distribution and bioaccumulation of microcystins in water columns: a systematic investigation into the environmental fate and the risks associated with microcystins in meiliang bay, lake taihu.for the purpose of understanding the environmental fate of microcystins (mcs) and the potential health risks caused by toxic cyanobacterial blooms in lake taihu, a systematic investigation was carried out from february 2005 to january 2006. the distribution of mcs in the water column, and toxin bioaccumulations in aquatic organisms were surveyed. the results suggested that lake taihu is heavily polluted during summer months by toxic cyanobacterial blooms (with a maximum biovolume of 6.7 x 10(8)c ...200717537477
concentrations of pentachlorophenol (pcp) in fish and shrimp in jiangsu province, china.pentachlorophenol (pcp) concentrations were determined in 55 samples of fish, shrimp, crabs, frogs and turtles collected in jiangsu province and 55 freshwater shrimp samples collected from the huiming fish market, nanjing, china between 2003 and 2004. pcp concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit (mdl: 0.5 microg/kg ww) to 61 microg/kg ww, with a mean of 5.2 microg/kg ww in 55 samples collected across jiangsu province and a mean of 0.5 microg/kg ww for freshwater shrimp col ...200717537482
chronological observations of intestinal histopathology in rats (rattus norvegicus) infected with centrocestus caninus.intestinal pathological enzyme activity changes were studied chronologically in rats after centrocestus caninus infection. a single inoculation of 300 metacercariae isolated from the gills of goldfish (carassius auratus), was orally administered to male rats (n = 15). uninfected animals were used as controls (n = 5). at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 post-infection (pi), three infected rats, and one from each control group, were sacrificed. the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were removed separately and ...200617547056
pcb levels and accumulation patterns in waterbird eggs and in their prey at lake kerkini, a north-eastern mediterranean wetland of international "target" pcb levels were determined and compared in waterbird eggs, in their prey, and in water at lake kerkini, northern greece, to investigate pcb bioaccumulation patterns and to define the best bioindicator of target pcbs for this area. pcbs were analysed from eggs of phalacrocorax carbo, podiceps cristatus, ardea cinerea, egretta garzetta, and nycticorax nycticorax and from prey types alburnus alburnus, rutilus rutilus, lepomis gibbosus. carassius auratus, and rana sp. pcbs analysed we ...200717549546
carassius auratus-originated recombinant histone h1 c-terminal peptide as gene delivery material.the effective delivery of exogenous genes into eukaryotic cells is important for fundamental and biotechnological research. protein-based gene delivery including histone proteins has recently emerged as a powerful technique for non-viral dna transfer. histones are dna-binding proteins that function in dna packaging and protection. in particular, histone h1 is largely responsible for the stabilization of higher-order chromatin structures. several studies have examined the use of full-length histo ...200817571853
in situ studies on physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms in a large chinese lake.physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms were studied in a large net cage in meiliang bay, a hypereutrophic region of lake taihu. we sampled four fishes: the phytoplanktivorous hypophthalmichthys molitrix and aristichthys nobilis, the omnivorous carassius auratus, and the carnivorous culter ilishaeformis. alterations of the antioxidant (gsh) and the major antioxidant enzymes (cat, sod, gpx, gst) in livers were monitored m ...200717572463
molecular cloning and expression analysis of t-bet in ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii).in the adaptive immune system of mammals, naive helper t (th) cells differentiate into th1 or th2 cells. the t-box expressed in t cells (t-bet) is a member of a family of t-box transcription factors that regulates the expression of ifn-gamma and plays a crucial role in th1 cell differentiation and cell-mediated immunity. we cloned and sequenced t-bet cdna for the first time from non-mammalian species, ginbuna crucian carp. ginbuna t-bet was composed of 608 predicted amino acids and showed 41.5% ...200817624433
identification of differentially expressed genes from contaminant and thermal exposed goldfish carassius auratus in gaobeidian lake in beijing, china.gaobeidian lake, located in beijing, china, derives its water mainly from the effluent of the gaobeidian wastewater treatment plant, which is moderately polluted. additionally, as this water is used as a coolant in the nearby thermal power plant, the water of this lake has an elevated temperature. to screen differential gene expression in gaobeidian lake, suppressive subtractive hybridization (ssh) methodology was performed on rna in goldfish carassius auratus hepatic tissues from the lake, usin ...200717624611
using semipermeable membrane devices, bioassays, and chemical analysis for evaluation of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.meiliang bay is a sublake of taihu lake and has been polluted by domestic and industrial effluents. as part of a comprehensive risk assessment project in this region, semipermeable membrane devices (spmds) were applied to evaluate the levels and potential toxic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in lakewater, in combination with chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay using h4iie rat hepatoma cells. in addition, induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, i ...200717657463
nationwide study of dioxins in the freshwater fish carassius auratus (gibelio) langsdorfii (crucian carp) in japan: concentrations and estimation of source contribution ratios.we investigated dioxin concentrations in freshwater fish in japan by standardizing species to detect subtle decreasing trends of dioxin concentrations in the future with the reinforcement of regulations. the fish studied were crucian carp (carassius auratus (gibelio) langsdorfii), an omnivorous species. fish and sediments were collected from 14 rivers and lakes located in remote areas, agricultural areas, and small and large cities throughout japan. the total toxic equivalent (teq) dioxin concen ...200717675214
heavy metal distribution in tissues of six fish species included in human diet, inhabiting freshwaters of the nature park "hutovo blato" (bosnia and herzegovina).the aim of the study was to quantify heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) concentration in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney, gills, and gonads) of six fish species (carp: cyprinus carpio, tench: tinca tinca, pumpkinseed: lepomis gibosus, prussian carp: carassius auratus gibelio, hasselquist: salmo dentex, eel: anguilla anguilla) from the freshwaters of the nature park hutovo blato, bosnia and herzegovina, and determine whether they are potentially harmful for human health if included ...200817687582
isolation of a cyprinid herpesvirus 2 from goldfish, carassius auratus (l.), in the uk.haematopoietic necrosis virus [cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2)] was isolated during disease outbreaks in goldfish, carassius auratus, at an ornamental fish retail site in southern england in 2004. signs of disease included lethargy and inappetence and were first seen after water temperatures increased from 14-15 to 19-21 degrees c. external gross pathology included pale patches on the gills and skin and internally the spleen was enlarged, often with distinctive white nodules. the most prominent ...200717958608
establishment, characterization, and viral susceptibility of two cell lines derived from goldfish carassius auratus muscle and swim bladder.goldfish carassius auratus are common aquarium fish and have a significant economic and research value, having considerable worth to fisheries as a baitfish and the ability to adapt to a range of habitats. two cell lines were established from goldfish muscle and swim bladder tissue, in order to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. cell lines were optimally maintained at 30 degrees c in leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. propagation of goldfish cells ...200717972754
influence of intracellular ca(2+), mitochondria membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, and intracellular atp on the mechanism of microcystin-lr induced apoptosis in carassius auratus lymphocytes in vitro.microcystin-lr (mclr), the most toxic microcystin up to date, could induce apoptosis in many kinds of fish and mammalian cells. for the fish immunotoxicity, it was found that mclr could induce apoptosis in carassius auratus lymphocytes in vitro. so this study focused on the role of intracellular ca(2+), mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ros), and intracellular atp in response to the mechanisms of mclr-induced apoptosis in fish lymphocytes. mclr (10 nm) administration res ...200718000843
administration of recombinant parasite beta-tubulin to goldfish (carassius auratus l.) confers partial protection against challenge infection with trypanosoma danilewskyi laveran and mesnil, 1904.the infection of carp and other cyprinid fish with trypanosoma danilewskyi was reported to cause significant morbidity and mortality in aquaculture. tubulin is a component of parasite excretory/secretory (es) products recognized by antibodies present in the serum of recovered hosts. to assess the role of parasite tubulin in the induction of a protective immune response in the goldfish, recombinant t. danilewskyi beta-tubulin was produced in escherichia coli and used to immunize goldfish against ...200818006235
clonal diversity and genealogical relationships of gibel carp in four conserve and utilize the genetic pool of gynogenetic gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio), the fangzheng and qihe stock hatcheries have been established in china. however, little information is available on the amount of genetic variation within and between these populations. in this study, clonal diversity in 101 fish from these two stock hatcheries and 35 fish from two other hatcheries in wuhan and pengze respectively was analysed for variation in serum transferrin. thirteen clones were f ...200818076744
proteomic study of the effects of complex environmental stresses in the livers of goldfish (carassius auratus) that inhabit gaobeidian lake in beijing, china.recent advances in proteomics have provided an excellent opportunity to understand biological adaptation under complex environmental stress at the protein level. gaobeidian lake, located in beijing, china, is characterized by complex environmental stresses by serving as both the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant and a coolant of a nearby thermal power plant. liver is the primary organ of energy metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. to further our understanding of how organisms that li ...200818080750
detection of koi herpes virus (cyhv-3) in goldfish, carassius auratus (l.), exposed to infected koi. 200818086036
acute effects of microcystins on the transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes in crucian carp carassius auratus.recent evidences suggested that oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of mcs toxicity. in the present study, the acute effects of microcystins on the transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes were investigated in liver of crucian carp i.p.-injected with 50 mug mc-lreq per kg body weight (bw). we reported the cdna sequences for four kinds of antioxidant enzyme (gsh-px, cat, cu/zn sod, and gr) genes, and evaluated the oxidant stress induced by mcs through analyzing the t ...200818214919
study of apiosoma piscicola (blanchard 1885) occurring on fry of freshwater fishes in hongze, china with consideration of the genus apiosoma.apiosoma piscicola (blanchard 1885) was reported from fry of carassius auratus (var. pengze) and ctenopharyngodon idella during parasite surveys in may 2005 and june 2006 at hongze lake fish hatchery, jiangsu province, china. twelve morphometric parameters were used to describe this peritrich in detail in the present study and comparisons were made with other reports. its synonyms, glossatella cylindriformis (chen 1955) and apiosoma magna (banina 1968), were clarified based on reliable data. a. ...200818247054
bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fishes from taihu lake, china.the cr, zn, cu, cd, pb contents were determined in cyprinus carpio linnaeus, carassius auratus linnaeus, hypophthalmichthys molitrix and aristichthys nobilis, which were caught from meiliang bay, taihu lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of china. the results showed that: (1) the cr, cu, pb, cd contents in the edible parts of the four fish species were much lower than chinese food health criterion (1994), but the zn contents were higher than the criterion; (2) cd contents were the highest ...200718277656
hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in carassius auratus liver, exposed to pyrene.this paper studied the hydroxy radical generation and oxidative stress in the liver of goldfish carassius auratus under the effect of pyrene. fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/l) of pyrene for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. based on the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) spectrum, the free radical which was generated in fish liver was identified as hydroxyl radical ((*)oh). the (*)oh ...200818280566
long-term hematopoietic reconstitution by transplantation of kidney hematopoietic stem cells in lethally irradiated clonal ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii).the study of hematopoietic stem cells (hscs) has been facilitated by the transplantation of bone marrow cell populations into lethally irradiated mice. it is widely known that hscs have the capacity for long-term and multilineage hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated hosts. here, we developed a transplantation model system using clonal ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii) that were exposed to a lethal dose of x-rays. the minimum lethal dose (mld) of ginbuna was appr ...200818314191
reproductive and stress hormone levels in goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.athabasca oil sands mining in northern alberta produces process-affected waters that are characterized by the presence of naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high salinity. the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of these process-affected waters on reproductive and stress related endpoints in mature goldfish, carassius auratus. in two separate studies, testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels in the plasma were significantly reduced in both male and female goldfis ...200818336931
inhibitory effect of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone ii on food intake in the goldfish, carassius auratus.gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, which possesses some structural variants. a molecular form known as chicken gnrh ii ([his(5) trp(7) tyr(8)] gnrh, cgnrh ii) is widely distributed in vertebrates, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior and food intake in an insectivore, the musk shrew. however, the influence of cgnrh ii on feeding behavior has not yet been studied in model animals such as r ...200818342861
endocannabinoids affect the reproductive functions in teleosts and amphibians.following the discovery in the brain of the bonyfish fugu rubripes of two genes encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptors (cb1a and cb1b), investigations on the phylogeny of these receptors have indicated that the cannabinergic system is highly conserved. among the multiple functions modulated by cannabinoids/endocannabinoids through the cb1 receptors one of the more investigated is the mammalian reproduction. therefore, since studies performed in animal models other than mammals might provide f ...200818343023
application of a new bioassay technique using goldfish for assessment of water toxicity.there are a variety of chemicals in aquatic environment, so it is important to assess the toxicity. the biomarkers such as induction of dna damage, micronuclei, vitellogenin, and hepatic p450 in fish are known to be effective for monitoring genotoxic and/or estrogenic chemicals. however, there is little study to use these biomarkers in same fish. goldfish (carassius auratus) is widely used and is suitable in size to collect blood or organs. in this study, validity of multiple-biomarkers in goldf ...200818344213
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to spring viraemia of carp virus.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against spring viraemia of carp (svcv0504, isolated from common carp in china) were produced from mice immunized with purified virus preparations. the virion of svcv contains five structural proteins, representing the nucleoprotein (n), phosphoprotein (p), matrix protein (m), glycoprotein (g) and rna-dependent rna polymerase (l). western blotting analysis revealed that three mabs (1h5, 1e10, and 1h7) recognized specifically to a single protein of 47kda (n), the ...200818378003
[generation of aeromonas hydrophila ghosts and their evaluation as oral vaccine candidates in carassius auratus gibelio].the bacterial ghost (bg) system is a novel vaccine delivery system endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties. bacterial ghosts are nonliving gram-negative bacterial cell envelopes devoid of cytoplasmic contents while maintaining their cellular morphology and native surface antigenic structures. they are produced by phix174 protein e-mediated lysis of gram-negative bacteria, and can induce humoral and cellular immune response, including mucosal immune responses. plasmid pelysis consisting e gene ...200818438002
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the pkz gene in rare minnow gobiocypris rarus.double-stranded rna-activated protein kinase (pkr) plays an important role in interferon-induced antiviral responses, and is also involved in intracellular signaling pathways, including the apoptosis, proliferation, and transcription pathways. in the present study, a pkr-like gene was cloned and characterized from rare minnow gobiocypris rarus. the full length of the rare minnow pkr-like (grpkz) cdna is 1946 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 503 amino acids with an estimated molecular ma ...200818448359
exposure of goldfish (carassius auratus) to bluegills (lepomis macrochirus) enhances expression of stress protein 70 mrna in the brains and increases plasma cortisol levels.the effect of psychological stress on hsp70 mrna in the brains and plasma cortisol levels in goldfish was examined. stress was induced by exposure to a predator (bluegills). hsp70 mrna and cortisol were determined by northern blotting and elisa, respectively. goldfish exposed to four predators in the same tank without a partition showed marked increases in hsp70 mrna and cortisol levels 6 hr and 12 hr after commencement of exposure. when goldfish were separated from bluegills with a net partitio ...200018522459
interactions between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) and orexin in the regulation of feeding and reproduction in goldfish (carassius auratus).links between energy homeostasis and reproduction have been demonstrated in vertebrates. as a general rule, abundant food resources favor reproduction whereas low food availability induces an inhibition of reproductive processes. in both mammals and fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) and orexin (ox) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that play critical roles in the regulation of sexual behavior and appetite, respectively. in order to assess possible interactions between orexin and gnrh in t ...200818544455
[oxidative damages of long-term exposure to low level fullerenes (c60) in carassius auratus].to determine the potential effects of fullerenes (c60) on aquatic organism, larval carassius auratus was exposed to low level c60 (0.04-1.0 mg x l(-1)) for 32 days. then the oxidative damages in brain, liver and gill tissue of larval carassius auratus were measured. the results showed that: compared to the control, the reduced glutathione (gsh) contents in all different tissues decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and the most serious inhibition of gsh with a 14.3% inhibition rate was found in th ...200818637328
mechanism of cd2+ on dna cleavage and ca2+ on dna repair in liver of silver crucian carp.the subject of acute injury, apoptosis and canceration of animals induced by heavy metal ions has been one of the hotspots studied worldwide. however, the exact molecular mechanism of cd-induced carcinogenicity remains largely unclear, and how to relieve the toxicity in vivo has rarely been reported. for this paper, we have investigated the mechanism of cd2+ on dna cleavage and ca2+ on dna repair in the liver of silver crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) by agarose gel electrophoresis metho ...200818649022
genotoxicity and estrogenic activity of 3,3'-dinitrobisphenol a in goldfish.3,3'-dinitrobisphenol a (dinitro-bpa) is formed in a mixture of bisphenol a (bpa) and nitrite under acidic conditions. it shows genotoxicity in male icr mice on a micronucleus test, but its estrogenic activity has not been examined in vivo. we examined its estrogenic activity using goldfish (carassius auratus) by measuring plasma levels of vitellogenin (vtg) by the elisa method. expression of vtg didn't increase in the plasma of goldfish intraperitoneal injected with dinitro-bpa at a dose of 10 ...200818685211
molecular characterization and expression pattern of fetuin-b in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).fetuin-b has recently been cloned and identified from rats, mice, and humans; their expression patterns, however, have not been elucidated yet. in this study, cagfetuin-b has been cloned in gibel carp. rt-pcr and western blot detection revealed that cagfetuin-b is first transcribed from the blastula stage and at a relatively stable level afterward during embryogenesis and the larval stage. cagfetuin-b transcripts are predominantly distributed over the yolk syncytial layer in the early embryos an ...200818751887
the effect of cyanobacterial crude extract on the transcription of gst mu, gst kappa and gst rho in different organs of goldfish (carassius auratus).the glutathione s-transferases play important roles in the detoxification of microcystin. core-sequences of three classes of gst (mu, kappa and rho) were cloned from goldfish (carassius auratus l.) i.p. injected with cyanobacterial crude extract at two doses (50 and 200 microg mc-lreq kg(-1)bw). the relative changes of the mrna abundance in liver, kidney and intestine were analyzed by real-time pcr. the transcription of gst mu was inhibited in intestine at both doses and the transcription of gst ...200818760847
co-localization of nitric oxide synthase and choline acetyltransferase in the brain of the goldfish (carassius auratus).this work investigates the nitrergic and cholinergic systems in the brain and spinal cord of the goldfish (carassius auratus). we studied the immunohistochemical localization of antibodies against the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nnos) and choline acetyltransferase (chat) by bright-field and confocal microscopy. nitrergic and cholinergic cells were segregated within the telencephalon, in both dorsal and ventral areas, and co-distributed in some nuclei of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, rhomb ...200918804528
osthol and isopimpinellin from fructus cnidii for the control of dactylogyrus intermedius in carassius auratus.the efficacy of two active compounds, isolated from the fruit of fructus cnidii, was determined against dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (carassius auratus). the chemical structure of the two compounds was identified by spectral analysis. designated compounds i and ii, they were isolated by successive silica gel column chromatography and used, in combination, in an in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. at dose rates of 1.6 and 9.5 mg l(-1), respectively, the two compounds were 100% effective ...200818940522
toxic effects of chlorpromazine on carassius auratus and its oxidative stress.under laboratory conditions, ecotoxicological effects of chlorpromazine (cpz) on freshwater goldfish (carassius auratus) were examined using the toxic culture experiment. the results showed that the median lethal concentration (lc(50)) of cpz toxic to carassius auratus in 24, 48 and 96 h was 1.11, 0.43 and 0.32 mg/l, respectively. thus, cpz is an extreme toxicant to goldfish. furthermore, there were significantly positive correlations between the ecotoxicological effects of cpz and its concentra ...200818941986
[ultrastructural manifestations of the primary compensatory-adaptive response of hepatocytes in animals with various thermoregulation after exposure to hyperthermia].the purpose of the present investigation was to detect the changes of hepatocyte ultrastructure in mammals (rat, rattus norvegicus) and fish (crucian, carassius auratus gibelio) after their exposure to hyperthermia. it was found that the common reaction to hyperthermia in both animal species studied was the mosaicism of the damage of hepatocytes and their organelles, changes in lipid utilization, chromatin condensation and the activation of the programmed death of cells. the differences in hepat ...200818942352
in vitro and in vivo studies of the use of some medicinal herbals against the pathogen aeromonas hydrophila in goldfish.aeromonas hydrophila is a ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogen that produces ulcerative dermatitis under stress conditions and inflicts severe losses on global fisheries and fish culture. this study evaluates the antimicrobial potency of aqueous and ethanolic decoction (individual extract) and concoction (mixed extract) of three common medicinal herbs, turmeric curcuma longa, tulsi plant ocimum sanctum, and neem azadirachta indica, against the in vitro growth of a. hydrophila. among t ...200818942593
plasma biochemical responses of the omnivorous crucian carp (carassius auratus) to crude cyanobacterial extracts.healthy crucian carp (carassius auratus) were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of crude cyanobacterial extracts at two doses, 50 and 200 microg mc-lr equiv kg(-1) bw. high mortality (100%) was observed within 60 h post injection in the high-dose group. in the treated fish, activities of four plasma enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (alt), alkaline phosphatase (alp), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), all showed substantial increases, with both dose and ...200818958589
changes in plasma thyroid hormones and cortisol levels in crucian carp (carassius auratus) exposed to the extracted microcystins.the endocrine response of crucian carp injected intraperitoneally with extracted microcystins (mc) was investigated in this study. fish were injected intraperitoneally either with 0.75% nacl (control) and microcystis extract corresponding to 150 and 600 microg microcystins per kg body weight. the plasma levels of triiodothyronine (t(3)), thyroxine (t(4)), free triiodothyronine (ft(3)), free thyroxine (ft(4)), and cortisol were determined at 0, 1, 3, 12, 24, and 48h post-administration of mc-cont ...200818990424
an evolutionary origin and selection process of goldfish.many different physical characteristics of goldfish (carassius auratus auratus), such as celestial and telescopic eyes, fancy but uncontrollable shapes of tail fin, an unfittingly fat body, and loss of dorsal fins, provide us with a unique opportunity of studying artificial selection on phenotypic changes on the basis of molecular evolution. the aim of the present study is to elucidate the evolutionary origin and history of goldfish, taking into account the different characteristics of goldfish ...200919027055
isolation and functional characterization of neutrophil-like cells, from goldfish (carassius auratus l.) kidney.neutrophils are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of inflammation and are central cells of innate immunity of vertebrates. upon activation, neutrophils are capable of producing an intense respiratory burst response, they rapidly degranulate in the presence of pathogens, and deploy neutrophil extracellular traps that efficiently remove infections agents. we report on the isolation, cultivation and characterization of neutrophil-like cells isolated from the goldfish kidney. neutrophil-l ...200919046985
some remarks on the occurrence, host-specificity and validity of myxobolus rotundus nemeczek, 1911 (myxozoa: myxosporea).myxobolus rotundus nemeczek, 1911 is a common and specific parasite of the common bream abramis brama (l.). small, round or ellipsoidal shaped plasmodia of this species develop in the gill and exhibit strong histotropism to the secondary gill lamellae with plasmodial development in their capillary network. m. rotundus is frequently found in mixed infection with m. bramae reuss, 1906, a parasite of the afferent arteries of gill filaments. the round spores of m. rotundus resemble several other myx ...200919048408
regulation of body mass growth through activin type iib receptor in teleost fish.myostatin is a tgf-beta family member that plays a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth. previous studies in mammals have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type ii receptors. additionally, activin type ii receptors have been shown to be capable of binding a number of other tgf-beta family members besides myostatin. an injection of a soluble form of activin type iib receptor obtained from cho cells into wild-type mice generated up to a 60% increase in musc ...200919056390
neurogenic and neuroendocrine effects of goldfish pheromones.goldfish (carassius auratus) use reproductive hormones as endocrine signals to synchronize sexual behavior with gamete maturation and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to mediate spawning interactions between conspecifics. we examined the differential effects of two hormonal pheromones, prostaglandin f(2alpha) (pgf(2alpha)) and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-p) on neurogenesis, neurotransmission, and neuronal activities, and on plasma androstenedione (ad) levels. exposure to ...200819118184
enhanced grass carp reovirus resistance of mx-transgenic rare minnow (gobiocypris rarus).in the interferon-induced antiviral mechanisms, the mx pathway is one of the most powerful. mx proteins have direct antiviral activity and inhibit a wide range of viruses by blocking an early stage of the viral genome replication cycle. however, antiviral activity of piscine mx remains unclear in vivo. in the present study, an mx-like gene was cloned, characterized and gene-transferred in rare minnow gobiocypris rarus, and its antiviral activity was confirmed in vivo. the full length of the rare ...200919138747
purification and properties of ghrelin from the intestine of the goldfish, carassius goldfish, intraperitoneal (ip) or intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of synthetic ghrelin consisting of 12- or 19-amino-acid residues, deduced from its precursor cdna, with an octanoic acid modification at the third n-terminal serine residue (ser(3)), stimulates growth hormone release and food intake. however, native ghrelin generated from its precursor has not yet been identified in this species. therefore, we purified ghrelin from the goldfish intestine using acid extraction, cati ...200919150635
simultaneous determination of microcystin contaminations in various vertebrates (fish, turtle, duck and water bird) from a large eutrophic chinese lake, lake taihu, with toxic microcystis blooms.this is the first to conduct simultaneous determination of microcystin (mc) contaminations in multi-groups of vertebrates (fish, turtle, duck and water bird) from lake taihu with microcystis blooms. mcs (-rr, -yr, -lr) in microcystis scum was 328 microg g(-1) dw. mcs reached 235 microg g(-1) dw in intestinal contents of phytoplanktivorous silver carp, but never exceeded 0.1 microg g(-1) dw in intestinal contents of other animals. the highest mc content in liver of fish was in carassius auratus ( ...200919249079
influence of dietary feeding of low monomer content grape seed extract on vitellogenin production and cholesterol levels in goldfish, carassius auratus.grape seed extract (gse) is a source of naturally occurring compounds known as proanthocyanidins and flavan-3-ols, which are recognized to exert a protective effect on human health, so gse is widely used mainly as a nutritional supplement. however, polyphenols may have, in some cases, estrogenic effects or may interfere with the endocrine system. for that reason, it was considered of interest to investigate the beneficial or detrimental effects induced by low monomer content grape seed extract ( ...200919256555
[study on the endocrine disrupting effect of dimethachlon].in order to study the endocrine disrupting effect of dimethachlon (ndps) (estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity).200919267069
herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis virus (cyhv-2) infection: case studies from commercial goldfish farms.herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis is a disease of goldfish, carassius auratus, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (cyhv-2) infection. quantitative pcr was carried out on tissue homogenates from healthy goldfish fingerlings, broodfish, eggs and fry directly sampled from commercial farms, from moribund fish submitted to our laboratory for disease diagnosis, and on naturally-infected cyhv-2 carriers subjected to experimental stress treatments. healthy fish from 14 of 18 farms were positive with cop ...200919309419
first description of a novel weissella species as an opportunistic pathogen for rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum) in china.six strains of gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-motile, irregular short rod-shaped weissella bacteria, with width and length of 0.5-0.6 and 1.2-2.7microm were isolated from diseased rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum) in winter of 2007 at a commercial fishery in jingmen, hubei province, china. the diseased rainbow trout exhibited hemorrhage in eyes, anal region, intestine and abdomen wall, petechia of liver, some fish with hydrocele in stomach. six isolates had identical biochemical ...200919321272
experimental infection of carassius auratus (l., 1758) with the second stage larvae of the nematode contracaecum rudolphii hartwich, 1964.susceptibility of the goldfish to infection with the newly hatched second stage larvae of contracaecum rudolphii was investigated under laboratory condition. a week after the larvae had been placed in the fish tank, the autopsied goldfish showed the nematodes in their intestine lumen. the majority of the larvae were dead. in week 2 and 3 of exposure, the larvae were being found exclusively in the intestinal wall; in week 4 and 5, the larvae, in addition to being present in the intestinal wall, w ...200819338227
the life cycle of myxobolus lentisuturalis (myxozoa: myxobolidae), from goldfish (carassius auratus auratus), involves a raabeia-type actinospore.we studied a natural infection of the oligochaete branchiura sowerbyi beddard, 1892 with the raabeia-type actinosporean stage of myxobolus lentisuturalis dyková, fiala et nie, 2002 which infected goldfish carassius auratus auratus (l.) in italy, using molecular analysis of the ssu rrna gene. the existence of intraoligochaete development shows that this parasite follows the life-cycle pattern described by wolf and markiw (1984) for myxobolus cerebralis. histological examinations of the goldfish i ...200919391327
molecular cloning and expression of two melanin-concentrating hormone receptors in goldfish.melanin-concentrating hormone (mch) is a neurohypophysial hormone and induces melanin aggregation in the skin in teleosts. mch also has multiple roles in the central regulation of food intake in teleosts and mammals. mch receptors (mch-r) are among type i g-protein-coupled receptors. here, we cloned two mch receptors from goldfish, carassius auratus. the amino acid sequence of goldfish mch-r1 had 57-88% homology with fish mch-r1 and 49-50% homology with mammalian mch-r1, while the amino acid seq ...200919397943
embryonic and developmental toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on goldfish.the embryonic developmental toxicity of the ionic liquid (il) 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([c(8)mim]br) on the goldfish carassius auratus was evaluated in this study. first, the 72 h 50% lethal concentrations (72 h-lc(50)) for [c(8)mim]br in goldfish embryos at the stages of cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating were determined by preliminary acute toxicity tests. after that, fish embryos in different developmental stages (cleavage, early gastrula, closure of ...201019415752
evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors.somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. we used comparative whole genome analysis of danio rerio, carassius auratus, xenopus tropicalis, gallus gallus, monodelphis domestica, homo sapiens, sus scrofa, bos taurus, mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, canis lupus familiaris, ovis aries, equus caballus, pan troglodytes and ...200919417543
molecular cloning and functional characterization of the first non-mammalian 26rfa/qrfp orthologue in goldfish, carassius this study, we used data mining approach to predict 26rfa/qrfp precursors from fish, amphibian, reptile and avian species and subsequently cloned a 26rfa/qrfp precursor cdna from goldfish brain based on the predicted sequences information. the goldfish 26rfa/qrfp precursor cdna encoded a propeptide of 168 amino acids (aa) with predicted signal peptide of 30 aa at n-terminal and putative mature peptides, including 26rfa (26 aa) and 7rfa (7 aa) located at the c-terminal. multiple sequence align ...200919428995
[effects of nonylphenol on proliferation and anti-oxidative functions of carassius auratus primary culture hepatecytes].the study on the proliferation and anti-oxidative functions of carassius auratus primary culture hepatecytes under effects of different concentration nonylphenol showed that at all test concentrations of nonylphenol, the proliferation of the hepatecytes was inhibited. high concentration (10(-3) mol x l(-1)) nonylphenol had significant inhibitory effect, and induced an apparent morphological alteration of the hepatecytes. nonylphenol upset the balance of hepatecytes anti-oxidative system through ...200919459375
trematode centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in mexico.the aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in morelos, central mexico. the parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. goldfish carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. ...200919485122
development of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in goldfish.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv2) has been associated with epidemic mortality among cultured populations of goldfish carassius auratus. as the principal target tissues are hematopoietic cells in the kidney and spleen, the disease is designated herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (hvhn). originally described from japan, the virus is present in at least five other countries and probably has a global distribution in goldfish. preventing the further spread of the virus via control programs that exploit ...200919485127
genomic organization and expression analysis of toll-like receptor 3 in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella).toll-like receptor 3 (tlr3) participates in the innate immune response by recognizing viral pathogens. to investigate grass carp immune system responding to gcrv (grass carp reovirus) infection, the full-length cdna sequence and genomic organization of grass carp tlr3 (citlr3) was identified and characterized. the full-length genome sequence of citlr3 is composed of 5668 nucleotides, including five exons and four introns. the full-length of citlr3 cdna is 3681 bp in length and encodes a polypept ...200919545638
innate immune response and disease resistance in carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts.this study reports the effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extract from azadirachta indica, ocimum sanctum and curcuma longa on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish (carassius auratus) against aeromonas hydrophila. fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 5, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight of each triherbal solvent e ...200919616631
effects of ecf-kraft pulp mill effluent treated with fungi (rhizopus oryzae) on reproductive steroids and liver cyp1a of exposed goldfish (carassius auratus).the toxicity of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents (bkme) is usually attributed to chemical compounds which are produced and released throughout various stages of pulp and paper production. the main objective of the present work was to detect sub-lethal responses of goldfish (carassius auratus) to secondary treated bkme which was treated with rhizopus oryzae. a total of 96 carps (c. auratus; 11 +/- 3 g) were exposed to different concentrations of the post-treated effluent (0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and ...200919621256
identification of estrogen-like effects and biologically active compounds in river water using bioassays and chemical analysis.the nackdong river is the longest river in south korea and passes through major cities that have several industrial complexes, including chemical, electric, and petrochemical complexes, and municipal characteristics such as apartment complexes. along the river, the gumi region has an electric industrial complex and an apartment complex that may be possible point sources of xenoestrogens such as phenolic compounds. to identify the causative chemicals for estrogenic activity in the river water of ...200919647290
vsx1 3' untranslated region-mediated translation difference at different developmental stages of goldfish embryos.visual system homeobox-1 (vsx1) is important in retinal progenitor proliferation, differentiation, and function maintenance of bipolar cells in vertebrates. recent study in xenopus laevis has shown that vsx1 3' untranslated region (3' utr) can mediate cell-specific translation of vsx1 mrna in the bipolar cells of the retinal inner nuclear layer (inl). vsx1 is also transcribed at the early developmental stages prior to eye formation and its spatiotemporal expression patterns are conserved in all ...200919683671
influence of cu2+-loaded silicate on the growth performance and microflora of crucian carp carassius auratus.we investigated the effects of cu2+-loaded silicate (cls) on the growth performance, microflora of skin, gill and intestine, and intestinal morphology of crucian carp carassius auratus. a total of 225 native wild crucian carp, with an average initial body weight of 20 g, were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups using 3 replicate tanks of 15 fish per group. the dietary treatments were (1) basal diet, (2) basal diet + cuso4, (3) basal diet + silicate, (4) basal diet + 0.5% cls and (5) basal d ...200919750812
development of larval contracaecum rudolphii hartwich, 1964 (ascaridida: anisakidae) in experimentally infected goldfish (carassius auratus l., 1758).laboratory-bred goldfish were experimentally infected with contracaecum rudolphii, either directly (with nematode larvae) or indirectly via infected zooplankton. intensity and prevalence of infection were markedly higher in fish exposed to the infected zooplankton than in goldfish exposed to nematode larvae. when transmitted to fish via the zooplankton, larvae developed much faster and, after 8 weeks, became firmly encysted in the intestine wall. the digestive tract of larvae isolated from the i ...201019781129
modulatory effects of deltamethrin on antioxidant defense mechanisms and lipid peroxidation in carassius auratus gibelio liver and intestine.pyrethroids, such as deltamethrin, are toxic substances that lead to generation of reactive oxygen species, which harm living organisms. we assessed the level and patterns of imbalance evolved by a single dose of 2 microg/l deltamethrin on the lipid peroxidation (lpo) and the antioxidant defense system of carassius auratus gibelio liver and intestine, and monitored the recovery dynamics of these parameters during a 14-day post-exposure period. lpo and antioxidative defense mechanisms displayed d ...201019789906
cell growth-promoting activity of fluid from eye sacs of the bubble-eye goldfish (carassius auratus).the growth-promoting effects of fish body fluids, such as serum and embryonic extract, on fish cell cultures have been widely demonstrated. the bubble-eye variety of aquarium goldfish is characterized as having a large sac filled with fluid (sac fluid) under each eye. these sacs are believed to contain lymph, which is similar in composition to serum or blood plasma. in order to test whether the sac fluid can be used as an additive for fetal bovine serum (fbs) in growth factor supplements, we com ...200919798918
the goldfish sg2na gene encodes two alpha-type regulatory subunits for pp-2a and displays distinct developmental expression pattern.sg2na is a member of the striatin protein family. in human and mouse, the sg2na gene encodes two major protein isoforms: sg2na alpha and sg2na beta. the functions of these proteins, except for acting as the regulatory subunits for pp-2a, remain largely unknown. to explore the possible functions of sg2na in lower vertebrates, we have isolated two sg2na cdnas from goldfish, carassius auratus. our results reveal that the first cdna contains an orf of 2118 bp encoding a deduced protein with 705 amin ...200919838339
effect of oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts on protection against experimental fish investigate whether oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts (ahg) vaccine can elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses of carp (carassius auratus gibelio) compared to conventional formalin-killed bacteria (fkc).201019843213
[experimental establishment of life cycle of clonorchis sinensis].to establish and maintain the life cycle of clonorchis sinensis in laboratory.200919856506
bioassay-guided isolation and identification of active compounds from fructus arctii against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).dactylogyrus intermedius is a significant monogenean parasite on the gills of cyprinid fishes and can cause serious problem in fish aquaculture. in the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify the active compounds from fructus arctii against d. intermedius. five solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) were applied for the extraction of fructus arctii. among them, only the chloroform extract exhibited promising anthelmintic efficacy a ...200919859737
are all koi ulcer cases associated with infection by atypical aeromonas salmonicida? polymerase chain reaction assays of koi carp skin swabs submitted by hobbyists.infection by atypical aeromonas salmonicida is regarded as the cause of ulcer disease (kud) in koi carp cyprinus carpio and goldfish carassius auratus. however, other causes--including parasites, viral infection, and fungi--have been proposed. in our diagnostic work, we often fail to isolate a. salmonicida even when clear clinical signs of kud are present. this failure may be because these fastidious and slow-growing bacteria are difficult to isolate in culture or because the bacteria are not ac ...200919873831
herbal supplementation diets on hematology and innate immunity in goldfish against aeromonas hydrophila.goldfish, carassius auratus (47 + or - 3 g, n = 300) were inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). on the 6th day of post-infection the fishes were divided into i) control, without infection fed with normal diet (c), ii) infected fish, fed with normal diet (iu), and infected fishes treated with different doses of iii) 100 mg kg(-1), iv) 200 mg kg(-1), iv) 400 mg kg(-1) and vi) 800 mg kg(-1) mixed herbal extracts supplementation diets. hematolog ...201019941960
physiological dimensions of ototoxic responses in a model fish species.pharmaceutical agents known to be toxic to the human auditory system also impair sensory hair cells of teleosts, and this supports the use of fish models for the screening of such compounds. however, previous investigations have focused almost exclusively on anatomical changes after drug administration without assessing macro-level physiological effects. using the goldfish (carassius auratus), we demonstrate that the acquisition of auditory evoked potentials offers a rapid and non-invasive means ...201020004583
prevention of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in goldfish (carassius auratus) by potassium ferrate(vi) treatment.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important freshwater teleost pathogen that often leads to significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. the purpose of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of potassium ferrate(vi) to i. multifiliis theront and the concentration needed to prevent i. multifiliis infestation in goldfish, carassius auratus. five hundred theronts were exposed to concentrations of potassium ferrate(vi) in each well of a 96-well microtiter plate and observed for 4h ...201020006444
genetic, biochemical, and individual responses of the teleost fish carassius auratus to uranium.carassius auratus were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of uranyl nitrate (corresponding to 0, 100, 450, and 2,025 microg u l(-1)) and killed after different postexposure periods (0, 48, and 96 h) to assess uranium bioaccumulation, peroxisome proliferation (catalase [cat]), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [tbars]), and dna integrity in erythrocytes (comet assay). in addition, feeding behaviour was recorded as a general response to toxicant exposure. result ...201020012274
immune response and expression analysis of cathepsin k in goldfish during aeromonas hydrophila infection.the innate immunity and expression profiles of cathepsins d were determined in the goldfish (carassius auratus) tissues after challenge with a fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. the innate immunity of reactive oxygen species (ros) and reactive nitrogen species (rns) were determined by peripheral blood leucocytes. blood and tissue samples of the muscle, gills, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine were sampled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 h post-infection for cathepsin d expression by semi-quantitati ...201020025977
evaluation of dairy-yeast prebiotic supplementation in the diet of juvenile goldfish in the presence or absence of phytoplankton and zooplankton.prebiotics recently have been shown to increase immune responses and disease resistance in certain fish species; therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the commercially available dairy-yeast prebiotic, grobiotic-a, for use with juvenile goldfish carassius auratus. the study consisted of two 10-week feeding trials in which juvenile goldfish were fed practical diets that were either unsupplemented or supplemented with the dairy-yeast prebiotic at 2% by dry weight. juvenile fish wer ...200920043400
susceptibility of koi x crucian carp and koi x goldfish hybrids to koi herpesvirus (khv) and the development of khv disease (khvd).hybrids of koi, cyprinus carpio x crucian carp, carassius carassius and koi x goldfish, carassius auratus, proved to be susceptible to koi herpesvirus (khv, syn. cyhv-3) and developed khv disease (khvd). while hybrids of koi x goldfish were partly resistant to mortality following infection by immersion, most koi x crucian carp hybrids died after bath infection. khv dna was detected in dead fish but also in all surviving animals by different polymerase chain reactions (pcrs). according to these r ...201020102462
toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system.under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. results showed that the relationship between the mortality of c. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided into 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5-5.0 g/l) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environme ...200920108662
phytotherapy of ulcerative dermatitis induced by aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish ( carassius auratus ).goldfish ( carassius auratus ) weighing 13 +/- 2 g were administered intramuscularly a sublethal dose (1.8 x 10 3 cfu/ml) of aeromonas hydrophila to induce ulcerative dermatitis. on day 3 and day 6 after infection the fish were dip-treated (for 5 min/day) with a tri-herbal concoction of curcuma longa, ocimum sanctum and azadirachta indica (1%). the ld 50 value was recorded at a concentration of 2.3 x 10 4 between 30 and 36 days after infection. in the infected untreated group the cumulative mort ...201020159736
effect of chemotherapy, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immunity of goldfish infected with aeromonas hydrophila.we report the effect of various chemicals, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, superoxide anion production of blood leukocytes, complement activity and plasma lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish carassius auratus (23 +/- 2 g) against aeromonas hydrophila on days 15 and 30 post-infection. in infected fish, the administration of diets supplemented with either probiotics, tri-herbal extract or azadirachtin for 30 d significantly ...200920183964
pharmacokinetics of morphine after intramuscular injection in common goldfish carassius auratus and atlantic salmon salmo salar.teleost fish have a nociceptive system and likely perceive pain. this warrants the development of analgesic protocols both for experimental surgery and for various husbandry procedures. morphine is the standard analgesic against which the efficacy of other analgesics is assessed, and is the analgesic that has been most used in fish. the aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetics of morphine after an intramuscular (i.m.) injection in common goldfish and atlantic salmon, and to illus ...200920183965
in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of radix angelicae pubescentis, fructus bruceae, caulis spatholobi, semen aesculi, and semen pharbitidis against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus).in search of a natural antiparasitic, in vivo anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts of angelica pubescens roots (radix angelicae pubescentis), brucea javanica fruits (fructus bruceae), spatholobus suberectus stems (caulis spatholobi), aesculus chinensis bge. seeds (semen aesculi), and pharbitis purpurea (l.) voigt seeds (semen pharbitidis) were tested against dactylogyrus intermedius (monogenea) in goldfish (carassius auratus). among ...201020191290
e-screen and vitellogenin assay for the detection of the estrogenic activity of alkylphenols and trace elements.the estrogenic potential of 4-nonylphenol (4-np), 4-octylphenol (4-op), p-t-octylphenol (p-t-op) and three trace elements, lead (pb), copper (cu) and cadmium (cd(no(3))(2) and cdcl(2)), were compared in two different tests, a proliferation assay with estrogen receptor-positive human mcf-7 breast cancer cells (e-screen) and the induction of vitellogenin (vtg) in juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus). the results showed differences in the bioassays' sensitivity and potency with the following order ...201020197112
evidence for a distributed respiratory rhythm generating network in the goldfish (carsssius auratus).central pattern generators located in the brainstem regulate ventilatory behaviors in vertebrates. the development of the isolated brainstem preparation has allowed these neural networks to be characterized in a number of aquatic species. the aim of this study was to explore the architecture of the respiratory rhythm-generating site in the goldfish (carassius auratus) and to determine the utility of a newly developed isolated brainstem preparation, the sheep dip. here we provide evidence for a d ...201020217310
[epidemiological survey on clonorchiasis sinensis in an endemic area of south hunan province].to make an epidemiological investigation on clonorchiasis sinensis and relevant factors in the south of hunan province.200920232625
chromium-induced biochemical, genotoxic and histopathologic effects in liver and kidney of goldfish, carassius constitute an excellent model to understand the mechanistic aspects of metal toxicity vis-à-vis oxidative stress in aquatic ecosystems. hexavalent chromium (cr (vi)), due to its redox potential can induce oxidative stress (os) in fish and impair their health. in the present investigation, we hypothesize that os plays a key role in chromium induced toxicity in goldfish; leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ros) such as o(.)(2), h(2)o(2), oh(.), and subsequent modulation of t ...201020348018
some additional data to the occurrence, morphology and validity of myxobolus turpisrotundus zhang, 2009 (myxozoa: myxosporea).myxobolus turpisrotundus zhang, 2009, infects allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) and is always regarded as synonymous with myxobolus rotundus nemeczek, 1911, since its first report in goldfish carassius auratus auratus (l.) in china in 1955. in this study, it was comprehensively examined by morphological and molecular biological methods. the round spores of m. turpisrotundus are similar to those of m. rotundus from common bream abramis brama (l.) in morphology; however, ...201020352450
in vivo anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids from macleaya microcarpa (maxim) fedde against dactylogyrus intermedius in carassius auratus.the present study aims to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of aerial part of macleaya microcarpa (maxim) fedde. bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of the compounds with anthelmintic activity were performed on the ethanolic extract of m. microcarpa yielding five bioactive alkaloids namely: sanguinarine, cryptopine, beta-allocryptopine, protopine and 6-methoxyl-dihydro-chelerythrine by comparing spectral data (uv, nmr, and ei-ms) with literature values. according to in vivo anthelmint ...201020413222
aeromonas hydrophila pepo outer membrane endopeptidase activates human big endothelin-3 in vitro and induces skin ulcer in goldfish (carassius auratus).in aeromonas hydrophila, the gram-negative bacterial fish pathogen, pepo constitutes the thermoregulated outer membrane m13 family zinc endopeptidase, which is expressed maximally at 16 degrees c and is down-regulated above 30 degrees c. cultivation of a. hydrophila at 16 degrees c enabled it to activate big endothelin (et), the vasoconstrictor and ulcerogenic peptide naturally secreted from human vascular endothelial cell (huvec) culture. furthermore, a. hydrophila pepo in vitro shows strong en ...201020456877
infection of myxobolus turpisrotundus sp. n. in allogynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), with revision of myxobolus rotundus (s. l.) nemeczek reported from c. auratus auratus (l.).infection of a myxobolus species, previously identified as myxobolus rotundus, was detected in 182 of 7892 (2.31%) allogynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio, in a closed pond culture system in china. morphological and molecular data showed that this myxosporean is a different species from m. rotundus parasitizing abramis brama in europe and is thus designated as a new species, myxobolus turpisrotundus. m. rotundus (s.l.) ex c. auratusauratus is a synonym of m. turpisrotundus. plasmod ...201020487139
argulus japonicus: sperm transfer by means of a spermatophore on carassius auratus (l).the process of sperm transfer is somewhat enigmatic in argulus, even though copulation has been witnessed. a breeding colony of argulus japonicus was kept under laboratory conditions in order to study reproduction in the species. pairs in copula were removed and studied with histology and scanning electron microscopy to describe the mechanism of sperm transfer. sections of copulating pairs revealed sperm on the accessory copulatory structures of the male's swimming legs; and scanning electron mi ...201020493846
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