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kinetics of cd4+ and cd8alpha+ t-cell subsets in graft-versus-host reaction (gvhr) in ginbuna crucian carp carassius auratus langsdorfii.we have previously demonstrated the presence of graft-versus-host reaction (gvhr) in fish employing a model system of clonal triploid ginbuna and tetraploid ginbuna-goldfish hybrids. to elucidate the role of cd8alpha+ t cells in the induction of gvhr, we investigate the kinetics of cd4+ and cd8+ t-cell subsets in gvhr along with the pathological changes associated with gvh disease (gvhd) in ginbuna. gvhr was not induced with a leukocyte fraction lacking cd8alpha+ t cells separated by magnetic ce ...201020493902
the pattern of expression of guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta3 in the retina is conserved across vertebrate species.guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta3 (gnb3) is an isoform of the beta subunit of the heterotrimeric g protein second messenger complex that is commonly associated with transmembrane receptors. the presence of gnb3 in photoreceptors, and possibly bipolar cells, has been confirmed in murine, bovine and primate retinas [lee rh, lieberman bs, yamane hk, bok d, fung bk (1992) j biol chem 267:24776-24781; peng yw, robishaw jd, levine ma, yau kw (1992) proc natl acad sci u s a 89:10882-10886; huang ...201020538044
hexavalent chromium-induced multiple biomarker responses in liver and kidney of goldfish, carassius auratus.hexavalent chromium [cr (vi)] is a constituent of chromite ore. although it is known to have several industrial and technological applications, its release into the aquatic environment as a result of chemical spill or inadequate waste discharge may hamper the health of aquatic organisms. in this study, we have investigated the effects of cr (vi) on multiple biomarkers responses in goldfish under subchronic exposure conditions. laboratory-acclimatized fish were exposed to 4.25 ppm and 8.57 ppm cr ...201020549632
a molecule in teleost fish, related with human mhc-encoded g6f, has a cytoplasmic tail with itam and marks the surface of thrombocytes and in some fishes also of erythrocytes.in teleost fish, a novel gene g6f-like was identified, encoding a type i transmembrane molecule with four extracellular ig-like domains and a cytoplasmic tail with putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs including yxn and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (itam). g6f-like maps to a teleost genomic region where stretches corresponding to human chromosomes 6p (with the mhc), 12p (with cd4 and lag-3), and 19q are tightly linked. this genomic organization resembles the ancestral "ur ...201020614118
anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from dioscorea zingiberensis c. h. wright against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).dactylogyrus intermedius is one of the most pathogenic monogenean parasites on the gills of captive fish and can cause serious problem in aquaculture. to attempt controlling this parasite and explore novel potential antiparasitic agents, the present study was designed to investigate the anthelmintic activity of dioscorea zingiberensis c. h. wright against d. intermedius in goldfish under in vivo conditions. bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation of the compounds responsible for anthelmin ...201020689967
biological traits of rare males in the population of carassius gibelio (actinopterygii: cyprinidae) from lake pamvotis (north-west greece).the gynogenetic population of prussian carp carassius gibelio in lake pamvotis (north-west greece) included a small percentage of males (2-3%). cytogenetic analysis revealed heterogeneity of the population at the ploidy level: all females were triploid (modal chromosome number 156-162 chromosomes) while the males were either triploid (modal number 156-158 chromosomes) or tetraploid (modal number 200-214 chromosomes). morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in body shape among thes ...201020701641
transmission of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (cyhv-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (cyhv-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. previous studies on the host range of the cyhv-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. recently, cyhv-3 was detected in goldfish (carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with cyhv-3 infected koi. in the present study, a specific rt-pcr product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestin ...201120723951
modulation of rhodopsin gene expression and signaling mechanisms evoked by endothelins in goldfish and murine pigment cell lines.endothelins (ets) and sarafotoxins (srtxs) belong to a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, which regulate pigment migration and/or production in vertebrate pigment cells. the teleost carassius auratus erythrophoroma cell line, gem-81, and mus musculus b16 melanocytes express rhodopsin, as well as the et receptors, etb and eta, respectively. both cell lines are photoresponsive, and respond to light with a decreased proliferation rate. for b16, the doubling time of cells kept in 14-h light (14l):1 ...201020802974
differential ablation of sensory receptors underlies ototoxin-induced shifts in auditory thresholds of the goldfish (carassius auratus).in recent years, fish models have become popular for investigations of ototoxic agents. however, the vast majority of such studies have focused on anatomical changes in lateral line hair cells after drug administration. using the goldfish (carassius auratus), we confirm that the acquisition of auditory evoked potentials offers a rapid and non-invasive method for quantifying ototoxin-induced changes in hearing sensitivity. gentamicin (100 mg ml(-1)) was the drug of choice as it is a well-studied ...201020809542
anthelmintic activity of the crude extracts, fractions, and osthole from radix angelicae pubescentis against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (carassius auratus) in vivo.a bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the crude extract fractions and osthole from radix angelicae pubescentis against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (carassius auratus) in vivo. among four extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol), only ethanol extract exhibited the best anthelmintic efficacy with 100% mortality of dactylogyrus and no death of fish at the optimal anthelminthic concentration of 120 mg/l. therefore, etha ...201020878184
dynamic distribution of spindlin in nucleoli, nucleoplasm and spindle from primary oocytes to mature eggs and its critical function for oocyte-to-embryo transition in gibel carp.spindlin (spin) was thought as a maternal-effect factor associated with meiotic spindle. its role for the oocyte-to-embryo transition was suggested in mouse, but its direct evidence for the function had been not obtained in other vertebrates. in this study, we used the cagspin-specific antibody to investigate cagspin expression pattern and distribution during oogenesis of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio). first, the oocyte-specific expression pattern and dynamic distribution was revealed i ...201020878746
isolation and characterization of new potential probiotic bacteria based on quorum-sensing system.this work was aimed at identifying strains which can degrade quorum-sensing (qs) molecules from fish gut, with properties suitable for use as probiotic in aquaculture.201020955192
simple and direct detection of aeromonas hydrophila infection in the goldfish, carassius auratus (l.), by dot blotting using specific monoclonal antibodies.a combination of eight isolates of aeromonas hydrophila was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs). ten different groups of mabs specific to aeromonas were selected. the first five groups of mabs demonstrated high specificity and bound to only one or two isolates of a. hydrophila. the sixth and the seventh groups of mabs were a. hydrophila specific. they recognized seven of eight a. hydrophila isolates (ah1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8); however, the mab in the seventh group also showed cross-reactiv ...201021091724
characterization and functional analysis of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) interleukin-10.this is the first report of comprehensive functional analysis of an interleukin-10 in bony fish. quantitative expression analysis of goldfish il-10 revealed the greatest mrna levels in the spleen tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes and granulocytes. the stimulation of cells with recombinant goldfish (rg) tnfα2 significantly reduced il-10 mrna levels in granulocytes and monocytes of the goldfish. to functionally assess the goldfish il-10, we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgil-10) ...201021111485
the application of hcg, cph and ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. the aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (cph), ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. goldfish spawners were stimulated with hcg, cph and ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish ...201021134006
in vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).in the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of prunus amygdalus batsch seeds (semen amygdali), cimicifuga foetida l. rhizomes (rhizoma cimicifugae), peucedanum decursivum (miq.) maxim roots (radix peucedani), momordica cochinchinensis spreng. seeds (semen momordicae), and bupleurum chinense dc. roots (radix bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean dactylogyrus intermedius in goldf ...201021153837
in vivo anthelmintic activity of bruceine a and bruceine d from brucea javanica against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).the present study was designated to ascertain the anthelmintic activity of the dried fruits of brucea javanica and to isolate and characterise the active constituents. the methanol extract from the fruits of b. javanica showed significant anthelmintic activity against dactylogyrus intermedius (ec(50) (median effective concentration) value=49.96 mg l(-1)). based on this finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording ...201021196080
application of ultrasound in vaccination against goldfish ulcer disease: a pilot study.antigenicity and immunogenicity of aeromonas salmonicida soluble a-layer protein (ap) and formalin-killed bacterin were assessed in goldfish (carassius auratus l.) by applying ultrasound-immersion (usi) and injection (inj) routes. no adjuvant was used in usi while ifa was used in inj. the usi treated fish did not produce detectable acquired antibodies; however, this group stimulated by ap proved to be best protected against challenge infection with a homologous virulent strain of a. salmonicida. ...201121211585
fish transplantation and stress-related biomarkers as useful tools for assessing water quality.the active biomonitoring (abm) approach was investigated using species of indigenous (from a pristine site) and transplanted (to a polluted area) fish carassius auratus as an indicator organism of water/sediment pollution in taihu lake, a highly urbanized and industrialized area. the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod), reduced glutathione (gsh) content, catalase activities (cat) and lipoperoxidation (as mda) in liver were determined as stress-related biomarkers durin ...201021235174
conservation of characteristics and functions of cd4 positive lymphocytes in a teleost fish.the presence of helper and cytotoxic t cells in fish has been suggested, although t cell subsets have yet to be identified at the cellular level. in order to investigate the functions of cd4 and cd8a positive t cells we attempted to produce and characterize monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against teleost cd4 and cd8a. here we report the successful production of mabs against cd4 and cd8a in clonal ginbuna crucian carp carassius auratus langsdorfii and the function of cd4 positive t cells. in this st ...201121272597
assessment of environmental pollution of taihu lake by combining active biomonitoring and integrated biomarker response.goldfish (carassius auratus) bred in clean water were transferred into different stations in taihu lake for active biomonitoring exposures. the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) and glutathione-s-transferase (gst), the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (cat), reduced glutathione content (gsh), and lipoperoxidation (tbars) and metallothionein (mt) in liver were determined as biomarkers during the field exposure period. at the same time, the contents of polycyclic ...201121413737
cryopreservation of goldfish caudal fin explants using glycerol as a cryoprotecant.the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of glycerol on the cryopreservation fin explants of goldfish, carassius auratus. four different concentrations, 5, 10, 15, and 20% (v/v) of glycerol and a control were tested. these were prepared in dulbecco's modified eagle's medium with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. attachment and outgrowing rates were monitored from day 3 to day 14. results showed that fin explants cryopreserved in 20% concentration of glycerol was significantly higher ...201121468454
distribution and expression analysis of transcription factors in tissues and progenitor cell populations of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) in response to growth factors and pathogens.we report on the mrna levels of a panel of transcription factors in the kidney and spleen tissues, and in the cell populations from the blood, the spleen, and in the sorted kidney progenitor cells. the mrna levels of cebpα, cjun, cmyb, egr1, gata1, gata2, gata3, lmo2, mafb, pax5, pu.1 and runx1 were assessed in healthy goldfish as well as in fish challenged with two different pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida a449 or trypanosoma carassii. spleen tissue from healthy goldfish showed higher expressi ...201121474183
analysis of the antimicrobial responses of primary phagocytes of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) against mycobacterium marinum.the slow growth rate of mycobacterium spp. that infect humans coupled with a lack of reliable in vitro infection model systems has hindered the progress of research in host cell-mycobacteria interactions. recent studies have utilized the relatively fast growing mycobacterium marinum to examine the host-pathogen interface in natural fish hosts. here we describe the use of primary goldfish monocyte and mature macrophage cultures to investigate the immune cell-m. marinum interactions. live and heat ...201121530582
in vivo anthelmintic activity of chelidonine from chelidonium majus l. against dactylogyrus intermedius in carassius auratus.dactylogyrus intermedius is one of the most common and serious cause of parasitic diseases of freshwater fish in aquaculture, and can cause morbidity and high mortality in most species of freshwater fish worldwide. to attempt controlling this parasite and explore novel potential antiparasitic agents, the present study was designed to ascertain the anthelmintic activity of chelidonium majus l. whole plant and to isolate and characterize the active constituents against d. intermedius. the ethanol ...201121537985
differential involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone actions in gonadotrophs and somatotrophs of goldfish, carassius auratus.in goldfish, two endogenous gnrhs (salmon (s)gnrh and chicken (c)gnrh-ii) control maturational gonadotrophin-ii (lh) and gh secretion via ca(2+) -dependent intracellular signalling pathways. we investigated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (pi3k) in gnrh-evoked lh and gh release and associated intracellular ca(2+) increases ([ca(2+) ](i) ) in goldfish gonadotrophs and somatotrophs. immunoreactive pi3k p85α, the predominant regulatory subunit for class ia pi3ks, was detected in goldfi ...201121649760
inhibition of cyp450 1a and 3a by berberine in crucian carp carassius auratus gibelio.berberine has long been considered as an antibiotic candidate in aquaculture. however, studies regarding its effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes in fish are still limited. in the present study, the effects of berberine on cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a) and cyp3a in crucian carp were investigated. injection of different concentrations of berberine (0, 5, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg) inhibited the cyp1a mrna expression, thereby inhibiting further the catalytic activity of cyp1a-related ethoxyresorufin-o-deet ...201121802525
characterization of granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (gcsfr) is a member of the class i cytokine receptor superfamily and signaling through this receptor is important for the proliferation, differentiation and activation of neutrophils and their precursors. in this study we report on the cloning and molecular characterization of goldfish gcsfr. the identified goldfish gcsfr sequence possesses the conserved ig-like domain, the cytokine receptor homology domain (crh), three fibronectin domains as well a ...201121801744
molecular characterization of growth differentiation factor 9 and its spatio-temporal expression pattern in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) is a member of the transforming growth factor ß (tgf-ß) superfamily with a key role in regulating follicle development. in this study, the gdf9 full-length genomic dna and cdna were isolated and characterized from the gibel carp ovary using rapid-amplification of cdna ends (race) and ld-pcr. the full-length genomic dna and cdna sequences of gdf9 are 3979 and 2044 bp which code 428 amino acid residues with a specific rkkr protease cleavage site of tgf-ß supe ...201121779806
molecular characterization of mhc class i and beta-2 microglobulin in a clonal strain of ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.clonal ginbuna crucian carp is, a naturally gynogenetic fish, and is a useful model animal for studying t-cell-mediated immunity. to gain molecular information on mhc class i molecules from this species, we have identified four types of mhc class i (caauua-s3n, caauuf-s3n, caauze-s3n, and caauzb-s3n) and five beta 2-microglobulin (+¦(2)m) (caau+¦2m-1a, caau+¦2m-1b, caau+¦2m-2, caau+¦2m-3a and caau+¦2m-3b) by an expressed sequence tag (est) analysis and using homology cloning with degenerated pri ...201121689760
influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (carassius auratus).fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. the objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and in goldfish (carassius auratus). faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. vib ...201121692817
in vivo anthelmintic activity of dryopteris crassirhizoma, kochia scoparia, and polygala tenuifolia against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).in order to find natural agents against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of three medicinal plants (dryopteris crassirhizoma, kochia scoparia, and polygala tenuifolia) were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. among these extracts investigated, methanolic extract of d. crassirhizoma was observed the most effective with ec(50) value of 22.97-ámg-ál(-1) after 48-áh of exposur ...201121842381
determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (esox lucius and carassius auratus) in anzali wetland, iran.the anzali wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of iran, and parts of it were registered as a ramsar site in 1975. however, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the montreux record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. this study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and total mercury (thg) in two fish species (e ...201121713472
effects of enrofloxacin on cytochromes p4501a and p4503a in carassius auratus gibelio (crucian carp).hu, x., li, x.-c., sun, b.-b., fang, w.-h., zhou, s., hu, l.-l., zhou, j.-f. effects of enrofloxacin on cytochromes p4501a and p4503a in carassius auratus gibelio (crucian carp). j. vet. pharmacol. therap. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2011.01318.x. currently, although enrofloxacin (ef) as a widely used veterinary medicine has begun to apply to treating fish bacterial infections, the researches on the effects of ef on their main drug metabolic enzymes are limited. to investigate the effects of ef on ...201121726236
responses of the antioxidant defenses of the goldfish carassius auratus, exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenol.goldfish carassius auratus were exposed to 0.1mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp), widely used as transportation power in china, for 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 days, while one control group was designated for each exposure group. antioxidant defenses consisting of contents of reduced glutathione (gsh) and glutathione disulfide (gssg) and activities of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), glutathione reductase (gr), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (se-gpx) and glutathione s-transferase ...200521783475
acute toxicity of manganese in goldfish carassius auratus is associated with oxidative stress and organ specific antioxidant responses.manganese is a relatively common, yet poorly studied element in freshwater ecosystems, where it can be significantly bioconcentrated. the knowledge about the mechanisms of mn toxicity on fish health is still limited. the aim of the present study was to assess the potential induction of oxidative stress and the antioxidant response after a 96h waterborne mn-exposure (at 0.1 and 1mm) in gill, kidney, liver and brain of goldfish (carassius auratus). mn 1mm induced an increase of lipid hydroperoxide ...201122154142
effect of trichlorfon on oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of carassius auratus gibelio in vivo.to investigate the effect of trichlorfon on oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of carassius auratus gibelio in vivo, the fish were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l(-1) trichlorfon concentrations for 30 days. at the end of the experiment, plasm antioxidant activities, hepatic total nitric oxide synthase (t-nos) activity, xanthine oxidase (xod) activity and hepatocyte apoptosis rate were analyzed. the results showed hepatic t-nos activities, xod activities and hepatocyte apoptosis r ...201121986809
in vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of azadirachtin against argulus spp. in carassius auratus (linn. 1758).argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. in recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. the present study was conducted to find the effects of azadirachtin against argulus spp. on carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo cond ...201122042504
impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system and oxidative stress in liver of crucian carp (carassius auratus l.) exposed to microcystins.hepatotoxic microcystins (mcs) are produced by cyanobacteria in diverse water bodies and the pathophysiology includes induction of reactive oxygen species and adenosine triphosphate (atp) depletion in cells. in this study, we evaluated mcs induced changes in the oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) system in mitochondria of crucian carp liver. fish were subdivided into two groups that were intraperitoneally injected with two doses of mcs (50 and 200 mc-lreq μg/kg bw) and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 1 ...201121913302
supplementary studies on henneguya doneci schulman, 1962 (myxozoa: myxosporea) infecting the gill filaments of carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in china: histologic, ultrastructural, and molecular data.henneguya doneci schulman, 1962 was collected from the gill filaments of carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in hubei province, china. the plasmodia located on the surface of the gill arches deformed the neighboring gill filaments. the size of the plasmodia ranged from 0.6 to 4.5 mm in diameter in different months. the myxospores in the plasmodia measured 10.1 (9.2-11.5) μm long × 8.0 (7.5-8.5) μm wide × 7.5 (7-8) μm thick, with two equal capsules at 4.7 (4-5.5) μm long × 3.3 (2.5-4) μm wide, and ...201121989578
Impact of silicon-based quantum dots on the antioxidative system in white muscle of Carassius auratus gibelio.Silicon-based quantum dots were intraperitoneally injected in individuals of Carassius auratus gibelio. Their effects on white muscle were investigated by following their distribution and impact on the antioxidative system. The GSH level significantly increased after 1 and 3 days of exposure by, respectively, 85.3 and 25.4%. Seven days later, GSH levels were similar to control concentrations. MDA concentration rose after three days by 46.9% and remained at the same level after 7 days. Protein th ...201122139144
establishment, characterization and viral susceptibility of a new cell line derived from goldfish, carassius auratus (l.), tail fin.a continuous cell line [goldfish tail fin (gftf)] derived from a goldfish tail fin, carassius auratus, was established and characterized. gftf cells predominantly consist of fibroblast-like cells that were maintained and subcultured more than 50 times over a period of 15 months. cells grew at temperatures between 15 and 37°c, with an optimum temperature of 25°c. the growth rate of gftf cells increased proportionally with the foetal bovine serum (fbs) concentration (5-20%), with optimum growth at ...201121916901
identification and molecular characterization of the interleukin-10 receptor 1 of the zebrafish (danio rerio) and the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).this is the first report of the identification and molecular characterization of an interleukin-10 receptor 1 in bony fish. by gene synteny analysis, we identified the zebrafish interleukin-10 receptor 1 (il10r1) and using this il10r1 sequence, we cloned the goldfish il10r1 cdna transcript. the identified fish il10r1 protein sequences had a putative jak1 binding site, only one of the two stat3 binding sites, that are present in all other vertebrates il10r1 proteins as well as c-terminal serine r ...201221906622
[phylogenetic relationships of silver crucian carp in carassius auratus complex based on mtdna analysis].the phylogenetic relationships of carassius genus subspecies were investigated based on the data of the variability of nucleotide sequences of the mtdna cytochrome b (cyt b) and control region (cr). dendrograms constructed based on the ba, ml, nj, and mp methods revealed five clusters of the congruent topologies that substantially corresponded to geographical localities and taxonomic conception of the c. auratus complex. an analysis of two mtdna fragment topologies demonstrated that the island f ...201223516900
embryonic development of goldfish (carassius auratus): a model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection.background: highly divergent morphology among the different goldfish strains (carassius auratus) may make it a suitable model for investigating how artificial selection has altered developmental mechanisms. here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species. results: we divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices ...201323913853
hira is essential for the development of gibel carp.hira is one of the chaperones of histone h3.3. mutation of hira results in embryonic lethality in mice, suggesting a critical role in embryogenesis. however, hira-mutated drosophila may survive to adults, indicating that it is dispensable in drosophila development. the role of hira in fish development is unknown. in this study we first investigated the expression of hira during embryogenesis of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) by whole-mount in situ hybridization. we found that hira signal ...201323912483
acth-induced internalization of plasma membrane in xanthophores of the goldfish, carassius auratus l. 1978218582
death induced by injection stress in cold-acclimated goldfish, carassius auratus. 20144147938
new observations on the fine structure of the liver in goldfish (carassius auratus).a re-examination of goldfish liver was made through the use of sem of fractured samples and tem of ultrathin-sections and freeze-etch replicas. several new hepatic fine structures described in the present study are morphologically similar to those reported previously in many higher vertebrates including mammals. hepatic sinusoids of goldfish contain fenestrations which are arranged into sieve plates. although the hepatic plates are made up of two layers of hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of g ...1977421256
temperature-related changes in the erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase (acetazolamide-sensitive esterase) activity of goldfish, carassius auratus.1. carbonic anhydrase activity in 'membrane' and 'cytosol' fractions of goldfish erythrocytes was assayed by the p-nitrophenyl acetate procedure following thermal acclimation. 2. the thermal sensitivity of "membrane"-associated activity was apparently unaltered by acclimation. "cytosol" activity in warm-acclimated specimens was somewhat more thermosensitive than that animals maintained at low temperature. 3. significant increases in specific activity, and activity per unit volume of packed cells ...1998108353
cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons, ciliated perikarya and "peptidergic" synapses in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus of teleostean fishes.the magnocellular preoptic nucleus of fishes (anguilla anguilla, amiurus nebulosus, cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, ctenopharyngodon idella, cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) has been studied by light and electron microscopy. two kinds of neurons were found: a) large, electron-dense, gomori-positive cells with moderate acetylcholinesterase (ache) positivity which contain granulated vesicles of 1400 to 2200 a (in average 1600 to 1800 a), adn b) small, strongly ache-positive, electron-lucent neurons ...1987174818
populations of retinal neurones marked with dapi in lower vertebrates.retinae of teleosts, the marine sparid boops boops and the fresh water cyprinid carassius auratus, and amphibians, the anuran rana pipiens and the urodele ambystoma tigrinum, were stained in vitro with dapi (4'6-diamidino 2-phenylindole). in all the preparations tested dapi consistently stained nuclei in the ganglion cell layer, and three levels of nuclei could be observed from ipl (inner plexiform layer) to inl (inner nuclear layer) in the bogue, goldfish and frog retinae. in the goldfish retin ...20082620706
afferent connections of the valvula cerebelli in two teleosts, the common goldfish and the green sunfish.the afferent connections of the valvula cerebelli were examined in one cypriniform teleost (carassius auratus) and one perciform teleost (lepomis cyanellus) with the use of horseradish peroxidase as a retrograde tracer. both species have ipsilateral input to the valvula from the central pretectal and dorsal accessory optic nuclei, the dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei, the lateral nucleus of the valvula, the perilemniscal nucleus, and nucleus isthmi and contralateral input from the inferior ol ...20082592597
sensorimotor mapping and oropharyngeal reflexes in goldfish, carassius auratus.the vagal lobe of goldfish and some carps is a laminated, specialized lobe of the midmedulla containing both primary sensory terminals and primary motor neurons. both the sensory and motor components are represented in the lobe in a matching, orotopic fashion, i.e. the oral cavity is mapped across the surface of the lobe. anatomical tracing studies reveal that the circuitry exists for a point-to-point reflex system in which the superficial sensory layers are mapped directly onto the underlying m ...20123334903
influence of isolation stress and inhibited protein biosynthesis on learning and memory in goldfish.goldfish, carassius auratus auratus l. (pisces, cyprinidae), were trained by different kinds of training procedures under the influence of cycloheximide or puromycin, two inhibitors of the protein biosynthesis. after active avoidance training in a shuttle box an apparent amnesia was found only when the fish were exposed to a one day lasting isolation stress prior to training. if the animals were accustomed to isolation over a period of 20 days the inhibitors did not affect memory formation. afte ...20133823175
[immunocytology of alpha-endorphin positive hypothalamic fibers of carassius auratus l. and cyprinus carpio l].an immunocytological study of the basal hypothalamus of carassius auratus and cyprinus carpio with an alpha-endorphin antiserum shows the different nerve processes belonging probably to the immunoreactive cells of the lateral part of the n.l.t. according to their pathways, two main fibre tracts have been distinguished: many fluorescent fibres converge towards the pituitary gland into which they enter, other fibres run caudally through the tuber towards the nucleus tuberis inferior (baumgarten an ...199997002
nucleotide sequence comparison of the predicted first exonic region of goldfish ras gene between normal and neoplastic tissues.the first exonic and its flanking regions of a ras-related gene in cultured erythrophoroma cells and normal liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) were sequenced and their sequences compared. the two samples demonstrated identical sequences for the alu i fragment of 245 nucleotides, of which 70 nucleotides might correspond to the 5'-upstream segment and 64 to the first intervening sequence, indicating that the predicted exonic region encodes from the 1st to the 37th amino acids from the n-termina ...20093029139
stress and adrenocorticosteroid dynamics in the goldfish, carassius auratus. 19991171717
[parasitofauna of the silver crucian (carassius auratus gibelio bloch, 1783) catched in the carp ponds of the leczyn-włodawa lake district]. 2004524892
dopaminergic regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor activity in the goldfish (carassius auratus).in goldfish, dopamine acts as an endogenous inhibitor of basal and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh)-stimulated gonadotrophin release. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dopamine on the pituitary gnrh receptors in vivo and in vitro in goldfish. the goldfish pituitary contains two classes of gnrh-binding sites, a high-affinity/low-capacity site and low-affinity/high-capacity site. injection of domperidone, a dopamine antagonist, resulted in a dose- and time-re ...20082547004
reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of o-phthaldialdehyde-derivatized free amino-acids in two types of goldfish muscles.o-phthaldialdehyde-derivatized free amino-acids from muscle tissues of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) were determined using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (3-microns ultrasphere ods) with gradient elution and uv detection of the analyte. an off-line, pre-column derivatization procedure was applied. a full analysis of the derivatives was completed within 40 min. the method showed good selectivity, sensitivity and reproducibility. the developed procedure was employed to quantify free amino- ...20082490753
the effects of dopamine on temperature regulation in goldfish.microinjections of dopamine (da) were made into specific forebrain loci in goldfish (carassius auratus: 40-85 g) to study the involvement of da in behavioral thermoregulation. injections of 25, 50, 100 and 250 ng da into the anterior aspect of the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (npp) led to consistent, dose-dependent decreases in selected temperature. minor decreases or no effect on selected temperature was observed following injections of 5 or 10 ng da. injections of the control solution ...20092738204
the effect of ethanol on temperature selection in the goldfish, carassius auratus.the effect of ethanol on behavioral thermoregulation in the goldfish, carassius auratus, was studied by adding ethanol to a horizontal aquatic temperature gradient which allowed each fish to select its preferred temperature within a range of about 9 degrees c to 33 degrees c. alternating exposure to 1.0% (v/v) ethanol and water showed that fish (10 to 15 g) responded to ethanol by selecting lower temperatures. onset and disappearance of the effect occurred within 10 min of exposure to or removal ...20123362919
effects of ethanol and sodium phenobarbital on conflict behavior of goldfish (carassius auratus). 20154418688
[regeneration of the spermatogenesis of the hypophysectomized cyprid carassius auratus. l. by a highly purified carp gonadotropic factor]. 20164994201
[comparative ultrastructure of the brush border of the enterocyte, depending upon the nutritional state in 3 cyprinides: the tench (tinca tinca l.), the carp(cyprinus carpio l.) and the goldfish(carassius auratus l.)]. 20164791998
transfer of control of avoidance behavior in normal and telencephalon ablated goldfish (carassius auratus). 20164824385
in vivo effect of dopamine antagonists on melanocyte-stimulating hormone cells of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) pituitary.young goldfish were injected with three dopaminergic antagonists, pimozide, sulpiride, and domperidone, for 5 (low dose) and 7 days (higher dose). cytological and immunocytochemical techniques using anti-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (msh) serum were applied to the pituitary. msh cells in the three treated groups showed a decrease in immunoreactive cytoplasmic granules, a significant nuclear hypertrophy, and, after 7 days, a cellular enlargement. the nucleolus and the lamellar endoplasmic ...20133666418
[5-hyroxytryptamine in the central nervous system of the gold- fish (carassius auratus)]. 20144177370
cell proliferation in the olfactory bulb of adult freshwater teleosts.the olfactory bulb of adult specimens of carassius auratus was subjected to an autoradiographic study using [3h]thymidine. adult specimens of carassius auratus, barbus meridionalis, cyprinus carpio and salmo gairdneri were also studied using light and electron microscopy. cells were found undergoing mitotic division with two characteristic locations: a group can be seen near to the ventricle or ventricular recess; these cells can be identified as granule cells or precursors of granule cells. oth ...20082606770
tectal projections in the goldfish (carassius auratus): a degeneration study.efferents revealed by degeneration staining following tectal lesions in goldfish are presented. four major projections were found. ascending ipsilateral projections to pretectal-diencephalic areas exit the tectum rostrally and laterally and terminate in the area pretectalis (ap), lateral geniculate (lgn), nucleus pretectalis (np), and nucleus rotundus (nr). ascending contralateral projections exit rostrally and possibly laterally, enter the posterior and postoptic commissures and terminate in th ...1973422751
interocular transfer of preoperatively trained visual discriminations in goldfish (carassius auratus) following selective commissure transections.goldfish were monocularly trained on either a red/green or circle/square discrimination task to show a differential classically conditioned cardiac deceleration. combined section of the minor and horizontal commissure was then performed in animals trained on the colour problem, and transection of the posterior commissure in fish which had acquired the shape task. both groups were then examined for retention and transfer. the results indicate that the engram for colour is fully represented bilate ...20092713082
[origin of transbranchial electric potential difference in the goldfish carassius auratus. importance of ca++ ion]. 20144217665
in-vivo evaluation of dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of gonadotrophin secretion from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, carassius auratus.dopamine acts directly on the pituitary to modulate gonadotrophin (gth) secretion in goldfish (carassius auratus). in the light of this important role for dopamine in the regulation of goldfish reproduction, this investigation was designed to evaluate the receptor specificity of this dopamine inhibition and to describe the use of domperidone, a specific dopamine d2-receptor antagonist, in the manipulation of pituitary function in goldfish. to investigate the specificity of dopamine inhibition of ...20102889788
in vitro biosynthesis of steroids, including 11-deoxycortisol and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 beta,7 alpha,17,20 beta-tetrol, by ovaries of the goldfish carassius auratus during the stage of oocyte final maturation.to examine the production of steroids with potential oocyte maturation-inducing or pheromonal activity in the goldfish (carassius auratus) we have incubated mature ovaries of this species with 17-[3h]hydroxyprogesterone. the metabolites in the unconjugated, glucuronide, and sulfate fractions were identified by chromatography, microchemical reaction, and, in most cases, crystallization to constant specific activity. a major metabolite, present in all three fractions, was tentatively identified as ...20061426940
comparative activities of glycogen phosphorylase and gamma-amylase in livers of carp (cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (carassius auratus).1. the activity of glycogen phosphorylase in goldfish liver is fivefold greater than that in carp liver, suggesting that the enzyme may not be as important in regulating glycogenolysis in the latter species. 2. the activity of gamma-amylase is comparable in carp and goldfish liver. 3. the activity of hepatic gamma-amylase is approximately one-half that of glycogen phosphorylase in carp whereas in goldfish, the activity of gamma-amylase is less than one-sixth that of phosphorylase. hepatic gamma- ...2002122584
immunoglobulin vh genes of the goldfish, carassius auratus: a re-examination.five vh-related genomic sequences from the goldfish, carassius auratus, have been characterized. one of these sequences appeared to be a functional gene, and four to be pseudogenes. the main conclusions drawn from this study were that: (1) with minor exceptions, goldfish vh genes conform to the typical pattern of vertebrate vh genes in terms of their structure (they encode an intron-split hydrophobic leader, 3 framework and 2 complementarity-determining regions, and possess a typical 3' recombin ...20001905783
[influence of hypophysectomy on renewal of internal water (studied using tritiated water) in the red fish, carassius auratus l]. 20154989967
a voltage-clamp analysis of membrane currents in solitary bipolar cells dissociated from carassius auratus.membrane properties of solitary bipolar cells, mechanically dissociated from the enzyme-treated goldfish retina, were studied under current- and voltage-clamp conditions with 'giga-seal' suction pipettes (pipette solution 138 mm-k). the resting potential of solitary bipolar cells was about -30 mv. they responded to depolarizing current pulses with sustained depolarization, and to hyperpolarizing current pulses with an initial hyperpolarizing transient followed by a sag to a less hyperpolarized l ...20082580078
microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water.ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the united states (u.s.). the global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the u.s. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. using conventional molecular ...201222970112
anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (carassius auratus auratus).the sterile insect technique (sit) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (aw-ipm) programs. the sit can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. for anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminat ...201323983078
molecular characterization and expression analysis of toll-like receptors 5 and 22 from natural triploid carassius auratus.innate immunity, as the most primitive and universal host defense in fish, constitutes an efficient first line of defense to combat invading microbes. toll-like receptors (tlrs) play essential roles in the innate immunity, and tlr5 and tlr22 are two important tlrs that can recognize flagellin and double stranded rna (dsrna), respectively. in this study, we identified and characterized two tlrs genes of qihe crucian carp (carassius auratus) (designated as catlr5 and catlr22). the full-length cdna ...201728259778
comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in healthy and aeromonas hydrophila-infected crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio).the comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (enr) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (cip) were investigated in healthy and aeromonas hydrophila-infected crucian carp after a single oral (p.o.) administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg at 25 °c. the plasma concentrations of enr and of cip were determined by hplc. pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean enr concentrations by noncompartmental modeling. in healthy fish, the elimination half-life (t1/2λz ), maximum plasma concentratio ...201728205238
preliminary study on the relationship between dexamethasone and pathogen susceptibility on crucian carp (carassius auratus).dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressant, can inhibit the immune response and increase the amount of pathogen in body, but the role of dexamethasone affecting susceptibility of crucian carp (carassius auratus) to pathogen is unclear. the effects of dexamethasone on susceptibility of crucian carp to aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. the fish were divided into four groups randomly and injected intraperitoneally by dexamethasone for 0 day (group d), 3 days (group c), 6 days (gro ...201627744057
detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: first evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in india.this outbreak report details of a mortality event where cyprinid herpes virus-2 (cyhv-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, carassius auratus, from commercial farms. the goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. white nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. transmission elec ...201627172876
effects of repeated handling and air exposure on the immune response and the disease resistance of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) over winter.high mortalities and suppressed immune functions of farmed fish over winter are the universal problems in aquaculture. it is necessary to improve the immune response and disease resistance in the overwintering fish. a recent study suggested that repeated handling increased innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance in senegalese sole. therefore, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that appropriate repeated handling could compromise the immune depression and increase the disease resis ...201526481516
expression patterns of toll-like receptors in natural triploid carassius auratus after infection with aeromonas hydrophila.toll-like receptors (tlrs) play the important roles in the innate immune system. in the present study, we have cloned fragments of 13 members of tlr family in natural triploid qihe crucian carp (c. auratus) and investigated the expression profiles of these tlrs in spleen and head kidney at different time points after a. hydrophila infection. the results showed that the expressions of certain tlrs including tlr4, tlr5, and tlr22 were significantly up-regulated after infection, and the expression ...201526319889
characterization of myeloid-specific peroxidase, keratin 8, and dual specificity phosphatase 1 as innate immune genes involved in the resistance of crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.myeloid-specific peroxidase (mpo), keratin 8 (krt-8), and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp-1) are believed to play essential roles in innate immunity. through suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) analysis, we previously identified mpo, krt-8, and dusp-1 as the three genes that were the most significantly upregulated in crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) that survived cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) infection. here, we have further characterized these three genes and their respon ...201425312688
molecular cloning and expression analysis of immunoglobulin m heavy chain gene of blunt snout bream (megalobrama amblycephala).immunoglobulins (igs), which bind antigens with high specificity, are essential molecules in adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. in this study, cdna encoding the secreted form of the immunoglobulin heavy chain of igm (sigm) was cloned from the mesonephros of blunt snout bream (megalabrama amblycephala) using rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the full-length cdna of sigm heavy chain gene has 1961 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 569 amino acids, constant regio ...201424979225
different expression profiles of interleukin 11 (il-11), intelectin (itln) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (pnp 5a) in crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and aeromonas hydrophila.interleukin 11 (il-11), intelectin (itln) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (pnp5a) play important roles in innate immunity. in a previous study to identify differentially expressed immune-related genes, suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) assay was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) infected with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) in which il-11, itln and pnp5a were identified to be the three most significantly up-regulated ...201424636855
protection of ornamental gold fish carassius auratus against aeromonas hydrophila by treating ixora coccinea active principles.herbals such as ixora coccinea, daemia extensa and tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of i. coccinea was able to suppress the a. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. the purifie ...201424380832
effects of praziquantel and sanguinarine on expression of immune genes and susceptibility to aeromonas hydrophila in goldfish (carassius auratus) infected with dactylogyrus intermedius.praziquantel and sanguinarine have been demonstrated positive therapeutic effects on monogenean dactylogyrus intermedius; however, few studies have considered the post impacts of these antiparasitic chemicals on host after repelling the parasites. the changes of expression of selected immune genes (ccl-1, cxcl-8, il-1β-1, il-1β-2, tnfα-1, tnfα-2 and tgf-β) in gill, kidney and spleen and bacterial loads of aeromonas hydrophila in gill, kidney, spleen and liver following bath administration of the ...201323954698
vaccination strategies to protect goldfish carassius auratus against aeromonas hydrophila infection.ornamental goldfish carassius auratus were treated with whole cell (wc), extracellular product (ecp), outer membrane protein (omp) and biofilm (bf) vaccines developed from the virulent aeromonas hydrophila (ahv1; genbank hq331525.1) with and without the immunoadjuvant asparagus racemosus. on various days post-vaccination (dpv), the treated fish were challenged with virulent a. hydrophila. these fish were monitored for survival, growth, specific bacterial reduction, and biochemical, haematologica ...201323670079
effects of mannan oligosaccharide on the physiological responses, hsp70 gene expression and disease resistance of allogynogenetic crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) under aeromonas hydrophila infection.we evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide (mos) on the resistance to aeromonas hydrophi1a infection in allogynogenetic crucian carp. the fish were randomly divided into five groups: a control group was fed with basal diet, and four treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 60, 120, 240, 480 mg/kg mos for 10 weeks, respectively. we then challenged the fish with a. hydrophi1a and recorded the mortality and the changes in serum cortisol, t3, t4, lys ...201323481213
effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish carassius auratus (linn. 1758) and resistance against aeromonas hydrophila.modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. the present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin ec 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria aeromonas hydrophila. the experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control t ...201323261511
effect of coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on the hematological and biochemical parameters and protection against aeromonas hydrophila in allogynogenetic crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio).the effect of dietary intake of coriolus versicolor polysaccharides (cvp) on the hematological and biochemical indices of allogynogenetic crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. fish were fed cvp supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g cvp kg(-1)) for 56 days. the rbc, wbc counts, hemoglobin content, esr in blood and tp, alt, ast, alp, glu, cho, tg, and bun in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. after feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with aeromo ...201322791194
the establishment of an intestinal microflora in developing goldfish (carassius auratus) of culture ponds.the bacterial flora in the intestinal tract of goldfish (carassius auratus) was investigated at different stages of fish development. the floras of the diets and the water and sediment of a culture pond were also analyzed. the total counts in the intestine ranged from 2.2 × 10(6)-2.1 × 10(8) cells g(-1) wet weight.aeromonas hydrophila, a. punctata, pseudomonas, bacteroidaceae andclostridium species were the common components in the intestinal tract of goldfish from larvae to adult stage.bacteroi ...198824201410
molecular and functional characterization of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) serum amyloid a.quantitative expression analysis of goldfish saa revealed the highest mrna levels in the kidney, spleen and intestine with lower mrna levels in muscle and liver. goldfish saa was differentially expressed in goldfish immune cells with highest mrna levels observed in neutrophils. to functionally assess goldfish saa, recombinant protein (rgsaa) was generated by prokaryotic expression and functionally characterized. monocytes and macrophages treated with rgsaa exhibited differential gene expression ...201526523984
functional characterization of receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (rip2) of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).we report on the functional characterization of rip2 of the goldfish. quantitative expression analysis of goldfish rip2 revealed the greatest mrna levels in the spleen, monocytes and splenocytes. we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgrip2) and determined that anti-human rip2 polyclonal antibody specifically recognized recombinant goldfish rip2 (rgrip2). goldfish rip2 activity was inhibited by the p38 mapk pathway inhibitor sb203580. treatment of goldfish macrophages with lps, pgn, m ...201525242011
identification and functional characterization of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) high mobility group box 1 (hmgb1) chromatin-binding protein.we report on the identification and functional characterization of hmgb1 of the goldfish. quantitative analysis indicated the highest expression of goldfish hmgb1 in the brain, with lower mrna levels in spleen, intestine, kidney, gill and heart. hmgb1 was also differentially expressed in goldfish immune cell populations with highest mrna levels present in splenocytes and neutrophils. we generated and functionally characterized the recombinant hmgb1 (rghmgb1). the rghmgb1 primed the respiratory b ...201424406304
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