parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in sri lanka.a total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in sri lanka were collected between october 1999 and march 2000 and examined for parasites. fish species examined were guppy poecilia reticulata, goldfish carassius auratus, platy xiphophorus maculatus, molly poecilia sphenops, angel pterophyllum scalare, swordtail xiphophorus helleri, tetras hyphessobrycon species, barbs capeota and puntius spp., gourami colisa sp., carp cyprinus carpio, fighters betta spelendens and others (bra ...200312747641
detection of myxobolus rotundus (myxozoa: myxosporea) in skin mucus of crucian carp carassius auratus auratus using a monoclonal antibody.diagnosis of myxosporean myxobolus rotundus infection was conducted by examining skin mucus from the infected crucian carp carassius auratus auratus with a monoclonal antibody, mab 2d12, raised previously against the parasite. a positive reaction was observed in skin mucus collected from infected fish, and spores and pre-spore stages of the parasite were identified by the mab 2d12. it was also demonstrated that m. rotundus infection can be successfully detected by a simple method, enzyme-linked ...200312747643
nitrate removal in aquariums by immobilized pseudomonas.biological denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas was examined in a freshwater and a marine aquarium. nitrate removal in the aquarium water was accomplished with denitrifiers immobilized in a freeze-dried, alginate-starch matrix. starch served as a bacterial carbon source and cellular matrix-strengthening filler. freeze-dried beads were placed in canisters through which nitrate-rich aquarium water was recirculated. the freshwater aquarium (100 l) contained goldfish (carassius auratus) at a t ...200312790671
group ii metabotropic glutamate receptors regulate the vulnerability to hypoxic brain damage.we examined the expression of metabotropic glutamate (mglu) receptors in species of fish that differ for their vulnerability to anoxic brain damage. although expression of mglu1a and mglu5 receptors was similar in the brain of all species examined, expression of mglu2/3 receptors was substantially higher in the brain of anoxia-tolerant species (i.e., the carp carassius carassius and the goldfish carassius auratus) than in the brain of species that are highly vulnerable to anoxic damage, such as ...200312853420
[studies on the experimental mode of infections of clonorchis sinensis: ii. experimental infection of clonorchis sinensis cercaria to fry of fresh water fishes]cercariae of clonorchis sinensis were attempted to penetrate into various fry of fresh water fishes in order to examine the conditions of infection and the further development in the fish. the following conclusions were made. 1. cercariae of c. sinensis penetrated into the muscle of the fry of pseudorasbora parva were found to be able to develop. 2. cercariae penetrated into the fry of pseudorasbora parva migrated into the organs of the fry to kill their host. 3. from each dead individual of p. ...196412913594
[studies on the experimental mode of infections of clonorchis sinensis: iii. studies on the wormicidal effect of external mucous substance of some fresh water fish on the larva of clonorchis sinensis]the author reported in the previous pager on his observation of sudden death of clonorchis sinensis cercaria before penetration into the body of fry such as cyprinus carpio and carassius auratus. and in these studies, the reason behind the fact was investigated and it was found that the mucous substances on the surface of a certain fishes have a strong wormicidal effect to the larva of c. sinensis. 1. when cercariae of c. sinensis were immersed into the mucous substance of gold fish for three mi ...196412913595
structural and biochemical characterization of a new type of lectin isolated from carp eggs.a previously unidentified glycoprotein present in the eggs of the carp ( cyprinus carpio ) was isolated and structurally characterized. the protein binds to a sepharose 4b matrix and can be eluted with 0.4 m n -acetylglucosamine. the protein has an apparent molecular mass of 26686.3 da. on the basis of gel-filtration chromatography, the protein appears to be present in solution as a monomer. the sequence of its 238 amino acids, the position of its four disulphide bridges and the composition of i ...200312956625
oral administration of formalin-inactivated cells of aeromonas hydrophila a3-51 controls infection by atypical a. salmonicida in goldfish, carassius auratus (l.).there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotics in aquaculture to control fish diseases (e.g. douillet langdon 1994; gildberg, mikkelsen, sandaker & ringo 1997; kennedy, tucker, neidic, vermeer, cooper, jarrell & sennett 1998; deschrijver & ollevier 2000; robertson, o'dowd, burrells, williams & austin 2000), and a diverse range of gram-positive (such as carnobacterium inhibens) (robertson et al. 2000) and gram-negative bacteria, including vibrio alginolyticus (garriques & arevalo 199 ...200312962220
[histological studies on carassius carassius auratus l. (pisces, teleostel) after severe infection with trichodina domerguei wallengreen, 1897 (protozoa, euciliata)]. 196213894645
the effect of x-irradiation on goldfish. i. the effect of x-irradiation on survival and susceptibility of the goldfish, carassius auratus, to infection by aeromonas salmonicida and gyrodactylus spp. 196213911544
characteristics and pathogenicity of a capsulated pseudomonas isolated from goldfish.characteristics of a capsulated bacterium isolated from an epizootic among goldfish (carassius auratus) were determined as well as the ability of the bacterium to produce experimental infections. the bacterium was found to be a gram-negative rod which oxidized carbohydrates, produced green fluorescent pigment, and otherwise seemed to fit into the genus pseudomonas, except that it was nonmotile and failed to oxidize gluconate. these last two characteristics are typical of pseudomonads. however, t ...196514264854
leptospira infection in the gold fish (carassius auratus). 196214468196
molecular cloning and characterization of crucian carp (carassius auratus l.) interferon regulatory factor 7.interferon (ifn) can induce an antiviral state via interferon-regulatory transcription factors (irfs), which bind to and control genes directed by the interferon-stimulated response element (isre). here we describe a fish irf, termed cairf7, cloned from a subtractive cdna library which is constructed with mrnas obtained from crucian carp (carassius auratus l.) blastulae embryonic (cab) cells infected by uv-inactivated gchv and mock-infected cells. cairf7 cdna was found to be 1816 bp in length, w ...200314550671
genetic heterogeneity and ploidy level analysis among different gynogenetic clones of the polyploid gibel carp.some triploid and tetraploid clones have been identified in the gynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio bloch, by karyotypic and cytologic analyses over many years. further, 5-20% males and karyotypic diversity have been found among their natural and artificial populations. however, the dna contents and the relation to their ploidy level and chromosome numbers have not been ascertained, and whether normal meiosis occurs in spermatogenesis needs to be determined in the different clones.200314566938
the influence of translational selection on codon usage in fishes from the family this paper, the main factors shaping codon usage in three species of fishes that belong to the family cyprinidae (namely brachidanio rerio, cyprinus carpio, and carassius auratus) are reported. correspondence analysis (coa), a commonly used multivariate statistical approach, was used to analyze codon usage bias. our results show that the main trend is strongly correlated with the gc(3) content at silent sites of each sequence. on the other hand, the second axis discriminates between presumed ...200314604802
identification of protein kinase c (pkc) isoforms in teleostean, amphibian and avian pigment cells.the beta isoform of protein kinase c (pkc) has been described as the main isoform involved in the stimulation of melanogenesis in mammalian skin melanocytes. little is known about pkc isoforms in non-mammalian pigment cells. in neopterigian fish (holostei and teleostei), pkc is associated with pigment granule aggregation within the pigment cells (skin lightening), whereas in elasmobranchs and tetrapods, the activation of pkc leads to pigment granule dispersion (skin darkening). in an attempt to ...200314629721
molecular characterization and ifn signal pathway analysis of carassius auratus castat1 identified from the cultured cells in response to virus infection.type i interferon (ifn) exerts its pleiotropic effects mainly through the jak-stat signaling pathway, which is presently best described in mammals. by subtractive suppression hybridization, two fish signaling factors, jak1 and stat1, had been identified in the ifn-induced crucian carp carassius auratus l. blastulae embryonic (cab) cells after treatment with uv-inactivated grass carp hemorrhagic virus (gchv). further, the full-length cdna of stat1, termed castat1, was obtained. it contains 2926 b ...200414642888
noise-induced stress response and hearing loss in goldfish (carassius auratus).fishes are often exposed to environmental sounds such as those associated with shipping, seismic experiments, sonar and/or aquaculture pump systems. while efforts have been made to document the effects of such anthropogenic (human-generated) sounds on marine mammals, the effects of excess noise on fishes are poorly understood. we examined the short- and long-term effects of increased ambient sound on the stress and hearing of goldfish (carassius auratus; a hearing specialist). we reared fish und ...200414691090
identification and expression analysis of two ifn-inducible genes in crucian carp (carassius auratus l.).interferon (ifn) exerts its antiviral effects mainly through activation of a subset of ifn-stimulated genes (isg), but relatively few of fish isgs have been isolated and characterized so far. here, we report two fish isgs, termed caifi58 and caifi56, cloned from a subtractive cdna library constructed with mrnas obtained from crucian carp (carassius auratus l.) blastulae embryonic (cab) cells infected by uv-inactivated gchv and mock-infected cells. database search revealed that both isgs had a hi ...200414697509
[effects of long-term exposure of low-level 2,4-dichlorophenol on the antioxidant defense system in liver of carassius auratus].under the indoors simulant conditions, the effects of long-term exposure of low-level 2,4-dichlorophenol on the antioxidant system of larval fishes were studied. the results showed that the activities of catalase (cat), sedium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (se-gpx) and the content of oxidized glutathione (gssg) were induced significantly. the activity of superoxide dismutase (sod) was induced remarkably when 2,4-dichlorophenol level was at only 0.005 mg.l-1; the content of reduce glutathione ...200314719276
effects of crude extracts of mucuna pruriens (fabaceae) and carica papaya (caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. in the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of carica papaya against i. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. goldfish (carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with m. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with c. p ...200414735356
effects of chronic exposure of 2,4-dichlorophenol on the antioxidant system in liver of freshwater fish carassius auratus.there were few reports on the antioxidant response of aquatic organisms exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp). this research explored the hepatic antioxidant responses of fish to long-term exposure of 2,4-dcp for the first time. freshwater fish carassius auratus were chosen as experimental animals. the fish were exposed to six different concentrations of 2,4-dcp (0.005-1.0 mg/l) for 40 days and then liver tissues were separated for determination. as shown from the results, 40 days afterwards, ...200414761689
positive selection on multiple antique allelic lineages of transferrin in the polyploid carassius auratus.transferrin polymorphism has been studied in the polyploid carassius auratus by cloning and sequence analysis of cdnas from its three subspecies c. auratus gibelio, c. auratus auratus, and c. auratus cuvieri. dna polymorphism of extremely high extent was shown for the transferrin gene by the 248 segregation sites among coding region sequences of its alleles. the deduced amino acid sequences of the transferrin alleles showed variable theoretical physicochemical parameters, which might constitute ...200415014154
effect of microcystin-lr on protein phosphatase activity in fed and fasted juvenile goldfish carassius auratus l.fed and fasted juvenile goldfish carassius auratus (30 g body weight) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with microcystin-lr (mc-lr) (125 microg/kg body weight) to determine the effect of alimentary status on the hepatic toxicity of mc-lr. the toxin accumulation pattern was similar in both fed and fasted treatments. mc-lr accumulated during the first 48 h post-injection and decreased significantly between 48 and 96 h. mc-lr accumulation induced a decrease in hepatic protein phosphatase activ ...200415033328
identification and characterization of a glucagon receptor from the goldfish carassius auratus: implications for the evolution of the ligand specificity of glucagon receptors in vertebrates.the structural basis of ligand selectivity of g protein-coupled receptors for metabolic hormones has been an area of intense investigation, and yet it remains unresolved. one approach to delineating the mechanism of ligand-receptor interactions is to compare the ligand specificities of receptors expressed in species that emerged at different times within vertebrate evolution. in this paper we describe the isolation, functional, and phylogenetic characterization of the glucagon receptor from the ...200415033912
haematopoietic necrosis in a goldfish (carassius auratus) associated with an agent morphologically similar to of 14 goldfish (carassius auratus) died 4 weeks after purchase and was investigated by necropsy and histological examination. routine formalin fixation of the goldfish was followed by histopathology. formalin fixed spleen and kidney from the fish was further processed by embedding in epoxy resin and examined by transmission electron microscopy (em). severe, diffuse necrosis of haematopoietic tissue in the spleen, thymus and kidney and severe, diffuse hyperplasia in the gill epithelial cells ...200415088985
resistance to change in goldfish.resistance to change has been studied in several species such as humans, rats, and pigeons. we conducted two experiments using goldfish as subjects to examine the generality of the findings on resistance to change in a phylogenetically more primitive species. in experiment 1, five goldfish (carassius auratus) were trained on two-component multiple schedules with different variable-interval schedules in effect. when responding was disrupted by presenting free food during intercomponent intervals ...200415110916
endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (morone americana) from the lower great lakes region.high prevalences of gonadal intersex have been observed in wild fish populations in areas affected by domestic and industrial effluents. for this study, fish were collected in 1998 from the cootes paradise region of hamilton harbour in western lake ontario, canada, to determine whether gonadal abnormalities, including intersex, were present in young of the year (yoy) fish. no gonadal abnormalities were observed in goldfish (carassius auratus), common carp (cyprinus carpio), gizzard shad (dorosom ...200415175179
production of a biologically active growth hormone from giant catfish (pangasianodon gigas) in escherichia coli.giant catfish growth hormone (gcgh) cdna was cloned and expressed in e. coli. the expected 20.5 kda protein corresponded to the mature gcgh and was efficiently expressed. this protein was produced as inclusion bodies and comprised about 20% of total cellular proteins. the recombinant hormone promoted growth when injected intramuscularly or intraperitoneally into goldfish (carassius auratus) at 0.1 or 1 microg soluble gcgh per g fish body wt per week. in addition, the recombinant gcgh inclusions ...200415200175
molecular phylogeny of congeneric monogenean parasites (dactylogyrus): a case of intrahost speciation.dactylogyrus species (dactylogyridae: monogenea) are a group of monogenean gill parasites that are highly specific to freshwater fish of the family cyprinidae. dactylogyrus species were sampled from 19 cyprinids and one percid collected in europe. using partial 18s rdna and its1 sequences, a phylogeny of 51 dactylogyrus species was reconstructed to investigate the patterns of parasite speciation and diversification. three main dactylogyrus lineages were recognized from all phylogenetic trees, th ...200415212381
form and function in the unique inner ear of a teleost: the silver perch (bairdiella chrysoura).members of the teleost family sciaenidae show significant variation in inner ear and swim bladder morphology as well as in the relationship between the swim bladder and the inner ear. in the silver perch (bairdiella chrysoura), a stellifer-group sciaenid, both the saccular and utricular otoliths are enlarged relative to those in other teleosts. additionally, its swim bladder is two-chambered, and the anterior chamber surrounds the otic capsule and terminates lateral to the saccules. structure an ...200415236234
molecular cloning and characterisation of a fish pkr-like gene from cultured cab cells induced by uv-inactivated virus.the double-stranded-rna-dependent protein kinase (pkr) is an important component in an antiviral defence pathway that is mediated by interferon (ifn) in vertebrates. previously, some important ifn system genes had been identified from an ifn-producing cab (crucian carp carassius auratus blastulae embryonic) cells after treatment with uv-inactivated gchv (grass carp haemorrhage virus). here, a fish pkr-like gene, named capkr-like, is cloned and sequenced from the same virally infected cab cells. ...200415312662
a globin gene of ancient evolutionary origin in lower vertebrates: evidence for two distinct globin families in animals.hemoglobin, myoglobin, neuroglobin, and cytoglobin are four types of vertebrate globins with distinct tissue distributions and functions. here, we report the identification of a fifth and novel globin gene from fish and amphibians, which has apparently been lost in the evolution of higher vertebrates (amniota). because its function is presently unknown, we tentatively call it globin x (gbx). globin x sequences were obtained from three fish species, the zebrafish danio rerio, the goldfish carassi ...200515356282
oral immunization of carassius auratus with modified recombinant a-layer proteins entrapped in alginate beads.this study was focused on the utilization of a recombinant expression system to produce a unique modified subunit vaccine possessing a self-contained delivery system which could potentially improve the uptake and delivery of vaccine products as well their immunogenic potential. for this purpose the a-layer protein (at-r) associated with the fish pathogen atypical aeromonas salmonicida was cloned and modified by the genetic fusion of the protein transduction domain (mts) derived from kaposi fibro ...200415530693
gonadotropin-releasing hormone induction of apoptosis in the testes of goldfish (carassius auratus).apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can occur via death receptor or mitochondrial pathways. normal spermatogenesis in mammals involves apoptosis mediated, in part, by the death receptor fas and its ligand. the regulation of programmed cell death in the gonads has been shown to be dependent on a number of locally produced factors, including gnrh. whereas the role of gnrh in the control of apoptosis and follicular atresia has been documented in the mammalian ovary, gnrh regulation of testicular a ...200515564332
molecular phylogeny of the kidney-parasitic sphaerospora renicola from common carp (cyprinus carpio) and sphaerospora sp. from goldfish (carassius auratus auratus).the genetic relatedness of two kidney-parasitic sphaerospora species was studied. although s. renicola, the causative agent of swimbladder inflammation of common carp fingerlings (cyprinus carpio), and sphaerospora sp. originating from goldfish (carassius auratus auratus) were indistinguishable on the basis of spore morphology, they were found to be genetically different as their 18s rdna sequences shared only 71.9% identical nucleotides. in the phylogenetic trees, sphaerospora sp. from goldfish ...200415595280
characterization of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor in the goldfish (carassius auratus).the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (lif) and its receptor lifr have been extensively characterized in mammals. lif has been shown to mediate the proliferation, differentiation and activation of a number of cell types in various tissues. this paper reports on the identification of a novel lifr isolated from goldfish (carassius auratus) macrophages. goldfish lifr shares a 26% amino acid sequence identity with mammalian lifr sequences; however it retains all of the conserved amino acid motifs ...200515683914
genetic relationships among members of the ichthyobodo necator complex: implications for the management of aquaculture stocks.abstract ichthyobodo necator (costia) is a common and important flagellate parasite that infests the skin and gills of many freshwater and marine fish. costia infestations are often fatal and cause significant aquaculture losses worldwide. recently it has been demonstrated that ichthyobodo is a multispecies complex with differing host preferences. knowing if those species have broad or narrow host specificity has important implications for the management of costia. to address the question of hos ...200515705156
molecular cloning of prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone cdnas from the common carp cyprinus carpio and goldfish carassius expand our knowledge on the evolution of prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone (pptrh) from fish to tetrapods, sequences of pptrh cdnas from two cyprinid teleosts, the common carp cyprinus carpio and goldfish carassius auratus, were determined. degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved regions between the zebrafish pptrh sequence identified from the zebrafish est database and the sockeye salmon pptrh sequence, and pcr amplification was performed. full-length pptrhs were confirmed ...200515707606
assessment of estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical actions in the brain using in vivo somatic gene transfer.estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals abnormally stimulate vitellogenin gene expression and production in the liver of many male aquatic vertebrates. however, very few studies demonstrate the effects of estrogenic pollutants on brain function. we have used polyethylenimine-mediated in vivo somatic gene transfer to introduce an estrogen response element-thymidine kinase-luciferase (ere-tk-luc) construct into the brain. to determine if waterborne estrogenic chemicals modulate gene transcriptio ...200515743723
sandwich immunoassay for determination of vitellogenin in golden grey mullet (liza aurata) serum as a field exposure biomarker.vitellogenin (vtg) is a protein produced in the liver of oviparous animals in response to oestrogens. abnormal production of vtg by males, therefore, is used as a biological indicator of exposure to xeno-oestrogens. in this study, a sandwich-elisa for measuring vtg in liza aurata (golden grey mullet) was developed and validated. plasma vtg was purified from 17beta-oestradiol-injected immature individuals of mullet, by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. polyclonal antibodies against ...200515756602
hydroxyl radical production and oxidative damage induced by cadmium and naphthalene in liver of carassius auratus.freshwater goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to cadmium (cd) from 0 to 5 mg/l, and naphthalene (nap) from 0 to 50 mg/l. twenty-four hours after the exposure, reactive oxygen species (ros) was trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (epr). protein carbonyl (pco) and lipid peroxidation (lpo) content were determined. the activities of superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase (cat) were also measured. the epr spectra signals were characterized by p ...200515792630
[effects of long-term exposure of low level zinc and zn-edta complex on zinc accumulation and antioxidant defense system in liver of carassius auratus].the effects of low level zinc(zn2+)and its edta complex on zinc accumulation and antioxidant enzymes,such as catalase (cat), superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione s-transferase (gst), glutathione peroxidase (gpx) in the liver of carassius auratus are studied after 40 day exposure. the results show that zinc accumulation is significantly increased with higher zinc concentration. when fish are exposed to zn-edta, the zinc accumulation in the liver of fish increased slightly according to the cont ...200515859432
differential expression of vasa rna and protein during spermatogenesis and oogenesis in the gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio), a bisexually and gynogenetically reproducing vertebrate.the rna helicase vasa is a germ cell marker in animals, and its homolog in vertebrates to date has been limited to bisexual reproduction. we cloned and characterized cagvasa, a vasa homolog from the gibel carp, a fish that reproduces bisexually or gynogenetically. cagvasa possesses 14 rgg repeats and eight conserved motifs of vasa proteins. in bisexually reproducing gibel carp, vasa is maternally supplied and its zygotic expression is restricted to gonads. by in situ hybridization on testicular ...200515880437
organ distribution and bioaccumulation of microcystins in freshwater fish at different trophic levels from the eutrophic lake chaohu, china.this article reports the organ distribution and bioaccumulation of hepatotoxic microcystins (mcs) in freshwater fishes at different trophic levels from the large, shallow, eutrophic lake chaohu in september 2003, when there were heavy surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. among all fish, intestines and blood had the highest average content of mc-rr + mc-lr (22.0 and 14.5 microg g(-1) dw, respectively), followed by liver, bile, and kidney (7.77, 6.32, and 5.81 microg g(-1) dw, respectively), whe ...200515892067
the human lipid regulator, gemfibrozil bioconcentrates and reduces testosterone in the goldfish, carassius auratus.human and veterinarian pharmaceuticals have been detected in the aquatic environment for a number of years, but the potential for biological effects in exposed aquatic organism is only now being reported. the lipid regulator, gemfibrozil (gem) is detected at microg/l concentrations in domestic wastewater and ng/l concentrations in surface waters. we investigated the uptake of gem in goldfish (carassius auratus) over a 96 h time period by measuring gem in blood plasma using lc-ms/ms. results indi ...200515892991
the residual dynamic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in fishponds of the pearl river delta, south china.hong kong and south china are the most developed regions within china. the industrialization in these areas has resulted in severe environmental problems. sediment and biotic samples including tilapia (oreochromis mossambicus), bighead carp (aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (carassius auratus) and mandarin fish/fresh water grouper (siniperca chuatsi) were collected from different fishponds in the pearl river delta (tanzhou, sanjiao, guangzhou, shipai, ch ...200515899281
detection of mycobacteria in aquarium fish in slovenia by culture and molecular methods.thirty-five aquarium fish were investigated for the presence of mycobacteria by culture and molecular methods. the following species were examined: goldfish carassius auratus auratus, guppy poecilia reticulata, 4 three-spot gourami trichogaster trichopterus, dwarf gourami colisa lalia, siamese fighting fish betta splendens, freshwater angelfish pterophyllum scalare, african cichlid fish cichlidae spp., cichlid fish microgeophagus altispinosus, cichlid fish pseudotropheus lombardoi, blue streak h ...200515900685
identification of a spindlin homolog in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).spindlin has been suggested to play an important role during the transition from oocyte maturation to embryo development in mouse, but its homolog similar to the mouse spindlin in molecular and expression characterization has not been identified up to now in other vertebrates. in this study, a full length of cdna sequence is cloned and sequenced from the gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio). it contains 1240 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 771 nt encoding 257 amino acids. based on it ...200515939319
partial cloning and expression of mrna coding choline acetyltransferase in the spinal cord of the goldfish, carassius auratus.choline acetyltransferase (chat, ec synthesizes a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons. chat is considered to be the most specific marker for cholinergic neurons. to obtain a better marker of the neurons, as the first step, we isolated a partial chat cdna from the goldfish (carassius auratus) brain by rt-pcr methods. the partial cdna of the goldfish chat was composed of 718 nucleotides. the amino acid sequence of the goldfish chat is approximately 70% identical to thos ...200515951213
perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and organohalogen pollutants in liver of three freshwater fish species in flanders (belgium): relationships with biochemical and organismal effects.a perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (pfos) assessment was conducted on gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio), carp (cyprinus carpio), and eel (anguilla anguilla) in flanders (belgium). the liver pfos concentrations in fish from the ieperlee canal (boezinge, 250-9031 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the blokkersdijk pond (antwerp, 633-1822 ng/g wet weight) were higher than at the zuun basin (sint-pieters-leeuw, 11.2-162 ng/g wet weight) and among the highest in feral fish worldwide. eel from the o ...200515963371
inhibitory effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (pacap) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) on food intake in the goldfish, carassius auratus.pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (pacap) has a similar structure to that of vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) and both the polypeptides belong to the same molecular group, the secretin-glucagon superfamily. pacap and vip have possible potency as hypothalamic factors mediating the release of pituitary hormones in the fish pituitary. however, the roles of pacap and vip in the central nervous systems of fish have not yet been made clear. recently, it was reported that pacap and/ ...200516112400
non-invasive detection and quantification of the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis by real-time pcr.the main parasitic threat to freshwater fish is the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis. we developed a real-time pcr assay using sybr green intercalating fluorescent dye for rapid detection and quantification of i. multifiliis. this non-invasive assay was based on the quantification of i. multifiliis free-swimming stages from filtered water samples, and thus made it possible to preserve host individuals. an alignment of 18s rdna sequences of i. multifiliis and related species of the ciliate or ...200516119894
experimental handling stress as infection-facilitating factor for the goldfish ulcerative disease.experimental handling stress (ehs) was applied to clinically asymptomatic farmed goldfish (carassius auratus l.). ehs affected the gills and skin integrity of the fish and was accompanied by increased levels of plasma glucose, cortisol and interleukin-10 (il-10). ehs application was followed by highly significant enhancement of the rate of infection with a virulent aeromonas salmonicida isolate. cumulative ulceration at the initial phase of the ensuing goldfish ulcerative disease (gud) evidenced ...200616174536
immunoreactive antigens of the outer membrane protein of aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from goldfish, carassius auratus (linn.).aeromonas hydrophila causes disease under stress conditions or in concert with infection by other pathogens in goldfish. sero-diagnostic and/or immunoprophylactic tools against aeromonas infection in goldfish are not available so far. the present study was undertaken to fractionate and characterise the outer membrane proteins (omp) of a. hydrophila and to identify suitable immunoreactive components. a total of 10 fractions were generated from crude omp antigens upon gel permeation and subsequent ...200616243540
effects of copper and its ethylenediaminetetraacetate complex on the antioxidant defenses of the goldfish, carassius auratus.copper bioavailability in the tissues of goldfish and antioxidant defenses in the liver of fish were investigated in vivo following 40 days of exposure to different species of copper solutions at different concentrations. copper seemed to be more concentrated in the gill than in the liver after cu(2+) and copper-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (cu-edta) exposure. the addition of edta markedly affected copper adsorption in the gill but had no significant effects in the liver. we also found that in th ...200616249031
sensitive apoptosis induced by microcystins in the crucian carp (carassius auratus) lymphocytes in vitro.microcystins including leucine-arginine l-amino acid (mclr) and arginine-arginine l-amino acid (mcrr) can inhibit several serine/threonine protein phosphatases. in this study, we focused on the efficient biomarker for analyzing toxic cyanobacteria blooms using in vitro apoptosis bioassay. we explored the existence of sensitive apoptosis induced by mclr and mcrr on isolated lymphocytes of the crucian carp (carassius auratus) at a low exposure level. apoptosis was detected in vitro and was clearly ...200616271850
construction and characterization of a bac library for carassius auratus gibelio, a gynogenetic polyploid fish. 200516293142
bioaccumulation, depuration and oxidative stress in fish carassius auratus under phenanthrene this study, laboratory experiment was carried out to determine phenanthrene bioaccumulation, depuration in whole fish and oxidative stress in the liver of freshwater fish carassius auratus. fish were exposed to 0.05 mg/l phenanthrene for different periods, while one control group was designated for each exposure group. some fish after 7 days of exposure were transferred to diluted water. the concentrations of phenanthrene in fish were analyzed by hplc. twenty-four hours after the exposure, re ...200616293290
potassium transmembrane fluxes in anoxic hepatocytes from goldfish (carassius auratus l.).despite the fact that anoxic goldfish hepatocytes can maintain the transmembrane gradients of na(+), h(+) and ca(2+), cyanide (cn) intoxication leads to a rapid breakdown of k(+) homeostasis. in this study, [(86)rb(+)] k(+) fluxes across the plasma membrane of goldfish hepatocytes were studied in order to identify the possible causes of this imbalance. four minutes of cyanide incubation induced an acute and stable 61% decrease of k(+) influx (mostly driven by na,k-atpase activity), whereas k(+) ...200616298170
adjuvant effect of propolis on immunisation by inactivated aeromonas hydrophila in carp (carassius auratus gibelio). 200616325428
a combined phage display scfv library against myxobolus rotundus infecting crucian carp, carassius auratus auratus (l.), in china.immunological methods have been developed for the diagnosis of myxobolus rotundus but their use has been limited for the prevention and therapy of this serious parasitic pathogen. phage display antibody libraries are a powerful technique for the development of antibodies to molecules of interest and have advantages over traditional hybridroma approaches. in the present study, four antigen fractions related to m. rotundus were prepared and a combined phage display single-chain antibody fragments ...200616351693
bioaccumulation and antioxidant responses in goldfish carassius auratus under hc orange no. 1 exposure.hc orange no. 1 is used as a color additive in hair dyes and colors. in this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the accumulation of hc orange no. 1 in goldfish and the biochemical responses in liver of freshwater goldfish carassius auratus. goldfish were exposed to 1.0 mg/l hc orange no. 1 for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96 h. results showed that the concentrations of hc orange no. 1 in water decreased rapidly in the first 24h, and then maintained equilibrium, while t ...200616406596
a novel hematopoietic granulin induces proliferation of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) macrophages.granulins are a group of highly conserved growth factors that have been described from a variety of organisms spanning the metazoa. in this study, goldfish granulin was one of the most commonly identified transcripts in the differential cross-screening of macrophage cdna libraries and was preferentially expressed in proliferating macrophages. unlike mammalian granulins, which possess 7.5 repeats of a characteristic signature of 12 cysteine residues, the goldfish granulin encoded a putative pepti ...200616473876
redescription of myxobolus pyramidis chen, 1958(myxosporea: bivalvulida).redescription of myxobolus pyramidis chen, 1958, from gill lamellae of allogynogenetic gibel carp, carassius auratus gibelio (bloch), is presented in this paper to complete chen's description. the diagnostic characters of the myxosporidia are: ovoid round, greyish-white polysporous plasmodia, averaging (159+/-21)x(72+/-6.5) mum in size; spore pyriform in front view with smooth surface and symmetrical valves, convex-shaped in sutural view with straight and thick sutural line, averaging (10.5+/-1. ...200616482479
central administration of melanin-concentrating hormone (mch) suppresses food intake, but not locomotor activity, in the goldfish, carassius auratus.melanin-concentrating hormone (mch) is a hypothalamo-pituitary peptide, which was first identified in the salmon pituitary as a hormone affecting body color. recently, mch has been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in mammals. despite a growing body of knowledge concerning mch in mammals, however, there is little information about the effect of mch on appetite and behavior in fish. the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of mch on feeding ...200616503089
cryobanking of fish somatic cells: optimizations of fin explant culture and fin cell cryopreservation.when gametes or embryos are not available, somatic cells should be considered for fish genome cryobanking of valuable or endangered fish. the objective of this work was to develop a method for fin explant culture with an assessed reliability, and to assess fin cells ability to cryopreservation. anal fins from goldfish (carassius auratus) were minced and gently loosened with collagenase before explants were plated at 20 degrees c in l-15 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum and ph bufferin ...200616503180
toxoplasma gondii does not persist in goldfish (carassius auratus).recent reports of toxoplasmosis in marine mammals raise concern that cold-blooded marine animals are a potential source of toxoplasma gondii infection. to examine the transmissibility of t. gondii to fish, we observed the development of t. gondii tachyzoites inoculated into oviduct epithelial cells of goldfish (carassius auratus) microscopically in vitro. further, the survival period of tachyzoites inoculated into goldfish muscle was bioassayed in mice and through pcr analysis. in cell cultures ...200516539041
the presence of microcystins and other cyanobacterial bioactive peptides in aquatic fauna collected from greek freshwaters.toxic bloom-forming cyanobacteria can cause animal death and adversely affect human health. blooms may contain microcystins (mcs), cyanobacterial heptapeptide hepatotoxins and other peptides such as anabaenopeptins and anabaenopeptilides. mcs have been shown to occur in various aquatic organisms including mussels, water snails, crustaceans and fish. muscle and viscera samples from eight species of fish (acipenser gueldenstaedtii, carassius auratus, carassius gibelio, cyprinus carpio, perca fluvi ...200616540185
2-chlorophenol induced ros generation in fish carassius auratus based on the epr the present study, a secondary spin trapping technique was used followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) analysis, to study the potential of reactive oxygen species (ros) production after fish (carassius auratus) were injected i.p. with different doses (50, 100, 200, 250, 500mgkg(-1)) of 2-chlorophenol (2-cp). the ros signal intensity of the epr spectrum showed a significant increase (p<0.05, compared with the control) when the 2-cp dose was as low as 50mgkg(-1). there is a good rela ...200616620909
morphological and genetic differences among actinosporean stages of fish-parasitic myxosporeans (myxozoa): difficulties of species identification.the occurrence and morphology of actinosporean stages of myxosporeans were studied at a fish farm and in the river tisza in hungary. the 43 samples sequenced belonged to 10 'genotypes', from which six were determined as new actinosporean types. based on dna sequence analysis, the assumed actinosporean developmental stages of four myxozoan species were identified. the raabeia type collected from the worm branchiura sowerbyi was identified as myxobolus cultus yokoyama, ogawa & wakabyashi, 1995. th ...200616676228
anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for speciation analysis of metal complexes with metallothionein isoforms in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) exposed to environmental metal pollution.the capability of post-column isotope dilution (id) combined with anion-exchange hplc-icp-time-of-flight (tof)-ms was for the first time investigated for environmental quality assessment through metal speciation analysis of metallothionein (mt) isoforms in cytosols of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio), used as biomarkers for environmental metal exposure. a full spectral scanning of the biological sample (with 50 microl injection volume) using icp-tof-ms in transient mode allowed fast multi- ...200616678190
detection of the herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease agent (cyprinid herpesvirus 2) in moribund and healthy goldfish: validation of a quantitative pcr diagnostic method.cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) is a pathogen of goldfish carassius auratus auratus l. that causes herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (hvhn) disease. the disease is associated with necrosis of hematopoietic tissues and anemia with high mortality. we have developed a real time 5'-nuclease pcr method (taqman) that quantitatively detects cyhv-2 with a linear response over 8 logs of target concentration. the coefficient of variability on replicate samples tested on different days was 13% and the cal ...200616724557
a new myxozoan from feral goldfish (carassius auratus).in february 2004, a mass die-off of common goldfish carassius auratus l., presumptively caused by bacterial coldwater disease (flavobacterium psychrophilum), occurred at fern ridge reservoir, oregon. a range of size classes was affected, but all mature fish were female and all fish were infected with a single myxozoan, chloromyxum auratum n. sp. no histological changes were observed associated with the parasite. infection was represented by mictosporic plasmodia and free-floating spores in the g ...200616729695
herpesvirus haematopoietic necrosis in a goldfish (carassius auratus) in the uk. 200616766727
[comparison between biomimetic sampling technique using semipermeable membrane device and bioconcentration in caged fish for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].semipermeable membrane device (spmd) was recently accepted to estimate the time-integrated concentrations of bioavailable hydrophobic organic compounds (hocs) in a similar manner as lipophilic bioconcentration. however few field researches were carried out to verify the similarities of spmd and fish in concentrating hocs from water. in present work, spmd and caged crucian carps (carassius auratus) were deployed side-by-side at five sites in meiliang bay, taihu lake for 32 days and concentrations ...200616881320
availability of in vitro vitellogenin assay for screening of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals.vitellogenin (vtg) protein, vtg mrna, other egg yolk proteins, vitelline envelope proteins and their mrnas are produced in the liver of oviparous species by stimulation of endogenous estrogen and exogenous estrogenic chemicals. the vtg assay based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been widely used for many fish species to screen estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of chemicals and sewage effluents using immature fish and/or male fish. in order to reduce the number of fish fo ...200616883298
differences in host selection of actinospores of two myxosporeans, myxobolus arcticus and thelohanellus hovorkai.we investigated the host selection mechanism of actinospore stages of 2 myxosporeans, myxobolus arcticus and thelohanellus hovorkai, infecting masu salmon (oncorhynchus masou) and common carp (cyprinus carpio), respectively. discharge of the polar filaments and sporoplasm release by m. arcticus actinospores occurred within the first 5 min of exposure to skin mucus of masu salmon. the actinospores also reacted to the mucus of nonsusceptible fish, i.e., sockeye salmon (oncorhynchus nerka) and gold ...200616995388
surgical procedure for implanting a radiotelemetry transmitter to monitor ecg, heart rate and body temperature in small carassius auratus and carassius auratus gibelio under laboratory conditions.radiotelemetry provides an alternative means of obtaining physiological measurements from conscious and freely moving animals, without introducing stress artefacts. a surgical procedure is described for implanting radiotelemetry transmitters to monitor the electrocardiogram (ecg), heart rate (hr) and body temperature (bt) in small goldfish (carassius auratus; 50-100 g) and prussian carp (carassius auratus gibelio; 100 g). this type of transmitter is commonly implanted in freely moving mice. afte ...200617018217
waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (pparbeta) mrna levels in male goldfish (carassius auratus).the lipid regulator gemfibrozil (gem) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. we previously demonstrated that gem bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (carassius auratus). in this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of gem (1.5 microg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to gem acting as a peroxisome proliferator (pp). we also investi ...200617046140
protection of carassius auratus gibelio against infection by aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk.specific immunoglobulin (igy) from egg yolk against aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of white leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of a. hydrophila. elisa test using a. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (p/n=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (p/n=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (p/n=7.03). the antibody was purified by saturated ammonium ...200617048308
toxicity of hc orange no. 1 to daphnia magna, zebrafish (brachydanio rerio) embryos, and goldfish (carassius auratus).hc orange no. 1 (hco1; 2-nitro-4'-hydroxydiphenylamine) (cas no. 54381-08-7) is used as a color additive in hair dyes and can be released into aquatic environments in wastewater. in this paper, the effects of hco1 on aquatic organisms were studied using a battery of toxicological tests. these included measuring immobilization of daphnia magna, inhibition of zebrafish embryo development, and acute lethality in zebrafish and goldfish, which are different species belonging to different trophic leve ...200717084436
mucosal mast cell responses in rats (rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with centrocestus caninus.mucosal mast cell (mmc) responses and worm recovery rates in rats experimentally infected with centrocestus caninus were investigated. metacercariae of c. caninus, procured from goldfish, carassius auratus, were orally administered to twenty-five male rats (300 metacercariae each rat). the infected rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-infection (pi) along with the control rats. worm recovery was performed from each part of small intestine. to investigate mmc, duodenal, jejunal a ...200617120962
cloning and expression analysis of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) prominin.the integral membrane protein known as prominin was first identified on the apical surface of mouse neural epithelial cells as well as on the surface of human haematopoietic progenitor cells. this report describes a prominin-like sequence and expression analysis of the prominin in the goldfish. the predicted amino acid sequence for goldfish prominin shares all of the hallmark structural characteristics of the prominin family, however the relatedness assessed using the percent amino acid identity ...200717123832
hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in carassius auratus liver as affected by 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.with carassius auratus, one of the main economic fish species in eastern china as test material, this paper studied the hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in its liver under the effect of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-tcp). different doses of 2,4,6-tcp were injected intraperitoneally into the fishes, and the electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) spectra of hepatic free radicals, activities of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and glutathione-s-transferase (gst), levels of r ...200717161446
accumulation of microcystins in various organs of the freshwater snail sinotaia histrica and three fishes in a temperate lake, the eutrophic lake suwa, far, there has been only one study to examine microcystin (mc) contents in various organs of snails in a subtropical chinese lake. in this study, tissue distribution and seasonal dynamics of mc-rr and -lr were investigated in various organs of a freshwater snail (sinotaia histrica) in a temperate eutrophic lake, lake suwa, japan. accumulation of microcystins in some fish was also investigated. there was marked temporal variation in the mc content of various organs of the snail. the digestive ...200717187838
combined effects of herbicides on biomarkers reflecting immune-endocrine interactions in goldfish. immune and antioxidant effects.goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to a mixture of herbicides, namely atrazine, simazine, diuron, and isoproturon (asdi) at a cumulative concentration of 50microg/l for 12 weeks. control fish and exposed fish were sampled at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to observe the combined impact of herbicides on non-specific and specific mechanisms of immunity and antioxidant defenses. the antioxidant defenses were evaluated in haemopoietic organs and liver. asdi-induced stress was reflected as a si ...200717194491
evaluation of mutagenic activities of leachates in landfill sites by micronucleus test and comet assay using develop a simple system for monitoring the presence of mutagens/carcinogens in the leachates from landfill sites, we used a micronucleus test and a single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay originally developed for mice and rats on goldfish (carassius auratus). the goldfish were exposed for 9 days to the leachate with chemical and biological treatment (treated leachate) or without treatment (raw leachate). the goldfish exposed to several samples died because of the high concentrations of ...200717196875
study of goldfish (carassius auratus) growth hormone structure-function relationship by domain swapping.using goldfish as a model, the structure-function relationship of goldfish growth hormone was studied using the strategy of homologous domain swapping. chimeric mutants were constructed by exchanging homologous regions between goldfish growth hormone (gfgh ii) and goldfish prolactin (gfprl) with their cloned complementary dnas. six mutants, with their domain-swapped, were generated to have different combinations of three target regions, including the helix a, helix d and the large section in bet ...200717215157
assessing the anti-estrogenic activity of sodium pentachlorophenol in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker.both pentachlorophenol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) had been studied widely because of their probable anti-estrogenic activity. sodium pentachlorophenol (pcp-na), as a industrial product used in many fields, usually contains a trace of tcdd. the aim of this study was to assess the anti-estrogenic effect of pcp-na in juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus) hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (vtg) as the biomarker. the id50 of pcp-na was investigated and then a series of concen ...200617294650
bioaccumulation and ros generation in liver of carassius auratus, exposed to the present study, the bioaccumulation and reactive oxygen species (ros) generation were studied after fish (carassius auratus) were exposed to different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mg/l) of phenanthrene for 4 days. the accumulation of phenanthrene in liver increased with the exposure concentration (r(2)=0.88). a secondary spin trapping technique was used followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) analysis, to study the ros production. the ros generated in fish liver ...200717300992
catadioptric stereo-vision system for the real-time monitoring of 3d behavior in aquatic species have been used as vertebrate model systems for numerous human diseases. however, a comprehensive monitoring system for continuously tracking the positions of aquatic animals is still lacking. manual or simple automatic methods usually lead to false or incomplete behavioral parameters. in this paper, a video-based 3d system is proposed for monitoring aquatic animals. this system is comprised of a novel catadioptric stereo-vision setup and methods for robust tracking of 3d motion-rela ...200717355885
glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, 67, and gaba-transaminase mrna expression and total enzyme activity in the goldfish (carassius auratus) brain.gad65 and gad67 are the two major isoforms of the enzyme that converts glutamate into gaba in a single step reaction. despite studies describing gad65 and gad67 mrna expression in the mammalian brain, both gad65 and gad67 mrna expression has not yet been fully described for a non-mammalian vertebrate model. similarly, the expression patterns of gaba-t mrna, the major enzyme involved in metabolizing gaba, have not been described for any vertebrate. in the present study, we utilized non-radioactiv ...200717362888
cadmium affects the expression of metallothionein (mt) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx) mrna in goldfish, carassius auratus.cadmium (cd) is a widespread non-essential heavy metal that enters the aquatic environment as a result of natural and human-caused activities, including industrial effluent, mining, and agricultural runoff. in the present study, we investigated time and dose-related effect of cdcl(2) on metallothionein (mt) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx) mrna levels in a number of goldfish tissues, in vivo. basal mt and gpx mrna levels remained unchanged in the tissues tested throughout the experiment. injecti ...200717369103
[free radicals in carassius auratus liver: their generation and oxidative stress induced by 2,4,6-trichlorophenol].with electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) technique, this paper studied the free radicals generation and oxidative stress in carassius auratus liver after 4, 8, 12, 24 and 72 hours of 2, 4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-tcp) intraperitoneal injection. the results showed that 2,4,6-tcp significantly promoted the generation of free radicals in c. auratus liver. the superoxide dismutase (sod) and glutathione-s-transferase (gst) activities were induced significantly, while catalase (cat) activity was inh ...200717396512
hematological and plasma biochemical responses of crucian carp (carassius auratus) to intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins with the possible mechanisms of anemia.alterations in hematological indices such as decreases in blood cell counts (rbc), hematocrit (ht) and hemoglobin (hb) concentrations are key symptoms of anemia. however, few experiments were conducted to examine changes in hematological indices of fish exposed to microcystins that are believed to be fatal to circulatory systems of vertebrates. an acute toxicological experiment was designed to study hematological changes of crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcysti ...200717400268
effects of long-term alachlor exposure on hepatic antioxidant defense and detoxifying enzyme activities in crucian carp (carassius auratus).alachlor has been widely used in agriculture all over the world. it is suggested that it may be a carcinogen and also an environmental estrogen. in this paper, the physiological and biochemical perturbations of crucian carp (carassius auratus) exposed to alachlor at different concentrations over 60 days were investigated. the gonadosomatic index (gsi) and hepatosomatic index (hsi) were measured. the activity of hepatic antioxidant defense and detoxifying enzymes, superoxide dismutase (sod), cata ...200717433409
construction of a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs and its effects on the innate immune responses of aquatic animals.bacterial dna and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) containing unmethylated cpg dinucleotides (cpg motifs) have been shown to induce potential immune responses. in this study, we designed a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs, and observed its effects on innate immune responses of fish and prawn. the results showed that such plasmid dna, compared to the vacant vector, can highly induce the activation of head kidney macrophages and the proliferation of peripheral blood leuko ...200717475508
bioaccumulation and ros generation in liver of freshwater fish, goldfish carassius auratus under hc orange no 1 exposure.hc orange no. 1 (cas no. 54381-08-7, 2-nitro-4'-hydroxydiphenylamine) is used as a color additive in hair dyes. in this study, laboratory experiment was carried out to determine hc orange no. 1 bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in the liver of freshwater fish, goldfish carassius auratus. fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/l) of hc orange no. 1 for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. the accumulation of hc orange no. 1 in liver increased wit ...200717497642
hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide and reactivation of phoxim-inhibited acetylcholinesterase by pralidoxime chloride, obidoxime chloride and trimedoxime.the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide (atch) by pralidoxime chloride (2-pam cl), trimedoxime (tmb(4)) and obidoxime chlpride (luh(6)) was studied at ph 5.8-8.0 and incubation temperature from 5 to 40 degrees c in vitro. significant atch hydrolysis by 2-pam cl, tmb(4) and luh(6) was found, with the exceptions of those at ph 7.0, 6.2 and 5.8 at 5 degrees c and those at ph 6.2 and 5.8 at 15 degrees c. the hydrolysis by tmb(4) and luh(6) was significantly stronger than that by 2-pam cl. the hyd ...200717534602
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