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expansion of genes that encode mhc class i molecules in cyprinid fishes.we have analyzed the genomic genes and the mrna that encode mhc class i molecules in cyprinid fishes, namely, the ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii) and the carp (cyprinus carpio). the presence of several distinct class i genes was revealed in the genome of cyprinid fishes, and distinct class i genes that are expressed in carp cells were identified. the sequences of the alpha 3 domain of these class i genes are relatively well conserved, whereas the sequences of the respective ...19938326125
in vitro characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists in goldfish, carassius auratus.the two native forms of gnrh, salmon gnrh and chicken gnrh-ii, in the brain and pituitary of goldfish are both active in stimulating gonadotropin-ii (gth-ii) and gh release. the objective of the present study was to characterize gnrh antagonists for their ability to inhibit sgnrh- and cgnrh-ii-induced gth-ii and gh release in goldfish using a pituitary fragments perifusion system. contrary to expectations, putative gnrh antagonists with d-arg6 stimulated gth-ii and gh release in nearly all cases ...19938404604
goldfish calcitonin: purification, characterization, and hypocalcemic potency.a novel teleost calcitonin was isolated from the goldfish, carassius auratus, and its amino acid sequence was determined to be h-cys-ser-ser-leu-ser-thr-cys-val-leu-gly- lys-leu-ser-gln-glu-leu-his-lys-leu-gln-thr-tyr-pro-arg-thr-asn-val-gly- ala-gly-thr-pro-nh2. the structure of goldfish calcitonin (gct) was similar to that of salmon calcitonin (sct) but differed from the latter at positions 3, 27, and 29. the hypocalcemic activity of gct was estimated to be 3,470 iu/mg by the standardized rat ...19938454163
molecular and cellular physiology of aromatase in the brain and retina.due to exceptionally high brain aromatase activity, teleost fish are advantageous for studying neural aromatase regulation, localization, and physiology. to determine the molecular mechanism of enhanced expression, we have isolated, cloned and sequenced a 3 kb full-length aromatase cdna from a goldfish (carassius auratus) brain library using a human placental aromatase cdna as probe. the deduced sequence of goldfish aromatase is 510 amino acids (predicted mw, 58 kda) with 69% overall sequence si ...19938476767
somatostatin-, vasoactive intestinal peptide-, and granulin-like peptides isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish, carassius auratus.three new peptides were originally isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish. they were structurally related with somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip), and granulin (grn) and thus termed goldfish somatostatin (gss-28), gvip, and ggrn, respectively. the primary structures of these peptides were determined as: svessnhlpa 10rerkagcknf20ywkgftsc for the gss-28; hsdavftdny10sryrkqmaak20kylnsvla-nh2 for the gvip, and vihcdsstic10 pdgttcclsp20ygvwyccpfs30mgqccrdgih40ccrhgyhcds50tsthclr ...19958536941
demonstration of the second intermediate hosts of clinostomum complanatum in korea.a species of metacercariae recovered from the fresh-water fish, collected from kaumji (pond), kaechonji (pond) and ssanggyechon (river). uisong-gun, kyongsangbuk-do, korea, was identified as clinostomum complanatum by morphological observation and experimental infection to chicks. the excysted metacercariae, tongue-shaped and progenetic, were 3.28-4.27 mm in length and 0.94-1.46 mm in width. the adult flukes recovered from the chicks four days after infection were 4.20-4.86 mm long and 1.14-1.49 ...19958591008
immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence for aromatase in neurons of the retina, optic tectum and retinotectal pathways in goldfish.using an animal model in which neural aromatase is apparently overexpressed (the goldfish, carassius auratus) and an anti-human placental antibody which specifically crossreacts with goldfish brain aromatase, aromatase-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies and fibers have been localized within the retina. these include a subset of horizontal cells, bipolar cells, and amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer, some fibers of the outer and inner synaptic layers and certain cells of the ganglion cell ...19938680435
similar localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate in the pineal organ and retina of various nonmammalian vertebrates.the localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate was compared in the pineal organ and retina of various vertebrates (raja clavata, carassius auratus, salvelinus alpinus, triturus vulgaris, triturus cristatus, lacerta muralis, lacerta agilis, lacerta viridis, columbia livia and white leghorn chicken) by postembedding immunoelectron microscopy. immunoreaction of both excitatory amino acids was detected in the pinealocytes in a localization similar to that of retinal photoreceptors. the r ...19958714767
[serogroups, virulence and hemolytic activity of aeromon as hydrophila which caused fish bacterial septicaemia].a new infected disease called bacterial septicaemia occurred in cyprinid fish throughout china during 1989-1992. a. hydrophila was known as the most important pathogen of this harmful disease. thirty-three strains of a. hydrophila, most isolated from moribund fishes, were serogrouped by tube-agglutination with rabbit antisera. most of the isolates could be grouped into two serotypes, tps-30 and pbjs-76. these two groups could be found not only in zhejiang province but in other province in south ...19958745552
involvement of extracellular sodium in agonist-induced gonadotropin release from goldfish (carassius auratus) gonadotrophs.in goldfish, gonadotropin (gth-ii) responses to the two endogenous gnrhs, salmon-gnrh and chicken-gnrh-ii, are mediated by activation of protein kinase c (pkc) and voltage-sensitive ca2+ channels. in this study, we investigated the role of extracellular na+, voltage-dependent na+ channels, and the plasma membrane na+/h+ exchanger in mediating gnrh-stimulated gth-ii release from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. perifusion with na+-depleted medium reduced the gth-ii response to both gnrhs and t ...19968770907
characterization of the rfamide-like neuropeptides in the nervus terminalis of the goldfish (carassius auratus).fmrfamide-immunoreactivity has been demonstrated in the cns of many vertebrate species. we sought to further characterize this immunoreactivity in nervus terminalis retinal efferents of the goldfish using an antiserum raised against a bovine morphine modulating peptide (a18famide). this antiserum robustly labels nervus terminalis efferents to the retina, as well as a sub-population of retinal amacrine cells. under immunocytochemical conditions the antiserum cross-reacted with neuropeptide y-like ...19968795069
classification and host specificity of metagonimus spp. from korean freshwater fish.taxonomic problems of metagonimus spp. in korea were investigated. metacercariae of various freshwater fish species -- plecoglossus altivelis, carassius auratus, zacco platypus, zacco temmincki, opsariichthys bidens -- were collected from different localities in korea and experimentally fed to golden hamsters. observation of recovered adult worms showed that plecoglossus altivelis was infected with metacercariae of both m. yokogawai and m. takahashii. c. auratus was infected with metacercariae o ...19968820736
epidermal growth factor receptor binding and biological activity in the ovary of goldfish, carassius auratus.the receptor binding and biological activity of epidermal growth factor-urogastrone (egf) was characterized in the follicle-enclosed goldfish oocyte. the binding of 125i-labeled mouse egf (megf) to goldfish ovarian membrane preparation was peptide specific, saturable, reversible, and dependent on time and tissue concentration. binding data analysis indicated the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an estimated equilibrium dissociation constant of 4.4 +/- 1.8 x 10(-10) ...19968928907
growth hormone-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the brain, pituitary, and pineal of the goldfish, carassius auratus.using antisera directed against carp growth hormone-releasing hormone (cghrh), the distribution of immunoreactive (ir) structures in the brain, pituitary, and pineal of the goldfish, carassius auratus, was investigated. the antisera were produced in rabbits by administration of cghrh(1-44)-nh(2) followed by cghrh(1-45)-oh for different periods of time, both coupled to human alpha-globulins via bisdiazotized benzidine as immunogen. immunoreactive perikarya were visualized in the nucleus preopticu ...19968998965
molecular evolution of vertebrate vip receptors and functional characterization of a vip receptor from goldfish carassius auratus.vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip) is a neuropeptide that has numerous physiological actions and is widely distributed in the body. however, as yet, there is no sequence information about vip receptors in lower vertebrates. partial cdna fragments spanning transmembrane domains 2 to 6 of vip receptors were isolated from six nonmammalian vertebrate species, including chicken, pigeon, frog, lizard, salmon, and goldfish. sequence comparison of these receptors revealed essential structural motif ...19979038250
the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbic acid content in the liver of goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio bloch.) exposed to cadmium.the goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio bloch.) were exposed to cadmium in the concentration of 20 mg cd/l water under aquarium conditions for 1, 4, 7 and 15 days. after exposure to cadmium, the activities of superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase (cat) were significantly decreased. at the same time, the liver ascorbic acid (asa) content was increased.19969085381
development of a cell line from skin of goldfish, carassius auratus, and effects of ascorbic acid on collagen deposition.growth characteristics and collagen expression were investigated in gfsk-s1, a cell line derived from the skin of an adult goldfish (carassius auratus). these cells are anchorage dependent, grow well in leibovitz-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, and have been subcultured routinely for 5 years. cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. gfsk-s1 cells show mainly a fibroblastic morphology at low density, but at confluence islands of epithelial-shaped cells app ...19979088943
recombinant gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) insulin-like growth factor-i: subcloning, expression in escherichia coli, purification and characterization.gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) insulin-like growth factor-i (gsigf-i) cdna coding for the mature protein was cloned in a pgem-3z vector, and then transferred into prokaryotic expression vector pet-11a and expressed in escherichia coli bl21(de3) cells upon induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside. the expressed protein contained within the inclusion-body pellet was solubilized in 4.5 m urea, refolded for 24 h at ph 11.3 in the presence of catalytic amounts of cysteine and purified to over 98% ...19979135579
immunolocalization of aromatase- and androgen receptor-positive neurons in the goldfish brain.full expression of testosterone (t) actions in the brain requires both direct binding to androgen receptors (ar) and in situ aromatization to estradiol (e2). to determine the cellular basis of constitutively high aromatase and ar binding activities in teleost fish brain, and the neuroanatomic location and spatial relations of cells of each type, an immunocytochemical mapping study of goldfish (carassius auratus) brain was carried out using antibodies to human placental aromatase and human/rat ar ...19979169111
variation in the egg cell forming region of gyrodactylus kobayashii hukuda, 1940 (monogenea:gyrodactylidae).the egg cell forming region of gyrodactylus kobayashii from goldfish (carassius auratus) is a thin nucleated cytoplasmic layer surrounding the developing egg cell (= oocyte). the cytoplasm contains numerous elougate membranes. as parasites age, the egg cell forming region becomes electron lucent. the apical membrane of the egg cell forming region becomes disrupted in places. a basal matrix is indistinct in new-born and young worms, becoming more evident as worms grow older. numerous pits (= basa ...19979193944
isolation and characterization of goldfish y box protein, a germ-cell-specific rna-binding protein.cyclin b is a regulatory subunit of maturation-promoting factor. in goldfish (carassius auratus) oocytes, cyclin b is synthesized de novo after stimulation by 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (maturation-inducing hormone). in this study, we examined goldfish oocyte proteins bound to cyclin b mrna. using oligo(dt)-cellulose affinity chromatography and northwestern blotting analysis, we identified a 54-kda cyclin b mrna-binding protein (p54). southwestern blotting analysis showed the bindi ...19979395336
susceptibility of several species of cyprinidae and salmonidae freshwater fish to larval gnathostoma nipponicum infection.susceptibility of five species of cyprinidae and salmonidae freshwater fish to the early third-stage larvae (eal3) and advanced third-stage larvae (adl3) of gnathostoma nipponicum infection were examined. two fish species inoculated orally with eal3 were infected, and adl3 were recovered from them with rate of 21.0% in tribolodon hakonensis and 0.5% in cyprinus carpio at 30 days postinoculation (pi). attempts to infect five fish species with adl3 were all successful. the recovery rate of adl3 wa ...19979409521
neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotrophin ii release and gonadal growth in the goldfish, carassius auratus.the goldfish, a member of the carp family, is a widely used model for reproductive neuroendocrine studies of economically important fish. the two gonadotrophin (gth) molecules released from the fish anterior pituitary, gth-i and gth-ii, are structurally similar to tetrapod fsh and lh, respectively. gonadotrophin ii is the best studied, and in goldfish stimulates gonadal growth and steroidogenesis, ovulation and sperm release. growth hormone also has gonadotrophic actions in fish which enhance go ...19979414466
isolation and characterization of a novel bioactive peptide, carassius rfamide (c-rfa), from the brain of the japanese crucian carp.a novel bioactive peptide with the c-terminal rfamide was isolated from the brain of the japanese crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii, by using the intestine of the fish as the bioassay system. the primary structure of the peptide was determined to be speidpfwyvgrgvrpigrfamide and it was designated carassius rfamide (c-rfa). the sequence of c-rfa was found to be significantly homologous to the molluscan neuropeptide termed achatina cardioexcitatory peptide 1 (acep-1). both peptides have ...19989446813
isolation and characterisation of mrna encoding the salmon- and chicken-ii type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish rutilus rutilus (cyprinidae).the complementary dnas (cdna) encoding the [trp7,leu8]-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (salmon-type gnrh; sgnrh:genebank accession no. u60667) and the [his5,trp7,tyr8]-gnrh (chicken-ii-type gnrh; cgnrh-ii: genebank accession no. u60668) precursor in the roach (rutilus rutilus) were isolated and sequenced following reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the sgnrh and cgnrh-ii precursor cdnas consisted of 439 and 628 bp, and included open reading frames of 282 and 255 b ...19979460654
fever in goldfish is induced by pyrogens but not by handling.six goldfish, carassius auratus, weighing 2.5 to 4 g were placed individually in an aquarium with two communicating chambers. one chamber was thermostatted at 34 degrees c, the other at 37 degrees c. in control session a, without external intervention, fish selected the cooler chamber most of the time and stayed only 4.8 +/- 1.1 min/2 h at 37 degrees c. in session b, infectious fever was assayed: pyrogen (salmonella typhosa lps, or human interleukin-2) was injected intracranially and fish stayed ...19989469730
human and recombinant erythropoietin stimulate erythropoiesis in the goldfish carassius auratus.erythropoietin (epo) stimulates differentiation of erythrocytes and biosynthesis of haemoglobin in mammals. it has not been confirmed that epo is effective in other vertebrates, so we attempted to verify the effectiveness of human-urinary and recombinant epo on erythropoiesis of the goldfish carassius auratus. the results indicate that both types of epo produce an increase in haemoglobin, erythrocytes and erythroblasts number in peripheral blood of the goldfish; moreover, they stimulate erythrop ...19979491316
vexillifera expectata sp. n. and other non-encysting amoebae isolated from organs of freshwater fish.four strains of non-encysting amoebae were isolated from organs of freshwater fishes and characterized using light and electron microscope. morphology of three clonal strains was consistent with amoebae which had already been described from water habitats. two strains, one isolated from kidney tissue of common goldfish, carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1758), and the second one from brain of chub, leuciscus cephalus linnaeus, 1758, were identified with vannella platypodia (gläser, 1912) page, 1976. ...19989516992
a comparative study of hearing ability in fishes: the auditory brainstem response approach.auditory brainstem response (abr) techniques, an electrophysiological far-field recording method widely used in clinical evaluation of human hearing, were adapted for fishes to overcome the major limitations of traditional behavioral and electrophysiological methods (e.g., invasive surgery, lengthy training of fishes, etc.) used for fish hearing research. responses to clicks and tone bursts of different frequencies and amplitudes were recorded with cutaneous electrodes. to evaluate the effective ...19989528109
goldfish, carassius auratus, a novel animal model for the study of mycobacterium marinum pathogenesis.we have developed an animal model for studying mycobacterial pathogenesis using mycobacterium marinum and the goldfish, carassius auratus. goldfish are injected intraperitoneally with doses between 10(2) and 10(9) cfu of m. marinum organisms. depending on the dose of m. marinum organisms administered, an acute or chronic disease is produced. the acute disease is characterized by systemic mycobacterial infection, severe peritonitis, tissue necrosis, and a short median survival time. the chronic d ...19989596770
perception of two-tone complexes by the goldfish (carassius auratus).previous experiments on the sense of hearing in goldfish have used a stimulus generalization paradigm to investigate the perceptual dimensions evoked by spectrally and temporally complex sounds. the present experiments investigated the effects on perception of the frequency separation between two tones. in the first set of experiments, six groups of goldfish were classically conditioned to a single tone and then tested for generalization to two-tone complexes having one frequency component equal ...19989667427
auditory stream segregation in goldfish (carassius auratus).goldfish were classically conditioned to a mixture of two pulse trains differing in both repetition rate and the spectral profile of the pulses. animals were then tested for generalization to single pulse trains having one or the other spectral profile presented at a variety of repetition rates. generalization functions of repetition rate were qualitatively similar to those obtained following conditioning to either of the pulse trains alone. thus, the spectral profile of each pulse type was appr ...19989667432
occurrence and significance of atypical aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.bacterial strains of aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical a. salmonicida. the atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. consequently, the present taxonomy of the species a. salmonicida is rather am ...19989696626
the fate of organic xenobiotics in aquatic ecosystems: quantitative and qualitative differences in biotransformation by invertebrates and fish.biotransformation of natural and man-made foreign compounds (xenobiotics) proceeds via introduction of a functional group (phase i metabolism) and subsequent attachment of a polar moiety to the group (phase ii metabolism). the biotransformation fate of xenobiotics depends on the activities, complement and inducibility of the biotransformation enzymes. previous analysis of the dependence of in vivo rates of biotransformation on tissue parent compound concentration for marine invertebrates reveale ...19989773498
ectoparasitic species of the genus trichodina (ciliophora: peritrichida) parasitising british freshwater fish.seven species of the genus trichodina ehrenberg, 1838 were identified during a sampling programme of twenty freshwater fish species from approximately sixty sites in scotland, england and wales. species found include: trichodina acuta lom, 1961 from cyprinus carpio l., carassius auratus l., oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), salmo trutta l. and phoxinus phoxinus l.; trichodina domerguei wallengren, 1897 from gasterosteus aculeatus l.; trichodina tenuidens faure-fremiet, 1944 from gasterosteus aculea ...19989805782
structural and expression analyses of gonadotropin ibeta subunit genes in goldfish (carassius auratus).gonadotropin (gth) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormone that regulates gonadal development in vertebrates. in teleosts, it is considered that two types of gth, gth i (follicle-stimulating hormone-like gth) and gth ii (luteinizing hormone-like gth), are produced in the pituitary, and their molecules are comprised of common alpha and distinct beta subunits. in this study, we describe the complete structure and 5'-flanking regulatory region of two distinct genes encoding gth ibeta in goldfish, caras ...19989831661
olfactory receptors in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates.in species representing different levels of vertebrate evolution, olfactory receptor genes have been identified by molecular cloning techniques. comparing the deduced amino-acid sequences revealed that the olfactory receptor gene family of rana esculenta resembles that of xenopus laevis, indicating that amphibians in general may comprise two classes of olfactory receptors. whereas teleost fish, including the goldfish carassius auratus, possess only class i receptors, the 'living fossil' latimeri ...19989839455
identification of three putative gnrh receptor subtypes in vertebrates.the majority of vertebrates have two or three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh), which appear to have arisen by successive gene duplication events. this suggests the possibility of concordant gene duplications of the gnrh receptor to produce two or more cognate receptors. since the extracellular loop 3 (ec3) domain of mammalian gnrh receptors plays a role in distinguishing the different forms of gnrh, we have contemplated that the sequence of this domain will differ significantly in ...19989843635
mrna expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (gnrhs) and gnrh receptor in goldfish.in goldfish (carassius auratus), two distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh), namely, salmon gnrh (sgnrh) and chicken gnrh-ii (cgnrh-ii), have been identified in the brain using chromatographic, immunological, and molecular cloning approaches. these two native gnrhs act on specific receptors in the anterior pituitary to stimulate the synthesis and release of gonadotropins and growth hormone in goldfish. to evaluate the potential roles of sgnrh and cgnrh-ii in both neural and repr ...19989843636
concurrent invaders--four exotic species of monogenea now established on exotic freshwater fishes in australia.four species of exotic monogeneans are reported from five species of exotic freshwater fish in australia: gytrodactylus bullatarudis from poecilia reticulata and xiphophorus helleri in queensland; gyrodactylus macracanthus from misgurnus anguillicaudatus in the australian capital territory; dactylogyrus extensus from cyprinus carpio in the australian capital territory; and dactylogyrus anchoratus from carassius auratus in the australian capital territory. this is the first published record of de ...19989846613
two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (carassius auratus).in the goldfish (carassius auratus) the two endogenous forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh), namely chicken gnrh ii ([his5, trp7,tyr8]gnrh) and salmon gnrh ([trp7,leu8]gnrh), stimulate the release of both gonadotropins and growth hormone from the pituitary. this control is thought to occur by means of the stimulation of distinct gnrh receptors. these receptors can be distinguished on the basis of differential gonadotropin and growth hormone releasing activities of naturally occurring g ...199910051676
molecular cloning of an estrogen receptor beta subtype from the goldfish, carassius auratus.the brain of many teleost fish species, including the goldfish carassius auratus, expresses exceptionally high levels of cytochrome p450 aromatase (estrogen synthetase). to begin investigating the molecular and cellular targets of estrogen action in goldfish brain, a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) cloning strategy was used to isolate an estrogen receptor (er) complementary dna (cdna). the 2283-bp cdna isolated from goldfish liver encoded a protein of 568 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molec ...199910068500
seasonal changes in mrna levels of gonadotropin and thyrotropin subunits in the goldfish, carassius auratus.seasonal changes in the mrna levels of glycoprotein alpha, gonadotropin (gth) ibeta and iibeta, and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh)) beta subunits in the pituitary of goldfish were quantified by northern blot analysis and laser densitometry. reproductive development and thyroid activity were monitored by measuring gonadosomatic index, plasma gth ii, testosterone (t), estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and thyroid hormones (t4 and t3). plasma gth ii and steroids showed characteristic ...199910068504
whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss.scanning electron microscopic studies were conducted on rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss in the first 60 min after their exposure to the triactinomyxon spores of myxobolus cerebralis. the results demonstrated that as early as 1 min post exposure the whole process, from the attachment of the triactinomyxon spores to the complete penetration of their sporoplasm germs, had occurred. the triactinomyxon spores sought out the secretory openings of mucous cells of the epidermis, the respiratory epithe ...199910073310
cloning of a fragment of the osteonectin gene from goldfish, carassius auratus: its expression and potential regulation by estrogen.during reproduction, female teleost fish display increased plasma estrogen and greatly increased total plasma calcium concentrations; the main source of this calcium seems to be the scale. osteonectin, a collagen-binding glycoprotein, is a major noncollagenous constituent of mammalian bone and is a product mainly of the osteoblasts. rt-pct has been applied to clone and sequence part of the osteonectin gene from the goldfish, carassius auratus. the use of a goldfish scale cell line (gfs) and a sp ...199910094861
pathogenicity of mycobacterium fortuitum and mycobacterium smegmatis to goldfish, carassius auratus.despite the ubiquitous presence of atypical mycobacteria in the environment and the potential risk of infection in humans and animals, the pathogenesis of diseases caused by infection with atypical mycobacteria has been poorly characterized. in this study, goldfish, carassius auratus were infected either with the rapidly growing fish pathogen, mycobacterium fortuitum or with another rapidly growing mycobacteria, mycobacterium smegmatis. bacterial persistence and pathological host response to myc ...199910227476
fish macrophages express a cyclo-oxygenase-2 homologue after activation.in mammals, the increased generation of prostaglandins (pg) during the onset of inflammatory responses and activation of immune cell types has been attributed to the induction of a novel cyclo-oxygenase (cox) isoform, termed cox-2, which is distinct from the well-characterized constitutive activity (cox-1). goldfish (carassius auratus) macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and leucocyte-derived macrophage-activating factor(s) showed a significant increase in the generation of the m ...199910229670
identification of serum gh-binding proteins in the goldfish (carassius auratus) and comparison with mammalian gh-binding proteins.the present study constitutes the characterization of a specific, high-affinity gh-binding protein (ghbp) in the serum of a teleost, the goldfish (carassius auratus). gh-binding assay and ligand blotting techniques were employed to identify ghbps in goldfish serum and hepatocyte culture medium. the binding characteristics and apparent molecular weights (mr) of goldfish ghbps were also compared with those of rabbit and rat. ligand analysis identified a single class of high-affinity and low-capaci ...199910320823
superoxide production in phagocytes obtained from mycobacterium marinum-stimulated goldfish (carassius auratus) that were exposed to copper.to investigate the effects of copper exposure and recovery from copper toxicosis on the nonspecific immune response in mycobacterium marinum-inoculated goldfish.199910376889
in vitro analysis of venom from the wasp nasonia vitripennis: susceptibility of different cell lines and venom-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability.the lethal effects of crude venom prepared from the ectoparasitic wasp nasonia vitripennis were examined with cultured cells from six insect and two vertebrate species. venom caused cells from sarcophaga peregrina (nih sape4), drosophila melanogaster (crl 1963), trichoplusia ni (tn-368 and bti-tn-5b1-4), spodoptera frugiperda (sf-21ae), and lymantria dispar (ipl-ldfbc1) to round up, swell, and eventually die. despite similar sensitivities and overlapping lc50 values [0.0004-0.0015 venom reservoi ...199910475265
the molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals.to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of red-green color vision in mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the red and green opsin cdnas of cat (felis catus), horse (equus caballus), gray squirrel (sciurus carolinensis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and guinea pig (cavia porcellus). these opsins were expressed in cos1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. the purified visual pigments of the cat, horse, squirrel, deer, and guinea pig have lambdamax values at 553, 545, 532, 531 ...199910511567
recombinant goldfish activin b stimulates gonadotropin-ibeta but inhibits gonadotropin-iibeta expression in the goldfish, carassius auratus.it is well documented that the pituitary in teleosts produces two gonadotropins, namely gonadotropin-i (gth-i) and gonadotropin-ii (gth-ii), which may regulate different phases of the reproductive cycle. however, unlike in mammals, very little is known about the differential regulation of the two gths in fish. using goldfish as a model, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, that activin, a protein factor that plays a critical role in the differential regulation of mammalian fsh and ...199910525364
stimulation of feeding behavior and food consumption in the goldfish, carassius auratus, by orexin-a and orexin-b.the neuropeptides, orexin-a and orexin-b, have been demonstrated to have a physiological role in the regulation of food intake in mammals. the effects of human orexin-a and orexin-b intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection on the feeding behavior of goldfish (carassius auratus) were investigated. i.c.v. injection of orexin-a and orexin-b both caused a significant increase in appetite, as indicated by an increased number of feeding acts. orexin-a and orexin-b both significantly stimulated food ...199910556637
molecular cloning of cdna encoding a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein (e2-c) from carassius auratus (goldfish) and expression analysis of the cloned gene.destruction of cyclin b is required for exit from mitosis and meiosis. a cyclin-specific ubiquitinating system, including cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein (e2-c), is thought to be responsible for cyclin b destruction. here we present the cloning, sequencing and expression analysis of goldfish, carassius auratus, e2-c which encodes the cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein from goldfish ovary. the cloned cdna is 677 bp long and encodes 172 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequen ...199910570943
actions of two forms of gonadotropin releasing hormone and a gnrh antagonist on spawning behavior of the goldfish carassius auratus.the central effects of two native forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh), salmon gnrh (sgnrh) and chicken gnrh-ii (cgnrh-ii), and a gnrh antagonist, ¿ac-delta 3-pro(1), 4fd-phe(2), d-trp(3, 6)mgnrh (analog e), on the spawning behavior of sexually recrudescent female goldfish were investigated. the effects of analog e were also observed in mature males. female spawning behavior was induced by intramuscular injection of females with prostaglandin f(2alpha) and placing them in the presence ...199910603273
genetic diversity in crucian carp (carassius auratus).a survey of restriction fragment polymorphism in mitochondrial dna of three subspecies of carassius auratus throughout four provinces in china was undertaken using 17 restriction enzymes. two carp, cyprinus carpio rubbrofuscus and cyprinus carpio carpio, were included as the outgroup. a total of 16 haplotypes was observed: 5 in tetraploids of c. auratus auratus; 8 in hexaploids of c. auratus auratus; and 2 in c. auratus gibelio and c. auratus cuvieri, respectively. the tetraploids and hexaploids ...199910626035
expression of human blood group antigens a and b in stomach cells of c. carpio, c. auratus, r. ridibunda and h. sapiens.human blood group abh antigens are found not only on red blood cell membranes, but in many other cell types as well. their biological functions still remain unclear. the aim of the present study was to examine the cellular expression of these antigens in the stomach of representatives of different vertebrates--pisces and amphibia and to compare it with their expression found in man. the immunohistochemical technique applied was based on the biotinstreptavidin-peroxidase complex. monoclonal antib ...199910658361
the ageing of the low-frequency water disturbances caused by swimming goldfish and its possible relevance to prey detection.wakes caused by swimming goldfish (carassius auratus) were measured with a particle image velocimetry system and analyzed using a cross-correlation technique. particle velocities in a horizontal plane (size of measuring plane 24 cmx32 cm or 20 cmx27 cm) were determined, and the vorticity in the plane was derived from these data. the wake behind a swimming goldfish can show a clear vortex structure for at least 30 s. particle velocities significantly higher than background noise could still be de ...200010708639
surface ultrastructure of metagonimus takahashii metacercariae and adults.a scanning electron microscopic study was performed on the surface ultrastructure of metacercariae and adults of metagonimus takahashii. metacercariae were collected from the scale of crucian carp (carassius auratus), and adult flukes were harvested 1-4 weeks after infection to rats. in excysted metacercariae, the oral sucker had type i (numerous) and type ii (seven in total) sensory papillae. tegumental spines were dense and digitated into 5-7 points on the surface anterior to the ventral sucke ...200010743353
x-ray microanalysis of myotomal muscle in the sunbleak, leucaspius delineatus (heckel) and goldfish, carassius auratus gibelio.the functioning of a group of muscle fibres as a tissue that performs a well characterized type of contraction (slow or fast) depends on their biochemical and structural organization that is already well established. the biochemical and structural diversities between three types of fish muscle fibres found also a reflection in the content of light elements. the present work demonstrates significant differences in the content of diffusible elements (cl, k, na, and mg) and bound elements (p and s) ...199910754791
identification of the goldfish 20s proteasome beta6 subunit bound to nuclear matrix.proteasomes are large, multisubunit particles that act as the proteolytic machinery for most of the regulated intracellular protein breakdown in eukaryotic cells. proteasomes are present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. when we analyzed the molecular composition of protein constituents of the nuclear matrix preparation of goldfish oocytes by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by sequence analysis, we found a 26 kda spot identical in amino acid sequence to the beta6 sub ...200010781806
specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity against a virus-infected syngeneic cell line in isogeneic ginbuna crucian carp.in the present study, we attempted to determine whether virus-specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity occurs in fish. experiments were conducted with clonal ginbuna crucian carp (carassius auratus langsdorfii) (s3n strain), and the syngeneic cell line (cfs). two infectious viruses were used: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) and eel virus from america (eva). peripheral blood leukocytes, which consisted almost entirely (95%) of lymphocytes and thrombocytes, from s3n ginbuna immunized with v ...200010831797
the distribution of the introduced tapeworm bothriocephalus acheilognathi in australian freshwater fishes.native and exotic fishes were collected from 29 sites across coastal and inland new south wales, queensland and victoria, using a range of techniques, to infer the distribution of bothriocephalus acheilognathi (cestoda: pseudophyllidea) and the host species in which it occurs. the distribution of b. acheilognathi was determined by that of its principal host, carp, cyprinus carpio; it did not occur at sites where carp were not present. the parasite was recorded from all native fish species where ...200010881282
evolutionary and physiological variation in cardiac troponin c in relation to thermal strategies of fish.striated muscle contraction is initiated when troponin c (tnc) binds ca(2+), which activates actinomyosin atpase. we investigated (i) the variation between cardiac tnc (ctnc) primary structure within teleost fish and (ii) the pattern of tnc expression in response to temperature acclimation. there were few differences between rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), yellowfin tuna (thunnus albacares), yellow perch (perca flavescens), goldfish (carassius auratus), white sucker (catostomus commersoni), ...200011121357
identification and molecular cloning of germinal vesicle lamin b3 in goldfish (carassius auratus) oocytes.a bulk isolation method was developed to collect a large number of germinal vesicles (gv) from postvitellogenic oocytes of goldfish (carassius auratus). using this method, we obtained gv lamina which are resistant to high salt and nonionic detergent. 2d page revealed that the goldfish gv lamina contained several spots with similar molecular masses (67 kda) and slightly different neutral isoelectrofocusing values (pi 5.8-6.2). after trypsin digestion and extraction of a major spot (pi 6.1), the p ...200111179959
activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and plasma transaminases of goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio bloch.) exposed to cadmium.four groups of goldfish were exposed to cadmium in a concentration of 20 mg cd/l water under aquarium conditions. the duration of exposure was 1, 4, 7 and 15 days. it was shown that the activity of superoxide dismutase (sod) in the red blood cells (rbc) significantly decreased after the first day of cadmium exposure. however, the sod activity increased after 7 and 15 days of cadmium treatment. elevated activity of catalase (cat) was found in erythrocytes of cadmium-treated fishes after 15 days, ...200111300221
comparison between lead accumulation of pomphorhynchus laevis (palaeacanthocephala) in the intestine of chub (leuciscus cephalus) and in the body cavity of goldfish (carassius auratus auratus).this experimental study assessed the role of the microhabitat in the uptake of metals by adult acanthocephalans. we examined the accumulation of lead by adult pomphorhynchus laevis in the intestine of chub (leuciscus cephalus) and compared it with that in goldfish, carassius auratus auratus, in which the parasites penetrate the intestinal wall and enter the body cavity. chub and goldfish experimentally infected with adult pomphorhynchus laevis were exposed to 0.01 mg l(-1) pb(2+) over 3 weeks. l ...200111336747
appetite-suppressing effects of urotensin i and corticotropin-releasing hormone in goldfish (carassius auratus).fish urotensin i (ui), a member of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) family of peptides, is a potent inhibitor of food intake in mammals, yet the role of ui in the control of food intake in fish is not known. therefore, to determine the acute effects of ui on appetite relative to those of crh, goldfish were given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of carp/goldfish ui and rat/human crh (0.2-200 ng/g) and food intake was assessed for a 2-hour period after the injection. ui and crh ...200111340339
formation of viable but non-culturable state (vbnc) of aeromonas hydrophila and its virulence in goldfish, carassius auratus.in this study we investigated the viable but non-culturable (vbnc) state of aeromonas hydrophila and its virulence in goldfish. aeromonas hydrophila cultured in a 0.35% nacl solution at ph 7.5 and at 25 degrees c for 50 days showed the vbnc state. in the vbnc state we were unable to detect viable bacteria by the plate count method but we did find 10(4) cells/ml by the direct viable count microscopical method after staining with fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide. the virulence comparison ...200111372646
effects of salmon gnrh and chicken gnrh-ii on testicular apoptosis in goldfish (carassius auratus).apoptosis is a form of cell death, characterized by morphological and biochemical changes. apoptosis occurs in the normal testis and in response to different agents. in this study, we investigated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) in testicular apoptosis in the goldfish. gnrh is a decapeptide that is expressed in different tissues, including gonads in mammalian and non-mammalian species. while gnrh is considered to be a paracrine mediator of ovarian follicular atresia, the role ...200111399483
molecular cloning of a teleost growth hormone receptor and its functional interaction with human growth hormone.this paper reports the first full-length cdna sequence of a growth hormone receptor (ghr) from a teleost fish and its functional expression in cultured eukaryotic cells. the cdna sequence, from carassius auratus (goldfish), encodes a protein of 602 amino acids (aa) akin in architecture to the ghrs of other species. despite the presence of motifs characteristic of ghr, the overall homology between the goldfish ghr and other ghrs is very low ( approximately 40% aa identity). cho cells transfected ...200111404009
different catalytic properties and inhibitor responses of the goldfish brain and ovary aromatase isozymes.the brain and ovarian aromatase isozymes of goldfish (carassius auratus) are encoded by different cyp19 genes. this study measured aromatase activity in the goldfish brain tissues. for a direct comparison of the properties of the two aromatase isozymes, chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with brain- and ovary-derived cdnas (respectively, p450 arom b and -a) and the properties of the expressed isozymes were compared. the kinetic parameters of the two isozymes were determined usin ...200111482939
interactions between orexin a, npy and galanin in the control of food intake of the goldfish, carassius auratus.the neuropeptides orexin a (oxa), neuropeptide y (npy) and galanin (gal) have been shown to play a role in the regulation of food intake in mammals. they also significantly stimulate feeding in goldfish. in order to assess the interactions between these peptides in the control of feeding in goldfish, we investigated the effects of central injection of specific receptor antagonists for npy (bibp 3226) and gal (m40) on oxa-induced feeding and the effects of desensitization of orexin receptors on n ...200111495680
closed water recirculating system for fish rearing equipped with bioreactor capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.five crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfiicarps had been reared in a closed water recirculating system. the system was equipped with the compact bioreactor using the plate gels capable of both nitrification and denitrification in a single unit. ammonia and nitrite concentrations in the rearing water had been maintained below 0.05 mg-n/l, and nitrate concentration also controlled between 2 and 8 mg-n/l with the bioreactor. as concerns nitrogen budget in the closed system, 95.0% of nitrogen ...199911542800
spectral contrasts underlying auditory stream segregation in goldfish (carassius auratus).this study investigates the effects of spectral separation of sounds on the ability of goldfish to acquire independent information about two simultaneous complex sources. goldfish were conditioned to a complex sound made up of two sets of repeated acoustic pulses: a high-frequency pulse with a spectral envelope centered at 625 hz, and a low-frequency pulse type centered at 240, 305, 390, or 500 hz. the pulses were presented with each pulse type alternating with an overall pulse repetition rate o ...200011545140
screening of antifeedant activity in brain extracts led to the identification of sulfakinin as a satiety promoter in the german cockroach. are arthropod sulfakinins homologous to vertebrate gastrins-cholecystokinins?the feeding cycle of the adult female cockroach blattella germanica parallels vitellogenesis. the study of the mechanisms that regulate this cycle led us to look for food-intake inhibitors in brain extracts. the antifeedant activity of brain extracts was tested in vivo by injecting the extract and measuring the carotenoids contained in the gut from carrot ingested after the treatment. by hplc fractionation and tracking the biological activity with the carrot test, we isolated the sulfakinin eqfd ...200111722569
promoter characteristics of two cyp19 genes differentially expressed in the brain and ovary of teleost fish.teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of neural estrogen biosynthesis when compared with the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. two p450arom mrnas which derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (b>>a) and ovary (a>>b) and have a different developmental program (b>>a) and estrogen upregulation (b only). a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based genomic walking strategy was used to isolate the 5'-flank ...200111738553
milt production in goldfish: regulation by multiple social stimuli.previous studies in goldfish (carassius auratus) demonstrate that milt (sperm and seminal fluid) volume is increased both by a preovulatory steroidal pheromone, 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-p), that acts by increasing serum concentrations of gonadotropin ii (gth-ii), and by a post-ovulatory prostaglandin (pg) pheromone, that acts by stimulating sexual interactions. here, we show that male goldfish also increase milt volume when isolated for 24 h, or when placed with ano ...200111738634
production of a polyclonal antibody against recombinant goldfish prolactin and demonstration of its usefulness in a non-competitive antigen-capture elisa.the cdna encoding the goldfish (carassius auratus) prolactin was expressed in escherichia coli using the prseta expression vector. the recombinant goldfish prolactin (gfprl) produced was a fusion protein containing a hexahistidyl sequence, which facilitated its purification on a ni(2+) column. the fusion protein was overexpressed in the bacteria as inclusion bodies and was successfully purified under denaturing conditions by one-step affinity chromatography. repeated immunization of rabbits agai ...200211742756
caryophyllidean tapeworms (platyhelminthes: eucestoda) from freshwater fishes in japan.the following caryophyllidean tapeworms were found in freshwater fishes from japan (species reported from japan for the first time marked with an asterisk): family caryophyllaeidae: paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (motomura, 1927) from misgurnus anguillicaudatus (cantor); archigetes sieboldi leuckart, 1878 from pseudorasbora parva (temminck et schlegel) and sarcocheilichthys variegatus microoculus mori (new hosts); family lytocestidae: *caryophyllaeides ergensi scholz, 1990 from tribolodon hakuensis (g ...200111817451
differences between the european carp (cyprinus carpio carpio) and the coloured carp (cyprinus carpio haematopterus) in susceptibility to thelohanellus nikolskii (myxosporea) infection.thelohanellus nikolskii infection of the common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) has been a common parasitosis in the central european fish farms since the first detection of the parasite about 20 years ago. this parasite, introduced from the far east, causes intensive infection on the fins of fingerlings of the carp subspecies cultured in europe (european carp, cyprinus carpio carpio). this infection of the common carp occurs in the hungarian fish farms every year. until the present study, this parasi ...200212061236
flow cytometry measurement of the dna contents of g0/g1 diploid cells from three different teleost fish species.although there is a lot information in the literature about genome size in fish, a high variability among data for the same species is reported, being mainly related to methodological aspects. flow cytometry-based fluorescence measurements of intercalating dyes is the most attractive approach due to its precision, objectivity, high speed, and relative simplicity.200212116377
the possible mechanisms of stimulation of cyanobacterium growth by the passage through the carassius auratus intestine: an experimental study. 200212134490
olfactory sensitivity to changes in environmental [ca(2+)] in the freshwater teleost carassius auratus: an olfactory role for the ca(2+)-sensing receptor?olfactory sensitivity to changes in environmental ca(2+) has been demonstrated in two teleost species; a salmonid (oncorhynchus nerka) and a marine/estuarine perciform (sparus aurata). to assess whether this phenomenon is restricted to species that normally experience large fluctuations in external ion concentrations (e.g. moving from sea water to fresh water) or is present in a much wider range of species, we investigated olfactory ca(2+) sensitivity in the goldfish (carassius auratus), which i ...200212177141
first record of neoergasilus japonicus (poecilostomatoida: ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the laurentian great lakes.the parasitic copepod neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, perca flavescens) in july 1994 in saginaw bay, lake huron, michigan. further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, lepomis macrochirus; carp, cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, ...200212197110
morphological studies on the mechanisms of pigmentary organelle transport in fish xanthophores and melanophores.pigmentary organelle translocations within fish chromatophores undergo physiological color changes when exposed to external signals. chromatophores can be isolated in high yields, and their pigmentary organelles can be tracked readily by microscopy. the combined efforts of morphology and biomolecular chemistry have led to the identification of and determination of the interrelationships between cytoskeletal elements and accessory proteins, motor molecules, cytomatrix, and pigmentary organelles o ...200212242704
relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the french national nature reserve of camargue.the reserve of biosphere of camargue [french national nature reserve of camargue (nnrc)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. to evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (ocs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. in addition, ...200212379424
cloning and sequencing of wee1 from the ovary of the gynogenetic japanese silver crucian carp (ginbuna) [carassius auratus langsdorfi].wee1 is one of the genes which regulates the cell cycle. cdna encoding a wee1-homolog has been isolated from japanese silver crucian carp (ginbuna) by using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques. the cdna obtained from the ovary tissue encoded a protein of 526 amino acids and the deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology (69.9%) with xenopus laevis wee1 in the protein kinase domain. a phylogenetic analysis among wee1 amino acid sequences from various organisms showed that the crucian ...200212391727
natural antibodies and their significance in active immunization and protection against a defined pathogen in fish.natural antibody activity against aeromonas salmonicida extracellular a-layer protein (a-protein) showed large individual variations in a farmed group of 101 goldfish (carassius auratus l.). statistical analyses of these variations led us to divide this group into homogeneous high and low naturally active (hna and lna) subgroups. the hna fish were largely protected against experimental infection with a virulent atypical a. salmonicida strain, while 100% morbidity was recorded in the lna group. i ...200212399194
molecular cloning of the fish interferon stimulated gene, 15 kda (isg15) orthologue: a ubiquitin-like gene induced by nephrotoxic damage.in mammals, the response to nephrotoxicant-induced renal injury is limited to repair of the proximal tubule by surviving epithelial cells. in contrast, bony fish are capable of both repair, and de novo production of nephrons in response to renal damage. importantly, toxicant-induced nephron neogenesis in goldfish (carassius auratus) parallels nephron development in the mammalian embryo, providing a vertebrate model for kidney development. we utilized this model system to identify genes induced b ...200212426101
isolation and structure-function studies of a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor from goldfish carassius auratus: identification of three charged residues in extracellular domains critical for receptor function.a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of ligand-receptor interaction of glucagon-like peptide 1 (glp-1) receptors (glp-1rs) is useful for the design of potent glp-1 analogs that could potentially be used as a treatment for diabetic patients. changes in the ligand and receptor sequences during evolution provide invaluable clues to evaluate the functional motifs of the receptor that are responsible for ligand interaction. for these reasons, in the present study, we have isolated and fu ...200212446592
effects of a red-tide toxin on fish hearing.red tides are formed from blooms of marine algae. among them, the dinoflagellate ( karenia brevis) that is responsible for florida red tides can release many types of natural toxins, which cause massive kills of marine animals, including endangered species, and threaten human health. this study was to investigate whether or not a neurotoxin, brevetoxin-3, purified from florida red tides affects hearing sensitivity of a teleost fish, the goldfish ( carassius auratus). ld(50) of the goldfish that ...200212466956
volumetric and ionic responses of goldfish hepatocytes to anisotonic exposure and energetic limitation.the relationship between cell volume and k(+) transmembrane fluxes of goldfish (carassius auratus) hepatocytes exposed to anisotonic conditions or energetic limitation was studied and compared with the response of hepatocytes from trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat (rattus rattus). cell volume was studied by video- and fluorescence microscopy, while k(+) fluxes were assessed by measuring unidirectional (86)rb(+) fluxes. in trout and rat hepatocytes, hyposmotic (180 mosmoll(-1)) exposure at ph 7 ...200312502772
cyclin a2 is differentially expressed during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and gonochoristic color crucian carp.silver crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique gynogenetic fish. because of its specific genetic background and reproduction mode, it is an intriguing model system for understanding regulatory mechanism of oocyte maturation division. it keeps its chromosomal integrity by inhibiting the first meiotic division (no extrusion of the first pole body). the spindle behavior during oocyte maturation is significantly different from that in gonochoristic fish. the chromosomes are first arrang ...200312506399
in vitro metabolism of fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide by liver preparations of sea bream, goldfish, and rats.the in vitro metabolism of fenthion and its sulfoxide (fenthion sulfoxide) in sea bream (pagrus major) and goldfish (carassius auratus) was investigated and compared with that in rats. fenthion was oxidized to fenthion sulfoxide and the oxon derivative, but not to its sulfone, in the presence of nadph by liver microsomes of sea bream, goldfish, and rats. these liver microsomal activities of the fish were lower than those of rats but were of the same order of magnitude. the nadph-linked oxon- and ...200312527698
deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in china.freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in china, and based on usepa's guidelines. acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to china to determine 48-h lc50 and 96-h lc50 values for 2,4-dcp. in addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early ...200312531309
physiological responses of carassius auratus to ytterbium exposure.physiological and biochemical perturbations in the liver of carassius auratus were investigated in vivo following 40 days of exposure to ytterbium solutions of different concentration. glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (gpt) activity in goldfish liver was stimulated at 0.05 mg/l yb3+ and inhibited at higher yb3+ concentrations. activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (sod) was stimulated at yb3+ higher than 0.05 mg/l, and catalase (cat) activity was strongly inhibited after 40 days ...200212568469
the effects of pulp mill effluent on the sex steroid binding protein in white sucker (catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (c catostomus).the objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pulp mill effluent on the properties of the sex steroid binding protein (sbp) in the plasma of white sucker (catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (c. catostomus). sbps which specifically bind estradiol and testosterone with high affinity (k(d) approximately 3 nm) and low capacity (b(max) approximately 73-81 nm) were identified in both species. subsequent studies determined if the properties of the sbp in white sucker exposed to ...200312600684
transferrin and the innate immune response of fish: identification of a novel mechanism of macrophage activation.we have previously demonstrated that a non-cytokine serum protein called transferrin was a primary activating molecule of the goldfish (carassius auratus) macrophage antimicrobial response. the ability of the enzymatically cleaved forms of this protein to modulate fish macrophage function is novel and may represent a primitive and evolutionary conserved mechanism for the induction of no response of macrophages. in the present study we confirm our earlier findings using immunoaffinity purified go ...200312697311
deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in china.freshwater quality criteria of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-tcp) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in china, and based on usepa's guidelines. acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to china to determine 48 h lc(50) and 96 h lc(50) values for 2,4,6-tcp. in addition, 21 d survival-reproduction test with daphnia magna, 30 d embryo-larval test with carassius auratus, 60 d fry-juvenile test with ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d earl ...200312729688
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