characterization of three nod-like receptors and their role in antimicrobial responses of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) macrophages to aeromonas salmonicida and mycobacterium marinum.the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins nod1, nod2 and nlrx1 are cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors (prrs) of the nod-like receptor (nlr) family. in this report, goldfish nod1 (gfnod1), nod2 (gfnod2) and nlrx1 (gfnlrx1) genes were cloned and characterized. the full length of gfnod1, gfnod2 and gfnlrx1 were 3234bp, 3129bp and 4900bp, encoding 937, 982 and 1008 amino acids, respectively. the three nod-like receptors have a nacht domain and c-terminal leucine rich repeat (lrr ...201323194927
development and validation of a real-time pcr assay for the detection of aeromonas salmonicida.a real-time pcr assay using a molecular beacon was developed and validated to detect the vapa (surface array protein) gene in the fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida. the assay had 100% analytical specificity and analytical sensitivities of 5 ± 0 fg (dna), 2.2 × 10(4) ± 1 × 10(4) cfu g(-1) (without enrichment) and 40 ± 10 cfu g(-1) (with enrichment) in kidney tissue. the assay was highly repeatable and proved to be robust following equivalency testing using a different real-time pcr platform. f ...201323121198
recombinant glycoprotein 63 (gp63) of trypanosoma carassii suppresses antimicrobial responses of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) monocytes and macrophages.we previously reported that proteins secreted by trypanosoma carassii play a role in evasion of fish host immune responses. to further understand how these parasites survive in the host, we cloned and expressed t. carassii glycoprotein 63 (tcagp63), and generated a rabbit polyclonal antibody to the recombinant protein (rtcagp63). tcagp63 was similar to gp63 of other trypanosomes and grouped with trypanosoma cruzi and trypanosoma brucei gp63 in phylogenetic analysis. we showed that rtcagp63 down- ...201222584131
diversity of culturable bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of goldfish (carassius auratus) and their ability to produce n-acyl homoserine lactone.intestinal bacteria isolated from goldfish (carassius auratus) were identified based on 16 ribosomal rna (rrna) gene sequences and screened for their ability to produce n-acyl homoserine lactone (ahl), an autoinducer of the quorum sensing (qs) system. the 230 aerobes/facultative anaerobes that were isolated comprised members of the genera aeromonas (184 isolates), citrobacter (11), enterobacter (2), shewanella (28), vagococcus (1), and vibrio (4). among these genera, the two most abundant specie ...201728124783
genome sequencing and annotation of aeromonas veronii strain ae52, a multidrug-resistant isolate from septicaemic gold fish (carassius auratus) in sri we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of a. veronii strain ae52 isolated from the kidney of a morbund, septicaemic gold fish (carassius auratus) in sri lanka. this clinical isolate showed resistance to multiple antimicrobials; amoxicillin, neomycin, trimethoprim-sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin and nitrofurantoin. the size of the draft genome is 4.56 mbp with 58.66% of g + c content consisting 4328 coding sequences. it harbors a repertoire ...201727942459
aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting microcystis aeruginosa.cyanobacteria are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. in search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom m ...201425139029
sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of carassius auratus prevents bone loss: an effect associated with the regulation of gut microbiota in ovariectomized rats.the anti-osteoporotic effect of sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of carassius auratus (ca-sgp) has previously been demonstrated in vivo. however, the mechanism by which this macromolecular substance regulates bone metabolism remains unclear. given the correlation between gut microbiota and the homeostasis of bone metabolism, the current study applied real-time pcr and 16s rrna high-throughput sequencing to investigate the influence of ca-sgp on gut microbiota in ovariectomized rats. real ...201627808338
establishment and characterization of a heart-derived cell line from goldfish (carassius auratus).the goldfish carassius auratus, a freshwater fish in the family cyprinidae, was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated for ornamental purposes. a cell line was established from goldfish heart (gh) tissue to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. the gh cell line was optimally maintained at 25 °c in m199 medium supplemented with 10-20% fetal bovine serum. a chromosomal analysis indicated that the cell line remained diploid, with a mean chromosomal count of 100. in viral inoc ...201728097494
molecular phylogenetics of centrocestus formosanus (digenea: heterophyidae) originated from freshwater fish from chiang mai province, thailand.this study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., esomus metallicus, puntius brevis, anabas testudineus, parambassis siamensis, and carassius auratus, in chiang mai province, thailand. sequence-related amplified polymorphism (srap) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (co1) were performed. the results s ...201728285504
[prevalence of metacercariae of clonorchis sinensis in wild freshwater fishes from nenjiang river around qiqihaer city].from may to november 2013, a total of 1175 wild freshwater fishes were collected from the rivers of chuoer, yalu, wuyuer, alun, and yin in nenjiang river basin qiqihaer city, and examined for metacercariae by direct compression method. the metacercariae were collected by artificial digestion method. forty kunming mice were infected with 30-40 metacercariae of clonorchis sinensis. the mice were sacrificed 36 days after infection, and the adult worms were collected from bile duct, and observed und ...201425518594
prevalence of clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern china.the prevalence of clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in heilongjiang province, northeastern china, between august 2011 and september 2013. thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from songhua river, nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in heilongjiang province. they were individually examined by digestion technique, and the c. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphol ...201424880648
susceptibility of isogeneic ginbuna carassius auratus langsdorfii temminck et schlegel to cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (cyhv-2) as a model species.herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (hvhn), caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (cyhv-2), has affected the commercial production of the goldfish carassius auratus and gibelio carp carassius auratus gibelio. high water temperature treatments are reported to reduce the mortality rate of infected goldfish and elicit immunity in the survivors. to define the mechanism by which this intervention induces resistance, clonal ginbuna carassius auratus langsdorfii, which is closely related to both species and ...201727150547
herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis in goldfish in switzerland: early lesions in clinically normal goldfish (carassius auratus).cyprinid herpesvirus 2 is a pathogen of goldfish, inducing a disease referred to as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis. the disease is described so far in japan, north america, taiwan, australia, the united kingdom, and recently also italy. here the authors describe histologic lesions in clinically affected fish in comparison with clinically normal but virus dna-positive goldfish in switzerland. while necrosis or enhanced single-cell necrosis in the hematopoietic tissue in the pronephros or meso ...201626553521
establishment from the snout and kidney of goldfish, carassius auratus, of two new cell lines and their susceptibility to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.goldfish carassius auratus are commonly used in scientific research and have a significant economic value in the pet trade. in this study, two cell lines were established from the snout and kidney tissue of goldfish, in order to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. cell lines were optimally maintained at 25 °c in m199 medium supplemented with 15-20 % fetal bovine serum. chromosomal analysis indicated that both cell lines remained diploid, with a mean chromosomal count of 100. ...201626419476
in vitro characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 2: effect of kidney extract supplementation on growth.herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis caused by goldfish hematopoietic necrosis virus (now identified as cyprinid herpesvirus 2, cyhv-2) has contributed to economic losses in goldfish carassius auratus culture and is becoming a major obstacle in prussian carp c. gibelio aquaculture in china. several reports have described difficulties in culturing the virus, with the total loss of infectivity within several passages in cell culture. we succeeded in propagating cyhv-2 with a high infectious titer in ...201526290507
first detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) in goldfish (carassius auratus) in france.massive mortalities of carassius auratus (l.) occurred in a farm in france during summer 2014. fish presented anorexia, loss of scales and large amounts of mucus on the gills. necrosis of the distal tip of the filament and the lamellae, combined with fusion of the lamellae, was observed, as well as necrosis in the hematopoietic organs and in the digestive tract. the histological examination led to hypothesize the implication of a virus in the mortality. the presence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cy ...201626173014
cyhv-2 orf104 activates the p38 mapk pathway.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) is the pathogen responsible for herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease, which causes huge losses on aquaculture. so far the studies of cyhv-2 mainly focus on the identification and detection of this virus, but little is known about the role of specific cyhv-2 genes in the infection process. based on the genomic information, cyhv-2 orf104 encodes a kinase-like protein, which is highly conserved among the three cyhvs. our study was initiated to investigate the r ...201526072141
establishment of a novel and highly permissive cell line for the efficient replication of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2).haematopoietic necrosis of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) is caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. currently the isolation and propagation of cyhv-2 in vitro is very difficult due to the lack of permissive cell lines. studies on the pathogenesis of cyhv-2 have been hampered because the virus has not been extensively characterized. in this study, a novel cell line from the brain of gibel carp, denoted gicb, has been establi ...201525912023
molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland china.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2, species cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (carassius auratus l.) and gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio bloch). in this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant cyhv-2 strain (sy-c1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland china and its comparative genomics analysis with the cyhv-2 reference strain st-j1. overall, the full-length genome o ...201525900131
detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both european and asian countries. although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute cyhv-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. in this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that cyhv-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, cara ...201625630360
effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (hvhn) in goldfish carassius this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (hvhn) in goldfish carassius auratus were investigated. cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2), causative agent of hvhn, propagated in goldfish fin (gff) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °c. three groups of the variety ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and eac ...201525434995
effects of experimentally induced infections of goldfish carassius auratus with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) at various water this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (hvhn) in goldfish carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2). in expt 1, ryukin goldfish were infected with cyhv-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°c groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. therefore, the temperature range of 20 ...201425114043
development of a rapid cyprinid herpesvirus 2 detection method by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv2) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality in goldfish and prussian carp. we developed a six primer loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay targeting the intercapsomeric triplex protein gene. cyhv-2 dna was 10-fold serially diluted (10(8)-10(0) copies μl(-1)) and was used as the template to determine primer sensitivity. lamp assays were performed with dna templates from other pathogens to determine specificity. the lamp assay had an une ...201424935791
histopathological characterization and fluorescence in situ hybridization of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in cultured prussian carp, carassius auratus gibelio in china.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) is an emerging pathogen in the commercially exploited fish, prussian carp (carassius auratus gibelio), which has caused huge economic loss in china and appears to be spreading worldwide. in this article, cyhv-2 infection of prussian carp was confirmed for the first time by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), which gave positive results from the tissue samples dissected from moribund fish including kidney, spleen, liver, and gill. histological examination showed syste ...201424877901
comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern china. in this study, we established a real-time pcr method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify cyhv-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with cyhv-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. in situ hybridizat ...201424585042
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. following cloning and sequencing of the putative dna helicase gene of cyhv-2 isolate from china, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. the mgcl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6 mm, 64°c, respectively. lamp products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of sybr ...201424574914
cyprinid herpesvirus-2 causing mass mortality in goldfish: applying electron microscopy to histological samples for diagnostic june 2013, a major fish kill of adult goldfish carassius auratus occurred in runnemede lake, new jersey, usa: an estimated 3000 to 5000 fish died within ~5 d. necropsy of 4 moribund fish revealed severely pale gills, and histopathology showed type i and ii fusion of the gills, diffuse necrosis of hematopoietic tissue in anterior and posterior kidney, and multifocal necrosis of the spleen. within necrotic areas, pyknosis and enlarged nuclei with marginalized chromatin were observed. cyprinid h ...201424492049
susceptibility of japanese cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2).cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (hvhn) of goldfish (carassius auratus). recently, the virus has also been detected from prussian carp (c. gibelio) and crucian carp (c. carassius) from european and asian countries. to analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. in this study experimental infections of indigenous cyprininae species in japan were performe ...201424480585
growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish carassius auratus.herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish carassius auratus aquaculture in japan. the existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. to prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. experimental infection trials using reliably prepared cyhv-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful an ...201323999703
cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection emerged in cultured gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio in epizootic with severe mortality has emerged in cultured gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio, in china since 2009, and caused huge economic loss. the signs and epidemiology background of the disease were investigated. parasite examination, bacteria and virus isolation were carried out for pathogen isolation. the causative pathogen was obtained and identified as cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) by experimental infection, electron microscopy, cell culture, pcr assay and sequence alignment, desi ...201323850442
proteomic analysis of cytoskeleton proteins in this chapter, we describe laboratory protocols for rearing fish and a simple and efficient method of extracting and identifying pathogen and host proteins that may be involved in entry and replication of commercially important fish viruses. we have used the common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) and goldfish (cyprinus auratus) as a model system for studies of proteins involved in viral entry and replication. the chapter describes detailed protocols for maintenance of carp, cell culture, antibody pu ...201626498797
analysing codon usage bias of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and adaptation of this virus to the hosts.the codon usage patterns of open reading frames (orfs) in cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (cyhv-3) have been investigated in this study. the high correlation between gc12 % and gc3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base component in the cyhv-3, while mutational pressure effect results from the high correlation between gc3 % and the first principal axis of principle component analysis (axis 1) on the relative synonymous ...201525491502
detection of koi herpesvirus (khv) in healthy cyprinid seed stock.koi herpesvirus (khv) disease is a lethal disease in common carp, an important food fish in asian countries, the seed of which is used in restocking programs for freshwater fishery management. we inspected apparently healthy seed stock of common carp cyprinus carpio l. and siberian crucian carp carassius auratus for the presence of khv using pcr-based diagnostic tests as a part of a stock enhancement program from 2009 to 2010 in korea. consequently, khv was detected from 24 of 232 inspections wi ...201425392040
investigating the interactions of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 with host proteins in goldfish carassius auratus. 201423998394
the first report of dactylogyrus formosus kulwiec, 1927 (monogenea: dactylogyridae) from goldfish (carassius auratus) in central china.dactylogyrus formosus kulwiec, 1927 (monogenea: dactylogyridae), widely distributed across eurasia, is considered as one of the most frequently encountered ectoparasites of goldfish (carassius auratus). in the present study, d. formosus on gills of cultured goldfish was reported in central china for the first time, using the methods of morphological characters and molecular markers. it was characterized by "anchoratoid-wegeneri" type anchor with elongate inner and unobvious outer root. the morph ...201525899326
characterization of toll-like receptor gene expression in goldfish (carassius auratus) during dactylogyrus intermedius infection.toll-like receptors (tlrs), the first and best understood innate immune receptors, play a notable role in the innate immune system by sensing pathogenic agents and initiating appropriate immune responses. however, studies about the roles of fish tlrs in response to the infection of the ectoparasitic monogenean dactylogyrus intermedius have been surprisingly vacant. in the present study, cdna fragments of five members of tlrs family in goldfish (carassius auratus) were cloned and the expression p ...201627238769
morphometric and molecular characterization of dactylogyrus vastator and d. intermedius in goldfish (carassius auratus).goldfish is known to be parasitized by at least seven species of dactylogyrus and considered as one of the most common hosts. dactylogyrus vastator and dactylogyrus intermedius are the dominant species living on the gills of goldfish. however, little information on morphometric characterization is available, which easily causes misidentification. the purpose of this study is to provide comprehensive morphometric and molecular characterization of d. vastator and d. intermedius collected form a fi ...201626779922
dactylogyrus intermedius parasitism enhances flavobacterium columnare invasion and alters immune-related gene expression in carassius auratus.the monogenean dactylogyrus intermedius and the bacterium flavobacterium columnare are 2 common pathogens in aquaculture. the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of prior parasitism by d. intermedius on the susceptibility of goldfish to f. columnare and to explore the potential immune mechanisms related to the parasite infection. a f. columnare challenge trial was conducted between d. intermedius-parasitized and non-parasitized goldfish. the f. columnare load in gill, kidney ...201526378404
in vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (gcrv) and dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.the present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (cik) cells and gcrv. by applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. the changes of expression of selected immune genes (mx1, il-1β, tnfα, myd88 and igm) in c. idella kidney cell lines ...201425450998
screening medicinal plants for use against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) infection in goldfish.abstract methanol extracts of 24 traditional medicinal plants with potential anthelmintic activity against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish carassius auratus were investigated. abrus cantoniensis, citrus medica, dioscorea collettii, and polygonum multiflorum exhibited 100% activity and were selected for further evaluation by applying five solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) for the extraction of the samples, followed by an in vivo bioassay. ...201425229482
in vivo anthelmintic effect of flavonol rhamnosides from dryopteris crassirhizoma against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (carassius auratus).the purpose of the present study was to assess the anthelmintic property of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds extracted and isolated from dryopteris crassirhizoma against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. the active ethyl acetate extract was loaded on an open silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol. according to (1)h-nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr), (13)c-nmr, and mass spectral data, the structures of three purified compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid, sutchuen ...201324013342
screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).with the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. the results showed that caesalpinia sappan, lysima chiachristinae, cuscuta chinensis, artemisia argyi, and eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg l(-1) after 48 h of exposure. crude extract of the five plants were ...201324005478
bioassay-guided isolation and identification of active compounds from semen pharbitidis against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).the present study was undertaken to isolate the active compounds responsible for the anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of semen pharbitidis against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (carassius auratus). the active methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation, eventually yielding two bioactive compounds: palmitic acid and pharnilatin a by comparing spectral data (nmr and esi-ms) with literature values. according to in vivo ant ...201222336774
screening of 42 medicinal plants for in vivo anthelmintic activity against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).in the present study, methanol extracts of 42 traditional medicinal plants with potent anthelmintic activity against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus) were investigated. cinnamomum cassia, lindera aggregata, and pseudolarix kaempferi exhibited 100% activity and were selected for further evaluation by applying five solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) for the extraction of the samples, followed by the in vivo bioassay. among ...201222246367
nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus den-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of aedes mosquitoes. its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. there is no specific treatment for dengue. its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. mangrov ...201526290219
[composition of leucocytes of the head kidney of the crucian carp carassius auratus gibelio (cypriniformes: cyprinidae) as affected by invasion of cestode digramma interrupta (cestoda; pseudophyllidea)].the composition of leucocytes of the head kidney is studied in the crucian carps (carassius auratus) either contaminated or uncontaminated with digramma interrupta. the composition of leucocytes in the pronephros of the crucian carp from lake baikal basin has a lymphoid character. compared to the crucian carp from the european part of russia, in the fish from baikal the granulocytopoetic processes are more pronounced. this is proved by the high content of young forms of granulocytes. in the fish ...201622292296
comparative analysis of adaptive immune response after vaccine trials using live attenuated and formalin-killed cells of edwardsiella tarda in ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii).edwardsiella tarda is an intracellular pathogen that causes edwardsiellosis in fish. although vaccine trials with formalin-killed cells (fkc) have been reported, the vaccinations failed in protect against e. tarda infection. on the other hand, a live attenuated vaccine strategy is effective against edwardsiellosis; however, the mechanism underlying its effectiveness in fish is unclear. in the present study, we compared the adaptive immune responses in fish vaccinated with fkcs and live attenuate ...201525959574
identification of a novel fish granzyme involved in cell-mediated immunity.granzymes (gzms) are serine proteases released from cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic t lymphocytes and natural killer (nk) cells. gzms induce apoptosis within virus-infected and transformed cells. in fish as well as mammals, gzms appear to play a major role in inducing target cell death. however, information on the function of fish gzms is limited, although gzm-like genes have been reported in several species. we identified and characterized a fish gzm (termed gcgzm) in ginbuna crucian carp ...201424968079
role of cd4(+) and cd8α(+) t cells in protective immunity against edwardsiella tarda infection of ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.edwardsiella tarda is an intracellular pathogen that causes edwardsiellosis in fish. our previous study suggests that cell-mediated immunity (cmi) plays an essential role in protection against e. tarda infection. in the present study, we adoptively transferred t-cell subsets sensitized with e. tarda to isogenic naïve ginbuna crucian carp to determination the t-cell subsets involved in protecting fish from e. tarda infection. recipients of cd4(+) and cd8α(+) cells acquired significant resistance ...201424316500
adaptive immune response to edwardsiella tarda infection in ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.edwardsiella tarda is an intracellular pathogen that causes edwardsiellosis in fish. although cell-mediated immunity and innate immunity play a major role in protection against intracellular bacterial infection in mammals, their importance in protecting fish against e. tarda infection remain unclear. in this study, we examined cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii) after e. tarda infection. innate immunity was observed to be the princip ...201323489657
direct antibacterial activity of cd8+/cd4+ t-cells in ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.cytotoxic t cells (ctls) constitute an important component of the specific effector mechanism in killing against microbial-infected or transformed cells. in addition to these activities, recent studies in mammals have suggested that ctls can exhibit direct antimicrobial activity. therefore, the present investigation was conducted to find out the microbicidal activity of cd8α(+) t cells of ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii. the cd8α(+) t cells from immunised ginbuna exhibited th ...201323089524
stimulatory effects of heat-killed enterococcus faecalis on cell-mediated immunity in fish.intracellular bacterial and viral diseases are widespread in the aquaculture industry and cause serious economic losses. development of effective vaccines and adjuvants that can induce cell-mediated immunity is urgently needed for prevention of these diseases. here we report the immunostimulatory effects of probiotic bacteria ''e. faecalis'' in ginbuna crucian carp carassius auratus langsdorfii. intraperitoneal injection of heat-killed e. faecalis induced an increase in cd4-1(+) lymphocytes, cd8 ...201728389237
identification of interferon-γ-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt) gene in goldfish (carassius auratus) and its immune response to lps challenge.the interferon-γ-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the processing and presentation of mhc class ii restricted antigen (ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction. in this study, we cloned a gilt gene homolog from goldfish (designated ggilt), a kind of precious freshwater fish with high market value. the open reading frame of ggilt consists of 756 bases encoding a protein of 251 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 27.8 kda an ...201525447639
functional expression of carassius auratus cytochrome p4501a in a novel shewanella oneidensis expression system and application for the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene.cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a) in fish has attracted an increasing interest because of its important roles in the metabolic activation of certain xenobiotics such as aromatic hydrocarbons. cyps are reported to be expressed in yeast, insect cells and escherichia coli, but are critical for high-level expression. besides, this study found that the purification of recombinant goldfish cyp1a would result in a loss of enzyme activity. because large quantities of functional cyp1a are required, it is necessa ...201424637371
isolation and characterization of flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish carassius auratus.filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. the causative agent was identified as flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequencing of 16s rdna gene with the universal bacterial primers. furthermore, the strain (ing-1) attributed to genomovar ii in 16s rdna pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr ...201525895267
fish virus-induced interferon exerts antiviral function through stat1 pathway.virus-induced interferons (ifns) have been identified in various fish species and display antiviral activities similar to mammalian type i ifns. however, apart from the mammalian ifn system, the ifn signaling pathway remains largely unknown. using transient transfection and recombinant protein, we are reporting in this study that a crucian carp (carassius auratus l.) ifn exhibits strong antiviral activity against grass carp hemorrhagic virus (gchv) infection and also mediates poly i:c-induced an ...201020627394
expression regulation and functional characterization of a novel interferon inducible gene gig2 and its promoter.grass carp hemorrhagic virus (gchv)-induced gene 2 (gig2) is a novel gene previously identified from uv-inactivated gchv-treated carassius auratus blastulae embryonic (cab) cells, suggesting that it should play a pivotal role in the interferon (ifn) antiviral response. in this study, a polyclonal anti-gig2 antiserum was generated and used to study the inductive expression pattern by western blot analysis, showing no basal expression in normal cab cells but a significant up-regulation upon uv-ina ...200919573926
molecular characterization and subcellular localization of carassius auratus interferon regulatory factor-1.interferon (ifn)-regulatory transcription factor-1 (irf-1) has been studied in mammals and fish, but little is known about the relationship between its gene structure and nuclear localization of irf-1 protein. in this study, a cdna encoding carassius auratus irf-1 (cairf-1) was isolated from an interferon-producing cell line, c. auratus blastulae embryonic (cab) cells, exposed to uv-inactivated grass carp hemorrhagic virus (gchv). the cairf-1 genomic locus exhibits exon-intron arrangements simil ...200817604835
the innate immune response to grass carp hemorrhagic virus (gchv) in cultured carassius auratus blastulae (cab) cells.virus infection of mammalian cells activates an innate antiviral immune response characterized by production of interferon (ifn) and the subsequent transcriptional upregulation of ifn-stimulated genes (isgs) by the jak-stat signaling pathway. here, we report that a fish cell line, crucian carp (carassius auratus l.) blastulae embryonic (cab) cells, can produce ifn activity and then form an antiviral state after infection with uv-inactivated grass carp hemorrhagic virus (gchv), a double-stranded ...200716887185
fish viperin exerts a conserved antiviral function through rlr-triggered ifn signaling pathway.mammalian viperin is a typical interferon (ifn)-induced antiviral protein. fish have viperin homologs; however, little is known about the expression regulation of fish viperins. in this study, we report the expression regulation and antiviral function of a fish viperin from crucian carp carassius auratus during ifn response. crucian carp viperin is induced at mrna and protein levels by fish ifns and ifn stimuli such as poly(i:c). consistently, this gene promoter contains multiple transcription f ...201425058853
gig1, a novel antiviral effector involved in fish interferon response.vertebrate interferon (ifn) response defenses against viral infection through the induction of hundreds of ifn-stimulated genes (isgs). most isgs are conserved across vertebrates; however, little is known about the species-specific isgs. in this study, we reported that grass carp reovirus (gcrv)-induced gene 1 (gig1), previously screened as a virus-induced gene from uv-inactivated gcrv-infected crucian carp (carassius auratus) blastulae embryonic (cab) cells, was a typical fish isg, which was si ...201424314663
an infection of gyrodactylus kobayashii hukuda, 1940 (monogenea) associated with the mortality of goldfish (carassius auratus) from central china.goldfish, carassius auratus, widely distributed across eurasia, is one of the earliest fish domesticated for ornamental purposes. a series of diseases break out due to high-density culture of goldfish, causing significant economic losses. here, we report for the first time an infection of gyrodactylus kobayashii associated with the high mortality of goldfish from a fish farm in anziying township of henan province, china, following their transfer to several aquariums. in the first 2 weeks after g ...201525471903
ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the state of são paulo.concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. histopathological examination with hematoxylin-eosin and giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmi ...201526444060
dietary lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (carassius auratus gibelio).the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (carassius auratus gibelio). three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-l; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of l. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 ...201627769690
variations in bile tolerance among lactococcus lactis strains derived from different sources.lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis has been isolated from the intestines of marine fish and is a candidate probiotic for aquaculture. in order to use the bacterium as a probiotic, properties such as bile tolerance need to be assessed. here, we compared bile tolerance in l. lactis strains derived from different sources. three l. lactis subsp. lactis strains from marine fish (mfl), freshwater fish (ffl), and cheese starter (csl) were used along with an lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain from ...201424395331
analysis of the immune response in infections of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) with mycobacterium marinum.the rapid doubling time and genetic relatedness of the fish pathogen mycobacterium marinum to mycobacterium tuberculosis has rendered the former an attractive model for investigating mycobacterial host-pathogen interactions. we employed the m. marinum-goldfish infection model to investigate the in vivo immune responses to this pathogen in the context of a natural host. histological analysis revealed mycobacterial infiltrates in goldfish kidney and spleen tissues, peaking 28 days post infections ...201222885635
development of vaccines against nocardiosis in fishes.nocardiosis, one of the most systemic and devastating diseases, is currently emerging as an important disease of cultured marine and freshwater fishes. the causative agent of this disease is nocardia seriolae, a gram-positive acid-fast bacterium. an effective vaccine/vaccination strategy against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant loss in aquaculture practices. in this chapter, we present the vaccination/immunization protocol in fish against both live (sublethal) and inactivate ...201627076299
immune responses to live and inactivated nocardia seriolae and protective effect of recombinant interferon gamma (rifn γ) against nocardiosis in ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.looking into the fact that substantial mortality and morbidity is associated with intracellular gram +ve bacterium, nocardia seriolae infection, an effective vaccine against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant losses in aquaculture practices. therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of live (sub-lethal) and inactivated (antigenic form) n. seriolae on cellular and humoral immunity in ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii as well as the therapeutic pote ...201424882019
opisthorchis viverrini infection in the snail and fish intermediate hosts in central vietnam.opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic fish borne fluke, requires freshwater snails and fish as intermediate hosts. opisthorchiasis is endemic in parts of southeast asia, including central and south vietnam. in this region the transmission by intermediate hosts has received little attention. therefore, freshwater snails and wild fish from bau my tho, an opisthorchiasis endemic area in binh dinh province were collected for examination of o. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae, respectively. a t ...201728242064
opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of binh dinh province, central vietnam.opisthorchiasis caused by opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the mekong basin in south east asia. it is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of thailand and lao pdr. although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and southern provinces of vietnam, data are scarce and vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. we conducted a cross-sectional ...201626872984
the toxicity of cadmium to three aquatic organisms (photobacterium phosphoreum, daphnia magna and carassius auratus) under different ph levels.this study investigated the effect of ph on cadmium toxicity to three aquatic organisms: photobacterium phosphoreum, daphnia magna and carassius auratus. the acute toxicity of cd(2+) to p. phosphoreum and d. magna at five ph values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0) was assessed by calculating ec50 values. we determined that cd(2+) was least toxic under acidic conditions, and d. magna was more sensitive to the toxicity of cd than p. phosphoreum. to evaluate cd(2+)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in ...201323769002
expansion of the known host range of the microsporidium, pseudoloma neurophilia.the microsporidium, pseudoloma neurophilia, is the most common infectious organism found in laboratory zebrafish colonies. many currently used zebrafish lines originally came from pet store fish, and the initial description of p. neurophilia came from zebrafish obtained from a retail pet store. however, as p. neurophilia has not been described from wild-caught zebrafish, whether p. neurophilia is a natural pathogen of zebrafish is an open question. the pooling of fish of different species in the ...201627182659
first report of rahnella aquatilis infection in crucian carp carassius auratus in china.rahnella aquatilis infection is rare in aquaculture. here, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased crucian carp carassius auratus in xuzhou city, jiangsu province, eastern china. the isolate was tentatively named strain kcl-5, and subsequently identified as r. aquatilis by biochemical properties and molecular techniques. the results showed that the isolate kcl-5 was most closely related to the type strain atcc33071 (= dsm4594) of r. aquatilis, which shared 99.67, 96.26 an ...201728322207
recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral dna vaccines in carassius auratus.oral delivery of dna vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and dnas to some species in vivo. however, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional dnas for vaccination to fish is still unknown. in this study, red crucian carp (carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring cmv-egfp expression cassette. on day 5 post the firs ...201526481518
production and extraction of astaxanthin from phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in carassius auratus.the effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. the yeast phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. the animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with etoh 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from p. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. after a sufficient ex ...201525492637
investigation of effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol on vigilin expression using an isolated recombinant antibody.vigilin, a highly conserved protein from yeast to mammals, is a multifunctional protein in eukaryotic organisms. one biological function of vigilin is to stabilize the expression level of vitellogenin (vtg). this study aimed to develop vigilin as a new estrogen-inducible biomarker that correlates with the widely applied estrogen-inducible biomarker vtg and expand the ability to detect it in various species. here, a recombinant monoclonal antibody with high specificity against the conserved c-ter ...201425112681
[a new pathogen of gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio-shewanella putrefaciens].we studied a novel disease occurred among cultured carassius auratus gibelio at a farm located in yancheng city, jiangsu province.201222803340
detection of toxoplasma gondii in shellfish and fish in parts of this study, a total of 3432 aquatic animals covering eight species were tested by specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays to investigate the presence of toxoplasma gondii, in china. the results showed that, out of 618 procambarus clarkii samples collected from the different areas in southeast china, four samples from jiangxi province were positive. of 456 hypophthalmichthys molitrix samples, one sample from jiangsu province was positive. in addition, there was only one positive sample ...201424331298
first report of some known trichodinella epizootica šramek-hušek, 1953, <br />and tripartiella lom, 1959 from the cultured oranda gold fish (carassius auratus auratus) in india.trichodiniasis of fishes cause economic losses in the fish industry through mortality and decrease growth rate. very few studies of these ectoparasites have been made in india. a comprehensive icthyoparasotological survey in some ornamental fish farms of different parts of india has been done since march 2014-may 2015. during the study these trichodinid parasites have been identified from the gills of oranda gold fish (carassius auratus auratus l.). they are trichodinella epizootica, tripartiell ...201627811658
recombinant il-4/13a and il-4/13b induce arginase activity and down-regulate nitric oxide response of primary goldfish (carassius auratus l.) macrophages.we report on the expression analysis and functional characterization of il-4/13a and il-4/13b in goldfish. quantitative analysis indicated the highest expression in the heart, spleen, brain, and kidney, with comparable expression patterns for both il-4/13a and il-4/13b. the mrna levels of il-4/13a and il-4/13b in the immune cells examined were highest in macrophage and monocytes. assessment of spleen mrna following infection with trypanosoma carassii, a prominent protozoan pathogen of fish, reve ...201727581741
the analysis of the acute phase response during the course of trypanosoma carassii infection in the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).the expression of genes encoding the acute phase proteins (app) during the course of trypanasoma carassii infection in the goldfish was determined using quantitative pcr. significant changes in the mrna levels of ceruloplasmin (cp), c-reactive protein (crp), transferrin (tf), hemopexin (hx) and serum amyloid a (saa) were observed in the kidney, liver and spleen at various days post infection (dpi). of the five acute phase protein genes examined, crp and saa exhibited the highest expression in th ...201526116443
the analysis of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) innate immune responses after acute and subchronic exposures to oil sands process-affected water.we examined the immunotoxic effects of acute and subchronic exposures of goldfish to aged, fresh, and ozonated oil sands process-affected water (ospw) using a flow-through exposure apparatus. we measured the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes, the antimicrobial responses of primary macrophages isolated from ospw-exposed fish, and the ability of the goldfish to control infection with a protozoan parasite, trypanosoma carassii. after acute (1 week) exposure to aged ospw, we observed upre ...201424284786
goldfish (carassius auratus l.) possess natural antibodies with trypanocidal activity towards trypanosoma carassii in vitro.natural infection of cyprinids, such as carp, with the extracellular protozoan parasite trypanosoma carassii can attain up to 100% prevalence and cause significant host morbidity and mortality, particularly in aquaculture settings. host recovery from t. carassii infection has been shown to be antibody (immunoglobulin m; igm)-mediated, conferring long-term immunity in recovered animals upon challenge. to assess the role of igm in parasite clearance in the goldfish, igm was purified by peg-6000 pr ...201323333358
the expression analysis of inflammatory and antimicrobial genes in the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) infected with trypanosoma carassii.we report results of a comprehensive analysis of inflammatory gene expression during the course of infection of trypanosoma carassii in the goldfish. we observed significant increases in mrna levels of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines ifn-γ, tnfα1 and tnfα2; il-1β-1 and il-1β-2; il-12-p35 and il-12-p40; ccl1; cxcl8, anti-inflammatory cytokines il-10 and tgfβ and inos a and inos b, using quantitative pcr. expression levels and profiles of these cytokines and inos isoforms varied in the d ...201121782951
trypanosoma carassii hsp70 increases expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in macrophages of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).we report on the cloning and characterization of trypanosoma carassii 70 kda heat shock protein (hsp70). t. carassii hsp70 was secreted/excreted into culture medium in vitro and was recognized by sera from infected fish. recombinant hsp70 (rhsp70) activated goldfish macrophages and stimulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon gamma (ifngamma), tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha, interleukin (il)-1beta, (il)-12 and chemokines ccl-1 and cxcl-8 (il-8). t. carassii hsp ...200919527750
goldfish carassius auratus susceptibility to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype ivb depends on exposure route.we assessed the susceptibility of goldfish carassius auratus to infection by genotype ivb of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. goldfish were infected by intraperitoneal injections of 106 plaque-forming units (pfu) fish-1, single bath exposure of 105 pfu ml-1 for 24 h, or consumption of 0.4 g of commercial fish feed soaked in 107 pfu per 8 fish. the mortality rate of intraperitoneal-infected goldfish was 10 to 32%, although the virus was detected by quantitative rt-pcr in 77% (65/84) of the ...201526119297
[differences in the infestation rate of young cyprinid fishes (cypriniformes) by metacercaria of posthodiplostomum cuticola (digenea, diplostomatidae) in river and lake systems of the lake chany basin (western siberia)].a total of 12 fish species were studied for the invasion of p. cuticola (nordmann, 1832) metacercariae in the chany lake estuaries, river and lake systems during different periods of water level. all infected individuals were represented by juveniles of the family cyprinidae, except for adults of the dace leuciscus leuciscus. (l.). under an average water level (2010) the highest rate of fish invasion was revealed in the estuary zone, where the prevalence of infection (pi) constituted 37.5%, 13.4 ...201525693328
interspecific differences in hypoxia-induced gill remodeling in carp.the gills of many fish, but in particular those of crucian carp (carassius carassius) and goldfish (carassius auratus), are capable of extensive remodeling in response to changes in oxygen (o2), temperature, and exercise. in this study, we investigated the interspecific variation in hypoxia-induced gill modeling and hypoxia tolerance in 10 closely related groups of cyprinids (nine species, with two strains of cyprinus carpio). there was significant variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as the ...201624241069
assessment of copper and zinc levels in fish from freshwater ecosystems of moldova.the aim of this work was to assess the levels of copper and zinc in fish from the main freshwater ecosystems of moldova, in relation with species, habitat, age, sex, season, and development stage.201222234853
evaluation of pesticides and metals in fish of the dniester river, moldova.the dniester river is one of the largest rivers in eastern europe and receives input from numerous anthropogenic activities. in october 2001, fish samples (abramis brama, rutilus rutilus heckeli, perca fluviatilis, chondrostoma nasus, carassius auratus gibelio, and cyprinus carpio) were collected and analyzed for metals and various pesticides. maximum total ddt pesticide concentrations were between 27.7 and 34.2 ng/g wet weight in muscles and gonads, respectively. dde isomers comprised up to 70% ...200515914239
molecular cytogenetic detection of paternal chromosome fragments in allogynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio gynogenesis, sperm from related species activates egg and embryonic development, but normally does not contribute genetically to the offspring. in gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio bloch, however, gynogenetic offspring often show some phenotypes apparently derived from the heterologous sperm donor. this paternal effect of allogynogenesis is outstanding in an artificial clone f produced by cold treatment of clone e eggs after insemination with blunt-nose black bream (megaloabrama amblyceph ...200314606628
cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution of prolactin receptor in the sea bream (sparus aurata).the prolactin receptor (prlr) was cloned and its tissue distribution characterized in adults of the protandrous hermaphrodite marine teleost, the sea bream (sparus aurata). an homologous cdna probe for sea bream prlr (sbprlr) was obtained by rt-pcr using gill mrna. this probe was used to screen intestine and kidney cdna libraries from which two overlapping clones (1100 and 2425 bp, respectively) were obtained. these clones had 100% sequence identity in the overlapping region (893 bp) and were us ...200111161768
the biotransformation of three 14c-labelled phenolic compounds in twelve species of freshwater fish.1. the urinary and biliary excretion of 14c-labelled m-cresol, 1-naphthol and o-chlorophenol were investigated in 12 species of freshwater fish (bitterling, rhodeus sericeus amarus; bream, abramis brama; crucian carp, carassius carassius; goldfish, carassius auratus; gudgeon, gobio gobio; guppy, poecilia reticulata; minnow, phoximus phoximus; perch, perca fluviatilis; roach, rutilus rutilus; rudd, scardinius erythropthalmus; three-spined stickleback, gasterosteus aculeatus; tench, tinca tinca) w ...19836880238
the biotransformation of [14c]phenol in some freshwater fish.1. the biotransformation of phenol was investigated in eight species of freshwater fish: bream (abramis brama), goldfish (carassius auratus), guppy (poecilia reticulata), minnow (phoxinus phoxinus), perch (perca fluviatilis), roach (rutilus rutilus), rudd (scardinius erythropthalmus) and tench (tinca tinca), when exposed to sublethal concentrations of phenol in the aquarium water. 2. the two conjugates, phenyl sulphate and phenyl glucuronide, were the sole detected products produced by bream, pe ...19817293212
molecular cloning and characterization of gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) growth hormone receptor (ghr). assessment of alternative splicing.the full-length growth hormone receptor (ghr) of gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) was cloned and sequenced by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of 5'and 3'ends. the open reading frame codes for a mature 609 amino acid protein with a hydrophobic transmembrane region and all the characteristic motifs of ghrs. sequence analysis revealed a 96 and 76% of amino acid identity with black sea bream (acanthopagrus schlegeli) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus) ghrs, respectively, but this amino acid identity ...200312941635
distribution of gfap immunoreactive structures in the rhombencephalon of the sterlet (acipenser ruthenus) and its evolutionary implication.previous studies have revealed that although the brains of cypriniform teleosts (iberian barb, barbus comiza; carp, cyprinus carpio; goldfish, carassius auratus) are rich in glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap), they have, however, areas devoid of gfap immunoreactivity. the largest ones of these are in the rhombencephalon, e.g., the zones of the sensory and motor neurons in the vagal lobe. our studies in amniotes suggested that the gfap immunonegative areas could be characteristic of the more ...200212210122
study of the spinal cords of the sturgeon acipenser schrenckii, gar lepisosteus oculatus, and goldfish carassius auratus by morphological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches.little is known about the spinal cords of phylogenetically ancient actinopterygeans. the spinal cords of the chondrostean acipenser schrenckii (amur sturgeon), holostean lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar), and teleost carassius auratus (goldfish) were, therefore, analyzed by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. morphology showed numerous similarities between sturgeons and gars. in both, a dorsal column between the two dorsal horns was lacking, giving ...200717868134
characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. there is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. in this study, silver nanoparticles (agnp) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of azadirachta indica. agnp were characterized using a variety of ...201626573518
membrane transformations in degenerating rodlet cells in fishes of two teleostean families (salmonidae, cyprinidae).rodlet cells (rcs) of teleosts are identified by their fibrillar capsule and peculiar inclusions, the rodlets, consisting of a club-like sac and a central dense core. former ultrastructural studies showing signs of hypertrophy of endoplasmic reticulum (er) were followed up in salmonids (oncorhynchus mykiss, salmo trutta l.) and compared with cyprinids (cyprinus carpio l., carassius auratus l., alburnus alburnus). focusing on membrane transformations, unusual undulations of the membranes of rodle ...200818951513
dna reassociation kinetics in diploid and phylogenetically tetraploid cyprinidae.four diploid and three phylogenetically tetraploid cyprinidae (ostariophysi) have been characterized as for nuclear dna content, modal chromosome number and dna reassociation kinetics (hydroxyapatite chromatography). among the diploid species nuclear dna content (10(-12) g dna/2c) was 1.62 for tinca tinca, 1.87 for scardinius erythrophthalmus, 2.53 for leuciscus cephalus and 2.75 for alburnus alburnus, while the phylogenetically tetraploid species carassius auratus, barbus barbus and cyprinus ca ...1979490124
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