spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (f2 ) koi cyprinus carpio × goldfish carassius auratus hybrids.the objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (f2 ) koi cyprinus carpio × goldfish carassius auratus hybrids. spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile f1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. backcross (f1 female × c. carpio male and c. carpio female × f1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male f1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. the vast majority of surviving f2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were ...201727861861
nmr elucidation of reduced b-z transition activity of pkz protein kinase at high nacl concentration.a z-dna binding protein (zbp)-containing protein kinase (pkz) in fish species has an important role in the innate immune response. previous structural studies of the zα domain of the pkz from carassius auratus (cazαpkz) showed that the protein initially binds to b-dna and induces b-z transition of double stranded dna in a salt concentration-dependent manner. however, the significantly reduced b-z transition activity of cazαpkz at high salt concentration was not fully understood. in this study, w ...201727856245
histopathological and ultrastructural studies of myxobolus turpisrotundus from allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio in china.during an ongoing systematic survey on species diversity of myxozoans parasitising allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in china, plasmodia were detected in the fins, lip, jaw, gill chamber, gill arches, operculum and oral cavity of infected fish. combining the morphological and molecular data, the present species was identified as myxobolus turpisrotundus zhang, wang, li et gong, 2010. histopathological examination revealed that despite infecting different organs, m. tur ...201627827339
immunohistochemical characterization of toll-like receptor 2 in gut epithelial cells and macrophages of goldfish carassius auratus fed with a high-cholesterol diet.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are a group of pattern recognition molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity. the structural conservation of the archaic tlr system suggests that the regulation of the immune response might be similar in fish and mammals. several tlrs (tlr-1, -2, and -4) are expressed by activated macrophages, "foam cells" in human atherosclerotic lesions. to date, 20 different tlrs were identified in more than a dozen different fish species. in this study we found that fee ...201627818343
studies on histopathological alteration of three major organs of the goldfish, carassius auratus l., of india due to myxozoan infection with special reference to scanning electron microscopic observation.severe infections by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genera myxozoa are causing serious problems in ornamental fish reared in breeding farms. histopathological study is being used for diagnosis of the severity of diseases. myxozoan infections result in large scale histopathological damages in different fish tissues. no information is available regarding the histopathological changes of goldfish due to infection with myxozoans. the present study deals with the histopathological changes of ...201727815737
the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide impacts hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in goldfish.oleoylethanolamide (oea) is an acylethanolamide synthesized mainly in the gastrointestinal tract with known effects in mammals on food intake and body mass through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type α (pparα). since we previously demonstrated that acute treatment with oea in goldfish resulted in decreased food intake and locomotor activity, as in mammals, we hypothesize that oea would be involved in the control of energy metabolism in fish. therefore, we assessed the e ...201627277972
identification of three selenoprotein t paralogs in goldfish (carassius auratus) and expression analysis in response to environmental stressors.selenoproteins, which contain the selenocysteine (sec), play crucial roles in antioxidant protection. in the present study, we have identified and characterized three selenoprotein t paralogs (designated as gfselt1a, gfselt1b and gfselt2) in goldfish, carassius auratus. the secis element was found in the 3'-utrs of gfselt1a, gfselt1b and gfselt2 mrna. sequence analysis showed that they all possess the cxxu motif (where u represents sec) in the n-terminal. constitutive expressions of gfselt1a, gf ...201727667707
single and combined effects of aluminum (al2o3) and zinc (zno) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, carassius auratus.the increasing use of nanoparticles (nps) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. the aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (carassius auratus). the fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of nps (10 μg al2o3.l(-1), 10 μg zno.l(-1), 10 μg al2o3.l(-1) plus 10 μg zno.l(-1), 100 μg al2o3.l(-1), 100 μg zno.l(-1), and 100 μg al2o3.l(-1) plus 100 μg zno.l(-1)). at ...201627787704
relationship between oxidative stress and brain swelling in goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to high environmental ammonia.buildups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (carassius auratus). we investigated brain swelling and its possible relationship to oxidative stress in the brain and liver of goldfish acutely exposed to high external ammonia (hea; 5 mmol/l nh4cl) at two different acclimation temperatures (14°c, 4°c). exposure to hea at 14°c for 72h resulted in increased internal ammonia and glutamine concentr ...201727784686
morphological and molecular characterisation of myxobolus pronini n. sp. (myxozoa: myxobolidae) from the abdominal cavity and visceral serous membranes of the gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in russia and china.myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to cnidaria. high diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in russia and china; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the russian and chinese isolates of this new myxosporean.201627782848
refuse leachate exposure causes changes of thyroid hormone level and related gene expression in female goldfish (carassius auratus).to elucidate the potential thyroid disrupting effects of refuse leachate on females, female goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to 0.5% diluted leachates from each step of a leachate treatment process (i.e. raw leachate before treatment, after membrane bioreactor treatment, and the final treated leachate) for 21days. raw leachate exposure caused disturbances in the thyroid cascade of female fish, as evidenced by the elevated plasma 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (p<0.05) and thyroid-stimulatin ...201627736670
an in vivo assay performed using multiple biomarkers related to testosterone synthesis and conversion for assessing the androgenic potency of refuse leachate.refuse leachate is likely an important source of androgens. however, common in vitro bioassays underestimate the potential androgenic activity of leachate, owing to non-receptor-mediated mechanisms that modify the balance of sex hormones and promote the accumulation of endogenous androgens. this study aimed to develop an in vivo assay by using multiple biomarkers related to testosterone synthesis and conversion for assessing the potential androgenic activity of refuse leachate sampled from a mun ...201727716536
the genetic map of goldfish (carassius auratus) provided insights to the divergent genome evolutions in the cyprinidae family.a high-density linkage map of goldfish (carassius auratus) was constructed using rna-sequencing. this map consists of 50 linkage groups with 8,521 snp markers and an average resolution of 0.62 cm. approximately 84% of markers are in protein-coding genes orthologous to zebrafish proteins. we performed comparative genome analysis between zebrafish and medaka, common carp, grass carp, and goldfish to study the genome evolution events in the cyprinidae family. the comparison revealed large synteny b ...201627708388
rapid genomic changes in allopolyploids of carassius auratus red var. (♀) × megalobrama amblycephala (♂).to better understand genomic changes in the early generations after polyploidisation, we examined the chromosomal consequences of genomic merger in allotetraploid hybrids (4 nf1) (aabb, 4n = 148) of carassius auratus red var. (rcc) (aa, 2n = 100) (♀) × megalobrama amblycephala (bsb) (bb, 2n = 48) (♂). complete loss of the paternal 5s rdna sequence and the expected number of maternal chromosomal loci were found in 4 nf1, suggesting directional genomic changes occurred in the first generations aft ...201627703178
complete genome sequence and architecture of crucian carp carassius auratus herpesvirus (cahv).crucian carp carassius auratus herpesvirus (cahv) was isolated from diseased crucian carp with acute gill hemorrhages and high mortality. the cahv genome was sequenced and analyzed. the data showed that it consists of 275,348 bp and contains 150 predicted orfs. the architecture of the cahv genome differs from those of four cyprinid herpesviruses (cyhv1, cyhv2, sy-c1, cyhv3), with insertions, deletions and the absence of a terminal direct repeat. phylogenetic analysis of the dna polymerase sequen ...201627591780
checklists of parasites of farm fishes of babylon province, iraq.literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of babylon province, middle of iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (carassius auratus, liza abu, and heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. the parasi ...201627559480
mechanosensory lateral line nerve projections to auditory neurons in the dorsal descending octaval nucleus in the goldfish, carassius auratus.the nucleus medialis is the main first-order target of the mechanosensory lateral line (ll) system. this report definitively demonstrates that mechanosensory ll inputs also terminate in the ipsilateral dorsal portion of the descending octaval nucleus (ddo) in the goldfish. the ddo, which is the main first-order auditory nucleus in bony fishes, includes neurons that receive direct input from the otolithic end organs of the inner ear and project to the auditory midbrain. there are two groups of su ...201627532270
kidney activity increases in copper exposed goldfish (carassius auratus auratus).in the present study, the effect of copper was examined in the common goldfish (carassius auratus auratus). fish were fasted and exposed to either a high (0.84μm), a low (0.34μm) or a control copper concentration (0.05μm) for 1 and 7days. swimming performance was not affected by either fasting or copper exposure. food deprivation alone had no effect on ionoregulation, but low plasma osmolality levels and plasma na(+) were noticed in fasted fish exposed to cu for 7days. both gill na(+)/k(+)-atpas ...201627521798
acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.the four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with nacl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. serum superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione (gsh) activities, red cell count ...201627510860
seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons suppresses osteoblastic activity in the scales of goldfish, carassius auratus.we have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (alp) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (trap) for osteoclasts. using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (npahs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present s ...201627498800
effects of inducers of cytochrome p450s on enrofloxacin n-deethylation in crucian carp carassius auratus this study with crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio), the effect on enrofloxacin (ef) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (cf) and on the activity of cytochrome p450 1a (cyp1a) and cytochrome p450 3a (cyp3a) was estimated following the oral administration of rifampicin (rif) (12mg/kg) and β-naphthoflavone (bnf) (12mg/kg), respectively. first, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) was used to detect the pharmacokinetics of ef with continual blood sampling. in rif-tre ...201627490210
sodium fluoride induces hypercalcemia resulting from the upregulation of both osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in goldfish, carassius auratus.the influence of sodium fluoride (naf) on calcium metabolism was examined in goldfish (fresh water teleost). at 2days after administration of naf (500ng/g body weight; 5μg/g body weight) (around 10(-5) to 10(-4)m in goldfish), we indicated that plasma calcium levels upregulated in both doses of naf-treated goldfish. to examine the mechanism of hypercalcemia by naf treatments, therefore, direct effects of naf on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in goldfish were investigated by an original assay system ...201627475026
identification of nuclear localization signal within goldfish tgf2 transposase.the structure of goldfish (carassius auratus) tgf2 transposase is still poorly understood, although it can mediate efficient gene transfer in teleost fish. we hypothesized the existence of a nuclear localization signal (nls) within tgf2 transposase to assist transport into the nucleus. to explore this, 15 consecutive amino acid residues (656-670 aa) within the c-terminus of tgf2 transposase were predicted in silico to be a nls domain. the pegfp-c1-tgf2tp(△31c) plasmid encoding the nls-domain-del ...201627468946
in silico prediction and in vivo analysis of antiestrogenic potential of 2-isopropylthioxanthone (2-itx) in juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus).previous studies have shown both anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 2-isopropylthioxanthone (2-itx), a well known food contaminant, in in vitro assays. however, no data are available on the anti-estrogenic potentials and risks of 2-itx in aquatic organisms. this work evaluated the potential endocrine disrupting effects of 2-itx at the level of estrogen receptor (er) signaling cascade using juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus) as model. firstly, we investigated the ligand binding ...201627454205
functional characterization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (asc) of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).quantitative expression analysis of goldfish asc indicated the highest and lowest mrna levels in spleen and muscle, respectively. the asc was differentially expressed in normal goldfish tissues and different immune cell populations. the highest asc mrna levels were observed in the spleen and macrophages. we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgfasc) and an anti-asc igg antibody, and report that treatment of goldfish macrophages with nigericin, an inducer of inflammasome pathway, up-re ...201627451255
the oxidative stress in the liver of carassius auratus exposed to acesulfame and its uv irradiance products.acesulfame (ace) is listed as an emerging contaminant due to its environmental persistence and wide occurrence in the environment. ace can be degraded partially in the regular uv disinfection process but the eco-toxicity of its irradiation products remains unclear. this study focused on the possible oxidative status change in the liver of carassius auratus exposed to ace and its irradiation products. the uv degradation of ace follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, and eight irradiation products we ...201627443459
cobalt chloride treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs the olfactory system in three freshwater fishes.fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. these complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. the mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a varie ...201627416112
cryosurvival of isolated testicular cells and testicular tissue of tench tinca tinca and goldfish carassius auratus following slow-rate freezing.experiments were carried out to test the efficiency of cryopreservation of whole testicular tissue in tench tinca tinca and goldfish carassius auratus and compare it to cryopreservation of isolated testicular cells. additionally, effects of three cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulphoxyde - me2so, methanol - meoh and ethylene glycol - eg) at three concentrations (1m, 2m and 3m) on post-thaw cell viability were assessed. tissue pieces/isolated testicular cells were diluted in cryomedia and cryopreserve ...201727401260
toxicity and accumulation of zinc pyrithione in the liver and kidneys of carassius auratus gibelio: association with p-glycoprotein expression.zinc pyrithione (zpt) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent; therefore, it is widely used in industry and civilian life. it is discharged into the aquatic environment with industrial and civilian waste water. carassius sp. is one of the most widely distributed and farmed fish in china. the effects of aquatic zpt on carassius sp. remain unknown. in this study, we determined the acute toxicity of zpt on carassius sp. the results showed that the median lethal concentration (lc50 96 ...201727387320
corrigendum to "tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (carassius auratus)" [chemosphere 152 (2016) 221-228]. 201627338654
the effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio).the present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (gos) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (ghrelin) and immune-related (tnf-1α and tnf-2α) genes expression. one hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-l fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0. ...201627311434
oxidative stress responses in gills of goldfish, carassius auratus, exposed to the metribuzin-containing herbicide sencor.metribuzin belongs to the family of asymmetrical triazine compounds and is an active ingredient in many commercial herbicides including sencor. effects on goldfish (carassius auratus l.) of exposure for 96h to 7.14, 35.7 or 71.4mgl(-1) sencor 70 wg (corresponding to 5, 25 and 50mgl(-1) of metribuzin) were examined by evaluating oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in gills. fish exposed to the lowest sencor concentration (7.14mgl(-1)) showed a 94% increas ...201627310208
collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance.polyelectrolyte multilayers (pemus) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. pemus built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (paa) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (paabp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (pah) are mechanically tunable by uv irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases pemu stiffness. pah-terminated pemus (pah-pemus) that were uncrosslinked, uv-c ...201627292313
evidence that ghrelin may be associated with the food intake of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).ghrelin, a non-amidated peptide hormone, is a potent anorectic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. however, the involvement of ghrelin in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. to better understand the role of ghrelin in the regulation of appetite in fish, in this study, we cloned the cdnas encoding ghrelin and investigated their mrna distributions in gibel carp tissues. we also assessed the effects of different nutritio ...201627287038
gper/gpr30, a membrane estrogen receptor, is expressed in the brain and retina of a social fish (carassius auratus) and colocalizes with isotocin.estradiol rapidly (within 30 minutes) influences a variety of sociosexual behaviors in both mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates, including goldfish, in which it rapidly stimulates approach responses to the visual cues of females. such rapid neuromodulatory effects are likely mediated via membrane-associated estrogen receptors; however, the localization and distribution of such receptors within the nervous system is not well described. to begin to address this gap, we identified gper/gpr30, a ...201727283982
homoeologue expression insights into the basis of growth heterosis at the intersection of ploidy and hybridity in cyprinidae.hybridization and polyploidization are considered important driving forces that form new epigenetic regulations. to study the changing patterns of expression accompanying hybridization and polyploidization, we used rna-seq and qrt-pcr to investigate global expression and homoeologue expression in diploid and tetraploid hybrids of carassius auratus red var. (♀) (r) and cyprinus carpio (♂) (c). by comparing the relative expression levels between the hybrids and their parents, we defined the expres ...201627265401
pilot-scale uv/h2o2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (carassius auratus l.).low concentrations (ng/l-μg/l) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. a potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (uv)/hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) as an advanced oxidation process (aop) which was currently ...201627262120
effects of light-emitting diode spectra on the vertebrate ancient long opsin and gonadotropin hormone in the goldfish carassius auratus.we determined the molecular mechanism underlying the environmental (photoperiodic) regulation of sexual maturation in fish, we examined the expression of sexual maturation-related hormones and vertebrate ancient long opsin (val-opsin) in goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to different light spectra (red and green light-emitting diodes). we further evaluated the effect of exogenous gonadotropin hormone (gth) on the expression of val-opsin under different light conditions. our results demonstrat ...201627255995
morphological and molecular characterization of myxobolus sheyangensis n. sp. (myxosporea: myxobolidae) with intralamellar sporulation in allogynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in china.allogynogenetic gibel carp is one of the most important freshwater cultured species in china. however, myxosporidiosis represents a severe threat to prevent the sustainable development of aquaculture of this species. during the investigation of myxosporean diversity of reared allogynogenetic gibel carp in east china, a new myxosporean with typical characteristics of myxobolus was found from 169 out of 210 (80.4 %) examined samples, designated as myxobolus sheyangensis n. sp. by combing comparati ...201627225002
orexins and receptor ox2r in the gastroenteric apparatus of two teleostean species: dicentrarchus labrax and carassius auratus.orexin a and b peptides and the receptor ox2r were studied in sea bass and goldfish gastroenteric tract by immunoblotting combined with densitometric analysis using nih image j software and immunohistochemical techniques. these teleost species present a different gut organization and diverse feeding habits. immunoblotting experiments showed one band of 16 kda corresponding to prepro-orexin, and one band of 38 kda corresponding to the ox2r receptor. immunohistochemical localization of oxa and oxb ...201627223125
genetic variation and population history of three carassius auratus populations in huaihe river, order to investigate the relationships of drainage history of huaihe river with the genetic history of carassius auratus along the river, we examined the genetic variations and population histories of three wild c. auratus populations in huaihe river based on the d-loop gene. the results showed that their nucleotide and haplotype diversities were ranged from 0.00268 to 0.00651 and from 0.863 to 0.902, respectively, and their genetic distance was quite small. the analysis of molecular variance ...201627206839
effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, carassius auratus.we investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (leds) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 w/m(2)). we measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and h2o2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. the apoptotic response of green and red led spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dutp nick end labeling (tunel) assay. stress indicator (cortisol and h2o2) and apoptosis-rela ...201627181352
enzyme activity and morphological change in the spleens of crucian carp in the yongcheng coal mine subsidence area, china.the goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms in the yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. crucian carp (carassius auratus) were collected from yongcheng natural fishpond (experimental group) and tianmu lake (control group), and the spleens were isolated for analysis. subsequently, histological changes, dna damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. the result showed that there were more vacuoles, widened blood sinus cavities, increased ...201627173263
monitoring and assessment of heavy metal contamination in a constructed wetland in shaoguan (guangdong province, china): bioaccumulation of pb, zn, cu and cd in aquatic and terrestrial components.the objective of this study is to evaluate the current status of heavy metal concentrations in constructed wetland, shaoguan (guangdong, china). sediments, three wetland plants (typha latifolia, phragmites australis, and cyperus malaccensis), and six freshwater fish species [carassius auratus (goldfish), cirrhinus molitorella (mud carp), ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp), cyprinus carpio (wild common carp), nicholsicypris normalis (mandarin fish), sarcocheilichthys kiangsiensis (minnows)] in ...201727164879
ifna of triploid hybrid of gold fish and allotetraploid is an antiviral cytokine against svcv and gcrv.triploid hybrid of gold fish (carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n = 100) and allotetroploid (♂, 2n = 100) displays much improved disease resistance than its parents. in this paper, one of the type i ifns of triploid hybrid (3nifna) has been cloned and characterized. the full-length cdna of 3nifna consists of 740 nucleotides and the predicted 3nifna protein contains 183 amino acids. the mrna transcription of 3nifna was detected in all the selected tissues of triploid hybrid and was obviously enhanc ...201627157597
effects of ifnγ administration on allograft rejection in ginbuna crucian vertebrates, the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity. we recently identified four ifnγ isoforms with antiviral activity in ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii. however, involvement of the ifnγ isoforms in cell-mediated immunity, especially in t cell function remains unknown. here we investigate expression of the ifnγ isoforms and effects of administration of recombinant ifnγ (rgifnγ) isoforms in ginbuna scale allograft rejection. all fou ...201627156851
determination of estrogenic activity in the river chienti (marche region, italy) by using in vivo and in vitro bioassays.environmental estrogen-like compounds (i.e. xenoestrogens) are a variety of pollutants, ranging from synthetic to natural occurring molecules, that are found in surface and waste waters over a wide range of concentrations. in aquatic environment, the overall estrogenic activity is often due to the presence of a mixture of chemicals and their degraded products which can induce synergistic effects. current strategies for monitoring estrogen-like chemicals are based on the use of a battery of in vi ...201627155408
biodiversity data mining from argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of lepomis macrochirus macrochirus rafinesque, 1819 in japan based on twitter apparent illegal introduction of lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from yokohama city, kanagawa prefecture, japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 june 2015 and deposited in the kangawa prefectural museum of natural history. the specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, twitter. two specimens of carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and d ...201627110154
autotriploid origin of carassius auratus as revealed by chromosomal locus the dongting water system, the carassius auratus (crucian carp) complex is characterized by the coexistence of diploid forms (2n=100, 2ncc) and polyploid forms. chromosomal and karyotypic analyses have suggested that the polyploid c. auratus has a triploid (3n=150, 3ncc) and a tetraploid origin (4n=200), respectively. however, there is a lack of direct genetic evidence to support this conclusion. in this paper, analysis of the 5s rdna chromosomal locus revealed that the 3ncc is of triploid or ...201627084707
variation in susceptibility pattern of fish to argulus siamensis: do immune responses of host play a role?branchiuran ectoparasites of the genus argulus can have extensive damaging effects on cultured fish. there exist no systematic studies that evaluate susceptibility or resistance of various carp species to argulus sp. and the underlying mechanisms. the present study aimed at identifying the most susceptible and resistant cultured species, studying settlement and survival of parasite on these species, and finally unravelling the variations of immune response in both resistant and susceptible speci ...201627084477
multibiomarker toxicity characterization of uranium mine drainages to the fish carassius auratus.the release of acidic effluents, naturally enriched in metals and radionuclides, is the main legacy of uranium mines. generally, metals dissolved by these acidic effluents can cause significant alterations in exposed organisms, with distinct toxicological outcomes. in this study, 72 individuals of the freshwater fish species carassius auratus were exposed in situ for different periods (8, 16, 24, and 48 h) to water from a pond (treatment pond (tp)) with a chemically treated effluent and a refere ...201627023822
sialoglycoprotein isolated from eggs of carassius auratus ameliorates osteoporosis: an effect associated with regulation of the wnt/β-catenin pathway in the current study, ovariectomized (ovx) rats and the senescence-accelerated mouse strain p6 (samp6) were employed to establish models of postmenopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis, respectively. the effects of treatment with sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of carassius auratus (ca-sgp) on these two types of osteoporosis were investigated in vivo. results showed that ca-sgp significantly increased bone mineral density, ameliorated trabecular bone microstructure, and improved ...201627023001
tactile reception in the outer head cover of goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio).the first data on the responses of tactile receptors of the tonic, phasic, and mixed types to mechanic stimulation of the surface of head skin of fish obtained by means of noninvasive recording of potentials are presented. the sensitivity of skin tactile receptors is the highest in the circumoral and gular zones, which reflects their functional role in foraging behavior.201627021364
effects of melatonin and green-wavelength led light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.this study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °c) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (led) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. to evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength led light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (t3), thyroxine (t4), and thyroid hormone receptor (tr) mrna expression; ...201627012684
molecular characterization and expressing analysis of the c-type and g-type lysozymes in qihe crucian carp carassius auratus.lysozyme as an important nonspecific immune factor, can kill bacteria by hydrolyzing β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of peptidoglycan layer, and plays an important role in innate immune response against pathogen infection. in the present study, we report molecular cloning, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the c-type and g-type lysozymes in qihe crucian carp carassius auratus (designated as ca-clys and ca-glys, respectively). the full-length of ca-clys and ca-glys cdna were cloned ...201627012394
[evaluation of ivermectin's reproductive toxicity to male carassius auratus].as a new type of antiparasitic drugs, ivermectin (ivm) has been widely applied in agriculture, stock raising and aquaculture in china because of its broad spectrum and high efficiency. in order to evaluate the ivm' s reproductive toxicity to male crucian carp (carassius auratus), ivm was orally given to the experimental fish with different dosages and the gonadosomatic index (gsi), sexual hormone contents (including testosterone and estradiol) in serum and testis, γ-aminobutyric acid content in ...201526995928
identification, cdna cloning, and characterization of luteinizing hormone beta subunit (lhb) gene in catla catla.reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. in the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of catla catla. the lhb full-length of cdna sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-utr (untranslated region) 447bp, orf(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-utr respectively. the coding region of lhb gene encoded a peptide of 148 amino acids. the coding sequence of lhb gen ...201626980432
tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (carassius auratus).tributyltin (tbt) can induce obesogen response. however, little is known about the adverse effects of tbt on food intake and energy metabolism. the present study was designed to investigate the effects of tbt, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/l (1 and 10 ng/l as sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (carassius auratus). after exposure for 54 d, tbt increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. the patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line wi ...201626971175
effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength led light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (carassius auratus) during thermal stress.we tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (leds) on goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °c). the effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. in addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high wate ...201626965749
cryopreservation of goldfish (carassius auratus) spermatozoa: effects of extender supplemented with taurine on sperm motility and dna damage.amino acids, present in seminal plasma at high concentration, protect spermatozoa against cell damage during cryopreservation.201626964024
thyroid disruption in male goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to leachate from a municipal waste treatment plant: assessment combining chemical analysis and in vivo bioassay.several classes of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (tdcs) have been found in refuse leachate, but the potential impacts of leachate on the thyroid cascade of aquatic organisms are yet not known. in this study, we chemically analyzed frequently reported tdcs, as well as conducted a bioassay, to evaluate the potential thyroid-disrupting effects of leachate. we used radioimmunoassay to determine the effects of leachate exposure on plasma 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (t3), 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (t4), and ...201626950620
anatomical features for the adequate choice of experimental animal models in biomedicine: i. constitute the oldest and most diverse class of vertebrates, and are widely used in basic research due to a number of advantages (e.g., rapid development ex-utero, large-scale genetic screening of human disease). they represent excellent experimental models for addressing studies on development, morphology, physiology and behavior function in other related species, as well as informative analysis of conservation and diversity. although less complex, fish share many anatomical and physiologi ...201626925824
phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in an urban receiving river (panlong river) of yunnan-guizhou plateau: occurrence, bioaccumulation and sources.the objectives of this study were to track the occurrence, bioaccumulation and sources of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in a representative urban river (panlong river) of yunnan-guizhou plateau. it provided more comprehensive fundamental data for risk assessment and contamination control of phenolic edcs in aquatic environments. phenolic edcs, such as nonylphenol-di-ethoxylate (np2eo), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (np1eo), 4-nonylphenol (4-np), bisphenol a (bpa), 4-cumylphenol (4 ...201626921547
flow cytometric detection of oxidative dna damage in fish spermatozoa exposed to cadmium - short communication.the aim of the present pilot study was to apply a flow cytometric assay, the so-called oxydna test, to determine the level of oxidative dna damage in fish spermatozoa exposed to different concentrations (0.01-10,000 mg/l) of cadmium. milt was collected from three randomly selected prussian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) males. oxidative dna damage was assessed with the oxydna kit and using flow cytometry. the ratio of oxydna-positive events increased significantly at higher cadmium concentrati ...201626919149
influence of submarine groundwater discharge on (210)po and (210)pb bioaccumulation in fish tissues.this study presents the results of the accumulation of (210)po and (210)pb in fish tissues and organs in a brackish-water marshland that is characterized by high concentrations of (222)rn and (226)ra supplied by submarine groundwater discharge (sgd). tissues and organs from cyprinus carpio, chelon labrosus and carassius auratus in the wetland were significantly enriched by both (210)pb and (210)po (up to 55 and 66 times, respectively) compared to blanks. the major input route of (210)pb and (210 ...201626913976
bioconcentration and metabolism of ketoconazole and effects on multi-biomarkers in crucian carp (carassius auratus).the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the antifungal medication ketoconazole were investigated in fish, crucian carp (carassius auratus) were exposed to a series of nominal concentrations (0.2, 2 and 20 μg/l) for 14 days. the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy (uplc/ms/ms) analysis was used to determine the bioconcentration of ketoconazole and its metabolites in fish. the highest tissue concentration o ...201626901470
evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (cps) in anthropogenic activities, 2-chlorophenol (2-cp), among other cps, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-cp using a combination of bioas ...201626897408
stimulatory effect of the secretogranin-ll derived peptide secretoneurin on food intake and locomotion in female goldfish (carassius auratus).secretoneurin (sn) is a conserved peptide derived by proteolytic processing from the middle domain of the ∼600 amino acid precursor secretogranin-ii (sgii). secretoneurin is widely distributed in secretory granules of endocrine cells and neurons and has important roles in reproduction as it stimulates luteinizing hormone release from the pituitary. a potential new role of sn in goldfish feeding is the subject of this study. firstly, we established that acute (26 h; p<0.0001) and short-term (72 h ...201626860475
modulation of 17β-estradiol induced estrogenic responses in male goldfish (carassius auratus) by benzo[a]pyrene and ketoconazole.the aquatic environment is challenged with complex mixtures of chemicals that may interact biochemically with each other in non-target aquatic organisms through a combination of actions, resulting in unpredictable mixture toxicity. this study focuses on the interactive effects of chemicals, including benzo(a)pyrene (bap) and ketoconazole (kcz), on 17β-estradiol (e2)-induced estrogenic responses in male goldfish (carassius auratus). the possible interactions between bap or kcz and e2 were investi ...201626825522
isolation and characterization of hematopoietic stem cells in teleost fish.despite 400 million years of evolutionary divergence, hematopoiesis is highly conserved between mammals and teleost fish. all types of mature blood cells including the erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages show a high degree of similarity to their mammalian counterparts at the morphological and molecular level. hematopoietic stem cells (hscs) are cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiating into all hematopoietic lineages over the lifetime of an organism. the study of hscs has ...201626801099
interactive effects of selected pharmaceutical mixtures on bioaccumulation and biochemical status in crucian carp (carassius auratus).the aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of fluoxetine (flu), roxithromycin (rox) and propranolol (prp) on the bioaccumulation and biochemical responses in the crucian carp carassius auratus. after 7 days of binary exposure (rox + flu and prp + flu), the addition of waterborne flu at nominal concentrations of 4, 20 and 100 μg l(-1) significantly increased the accumulation of rox and prp in fish livers in most cases, although elevated rox and prp bioaccumulation levels were n ...201626800487
solution structure of the z-dna binding domain of pkr-like protein kinase from carassius auratus and quantitative analyses of the intermediate complex during b-z transition.z-dna binding proteins (zbps) play important roles in rna editing, innate immune response and viral infection. structural and biophysical studies show that zbps initially form an intermediate complex with b-dna for b-z conversion. however, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of z-dna binding and b-z transition is still lacking, due to the absence of structural information on the intermediate complex. here, we report the solution structure of the zα domain of the zbp-containing protein ...201626792893
sialoglycoproteins prepared from the eggs of carassius auratus prevent bone loss by inhibiting the nf-κb pathway in ovariectomized this study, we investigated the improvement of osteoporosis by sialoglycoproteins isolated from the eggs of carassius auratus (ca-sgp) in ovariectomized rats. ca-sgp was supplemented to ovariectomized sprague-dawley rats for 90 days. the results showed that ca-sgp treatment remarkably prevented the reduction of bone mass, improved cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties. ca-sgp also significantly decreased the serum contents of trap, cath-k, mmp-9, dpd, ctx-1, ca, and p. mechanis ...201626765587
responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pfdds) exposure in liver of freshwater fish carassius this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pfdds) congeners to freshwater fish carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual pfdds for 3 and 14 days. the results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some pfdds-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (supe ...201626761781
development of monoclonal antibodies against polar filaments and spore valves of myxobolus honghuensis (myxosporea: bivalvulida).myxobolus honghuensis infects the pharynx of allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) and can cause high mortality. only morphology-based diagnostic methods are currently available for clinical samples, but these methods are laborious and have low efficiency of detection. to overcome this problem, we designed a more sensitive diagnostic method. two monoclonal antibodies (mabs 1c7 and 3b7) were prepared by immunizing mice with soluble protein from sonicated m. honghuensis spor ...201626758653
insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (igfbp-1) in goldfish, carassius auratus: molecular cloning, tissue expression, and mrna expression responses to periprandial changes and cadmium this study, the cdna encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (igfbp-1) was cloned from the liver of goldfish (carassius auratus). the obtained goldfish igfbp-1 cdna sequence was 1037 bp in length and had an open reading frame of 789 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 262 amino acid residues. igfbp-1 transcript was detected in all tested central nervous and peripheral tissues. the relatively higher levels of igfbp-1 mrna were observed in the liver, gill, kidney, heart, spleen ...201626753895
genotoxicity of water contaminants from the basin of lake sevan, armenia evaluated by the comet assay in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) and tradescantia bioassays.combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of lake sevan in armenia. water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio), tradescantia micronucleus (trad-mcn) and tradescantia stamen hair mutation (trad-shm) assays. significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity acco ...201626739952
the complete mitochondrial genome of carassius auratus var. high back crucian carp (cypriniformes: cyprinidae).in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of carassius auratus var. high back crucian carp (c. auratus var.) was determined (genbank accession number is kt756205). the mitochondrial genome sequence of c. auratus var. was a circular molecule with 16 581 bp in length, and contained 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes, including 2 ribosomal rna genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes and a control region (d-loop). four nucleotide compositions and their relative propo ...201726709972
prevalence of argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (carassius auratus) and koi (cyprinus carpio)] in kerman, southeast of iran.the genus argulus (crustacea: branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. this parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. it caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. besides the damage and stress caused by argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can ...201526688652
mass spectrometry-assisted confirmation of the inability of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 to cleave goldfish peptide yy(1-36) and the lack of anorexigenic effects of peptide yy(3-36) in goldfish (carassius auratus).dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (dpp4) is a serine protease of great interest because it has been shown to modulate the activity of several peptidergic factors including peptide yy (pyy) and glucagon-like peptide-1/2. while pyy(1-36) is orexigenic in mammals, pyy(3-36) recently garnered interest as a potent anorexigen. in silico phylogenetic analysis found that the dpp4 cleavage sites are absent in fish pyy sequences. however, no studies were conducted to show that indeed pyy(3-36) is not produced by dpp ...201626676513
comparative proteomic, physiological, morphological, and biochemical analyses reveal the characteristics of the diploid spermatozoa of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (carassius auratus) and common carp (cyprinus carpio).the generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. the dna content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. we performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. using two-dimensional electr ...201626674567
bioconcentration, metabolism and effects of diphenhydramine on behavioral and biochemical markers in crucian carp (carassius auratus).diphenhydramine (dph), an antihistamine used to alleviate human allergies, is widespread in aquatic environments. however, little is known about the biochemical and behavioral effects of dph on non-target aquatic animals. in the present study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, biochemical and behavioral effects were investigated in crucian carp (carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of dph (0.84, 4.23, 21.7 and 112 μg l(-1)) for 7d. dph can accumulate in cruci ...201626657385
antioxidant defenses and histological changes in carassius auratus after combined exposure to zinc and three multi-walled carbon nanotubes.with the increasing applications of carbon nanotubes (cnts) worldwide, considerable concerns have been raised regarding their inevitable releases into natural waters and ecotoxicity. it was supposed that cnts may interact with some existing pollutants like zinc in aquatic systems and exhibit different effects when compared with their single treatments. however, data on their possible combined toxicity on aquatic species are still lacking. moreover, the interactions of zn with different functiona ...201626655435
the chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5s rdna fish.the establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = aa) (♀) × common carp (cyprinus carpio l. 2n = 100, 2n = bb) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies.201526635010
carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. the culex genus, with special reference to culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of asia. in recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. however, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. in this study, ...201626614358
effects of semen extender supplemented with l-methionine and packaging methods (straws and pellets) on post-thaw goldfish (carassius auratus) sperm quality and dna damage.amino acids protect spermatozoa against cell damage during cryopreservation due to have antioxidant property and found in seminal plasma at high concentration.201526574681
pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp, carassius auratus gibelio.the pharmacokinetic properties of sarafloxacin were investigated after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp at 24-26 °c. the plasma concentrations of sarafloxacin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. after i.v. administration, the plasma concentration-time data were described by an open two-compartment model. the elimination half-life (t(1/2β)) was estimated to be 22.58 h. the volume o ...201626563280
goldfish (carassius auratus l.) as a model system to study the growth factors, receptors and transcription factors that govern myelopoiesis in fish.the process of myeloid cell development (myelopoiesis) in fish has mainly been studied in three cyprinid species: zebrafish (danio rerio), ginbuna carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii) and goldfish (c. auratus, l.). our studies on goldfish myelopoiesis have utilized in vitro generated primary kidney macrophage (pkm) cultures and isolated primary kidney neutrophils (pkns) cultured overnight to study the process of macrophage (monopoiesis) and neutrophil (granulopoiesis) development and the key gro ...201626546240
in situ localization and rhythmic expression of ghrelin and ghs-r1 ghrelin receptor in the brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (carassius auratus).ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghs-r) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the e ...201526506093
effects of body chemical components on the allometric scaling of the resting metabolic rate in four species of cyprinids.metabolic scaling is hypothesized to be affected by ontogenetic changes in the body chemical composition because several body components do not consume significant amounts of oxygen but contribute more to body mass (m) as a fish grows. we tested this hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (rmr) and body compositions of lipid, protein, ash, and water in four species of cyprinids, hypophthalmichthys molitrix (m range 9.5-218.3 g), cyprinus carpio (m range 14.6-226.9 ...201626407956
correlations of gut microbial community shift with hepatic damage and growth inhibition of carassius auratus induced by pentachlorophenol exposure.goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to 0-100 μg/l pentachlorophenol (pcp) for 28 days to investigate the correlations of fish gut microbial community shift with the induced toxicological effects. pcp exposure caused accumulation of pcp in the fish intestinal tract in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while hepatic pcp reached the maximal level after a 21 day exposure. under the relatively higher pcp stress, the fish body weight and liver weight were reduced and hepatic cat and sod activit ...201526378342
ultrasonographic and pathologic study of schwannoma in a goldfish (carassius auratus).an adult goldfish (carassius auratus) developed an exophitic, multinodular, mass in the dorsal region involving the fin. the clinical and pathologic approach included ultrasonography, cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural evaluation. b-mode and color doppler ultrasonographic findings showed an oval, well-defined mass with slightly inhomogeneous parenchymatous echotexture associated with an intense intralesional vascularization. cytology and histology revealed neopla ...201526356489
human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (carassius auratus).protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. the expression of cdx2, creb, gluatamate dehydrogenase, lat2, aminopeptidase n, pept1, and sp1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except ...201526345757
response of vitamins a, e, hematological and serum biochemical markers in crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) exposed to environmental pb(2+) and cd(2+).toxicity of pb(2+) and cd(2+) is a widespread issue in the world; however, few studies have been conducted to understand their effect at environmentally realistic concentration in a mixture. in the present study, crucian carp was exposed to pb(2+) (30 µg·l(-1)), cd(2+) (100 µg·l(-1)) and their mixture (30+100 µg·l(-1)) for 96 h and 21 d period to assess changes in the liver and muscle vitamin a and e content, and hematological and serum biochemical parameters. the results indicated significant d ...201526336655
isolation, characterization, and tissue-specific expression of gaba a receptor α1 subunit gene of carassius auratus gibelio after avermectin treatment.carassius auratus gibelio has been widely cultivated in fish farms in china, with avermectin (avm) being used to prevent parasite infection. recently, avm was found to pass through the carassius auratus gibelio blood-brain barrier (bbb). although avm acts mainly through a gaba receptor and specifically the α1 subunit gene, the most common isoform of the gaba a receptor, which is widely expressed in brain neurons and has been studied in other fish, carassius auratus gibelio gaba a receptor α1 sub ...201626318443
postembryonic staging of wild-type goldfish, with brief reference to skeletal systems.artificial selection of postembryonic features is known to have established morphological variation in goldfish (carassius auratus). although previous studies have suggested that goldfish and zebrafish are almost directly comparable at the embryonic level, little is known at the postembryonic level.201526316229
neutrophil contributions to the induction and regulation of the acute inflammatory response in teleost fish.neutrophils are essential to the acute inflammatory response, where they serve as the first line of defense against infiltrating pathogens. we report that, on receiving the necessary signals, teleost (carassius auratus) neutrophils leave the hematopoietic kidney, enter into the circulation, and dominate the initial influx of cells into a site of inflammation. unlike mammals, teleost neutrophils represent <5% of circulating leukocytes during periods of homeostasis. however, this increases to near ...201626292979
comparison of the toxicokinetics and bioaccumulation potential of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in goldfish (carassius auratus).both mercury (hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) demonstrate food web biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems, yet their toxicokinetics have not been simultaneously contrasted within a common fish species. this study quantifies uptake and elimination rates of hg and pcbs in goldfish. fish were exposed to contaminated food containing pcbs and hg to determine dietary chemical assimilation efficiencies (aes) and elimination coefficients (ktot). to test first-order kinetics, three exposure regi ...201526287735
multistress effects on goldfish (carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. the aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. goldfish, carassius ...201626272290
myxozoans and our dinner table: pathogenicity studies of myxobolus honghuensis (myxosporea: bivalvulida) using a suckling mice model.myxobolus honghuensis parasitizes the pharynx of the allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), an economically important food fish with large consumption rates in china. the fact that it is hard to detect the cysts formed by m. honghuensis without euthanizing the fish and the spores can reach the consumers has prompted us to investigate the effect of m. honghuensis on conventional, immunocompetent balb/c suckling mice, in order to consider the possible pathological effects in ...201526258259
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