and copper to carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers.perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and copper have been recently regarded as ubiquitous environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. however, data on their possible combined toxic effects on aquatic organisms are still lacking. in this study, a systematic experimental approach was used to assess the impacts of these chemicals and their mixtures on hepatic antioxidant status of carassius auratus after 4 days. oxidative stress was apparently observed for joint exposu ...201525697679
rapid genomic dna changes in allotetraploid fish hybrids.rapid genomic change has been demonstrated in several allopolyploid plant systems; however, few studies focused on animals. we addressed this issue using an allotetraploid lineage (4nat) of freshwater fish originally derived from the interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n=100) × common carp (cyprinus carpio l., ♂, 2n=100). we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library from allotetraploid hybrids in the 20th generation (f20) and sequenc ...201525669608
induction of dna base damage and strand breaks in peripheral erythrocytes and the underlying mechanism in goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to monocrotophos.using goldfish (carassius auratus) as the model animal, the present study revealed the types of the dna damage induced by monocrotophos, a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide, and explored the mechanism underlying the dna-damaging effect of this pesticide. results of the alkaline comet assay showed that global dna damage (including single- and double-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites) in peripheral erythrocytes of goldfish, measured as olive tail moment, was significantly increased by ex ...201525666866
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of selenoprotein w gene and its mrna expression patterns in response to metabolic status and cadmium exposure in goldfish, carassius auratus.selenoprotein w (selw) is a low molecular weight and selenocysteine containing protein with redox activity involved in the antioxidant response. in the present study, the full-length cdna of goldfish (carassius auratus) selenoprotein w (gfselw) was successfully cloned from the liver tissue by rapid amplification of cdna ends technique. the obtained gfselw cdna was 730 bp long with a 79 bp 5'-untranslated region (utr), a 390 bp 3'-utr containing the consensus polyadenylation signal aataaa and a 2 ...201525659929
myxobolus oralis sp. n. (myxosporea: bivalvulida) infecting the palate in the mouth of gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (cypriniformes: cyprinidae).during a survey on the myxosporean fauna of gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in china, a species of myxobolus bütschli, 1882 that did not conform to any known species was found. the species is characterised by the presence of round to ellipsoidal plasmodia of 2.6-4.0 mm in diameter in the palate of host. mature spores are obovate in frontal view and lemon-shaped in lateral view, with the following range, mean and standard deviation of dimensions: 10.8-12.8 μm (11.7 ± 0.4 μm) long, 8. ...201425651691
mitochondrial genetic variations of an introduced freshwater fish, goldfish carassius auratus at the frontier between europe and asia (western anatolia, turkey): proximity to europe rather than east asia?carassius auratus is one of the most significant ornamental and food fishes of the world that is globally distributed and well known. although it is known to have existed at least for six decades and expanding its distribution range in turkish waters, there is a dearth of information on genetic structure and variations of goldfish in turkey. in this study, four mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase ii, 12s ribosomal rna, and 16s ribosomal rna) were used to infer the genetic varia ...201625648924
heavy metal bioaccumulation and health hazard assessment for three fish species from nansi lake, china.metal accumulation in fish is a global public health concern, because the consumption of contaminated fish accounts for the primary exposure of humans to toxic metals. in this study, the concentrations of arsenic (as), cadmium (cd), lead (pb), and mercury (hg) in crucian carp (carassius auratus),yellow catfish (pelteobagrus fulvidraco), and bighead carp (hypophthalmichthys nobilis) from nansi lake of china were evaluated, and compared with the corresponding historical values in 2001 when the gov ...201525636438
hepatic oxidative stress and catalyst metals accumulation in goldfish exposed to carbon nanotubes under different ph levels.experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three different carbon nanotubes [single-walled carbon nanotubes (swcnts), hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oh-mwcnts), and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cooh-mwcnts)] on antioxidant parameters and metals accumulation in the liver of carassius auratus. a semi-static test system was used to expose c. auratus to either a freshwater control, 0.1, or 0.5mg/l cnts at three ph levels (5.0, 7.25, and 9.0) for 3 and 12 days ...201525625523
identification, tissue distribution and characterization of two heat shock factors (hsfs) in goldfish (carassius auratus).heat shock proteins (hsps) are synthesized rapidly in response to a variety of physiological or environmental stressors, whereas the transcriptional activation of hsps is regulated by a family of heat shock factors (hsfs). in vertebrates, multiple hsfs (hsf1-4) have been reported to have different roles in response to a range of stresses. this paper reports the cdna cloning of two goldfish (carassius auratus) hsf gene families, hsf1 and three isoforms of hsf2. both hsf1 and hsf2s showed high hom ...201525592877
reversible brain swelling in crucian carp (carassius carassius) and goldfish (carassius auratus) in response to high external ammonia and anoxia.increased internal ammonia (hyperammonemia) and ischemic/anoxic insults are known to result in a cascade of deleterious events that can culminate in potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals. it is less clear, however, if the brains of fishes respond to ammonia in a similar manner. the present study demonstrated that the crucian carp (carassius carassius) was not only able to endure high environmental ammonia exposure (hea; 2 to 22 mmol l(-1)) but that they experienced 30% increases in brain w ...201525582543
(1)h nmr based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (carassius auratus).butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. in this study, a (1)h nmr based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (carassius auratus) for the first time. after 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and ...201525528421
comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone in crucian carp (carassius auratus), common carp (cyprinus carpio l.), and grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) following the same experimental conditions.the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone (qct) in crucian carp (carassius auratus), common carp (cyprinus carpio l.), and grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) were compared after oral administration of qct (50 mg/kg body weight) at water temperature of 24 ± 1 °c. similar qct plasma concentration-time profiles were found in the three species of cyprinid fish at the same dosage regimen and water temperature, which were all fitted two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. howev ...201525515188
[effect of rate of water temperature increase on sensitivity of fish digestive glycosidases to action of copper and zinc].an increase in sensitivity of glycosidases of intestinal mucosa has been established in fry of goldfish carassius auratus, carp cyprinus carpio, roach rutilus rutilus, and common perch perca fluviatilis to action in vitro of heavy metal ions (copper and zinc at concentrations of 0.1-25 mg/l) at heating of water at the summer period. the inhibitory effect of copper and zinc ions as a rule was higher at the heating rate of 50 degrees c/h than at the rate of 4 degrees c/h. glycosidases of the perch ...201425508933
linking eggs and adults of argulus spp. using mitochondrial dna barcodes.we have created barcode library for common argulus spp. infecting carassius auratus, which could also be used to identify premature forms of argulus spp. even by non-professionals. infected c. auratus was examined and purchased from ornamental fish-trading centers and the adult life stage of argulus spp. was identified and dna barcoded. the eggs of argulus spp. were collected using bottle implants. the collected eggs are barcoded and precisely identified by matching with the adult sequences. fou ...201625492543
[effect of rate of water temperature increase on sensitivity of fish digestive glycosidases to action of copper and zinc].an increase in sensitivity of glycosidases of intestinal mucosa has been established in fry of goldfish carassius auratus, carp cyprinus carpio, roach rutilus rutilus, and common perch perca fluviatilis to action in vitro of heavy metal ions (copper and zinc at concentrations of 0.1-25 mg/l) at heating of water at the summer period. the inhibitory effect of copper and zinc ions as a rule was higher at the heating rate of 50 degrees c/h than at the rate of 4 degrees c/h. glycosidases of the perch ...201425486802
analysis of mitochondrial respiratory-related genes reveals nuclear and mitochondrial genome cooperation in allotetraploid hybrid.an allotetraploid hybrid lineage derived from the distant hybridization of red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n =100) × common carp (cyprinus carpio l., ♂, 2n =100) was investigated for its mitochondrial and nuclear genome inheritance patterns. based on liver transcriptomic data for this hybrid, red crucian carp, and common carp, we identified 94, 136, and 86 contigs corresponding to 41, 46, and 37 mitochondrial respiratory chain nuclear genes, respectively. mitochondrial respirat ...201425470286
inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes in three different ploidy fishes.diploid natural gynogenetic goldfish (2ngrcg), triploid hybrids (3nrb) and tetraploid hybrids (4nrb) are generated by distant hybridization of red common goldfish (rcg, carassius auratus red var.) and blunt snout bream (bsb, megalobrama amblycephala). in the present study, we obtained the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences of the hybrid offspring and compared them with the homologous sequences of rcg and bsb. all mtdna sequences of these hybrids were 16,580bp in length, and the genes n ...201425470285
effects and bioaccumulation of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol following long-term exposure in crucian carp.bioaccumulation and effects of 17β-estradiol (e2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (ee2) were assessed by crucian carp (carassius auratus) following single and binary mixture exposures in flow-through exposure system for 16 months. in comparison with water control (dwc) and solvent control (sc), a significant reduction in body weight, body length and gonadosomatic index (gsi), and increase in hepatosomatic index (hsi) and plasma vitellogenin (vtg) levels were observed, in a time- and concentration-depen ...201525463868
isolation and cytochemical characterization of melanomacrophages and melanomacrophage clusters from goldfish (carassius auratus, l.).pigmented or "melano-" macrophages are prominent in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of poikilotherms. though they have been extensively studied in situ only recently has a means to isolate them from other cell types been established. we provide the first in vitro characterization of isolated melanomacrophage cytochemistry and survival in culture. unlike non-pigmented tissue macrophages melanomacrophages do not adhere to polystyrene surfaces making them easy to separate from tissue macrophages. ...201525453581
preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (carassius auratus) vitellogenin and its application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide.goldfish (carassius auratus) represents a good model to detect the estrogenic effects of chemicals, and vitellogenin (vtg) is a vital indicator of estrogenic activity. the heterologous anti-carp vtg antibody has previously been used for goldfish vtg detection. here, we report the preparation of an anti-goldfish vtg antibody to improve the sensitivity and specificity of goldfish vtg immunoassays. vtg was purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (e2)-induced goldfish by gel filtration followed by ...201525450922
comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (carassius auratus) after oral administration.comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (nfxnt) was investigated in common carp (cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (uplc) with fluorescence detection. after oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. the ph ...201525427758
effects of la(iii) and ca(ii) on isolated carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.the effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. la(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (ic50) being 71.2 μmol l(-1). similarly, ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the ic50 of ca(2+) was much h ...201525416531
biological effects and bioaccumulation of pharmaceutically active compounds in crucian carp caged near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant.pharmaceutically active compounds (phacs) have been universally detected in rivers, lakes and coastal waters that are affected by effluents from sewage treatment plants (stps). in this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of phacs were assessed in crucian carp (carassius auratus) caged in an effluent-receiving river for 21 days. compared with control fish in the laboratory and at a reference site, a significant reduction in hepatosomatic index (hsi) and increase in the biotransforma ...201525406643
antioxidant status and na(+), k (+)-atpase activity in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to different combustion products of nafion 117 membrane: an integrated biomarker approach.nafion 117 membrane (n117), an important polymer electrolyte membrane (pem), has been widely applied in numerous chemical technologies. its increasing production and utilization will inevitably lead to the problem of waste disposal, with incineration as an important method. however, toxicity data of its combustion products on aquatic organisms have been seldom reported. the present study was therefore conducted to investigate the antioxidant response and na(+), k(+)-atpase activity in liver of c ...201525398218
thelohanellus wangi n. sp. (myxozoa, myxosporea), a new gill parasite of allogynogenetic gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio bloch) in china, causing severe gill myxosporidiosis.we describe here a new myxozoan, thelohanellus wangi n. sp., infecting the allogynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), in a fry nursery farm in jiangsu province, china. polysporous gray white round or ovoid plasmodia, 500-1,500 μm in size, were found exclusively in the gill filaments. the diagnostic characteristics of the myxospores are as follows: spore melon seed shaped in frontal view with smooth surface and asymmetrical valves; convex-shaped in sutural view with straight o ...201525287713
monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (carassius auratus).our recent study showed that monocrotophos (mcp) pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (hpt) axis in male goldfish (carassius auratus); however, the effects of mcp on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. in the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (th) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/l of 40% mcp-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. expression profiles ...201425268935
anthelmintic activity of saikosaponins a and d from radix bupleuri against dactylogyrus spp. infecting goldfish.disease caused by the parasitic helminths dactylogyrus spp. results in significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. treatment using common chemicals (e.g. formalin) is usually dissatisfactory due to environmental problems, risk of residues, toxicity to fish, and the possibility of anthelmintic resistance. the search for an alternative drug is thus becoming more urgent. this study was designed to evaluate in vivo the anthelmintic efficacy of total saponin (ts), saikosaponin a (ssa), a ...201425266906
validation of reference genes for rt-qpcr analysis of cyp4t expression in crucian carp.reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during rt-qpcr analysis. however, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. to identify the most suitable reference genes for rt-qpcr analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven refer ...201425249772
thermal optima and tolerance in the eurythermic goldfish (carassius auratus): relationships between whole-animal aerobic capacity and maximum heart rate.the wide thermal tolerance range of a eurythermic fish (goldfish, carassius auratus) was used to evaluate how temperature performance curves derived from maximum heart rate (fh) related to those for aerobic scope. for acclimation temperatures of 12°, 20°, and 28°c, optimum temperatures derived from aerobic scope curves (topt) were 19.9° ± 0.4°, 19.3° ± 0.8°, and 28.7° ± 0.8°c, respectively. the arrhenius breakpoint temperatures (tab) for maximum fh were 21.5° ± 0.6°, 23.8° ± 0.9°, and 24.6° ± 0. ...201425244373
(1)h nmr-based metabolomics study on a goldfish model of parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (mptp).a goldfish (carassius auratus) model of parkinson's disease (pd) was constructed by a single dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (mptp) according to previously reported methods. global metabolite changes in brain of the mptp induced goldfish model of pd were investigated. (1)h nmr-based metabolomics combined with various statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (opls-da) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2d- ...201425242684
sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idellus.the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (ghs-r) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. here we report the identification and characterization of ghs-r1a in grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idellus. the full-length ghs-r1a cdna contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of ghs-r1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (danio r ...201525242546
complete mitochondrial dna genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (carassius auratus).the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580 bp in length. the mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer rnas, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rnas and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). all genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for nd6 and eight trna genes. the overall base composition is a 31.53%, t 26.23%, g 16.15%, c 26.09%, with an a + t bias of 57.76%. the complete mtdna sequence of the geograp ...201625231717
in vitro assessment of interactions between appetite-regulating peptides in brain of goldfish (carassius auratus).orexins, apelin, melanin-concentrating hormone (mch), neuropeptide y (npy) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (cart) are important appetite-regulating factors produced by the brain of both mammals and fish. these peptide systems and their target areas are widely distributed within the central nervous system. although morphological connections between some of these systems have been demonstrated in the brain, little is known about the functional interactions between these systems, i ...201425219945
fish mavs is involved in rlr pathway-mediated ifn response.mammalian mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (mavs) is an essential adapter involved in retinoic acid-inducible gene-i (rig-i)-like receptor (rlr)-triggered interferon (ifn) antiviral immunity. fish mavs homologues have been identified in several fish species; however, the signaling pathway involving fish mavs-mediated ifn response remains to be investigated. in the present study, we report identification of a fish mavs orthologue from crucian carp carassius auratus blastulae embryonic (c ...201425219369
connections of the commissural nucleus of cajal in the goldfish, with special reference to the topographic organization of ascending visceral sensory pathways.the primary general visceral nucleus of teleosts is called the commissural nucleus of cajal (ncc). the ncc of goldfish has been divided into the medial (nccm) and lateral (nccl) subnuclei that receive inputs from subdiaphragmatic gastrointestinal tract and the posterior pharynx, respectively. fiber connections of the ncc were examined by tract-tracing methods in the goldfish carassius auratus. tracer injections into the ncc suggested that the ncc projects directly not only to the secondary visce ...201525209308
complete mitochondrial dna genome of tetraploid carassius auratus gibelio.the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the tetraploid carassius auratus gibelio in this study. the genome sequence was 16,576 bp in length. the mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rnas, 22 transfer rnas, and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). all genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for nd6 and eight trna genes. the overall base composition is 31.61% a, 25.81% t, 26.62% g, 15.96% c, with an a+t bias ...201625208178
feeding habits and ontogenic changes in digestive enzyme patterns in five freshwater teleosts.feeding habits and the activity of digestive enzymes (total alkaline proteases, α-amylase and lipase) from dace leuciscus leuciscus, roach rutilus rutilus, prussian carp carassius auratus gibelio, perch perca fluviatilis and pikeperch sander lucioperca fry were studied in the malye chany lake-kargat estuary (western siberia, russia). the diet of fry from all studied species was mainly composed of chironomid larvae and zooplanktonic organisms (i.e. cladocera and copepoda), whereas carnivorous spe ...201425199648
evaluation of thermosensitive poloxamer 407 gel systems for the sustained release of estradiol in a fish model.the purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a delivery system comprising a thermosensitive gel for the sustained release of steroidal hormones in fish, over an extended period of time after a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection and for the improved reproductive performance in fish. controlled delivery systems based on thermosensitive gels are easy to prepare, low cost and high versatility dosage forms, which have been shown to be effective in several animal species for sustained rele ...201425194925
concentration and bioaccumulation of cyanobacterial bioactive and odorous metabolites occurred in a large, shallow chinese lake.the distributions of cyanobacterial bioactive and odorous metabolites were investigated in the fifth largest lake in china in the fishing season 2012. the highest microcystins (mcs) concentration in water reached 3.4 µg l(-1). a high β-ionone concentration reached 35.6 ng l(-1) in water. mean mcs concentration in muscle was highest in omnivorous carassius auratus (20.9 ng g(-1) dry weight), followed by phytoplanktivorous hypophthalmichthys molitrix (7.4 ng g(-1) dw) and carnivorous coilia ectene ...201425194695
effects of bde-209 and its mixtures with bde-47 and bde-99 on multiple biomarkers in carassius auratus.in the present study, the sublethal effects of bde-209 and its mixtures with bde-47 and bde-99 on goldfish (carassius auratus) were investigated, and the biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase (ache) in brain, catalase (cat), ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod), glutathione-s-transferase (gst) and superoxide dismutase (sod) in liver were determined after 4 days of exposure. ache and cat activities were significantly inhibited by bde-209 and the mixtures at higher dosages (≥1mg/kg), and exhibi ...201425180441
abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in the allotetraploid of carassius auratus red var. (♀)×megalobrama amblycephala (♂).allopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. on the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared with plants; thus, chromosome behavior at meiosis in the allopolyploid animals is poorly understood.201425178799
nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (carassius auratus) heart.goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when o(2) availability represents a limiting factor. using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (nos)-derived nitric oxide (no) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. cardiac performance was examined both under basal (constant preload and afterload) and loading conditions, i.e. preload-induced increases in stroke ...201425178168
hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from carassius auratus.to study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (sem) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. the functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. sem results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hyd ...201425175199
the use of environmental dna in invasive species surveillance of the great lakes commercial bait trade.over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the laurentian great lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. one potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidl ...201525169113
the autotetraploid fish derived from hybridization of carassius auratus red var. (female) × megalobrama amblycephala (male).the establishment of the tetraploid organism is difficult but useful in genetics and breeding. in the present study, we have artificially established an autotetraploid fish line (f2-f8) derived from the distant hybridization of carassius auratus red var. (rr, 2n = 100) (female) × megalobrama amblycephala (bb, 2n = 48) (male). the autotetraploid line (f2-f8) possess four sets of chromosomes from red crucian carp (rrrr, 4n = 200) and produce diploid ova and diploid sperm, which maintains the forma ...201425165120
effects of individual and binary mixtures of estrogens on male goldfish (carassius auratus).adverse effects of five typical environmental estrogens, namely estrone (e1), 17β-estradiol (e2), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-op), 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-np) and bisphenol a (bpa) on adult male goldfish (carassius auratus) were investigated both individually and in binary mixtures, using serum vitellogenin (vtg) induction and gonadosomatic index (gsi) as the endpoints. doses of individual and binary mixtures of estrogens were chosen at broad ranges. five individual estrogens induced common dose-dependent ...201425154921
perchlorate-induced oxidative stress in isolated liver mitochondria.as a new threat to environment all through the world, perchlorate (clo4(-)) was predominantly a thyrotoxin, and its toxic manifestations in non-thyroid were also documented. to date, little is known about the effect of clo4(-) on cell and organelle. to reveal the toxicity of clo4(-) on living organism in-depth, mitochondria isolated from liver of carassius auratus were incubated with different concentrations of clo4(-). the results demonstrated that clo4(-)-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress ...201425139032
complete mitochondrial genome of a natural triploid crucian carp mutant, carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis, and phylogenetic analysis of different ploidies in crucian carp.carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis is a natural triploid crucian carp mutant. in order to understand its placement and genetic background at the gene level, the characteristics of mitochondrial dna sequences and phylogenetic relationship were examined. the results showed that the mitochondrial dna is a circular double-stranded dna molecule that is 16,576 bp in length with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes, and a non-coding control region. mitochondrial gen ...201425117343
integrated biomarkers in wild crucian carp for early warning of water quality in hun river, north china.metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the detoxification of various pollutants in aquatic organisms, thereby they can also be used to provide early-warning signals of environmental risks. real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to quantify cytochrome p450 1a (cyp1a), superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), catalase (cat), and glutathione-s-transferase (gst) in crucian carp (carassius auratus). the methods were then use ...201425079422
observation of the middle intestinal tight junction structure, cloning and studying tissue distribution of the four claudin genes of the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus).to confirm the existence of the tight junction (tj) in middle intestine and obtain the genetic information of claudin-3, claudin-15a, claudinb and claudinc of grass carp, we observed the physical structure of tj by transmission electron microscopy and cloned the partial cdnas of the four claudins using reverse transcriptase pcr technique. the four partial cdnas consist of 1,261, 490, 776 and 662 bp encoded 131, 150, 195 and 171 amino acids, respectively. homology analysis showed that the grass c ...201425074470
electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (carassius auratus) ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs.chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. the goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. we used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vpoa) to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (ob). prin ...201425071430
p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. the present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (pcd), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, carrasius auratus. constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of dna damage and cell death in hypoxic ...201425068954
organ-dependent response in antioxidants, myoglobin and neuroglobin in goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to mc-rr under varying oxygen level.cyanobacterial bloom, a common phenomenon nowadays often results in the depletion of dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) and releases microcystin-rr (mc-rr) in the water. information on the combined effects of mc-rr and hypoxia on the goldfish is lacking, therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effect of two doses of mc-rr on the antioxidants and globin mrna of goldfish under normoxia, hypoxia and reoxygenation. the result showed that mc-rr at both doses (50 and 200 μg kg(-1) body weight) signif ...201425048936
bioaccumulation, distribution and metabolism of bde-153 in the freshwater fish carassius auratus after dietary exposure.polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) are of great environmental concern due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification in different food chains. however, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive debromination has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures. little is known about the fate of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (bde-153) in fish. in the present study, crucian carp (carassius auratus) were exposed to bde-153 at a concentration of 10μg/g in ...201425038267
histopathological and biochemical changes in goldfish kidney due to exposure to the herbicide sencor may be related to induction of oxidative stress.molecular mechanisms of toxicity by the metribuzin-containing herbicide sencor to living organisms, particularly fish, have not yet been extensively investigated. in the present work, we studied the effects of 96 h exposure to 7.14, 35.7, or 71.4 mg l(-1) of sencor (corresponding to 5, 25, or 50 mg l(-1) of its herbicidal component metribuzin) on goldfish (carassius auratus l.), examining the histology, levels of oxidative stress markers, and activities of antioxidant and related enzymes in kidn ...201425036620
oxidative stress in the gill tissues of goldfishes (carassius auratus) parasitized by dactylogyrus spp.the aim of this study was to investigate the status of oxidative stress in the gill tissues of goldfishes (carassius auratus) parasitized by dactylogyrus spp. we therefore compared the concentrations of malondialdehyde (mda) and total thiol groups in the gill tissues of parasitized and non- parasitized goldfishes. 15 goldfishes parasitized by dactylogyrus spp. along with 15 non-parasitized goldfishes were selected for the study. a significant increase in mda concentration (p < 0.01) and a signif ...201425035583
gill remodeling in three freshwater teleosts in response to high environmental ammonia.the present study aimed to determine whether gill macro- and microstructure show compensatory responses in three freshwater fish differing in their sensitivity to high environmental ammonia (hea). the highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia-sensitive cyprinid cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid carassius auratus (goldfish) were used as test species and were exposed for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 24h, 48 h, 84 h and ...201425033244
type-iv antifreeze proteins are essential for epiboly and convergence in gastrulation of zebrafish embryos.many organisms in extremely cold environments such as the antarctic pole have evolved antifreeze molecules to prevent ice formation. there are four types of antifreeze proteins (afps). type-iv antifreeze proteins (afp4s) are present also in certain temperate and even tropical fish, which has raised a question as to whether these afp4s have important functions in addition to antifreeze activity. here we report the identification and functional analyses of afp4s in cyprinid fish. two genes, namely ...201425013380
alternations in neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction in male goldfish (carassius auratus) following an acute and chronic exposure to vinclozolin, in vivo.the fungicide vinclozolin (vz) is in use globally and known to disrupt reproductive function in male. the present study tested the hypothesis that vz disrupts testicular function in goldfish (carassius auratus) by affecting brain-pituitary-testis axis. goldfish were exposed to 100, 400 and 800 μg/l vz and 5 μg/l 17β-estradiol (e2) for comparison. in vz treated goldfish, 11-ketotesteosterone (11-kt) secretion was changed depending on dose and duration period of treatment. following 7 days of expo ...201424995616
cloning, molecular characterization and expression analysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (igfbp-2) cdna in goldfish, carassius auratus.in the present study, a full-length cdna encoding the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (igfbp-2) was cloned from the liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) by rapid amplification of cdna ends technique. the goldfish igfbp-2 cdna sequence was 1,513 bp long and had an open reading frame of 825 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 274 amino acid residues. semi-quantitative rt-pcr results revealed that goldfish igfbp-2 mrna was expressed in all detected tissues. in liver, central nervou ...201424992902
changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (carassius auratus) during heat treatment.in order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and sds-page of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°c and considerably increased from 46°c to 54°c, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°c; total sh content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°c to 55°c; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45° ...201424966436
assessment of arsenic-induced dna damage in goldfish by a polymerase chain reaction-based technique using random amplified polymorphic dna markers.arsenic is a groundwater contaminant of global concern. it is a potent human carcinogen, and its marked genotoxic effects have been reported in several human and animal studies. the present work investigates the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay to study the dna-damaging effects of arsenic at low-level exposure in goldfish carassius auratus. four experimental groups of fish, a, b, c and d, were exposed to 0, 10, 50, and 1,000 µg l(-1) of arsenic, respectively, in ...201424965481
orexin a enhances locomotor activity and induces anxiogenic-like action in the goldfish, carassius auratus.orexin acts as an orexigenic factor for the regulation of appetite and rhythmicity in rodents. in goldfish, intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of orexin a has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor activity. however, as there is still no information regarding the effect of orexin a on emotional behavior in goldfish, we investigated the effect of orexin a on psychomotor activity in this species. intracerebroventricular administration of synthetic orexin a at 2 and ...201424937437
leptin expression is rhythmic in brain and liver of goldfish (carassius auratus). role of feeding time.daily rhythms of feeding regulators are currently arousing research interest due to the relevance of the temporal harmony of endocrine regulators for growth and welfare in vertebrates. however, it is unknown the leptin circadian pattern in fish. the aim of this study is to investigate if leptin (glep-ai and glep-aii) expression is rhythmic in goldfish (carassius auratus) liver and brain, and if such rhythms are driven by feeding time through a food entrainable oscillator. fish maintained under 1 ...201424932715
tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, and effects of erythromycin in crucian carp (carassius auratus).in this study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (ery) were investigated in fish using crucian carp (carassius auratus) as a model. crucian carp were exposed to various concentrations of ery (4, 20, and 100 μg/l) for 28 days. the uplc/ms/ms analysis of both water and tissue provided the bioconcentration of ery and its metabolites in the fish body. the results from tissue samples showed that a maximum tissue conce ...201424911771
the transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. however, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. in carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. these two forms are similar morphologically but dif ...201424871367
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