[use of alburnus alburnus alborella in evaluation of the toxicity of sewage. i. comparative research with respect to carassius auratus]. 20064670269
use of a complex approach for assessment of metamizole sodium and acetylsalicylic acid toxicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.a complex approach based on the use of test organisms belonging to different systematic groups (plants, invertebrates and vertebrates), as well as the nucleolar biomarker and the micronucleus test on their cells, was applied to assess the toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two pharmaceutical substances (metamizole sodium and acetylsalicylic acid) applied at ic(50) concentrations for mammalian cells. the compound acetylsalicylic acid was evaluated at a concentration (1.6 x 10(3) mg l(-1)) ...201515478170
dietary aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, carassius auratus.aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. the present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mrna le ...201323135154
potassium conductance in müller cells of fish.the distribution of potassium conductance across the surface of retinal glial (müller) cells was determined in three species of fishes: two teleosts, the goldfish (carassius auratus) and the alewife (alosa pseudoharengus), and an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish (squalus acanthias). potassium conductance was measured by monitoring cell depolarizations evoked by focal ejections of a 15 meq/l k+ solution onto the surface of freshly dissociated cells. the k+ conductance distributions observed in the ...19882467883
in vivo and in vitro studies on the host specificity of trypanoplasma salmositica.the host specificity of trypanoplasma salmositica was studied by experimental inoculation into 13 species of common teleosts (notropis cornutus, notropis heterolepis, notropis spiloperus, nocomis biguttatus, rhinichthys atratulus, semotilus atromaculatus, carassius auratus, ambloplites rupestris, lepomis gibbosus, etheostoma nigrum, hypentelium nigricans, ictalurus melas, and eucalia inconstans). t. salmositica was not recovered at 14 and 40 days post inoculation. however, large numbers of the p ...19807431516
learning about non-predators and safe places: the forgotten elements of risk assessment.a fundamental prerequisite for prey to avoid being captured is the ability to distinguish dangerous stimuli such as predators and risky habitats from non-dangerous stimuli such as non-predators and safe locations. most research to date has focused on mechanisms allowing prey to learn to recognize risky stimuli. the paradox of learned predator recognition is that its remarkable efficiency leaves room for potentially costly mistakes if prey inadvertently learn to recognize non-predatory species as ...201121203793
assessment of the health status of wild fish from the wheatley harbour area of concern, ontario, canada.the overall health and endocrine function of wild brown bullhead (ameiurus nebulosus) and goldfish (carassius auratus) from the wheatley harbour area of concern (lake erie, ontario, canada) was assessed using a suite of physiological and biochemical endpoints. smaller gonads were detected in female brown bullhead and goldfish from wheatley harbour compared with hillman marsh (ontario, canada) reference fish. female brown bullhead exhibited decreased in vitro synthesis of 17β-estradiol. female go ...201223027428
retinomotor responses in the enucleated eyes of the brown bullhead (ictalurus nebulosus) and the goldfish (carassius auratus). 196414146373
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of full-length growth hormone cdnas from six important economic this study,the full-length cdnas of gh (growth hormone) gene was isolated from six important economic fishes, siniperca kneri, epinephelus coioides, monopterus albus, silurus asotus, misgurnus anguillicaudatus and carassius auratus gibelio bloch. it is the first time to clone these gh sequences except e. coioides gh. the lengths of the above cdnas are as follows: 953 bp, 1 023 bp, 825 bp, 1 082 bp, 1 154 bp and 1 180 bp. each sequence includes an orf of about 600 bp which encodes a protein of ...200515715434
organization of inner ear endorgan projections in the goldfish, carassius auratus.cytoarchitectural analysis of the octavolateralis area of the goldfish, carassius auratus, reveals that as in other teleosts, five first-order octaval nuclei are present: the anterior octaval, magnocellular, descending, tangential, and posterior octaval nuclei. the descending nucleus appears to be anatomically specialized relative to that of the halecomorph amia calva and many teleosts in that a large dorsomedial subpopulation of the nucleus lies medial to nucleus medialis, a first-order lateral ...19948038983
the development of a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for oncorhynchid growth hormone using monoclonal antibodies.the development of a sensitive and specific two-site, or sandwich, noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for oncorhynchid growth hormone (gh) using monoclonal antibodies (mcas) is reported. the mcas were generated by the fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice that had been immunized with chum salmon (oncorhynchus keta) recombinant gh. the mcas specifically recognized the gh-secreting acidophils in the proximal pars distalis of immature male rainbow trout (oncorhyn ...19911879674
experimental infection of aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish.epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. the objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the eus and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups.201527047195
in vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. it has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. thus, in the p ...201121443921
the chromogranin a-derived sympathomimetic serpinin depresses myocardial performance in teleost and amphibian hearts.chromogranin a (cga) is an acidic protein co-stored with catecholamines, hormones and neuropeptides in the secretory granules of endocrine, neuronal and other cell types (including cardiomyocytes). proteolytic cleavage in the c terminus of cga generates a 2.9kda peptide named serpinin (serp; ala26leu) that can be modified at its n terminus to form a pyroglutamate residue (pglu-serp). in the rat heart, both peptides increase contractility and relaxation through a β-adrenergic-like action mechanis ...201727633326
biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.the distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) were determined in fish species (european perch perca fluviatilis, northern pike esox lucius, pike perch sander lucioperca, wels catfish silirus glanus, common carp cyprinus carpio, european eel anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream abramis brama, goldfish carassius auratus, and roach rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir zemplínska šírava (slovakia). the study performed at two different time points 5 years ap ...201222173787
olfactory sensitivity to bile fluid and bile salts in the european eel (anguilla anguilla), goldfish (carassius auratus) and mozambique tilapia (oreochromis mossambicus) suggests a 'broad range' sensitivity not confined to those produced by conspecifics alone.teleosts have high olfactory sensitivity to bile salts. to assess whether this phenomenon is involved in intra-specific chemical communication alone, or is part of a more ;broad range' sensitivity to bile salts produced by heterospecifics, we investigated possible differences in the odour of bile between the sexes and among different species - the eel (anguilla anguilla), goldfish (carassius auratus) and mozambique tilapia (oreochromis mossambicus) - using the electro-olfactogram (eog). we also ...201020038666
effect of the pesticide deltamethrin on the mauthner cells of lake balaton fish.deltamethrin, a synthetic pesticide [(s)alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1r)-cis-3-(2.2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dim ethylcyclopropane-carboxylate] used for extermination of mosquitoes on the shores of lake balaton, has been found to induce severe impairments of the nervous system of several lake balaton fish, such as carp (cyprinus carpio), goldfish (carassius auratus gibelis bloch), eel (anguilla anguilla) and wels (silurus glanis). it has been shown that deltamethrin, in a concentration of 1 microgram/l ...200010894124
the branching of insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin: an immunohistochemical analysis during phylogeny.the co-existence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) with the classical islet hormones insulin (ins), glucagon (gluc), somatostatin (som) and pancreatic polypeptide (pp) in the endocrine pancreas of representative species of cyclostomes (myxine glutinosa), cartilaginous fish (raja clavata, squalus acanthias) and bony fish (cottus scorpius, carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, anguilla anguilla) was studied by the use of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera and the double immunofluorescence tech ...19938265818
further observations on the presence of wandering phagocytes within the teleostean retina.a previous report by this author has noted the presence of wandering phagocytes at the photo-receptor-retinal epithelial interface in five teleostean species. a further 5 species have now been investigated by electron microscopy and again all specimens examined consistently show the presence of this population of phagocytes. the new species studied are the goldeye (hiodon alosoides), the yellow eel (anguilla anguilla), the archer fish (toxotes jaculatrix), the goldfish (carassius auratus) and th ...19854073522
depression of sodium, chloride and calcium ions in the plasma of goldfish (carassius auratus) and immature freshwater- and seawater-adapted eels (anguilla anguilla l.) after acute administration of salmon calcitonin.goldfish showed a significant reduction in their plasma sodium and calcium levels 1 h after receiving 50 i.u. calcitonin per kg body weight. when 100 i.u. calcitonin were injected there was a significant fall in circulating levels of both sodium and calcium and also of chloride ions compared with those found in untreated control animals. administration of calcitonin to immature eels adapted to either freshwater or seawater conditions showed no significant change in plasma ion composition at dose ...19836875432
plasma cortisol concentrations in two teleost fishes, anguilla anguilla l. and carassius auratus l.: a comparison of two assay systems. 19744608521
[seasonal changes of fish species composition and diversity in mudflat wetlands of hangzhou bay].in order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of hangzhou bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the bay in. march (early spring), may (spring), july (summer), and october (autumn), 2009. a total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), ...201021443016
immunocytochemical localization of taurine in the fish retina under light and dark adaptations.previously we have observed the lack of immunoreactivity of taurine in the rod outer segments from light-adapted fish, such as the ayu plecoglossus altivelis and lefteye flounder paralichthys olivaceus. this finding prompted us to investigate if there is a difference in the immunocytochemical localization of taurine in the rod outer segments between the dark- and light-adapted states. in the retinas of the glass eel anguilla japonica and the young goldfish carassius auratus, extremely intense im ...200011140362
drinking induced by angiotensin ii in fishes.among 20 species of freshwater fishes examined, pseudorasbora parva, rhodeus ocellatus, cobitis anguillicaudatus, carassius auratus, oryzias latipes, gambusia affinis, and gyrinocheilus anymonieri were found to drink water like seawater fishes, while 13 remaining species did not drink. for fish species found exclusively in fresh water, angiotensin ii (aii) treatment did not induce drinking. in contrast, those freshwater fishes which survive in estuarine brackish water (leuciscus hakonensis, c. c ...19836840524
[experimental research on the biological cycle of phyllodistomum elongatum nybelin, 1926 (digenea: gorgoderidae looss, 1901)].experimental infection of tinca tinca and carassius auratus have demonstrated that cercaria duplicata von baer, 1827 is the larval form of phyllodistomum elongatum nybelin, 1926 and that the life-cycle occurs between anodonta cygnea (intermediate host) and tinca tinca or carassius auratus (final host) without a second intermediate host. the life-history experimentally completed in the laboratory occurs in the following way: -- adult in the ureters of tinca tinca and carassius auratus; -- mother ...20061233405
direct and indirect effect of predators on anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.the increased insecticides resistance by vectors and the ecological harm imposed by insecticides to beneficial organisms drawback mosquitoes chemical control efforts. biological control would reduce insecticides tolerance and yet biodiversity friend. the predatory and non-predatory effects of gambusia affinis and carassius auratus on gravid anopheles gambiae sensu strict and larvae survivorship were assessed. in determining predation rate, a single starved predator was exposed to third instar la ...201525438260
ionoregulatory aspects of the osmorespiratory compromise during acute environmental hypoxia in 12 tropical and temperate the traditional osmorespiratory compromise, as seen in the hypoxia-intolerant freshwater rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), the branchial modifications that occur to improve o2 uptake during hypoxia result in unfavorable increases in the fluxes of ions and water. however, at least one hypoxia-tolerant freshwater species, the amazonian oscar (astronotus ocellatus), shows exactly the opposite: decreased branchial flux rates of ions, water, and nitrogenous wastes during acute hypoxia. in order ...201526052633
the study of adrenal chromaffin of fish, carassius auratus (toleostei).in c. auratus the adrenal chramaffin tissue is situated around the posterior cardinal veins, in the head kidney. chromaffin tissue consists of two types of cells containing secretory granules, adrenaline and nor adrenaline cells. the cells produced catecholamine hormones. adrenaline cell contains electron-lucent granules, whereas nor adrenaline cells possesses electron-dense granules. cholinergic fibers embedded in the head kidney innervated the chromaffin cell. two types of secretory structures ...200818810974
evolution of gustatory reflex systems in the brainstems of fishes.the great number of species of teleosts permits highly specialized forms to evolve to occupy particular niches. this diversity allows for extreme variations in brain structure according to particular sensory or motor adaptations. in the case of the taste system, goldfish (carassius auratus l., 1758) and some carps have evolved a specialized intraoral food-sorting apparatus along with corresponding specializations of gustatory centers in the brainstem. a comparison of circuitry within the complex ...200920160963
a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for the quantitative analysis of carassius auratus vitellogenin.a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantitatively detect carassius auratus vitellogenin (vtg) levels. the protein levels in fish plasma are useful aquatic biomarkers of estrogenic compounds. this procedure involved an elisa using monoclonal antibodies of cvma2 and cvma7 against carassius auratus vtg, and cvma7 conjugated to horseradish peroxidase as the detection antibody. the assay range was between 1 and 401.5 ng/ml and the recovery of the vtg added to carass ...200515823333
a separation-free amperometric immunosensor for vitellogenin based on screen-printed carbon arrays modified with a conductive polymer.a disposable amperometric immunosensor was studied for the rapid detection of carp (carassius auratus) vitellogenin (vtg). the sensor was fabricated based on screen-printed carbon arrays (spcas) containing eight carbon working and an integrated carbon counter electrodes. to construct the sensor, a conducting polymer (poly-terthiophene carboxylic acid) was electropolymerized on the surface of working electrodes and the polymer-coated spcas was characterized by sem. horseradish peroxidase (hrp) an ...200515681194
influence of forskolin and carbachol on intestinal absorption of horseradish peroxidase in the goldfish (carassius auratus).the transepithelial route for mucosa-to-serosa transport of the tracer macromolecule horseradish peroxidase (hrp; mw 40 kda) and modulation of this transport by forskolin and carbachol have been studied in vi-tro in stripped goldfish intestinal epithelium mounted in ussing-type chambers. uptake and transport have been investigated by measuring the hrp flux from the muco-sal to serosal sides by an enzymatic method and by visualising hrp reaction products in the mucosa with electron-microscopical ...19968766857
connections of octaval and lateral line nuclei of the medulla in the goldfish, including the cytoarchitecture of the secondary octaval population in goldfish and catfish.cytoarchitectural analyses combined with injections of the tracer horseradish peroxidase in various structures in the brain of the goldfish, carassius auratus, have defined some of the major components of acoustic and lateral line mechanosensory circuits between the medulla and midbrain. the main acoustic receptor in carassius, the saccule, is known to provide a major input to the dorsomedial zone of the descending octaval nucleus. the dorsomedial zone in turn projects bilaterally to the seconda ...19968680846
central projections from the goldfish pineal organ traced by hrp-immunocytochemistry.pineal efferent projections have been traced in the brain of the goldfish (carassius auratus) by administration of a concentrated solution of horseradish peroxidase onto the pineal organ. after different survival times, fish were sacrificed and the administered peroxidase was revealed by immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections using an anti-horseradish peroxidase antiserum. immunoreactive fibres were seen in the anterior hypothalamus, habenula, dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus, optic tectum, t ...19958574005
distribution of neurons projecting to the trochlear nucleus in goldfish (carassius auratus).the distribution of neurons projecting to the trochlear nucleus of goldfish (carassius auratus) was studied by the electrophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase into the nucleus. the location of the injection site was electrophysiologically determined by the antidromic field potential elicited from the trochlear nucleus after the electrical stimulation of its nerve. retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the following structures: (1) anterior, tangential and descending nuclei of the ...19957620876
topographic organization of descending projection neurons to the spinal cord of the goldfish, carassius auratus.several neurons from different nuclei give rise to descending spinal tracts and project to various levels in the spinal cord of goldfish, carassius auratus. these were visualized by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) administered to the bilaterally transected spinal cord at 6 levels, corresponding to 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 25th segments of the vertebral column. as many as 16 brain nuclei or neuronal aggregations and the mauthner cells project posteriorly up to the 20th ...19937690299
segmental arrangement of reticulospinal neurons in the goldfish hindbrain.the hindbrain is evolutionarily conserved among diverse vertebrate phyla. in vertebrate embryos, the hindbrain is segmentally organized as a series of overt swellings known as rhombomeres. in the larval zebrafish brachydanio rerio, conspicuous and identifiable reticulospinal neurons are positioned in the center of rhombomeres. segmentally homologous reticulospinal neurons that share a range of morphological, developmental, and biochemical features occupy adjacent rhombomeres. we have recently sh ...19938454739
neuroanatomical substrate for the dorsal light response. i. differential afferent connections of the lateral lobe of the valvula cerebelli in goldfish (carassius auratus).the afferent connections of the lateral lobe of the valvula cerebelli in goldfish were investigated by retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase (hrp). retrogradely labeled neurons were observed ipsilaterally in the lateral nucleus of the valvula and contralaterally in the inferior olivary nucleus after hrp injection into all parts of the lateral valvula. the valvulopetal projections from these nuclei were topographically arranged. after hrp injection confined to the rostral half of the la ...19938387162
afferents to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (carassius auratus) as revealed by retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase.the goal of this work was to compare the distribution and morphology of neurons projecting to the oculomotor nucleus in goldfish with those previously described in other vertebrate groups. afferent neurons were revealed by retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase. the tracer was electrophoretically injected into the oculomotor nucleus. the location of the injection site was determined by the antidromic field potential elicited in the oculomotor nucleus by electrical stimulation of the ocu ...19921401270
ascending general visceral pathways within the brainstems of two teleost fishes: ictalurus punctatus and carassius auratus.the primary general visceral nucleus in goldfish (carassius auratus) and catfish (ictalurus punctatus) is located at the ventroposterior boundary of the vagal gustatory lobe and receives coelomic visceral, but not gustatory inputs. the neuronal tracer horseradish peroxidase (hrp) was employed to visualize sources of input to and ascending projections from the primary general visceral nucleus in these species. in addition, immunocytochemical techniques were utilized to define the cytological divi ...19921629401
functional organization of vagal reflex systems in the brain stem of the goldfish, carassius auratus.the coordination of secretory and motor responses to food within the alimentary canal requires well organized brain stem reflex systems. in the goldfish, carassius auratus, three vagal reflex systems control three phases of ingestion and digestion. the orobranchial system sorts food from substrate, the pharyngeal chewing organ prepares items deemed to be food for digestion and absorption, and the abdominal system regulates the digestion of food. each system is represented in the central nervous ...19921619041
a morphological study of abducens nucleus motoneurons and internuclear neurons in the goldfish (carassius auratus).the location and distribution of abducens (abd) nucleus motoneurons (mn) and internuclear neurons (int) were determined in the goldfish (carassius auratus) by means of horseradish peroxidase and fluorochrome retrograde labeling. abd mn were labeled following tracer injection into the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle. these mn were arranged in two ventrolateral clusters along the rostro-caudal axis of the posterior brainstem. both groups of neurons showed a similar number of cells, and their axo ...19921540841
peripheral distribution and central projections of the lateral-line nerves in goldfish, carassius auratus.the lateral-line system of the goldfish, carassius auratus, is described from the receptor distribution on the body surface to the termination of the primary afferents within the octavolateralis column. goldfish have a continuous lateral-line canal system which consists of supraorbital, infraorbital, operculomandibular and supratemporal commissural canals on the head and a trunk canal extending the length of the trunk. there is a single neuromast between each 2 canal pores. the total number of c ...19892819411
afferent projections of the trigeminal nerve in the goldfish, carassius auratus.the horseradish peroxidase (hrp) histochemical technique was used to examine the peripheral distribution and afferent projections of the trigeminal nerve in the goldfish, carassius auratus. sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve distribute over the head via four branches. the ophthalmic branch distributes fibers to the region above the eye and naris. the maxillary and mandibular branches innervate the regions of the upper and lower lip, respectively. a fourth branch of the trigeminal nerve was d ...19883216394
putative cholinergic projections from the nucleus isthmi and the nucleus reticularis mesencephali to the optic tectum in the goldfish (carassius auratus).the nucleus isthmi of fish and amphibians has reciprocal connections with the optic tectum, and biochemical studies suggested that it may provide a major cholinergic input to the tectum. in goldfish, we have combined immunohistochemical staining for choline acetyltransferase with retrograde labeling of nucleus isthmi neurons after tectal injections of horseradish peroxidase. seven fish received tectal horseradish peroxidase injections, and brain tissue from these animals was subsequently process ...19882463280
descending projection neurons to the spinal cord of the goldfish, carassius auratus.the sources of descending spinal tracts in the goldfish, carassius auratus, were visualized by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) administered to the hemisected spinal cord. in the diencephalon, hrp-positive neurons were identified in the nucleus preopticus magnocellularis pars magnocellularis and ventromedial nucleus of the thalamus of the ipsilateral side. in the mesencephalic tegmentum, a few somata of the contralateral nucleus ruber and several ipsilateral neurons of the nu ...19872826554
the peripheral distribution and central projections of the sensory rami of the facial nerve in goldfish, carassius auratus.taste buds in goldfish and other cyprinids are found not only within the oropharyngeal cavity but also scattered over the external body surface. the external taste buds are innervated by branches of the facial nerve that terminate centrally in an enlargement of the medulla termed the facial lobe. the peripheral distribution and areas of innervation of the rami of the facial sensory nerve were determined by using a modification of the sihler technique and by examination of a bodian-stained head s ...19873584562
retinal topography in the optic tract of adult goldfish.the present study was aimed at determining how transformations in fiber order establish a retinal topography in the optic tract of adult carassius auratus. horseradish peroxidase was applied to the optic nerve or retina, and the pathways of labeled axons originating from retinal annuli or wedges were analysed in reconstructed serial-sections and wholeamounts of the optic pathway. the age-related fiber order of the optic tract involves a rotation of the optic pathway that begins near the chiasm, ...19863822125
topographic and laminar organization of the vagal gustatory system in the goldfish, carassius auratus.the large majority of intraoral taste buds in goldfish are located on the gill arches and on the palatal organ, a muscular organ situated on the roof of the mouth. these taste buds are innervated by branches of the vagus nerve which terminate in a laminated vagal lobe, itself being an enlargement of the special visceral sensory column of the medulla. the tracer horseradish peroxidase (hrp) was used to determine the connectivity of the various branches of the vagus nerve that innervate the oropha ...19854044910
three distinct morphological classes of receptors in fish olfactory organs.three morphologically distinct classes of receptor-neurons are proposed: (1) type i ciliar cells, (2) microvillar cells and (3) type ii ciliar cells. retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase by axons in the olfactory nerve to the olfactory organs of goldfish (carassius auratus) and channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) provided evidence that these axon-bearing cells are present in the organs of both species. goldfish olfactory organs were also studied with scanning electron microscopy, dis ...19846199384
central connections of the olfactory bulb in the goldfish, carassius auratus.the central connections of the goldfish olfactory bulb were studied with the use of horseradish peroxidase methods. the olfactory bulb projects bilaterally to ventral and dorsolateral areas of the telencephalon; further targets include the nucleus praeopticus periventricularis and a caudal olfactory nucleus near the nucleus posterior tuberis in the diencephalon, bilaterally. the contralateral bulb and the anterior commissure also receive an input from the olfactory bulb. contralateral projection ...19846084554
forebrain connections in the goldfish support telencephalic homologies with land vertebrates.horseradish peroxidase injections into dorsomedial and dorsolateral regions of the goldfish (carassius auratus) telencephalon demonstrate, by retrograde cell labeling, that the teleost telencephalon receives a pattern of projections from the thalamus remarkably similar to those of land vertebrates. the evidence provides support for a homology between the dorsomedial region and the corpus striatum of land vertebrates and a homology between two dorsolateral regions and the dorsal and medial palliu ...19816971493
origin of efferent fibers of the vestibular apparatus in goldfish. a horseradish peroxidase study.after injecting a horseradish peroxidase (hrp) solution into the vestibular apparatus in goldfish (carassius auratus), cells in the medulla oblongata exhibited retrogradely transported hrp reaction product. these labeled cells were confined to 3 nuclei, i.e. the nucleus motorius tegmenti of bartelmez (with the most prominent labeled cell groups), the ventral vestibular nucleus (dieter's nucleus) and the medial vestibular nucleus. we consider these labeled cells to be the origin of the efferent i ...19806189014
localization of alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites to the goldfish retinotectal projection.the optic tectum of the goldfish carassius auratus is a rich source of alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-btx) binding protein. in order to determine whether some fraction of these receptors is present at retinotectal synapses, we have compared the histological distribution of receptors revealed by the use of [125i]alpha-btx radioautography to the distribution of optic nerve terminals revealed by the use of cobalt and horseradish peroxidase (hrp) techniques. the majority of alpha-btx binding is concentra ...19807357466
novel pentapeptide, palal, derived from a bony fish elicits contraction of the muscle in starfish patiria pectinifera.a bioactive peptide mimicking peptide-signaling molecules has been isolated from the skin extract of fish channa argus which caused contraction of the apical muscle of a starfish patiria pectinifera, a deuterostomian invertebrate. the primary structure of the isolated pentapeptide comprises amino acid sequence of h-pro-ala-leu-ala-leu-oh (palal) with a molecular mass of 483.7 da. pharmacological activity of palal, dosage ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-5) m, revealed concentration-dependent contracti ...201627506561
trichodina nobilis chen, 1963 and trichodina reticulata hirschmann et partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in the present work trichodina reticulata and t. nobilis (ciliophora: trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the state of santa catarina, brazil. the prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. we examined "southern platyfish" xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" betta splendens (n = 2) an ...201222735135
male primer endocrine responses to preovulatory female cyprinids under natural conditions in sweden.this study investigated two related aspects of male-female reproductive interactions in the family cyprinidae: (1) whether ovulating female rudd scardinius erythrophthalmus (subfamily leuciscinae) induce endocrine and gonadal priming responses in conspecific males, a phenomenon which has been described only in species from the subfamily cyprininae such as goldfish, carassius auratus, crucian carp carassius carassius and common carp, cyprinus carpio and (2) whether the stimuli mediating these res ...201222220895
optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.a series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. the factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (gfacf) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin e, vitamin c), buffer (hepes, tris) and bsa (bovine serum albumin). first, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorina ...201424237194
thyrotropic activity of recombinant human glycoprotein hormone analogs and pituitary mammalian gonadotropins in goldfish (carassius auratus): insights into the evolution of thyrotropin receptor specificity.thyrotropin (tsh) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormone heterodimer that binds to its g-protein coupled receptor (tsh-r) at the thyroid to promote the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone. very little is known about tsh-tsh-r interactions in teleost fish. mammalian gonadotropins have been reported to have an intrinsic ability to activate teleost fish tsh-rs, suggesting the tsh-r in teleost fish is more promiscuous than in other vertebrates. in this study we utilized the goldfish t(4)-release ...201222387984
hormonal influences on in vitro [(35)s]-sulfate uptake by gill arches from the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).a bioassay for insulin-like growth factor (igf), based on the in vitro incorporation of [(35)s]-sulfate into gill arch tissue was used to study the hormonal regulation of proteoglycan synthesis in the goldfish (carassius auratus). [(35)s]-sulfate incorporation into gill arch tissue was found to be time-dependent with maximal uptake occurring by 48h, suggesting that proteoglycan synthesis in this tissue was maintained for at least 48h in vitro. the addition of human recombinant igf-i (igf-i) to t ...199324202499
morphological and molecular characterization of actinosporeans infecting oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi from chinese carp ponds.we surveyed the actinosporean stages of fish myxosporeans at fish farms in jiangsu province, china, from 2011 to 2014. during the surveys, we identified 7 actinosporean types from 4 collective groups: echinactinomyxon (1 type), triactinomyxon (1 type), aurantiactinomyxon (1 type), and neoactinomyxum (4 types), released by the oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi. the morphological characteristics and dna sequences of these types are described here. based on 18s rdna sequence analysis, the actinospore ...201526036829
three actinosporean types (myxozoa) from the oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi in china.three actinosporean types--raabeia, aurantiactinomyxon, and guyenotia--from the oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi beddard collected from a crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) pond are described in this report. compared with the actinospores described previously, the raabeia type presents similar spore shape with the actinospore of myxobolus cultus, except a much longer caudal process, 250.8 μm (217.5-276.3). the aurantiactinomyxon and guyenotia type significantly differ from other actinospore ...201323377120
synaptic contacts between bipolar and photoreceptor cells in the retina of callionymus lyra l.a combined light and electron microscopic study of golgi-impregnated retinas of the marine teleost callionymus lyra l. revealed mixed bipolar cells (m types) contacting rods and cones and pure cone bipolar cells (c types). five types of mixed bipolar cells can be differentiated on the basis of their synaptic contacts. two out of the five mixed bipolar cell types contact double cones, single cones, and rods (mixed, dark, pale, single [mdps and midget-mdps]). their endbuds make narrow cleft juncti ...19846707252
synaptic contacts of the horizontal cells in the retina of the marine teleost, callionymus lyra l.the horizontal cell system in the retina of the fish callionymus lyra l. was investigated light microscopically and electron microscopically. one type of rod horizontal cells, which are only found in the mixed ventral part, exclusively contacts spherules with lateral endknobs in the triads. three types of cone horizontal cells occur. the first type, c-h1, contacts pedicles of pale and dark double cones and single cones. the processes always have a lateral position in the triads. this type has a ...1979762279
data for amino acid alignment of japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of japanese stingray melanocortin receptors.this article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (mcrs) related to research published in "characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish" (takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. the amino acid sequences of the stingray, d. akajei, mc1r, mc2r, mc3r, mc4r, and mc5r were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, squalus acanthias, the gol ...201627408924
cannabinoid receptors are widely expressed in goldfish: molecular cloning of a cb2-like receptor and evaluation of cb1 and cb2 mrna expression profiles in different organs.cannabinoids, the bioactive constituents of cannabis sativa, and endocannabinoids, among which the most important are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, control various biological processes by binding to specific g protein-coupled receptors, namely cb1 and cb2 cannabinoid receptors. while a vast amount of information on the mammalian endocannabinoid system does exist, few data have been reported on bony fish. in the goldfish, carassius auratus, the cb1 receptor has been cloned and its distri ...201323504102
characterization of ghrelin o-acyltransferase (goat) in goldfish (carassius auratus).ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. this modification is crucial for most of ghrelin's physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin o-acyltransferase (goat). the aim of this study was to characterize goat in a teleost model, goldfish (carassius auratus). first, the full-length cdna sequence was obtained by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends methods. two highly homologous cdnas of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, name ...201728178327
brain mapping of ghrelin o-acyltransferase in goldfish (carassius auratus): novel roles for the ghrelinergic system in fish?ghrelin o-acyltransferase (goat) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. many aspects of goat remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. the present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of goat using rt-qpcr and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (carassius auratu ...201627064922
periprandial changes and effects of short- and long-term fasting on ghrelin, goat, and ghrelin receptors in goldfish (carassius auratus).the periprandial profile and effects of short- (7 days) and long-term (30 days) fasting on the ghrelinergic system were studied in goldfish (carassius auratus). plasma levels of acyl-ghrelin, desacyl-ghrelin, and ghrelin o-acyl transferase (goat) were analyzed by enzymoimmunoassays, and expression of preproghrelin, goat and growth hormone secretagogue receptors (ghs-r) was quantified by real-time pcr. circulating levels of acyl-ghrelin and goat rise preprandially, supporting the role of acyl-ghr ...201627062032
tissue-specific expression of ghrelinergic and nucb2/nesfatin-1 systems in goldfish (carassius auratus) is modulated by macronutrient composition of diets.the macronutrient composition of diets is a very important factor in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. several lines of research in mammals have shown that macronutrients differentially regulate metabolic hormones, including ghrelin and nesfatin-1 that have opposing effects on energy balance. this study aimed to determine whether macronutrients modulate the expression of ghrelin and the nucleobindin-2 (nucb2) encoded nesfatin-1 in goldfish (carassius auratus). fish were fed once dail ...201626805937
estradiol and testosterone modulate the tissue-specific expression of ghrelin, ghs-r, goat and nucb2 in goldfish.ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 (encoded by nucleobindin2/nucb2) are two metabolic peptides with multiple biological effects in vertebrates. while sex steroids are known to regulate endogenous ghrelin and nucb2 in mammals, such actions by steroids in fish remain unknown. this study aimed to determine whether estradiol (e2) and testosterone (t) affects the expression of preproghrelin, ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghs-r), ghrelin o-acyl transferase (goat) and nucb2 in goldfish (carassius ...201626773340
plasma pharmacokinetics and muscle residue dynamics of mebendazole in carassius auratus.mebendazole is approved for use in aquatic animals and is widely used in chinese aquaculture. we developed a pharmacokinetic and residue analysis for mebendazole levels in the goldfish (carassius auratus). plasma and muscle samples of c. auratus were taken after oral administration of 10 mg/kg mebendazole. the maximal drug plasma concentration of 0.55 mg/l was achieved at 48 hr and then declined with the elimination half-life (t1/2β ) of 7.99 hr. administration of 10 mg/kg by oral gavage for 5 s ...201728401566
the interactive effect of digesting a meal and thermal acclimation on maximal enzyme activities in the gill, kidney, and intestine of goldfish (carassius auratus).surrounding environmental temperatures affect many aspects of ectotherm physiology. generally, organisms can compensate at one or more biological levels, or allow temperature to dictate processes such as enzyme activities through kinetic effects on reaction rates. as digestion also alters physiological processes such as enzyme activities, this study determined the interacting effect of thermal acclimation (8 and 20 °c) and digesting a single meal on maximal enzyme activities in three tissues of ...201728382530
bacterial signatures of "red-operculum" disease in the gut of crucian carp (carassius auratus).fish gut microbiota play important roles in fish immunity, nutrition, and the adaptation to environmental changes. to date, few studies have focused on the interactions among environmental factors, fish diseases, and gut microbiota compositions. we compared the gut bacterial communities of healthy crucian carps (carassius auratus) with those of individuals affected by "red-operculum" disease and corresponding water and sediment microbiota in four fish farm ponds. distinct gut bacterial communiti ...201728364130
propofol as an immersion anesthetic and in a minimum anesthetic concentration (mac) reduction model in goldfish (carassius auratus).propofol is a novel immersion anesthetic in goldfish ( carassius auratus ). objectives were to characterize propofol as an anesthetic and assess its suitability in a minimum anesthetic concentration (mac) reduction model. using a crossover design, eight goldfish were submerged in 1, 5, or 10 mg/l propofol. data included induction time, recovery time, heart rate, opercular rate, and response to supramaximal stimulation. baseline mac (dixon's up-and-down method) was determined, and 15 fish were an ...201728363074
development of a multiplex pcr method for the simultaneous detection of four myxosporeans infecting gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio.gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), a commercially important freshwater-cultured fish in china, is threatened by myxosporeans, particularly thelohanellus wuhanensis, myxobolus honghuensis, m. wulii and m. turpisrotundus. here, we developed a multiplex pcr assay for simultaneous detection of these 4 myxosporeans. the specific primers for each species were designed based on the 28s rdna gene of t. wuhanensis, the its-5.8s rdna of m. honghuensis and m. wulii, and the 18s rdna gene of m. t ...201728357984
bioconcentration and multi-biomarkers of organic uv filters (bm-dbm and od-paba) in crucian uv filters (ouv-fs) are increasingly used in sunscreens and personal care products. in the present work, the bioconcentration and multi-biomarker effects of butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (bm-dbm) and ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (od-paba) were investigated in crucian carp (carassius auratus). the fish were exposed to various concentrations of bm-dbm (3.88, 35.61, 181.85 and 337.15μg/l), od-paba (4.66, 53.83, 264.22 and 459.32μg/l) and their mixture (2.31+2.79, 23.69+26.18, 97.37+1 ...201728343007
ghrelin facilitates glut2-, sglt1- and sglt2-mediated intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (carassius auratus).glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. this study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (carassius auratus). three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (glut2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (sglt1) and 2 (sglt2), were studied. immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and ...201728338019
influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the effects of roxithromycin in crucian carp (carassius auratus) in the presence of natural organic matter.carbon nanotubes are increasingly entering the aquatic environment and may interact with other co-existing contaminants, such as antibiotics. however, whether these interactions may affect their bioavailability in aquatic organisms is the subject of considerable debate. the primary objective of this study was to assess the risks arising from the coexistence of roxithromycin (rox) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts) in waters containing natural organic matter (nom), focusing on the distrib ...201728324838
diverse chlamydia-like agents associated with epitheliocystis infection in two cyprinid fish species, the common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) and the gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio l.).during a general annual fish health survey in natural waters and ponds, epitheliocystis infections were recorded in fingerlings of two cyprinid fish species, the cultured common carp and the wild gibel carp. benign and heavy infections were equally observed without mortality. in addition to the general health inspection of fish, histopathological examinations of infected gills and molecular biological investigations of separated epitheliocysts were performed. epitheliocysts were formed both in t ...201728244339
effects on heavy metal accumulation in freshwater fishes: species, tissues, and sizes.three fish species (carassius auratus, pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and squaliobarbus curriculus) were collected from xiang river near changsha city, southern china. the concentrations of heavy metals including arsenic (as), cadmium (cd), copper (cu), iron (fe), manganese (mn), lead (pb), and zinc (zn) in the muscle, gill, and liver of three species were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. one-way analysis of variance (anova) was introduced to determine the signifi ...201728233209
irisin in goldfish (carassius auratus): effects of irisin injections on feeding behavior and expression of appetite regulators, uncoupling proteins and lipoprotein lipase, and fasting-induced changes in fndc5 expression.irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type iii domain containing protein 5 (fndc5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. in mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (ucps) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. to examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fi ...201728219696
microcystin bioaccumulation in freshwater fish at different trophic levels from the eutrophic lake chaohu, china.the spatial and temporal variations of microcystins (mcs) in fishes with different trophic levels were studied monthly in lake chaohu in 2014. mcs content in muscle was highest in phytoplanktivorous hypophthalmichthys molitrix (h. molitrix), followed by omnivorous carassius auratus (c. auratus), and was lowest in herbivorous parabramis pekinensis (p. pekinensis) and carnivorous coilia ectenes (c. ectenes). mcs concentration in liver was highest in c. auratus, followed by h. molitrix, and was low ...201728213674
allometric analysis of a morphological anti-predator trait in geographic populations of japanese crucian carp.costly anti-predator traits tend to be expressed only in high-predation conditions. for the cyprinid fish genus carassius, deeper body depth is more adaptive to avoid predation by gape-limited piscivorous fish, but it raises swimming costs. it is therefore predicted that the relative body depth will decrease when the prey fish has reached a size larger than the predator gape-size. this prediction was tested by allometric analysis of the relation between body depth and standard length of triploid ...201728150742
identification of the putative goldfish (carassius auratus) magnesium transporter slc41a1 and functional regulation in the gill, kidney, and intestine in response to dietary and environmental manipulations.while magnesium requirements for teleost fish highlight the physiological importance of this cation for homeostasis, little is known regarding the molecular identity of transporters responsible for magnesium absorption or secretion. the recent characterization of the vertebrate magnesium transporter solute carrier 41a1 (slc41a1) in the kidney of a euryhaline fish has provided a glimpse of possible moieties involved in piscine magnesium regulation. the present study obtained a novel slc41a1 codin ...201728130070
ifna2 of triploid hybrid of gold fish and allotetraploid is an intracellular antiviral cytokine against svcv and gcrv.sterile triploid hybrids (3n = 150) of gold fish (carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n = 100) and allotetroploid (♂, 2n = 100) display obviously improved disease resistance and much enhanced growth rate than their parents, which have been cultured widely in china. in this paper, one of the type i ifns of triploid hybrid (3nifna2) has been cloned and characterized. the full-length cdna of 3nifna2 gene consists of 715 nucleotides and the predicted 3nifna2 contains 183 amino acids. the transcription o ...201728126620
proteome response of fish under multiple stress exposure: effects of pesticide mixtures and temperature increase.aquatic systems can be subjected to multiple stressors, including pollutant cocktails and elevated temperature. evaluating the combined effects of these stressors on organisms is a great challenge in environmental sciences. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the molecular stress response of an aquatic fish species subjected to individual and combined pesticide mixtures and increased temperatures. for that, goldfish (carassius auratus) were acclimated to two different ...201728109940
composition of gut microbiota in the gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) varies with host understand how a bacteria-free fish gut ecosystem develops microbiota as the fish ages, we performed a 1-year study on the gut microbiota of hatchling gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio). our results indicate that the gut microbial diversity increases significantly as the fish develop. the gut microbial community composition showed significant shifts corresponding to host age and appeared to shift at two time points despite consistent diet and environmental conditions, suggesting that some ...201728108758
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (carassius auratus) in vitro.ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. we previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. in the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. first, immunolocalization of ghrelin and nucb2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohist ...201728089858
occurrence of parasites of the genus eustrongylides spp. (nematoda: dioctophymatidae) in fish caught in trasimeno lake, italy.eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. in the present study, the prevalence of eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (european perch - perca fluviatilis, goldfish - carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - micropterus salmoides, tench- tinca tinca, carp - cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - atherina boyeri) of trasimeno lake was surveyed. the investigations were conducted from october 2014 to september 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught ...201628058245
ghrelin modulates gene and protein expression of digestive enzymes in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (carassius auratus) via the ghs-r1a: possible roles of plc/pkc and ac/pka intracellular signaling pathways.ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. this study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (carassius auratus). immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, ghs-r1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase a, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. in vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture ...201728042022
elevated co2 levels increase the toxicity of zno nanoparticles to goldfish (carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem.concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (mnps) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. simultaneously, elevated atmospheric co2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of mnps and elevated co2 to the ecosystem. here we studied the toxicity of nzno to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400±10μl/l) or elevated (600±10μl/l) co2 for 30days. we measured the content of zn in suspen ...201728040633
modulation of erythromycin-induced biochemical responses in crucian carp by ketoconazole.the individual and combined biochemical responses of erythromycin and ketoconazole have been examined in an organism representative of the aquatic environment, crucian carp (carassius auratus). the possible interactions between erythromycin and ketoconazole were investigated on the bioaccumulation and the expression of biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) and glutathione s-transferase (gst), and an antioxidant defense enzyme superoxide dismutase (sod) in fish tissues. ...201728004371
acute exposure to the penconazole-containing fungicide topas partially augments antioxidant potential in goldfish tissues.penconazole is a systemic fungicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation topas. although triazole fungicides are widely found in the aquatic environment, little is known about their acute toxicity on fish. in this study we assessed the effects of short-term exposure to topas on some parameters of homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ros), such as the levels of markers of oxidative stress and parameters of the antioxidant defense system of goldfish (carassius auratus l.). ...201727979696
cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against cd4-1 and cd8α of ginbuna crucian carp with lymphocytes of zebrafish and other cyprinid species.we have monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against cd4-1 (6d1) and cd8α (2c3) in ginbuna crucian carp carassius auratus langsdorfii. in our previous studies we showed that 2c3 mab positive cells are the primary cell type showing specific cytotoxicity against allogeneic targets, suggesting that cd8α(+) lymphocytes in ginbuna are equivalent to cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) in mammals. we further demonstrated the helper t cell function of 6d1 mab positive cells by studying mixed leukocyte culture (mlc) ...201627965016
stellate and pyramidal neurons in goldfish telencephalon respond differently to anoxia and gaba receptor inhibition.with oxygen deprivation, the mammalian brain undergoes hyper-activity and neuronal death while this does not occur in the anoxia-tolerant goldfish (carassius auratus). anoxic survival of the goldfish may rely on neuromodulatory mechanisms to suppress neuronal hyper-excitability. as γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, we decided to investigate its potential role in suppressing the electrical activity of goldfish telencephalic neurons. utilizing whole- ...201727923876
ligand-biased regulation of ptdins(3,4,5)p3-dependent signal transduction in gpcr control of pituitary hormone release.biased signaling describes the selective activation of signal transduction cascades by structurally related ligands downstream of shared g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs). although class i phosphoinositide 3-kinases (pi3ks) are important components of gpcr-controlled transduction networks, little is known regarding the potential for biased regulation of class i pi3k-dependent signaling. the full complement of class i pi3k catalytic subunits (p110α, p110β, p110δ, and p110γ) first appears in bon ...201727906555
small and large number discrimination in goldfish (carassius auratus) with extensive training.previous studies on relative quantity discrimination in birds and mammals with training procedures have employed hundreds or thousands of trials whereas studies with fish typically use dozens of trials. the goal of this study was to examine whether more extensive training improves the performance of fish tested on stimuli in the small (<4) and large (>4) number range. goldfish were trained with dot array stimuli using the ratio 0.5 (2 vs. 4, 6 vs. 12) across two blocks of training sessions with ...201627890598
brain and intestinal expression of galanin-like peptide (galp), galanin receptor r1 and galanin receptor r2, and galp regulation of food intake in goldfish (carassius auratus).galanin-like peptide (galp) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide originally discovered from porcine hypothalamus, and is involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. since its discovery, galp and its receptors (galr1 and galr2) have been characterized in mammals, but no publications are available on galp in fish and other non-mammals. the present study aimed to characterize brain and intestinal galp and its receptors using immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (carassius auratus), ...201727884736
determination of the gut retention of plastic microbeads and microfibers in goldfish (carassius auratus).microplastics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic habitats and commonly found in the gut contents of fish yet relatively little is known about the retention of these particles by fish. in this study, goldfish were fed a commercial fish food pellet amended with 50 particles of one of two microplastics types, microbeads and microfibers. microbeads were obtained from a commercial facial cleanser while microfibers were obtained from washed synthetic textile. following consumption of the amended pel ...201727880921
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