molecular characterization of five steroid receptors from pengze crucian carp and their expression profiles of juveniles in response to 17α-ethinylestradiol and 17α-methyltestosterone.pengze crucian carp (carassius auratus var. pengze, pcc), a triploid gynogenetic fish, was used in this study to investigate the cross-talk between edcs and steroid receptors. the full-length cdnas of five steroid receptors (esr1, er alpha2, esr2a, esr2b, ar) and partial cdna of vtg b were isolated. the tissue distributions of these genes were analyzed in adult fish by qrt-pcr. then the expression profiles of five steroid receptors (esrs and ar) and vtg b were detected in the juveniles exposed t ...201323806426
transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.this study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/l of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish carassius auratus l. most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-d fish treatment. 2,4-d fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish ...201323806294
repeated exposure of goldfish (carassius auratus) to tricaine methanesulfonate (ms-222).goldfish that have been repeatedly exposed to tricaine methanesulfonate (ms-222) require greater concentration of the drug to attain equivalent planes of anesthesia, but the mechanism for this increased anesthetic need is unknown. minimum anesthetic concentration (mac) is a commonly used method with which to compare anesthetics. it was hypothesized that fish exposed to ms-222 daily would have an increased mac. it was also hypothesized that fish exposed daily to ms-222 would develop histomorpholo ...201323805553
biochemical biomarkers in liver and gill tissues of freshwater fish carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to hexabromobenzene.hexabromobenzene (hbb) is a novel brominated flame retardant (bfr) with ample evidence of its ubiquitous existence in the aquatic ecosystems. however, to date, the toxicological effects of this bfr on fish have been inadequately researched. the present study was conducted, based on an in vivo model, to investigate hbb-induced biochemical changes in liver and gill tissues of carassius auratus after medium-term exposure to different concentrations (10, 150, and 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14, and 25 days. o ...201423804377
bis(o-methylserotonin)-containing iridium(iii) and ruthenium(ii) complexes as new cellular imaging dyes: synthesis, applications, and photophysical and computational studies.we report the synthesis, characterization, and scope of a new versatile emissive molecular probe functionalized with a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety containing methylserotonin groups as binding sites for metal ion recognition. the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the in vitro imaging capability of the iridium(iii) and ruthenium(ii) complexes [ir(ppy)2(n-n)](+) and [ru(bpy)2(n-n)](2+), in which ppy is 2-phenylpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and n-n is a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand fun ...201323793143
biomagnification of ddt and its metabolites in four fish species of a tropical lake.the concentrations and biomagnifications of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and its metabolites were examined in four fish species (clarias gariepinus, oreochromis niloticus, tilapia zillii, and carassius auratus) from lake ziway, rift valley, ethiopia. paired stomach content analysis, and stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ(15)n, ‰) and carbon (δ(13)c, ‰) were used to study the trophic position of the fish species in the lake. 4,4'-dde, 4,4'-ddt and 4,4'-ddd were the main ddts identified ...201323790590
mortality due to viral nervous necrosis in zebrafish danio rerio and goldfish carassius auratus.heavy mortality was observed in an experimental lot of 2 ornamental fish species, zebrafish danio rerio (f. hamilton, 1822) and goldfish carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1758). the fishes showed typical symptoms of viral nervous necrosis before death. gross morphological examination revealed no visible lesions except in the brain, visible as a creamy opaque patch through the dorsal side of the head. parasitic and bacteriological analysis revealed no pathogenic agents. histopathological analysis reve ...201323759563
expressions of transcription factors in goldfish (carassius auratus l.) macrophages and their progenitors.the development of macrophages is a highly regulated process requiring coordination amongst transcription factors. the presence/absence, relative levels, antagonism, or synergy of all transcription factors involved is critical to directing lineage cell fate and differentiation. while relative levels of many key myeloid transcription factors have been determined in mammalian macrophage differentiation, a similar set of studies have yet to be conducted in a teleost system. in this study, we report ...201323748037
erk signaling pathway regulates embryonic survival and eye development in goldfish, carassius auratus.the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) is one of the three major types of mitogen-activated protein kinases. previous studies showed that erks mediate various signaling pathways for cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and transformation in mammals. in the present study, we use goldfish as a model system and demonstrate that erk kinases play important roles in promoting embryonic survival and regulate development of eye and trunk in vertebrates. erks are highly expressed in mul ...201323745584
molecular characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr) pathway in goldfish (carassius auratus) exposure to tcdd: the mrna and protein bony fish or other aquatic vertebrates, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr) signaling pathway is initiated by exposure to polycyclic (or/and halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, tcdd), which subsequently induces the up-regulated expression of a series of related genes (such as cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)). however, a lack of applicable protein reagents hinders our further understanding of the ahr signaling pathway, which focuses only on gene-bas ...201323727285
regulation of the two kiss promoters in goldfish (carassius auratus) by estrogen via different erα pathways.kisspeptin stimulates the synthesis and release of gonadotropin via controlling the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone in vertebrates. it also mediates the positive or negative feedback regulation of sex steroids on the hypothalamus-gonadotropic axis. in contrast to mammals, two paralogous genes of kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2) have been identified in several teleosts, implying the multiplicity of their physiological functions. in the present study, we cloned the promoters of kiss1 and k ...201323701825
oxidative stress and dna damage induced by chromium in liver and kidney of goldfish, carassius auratus.chromium (cr) is an abundant element in the earth's crust. it exhibits various oxidation states, from divalent to hexavalent forms. cr has diverse applications in various industrial processes and inadequate treatment of the industrial effluents leads to the contamination of the surrounding water resources. hexavalent chromium (cr (vi)) is the most toxic form, and its toxicity has been associated with oxidative stress. the present study was designed to investigate the toxic potential of cr (vi) i ...201323700361
biological response of high-back crucian carp (carassius auratus) during different life stages to wastewater treatment plant effluent.this study presents the adverse effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in effluent of wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) on fish health. a study of chronic exposure to wwtps effluent for 10 months was undertaken in high-back crucian carp (carassius auratus) during different life stages, covering early-life-stage (els), prespawning period, and postspawning period. condition factor (cf), gonadosomatic index (gsi), hepatosomatic index (hsi), and plasma vitellogenin (vtg) levels were empl ...201323695857
effects of acidic water in combination with aluminum on swimming behavior and survival of yolk-sac larval in goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio).yolk-sac fry of goldfish (carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to various concentrations of al and ph for 3, 7 and 10 days. in this study number of dead fish, total length of larvae, yolk sac length, swimming activity, the number of gill cover movements and the number of heart beat was measured. the lowest and highest number of gill cover movements belong to the waters containing 50 mg l-1 of aluminum, ph 5.25 and acidic waters with ph 6.7 respectively. there was no significant difference in ...201323667825
modulation of rh glycoproteins, ammonia excretion and na+ fluxes in three freshwater teleosts when exposed chronically to high environmental ammonia.we investigated relationships among branchial unidirectional na(+) fluxes, ammonia excretion, urea excretion, plasma ammonia, plasma cortisol, and gill transporter expression and function in three freshwater fish differing in their sensitivity to high environmental ammonia (hea). the highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia-sensitive cyprinid cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid carassius auratus (goldfish) were ex ...201323661781
the effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming nature, the caudal fins of fish species are frequently lost to some extent by aggressive behaviour, predation and diseases. to test whether the swimming performance of fish with different swimming capacities would be differentially affected due to caudal fin loss and regeneration, we investigated the critical swimming speed (ucrit), swimming metabolic rate (m(o2)), tail beat frequency (f(tb)) and tail beat amplitude (a(tb)) after caudal fin loss and regeneration (20 days) in juveniles of thre ...201323661776
transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (carassius auratus), an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.the crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. however, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cdna libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. the removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes ...201323630630
a novel neuropeptide in suppressing luteinizing hormone release in goldfish, carassius auratus.the fish reproductive axis is regulated by many neuroendocrine factors. however, factors involved in the suppression of this axis are largely uncharacterized. in this study, we describe a novel neuropeptide derived from the spexin precursor acting as a negative factor to suppress the reproductive axis in teleost. the cdna sequences of the spexin precursors have been cloned from both zebrafish and goldfish. a 14-aa mature peptide with the c-terminal amidated (spexin-14a: nwtpqamlylkgtq-nh2) is co ...201323623870
effects of copper exposure on the hatching status and antioxidant defense at different developmental stages of embryos and larvae of goldfish carassius auratus.this study aims to assess the effects of copper exposure on hatching status and antioxidant defense at different stages of embryos and larvae of goldfish carassius auratus. in this study, day-old embryos were randomly grouped after fertilization and then exposed to copper concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0mgl(-1). copper-exposed fish embryos were sampled every 24h to determine superoxide dismutase (sod), and catalase (cat) activities, as well as malondialdehyde (mda) content. in additio ...201323623536
effect of ambient temperature increase on intestinal mucosa amylolytic activity in freshwater fish.the relationship between the level of the intestinal mucosa amylolytic activity (aa) of juvenile goldfish carassius auratus, carp cyprinus carpio, roach rutilus rutilus and perch perca fluviatilis and the rate of water temperature increase was studied. increase in water heating rate significantly influences aa and the level of upper lethal temperatures defined by critical thermal maximum (ctm) during different seasons. at a low rate of water temperature increase, 0.04 °c/h, aa and the level of c ...201323619779
relationship between brain and liver oxidative state and maximum lifespan potential of different fish species.the aim of the present study is to determine whether a relationship exists between the maximum lifespan potential (mlsp) of different fish species (squalius pyrenaicus, cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, luciobarbus sclateri and oncorhynchus mykiss) and the oxidative state of brain and liver. for this purpose, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (gpx), glutathione reductase (gr), glutathione s-transferase (gst) and dt-diaphorase ( ...201323618756
effectiveness of fisk, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the iberian peninsula.risk assessments are crucial for identifying and mitigating impacts from biological invasions. the fish invasiveness scoring kit (fisk) is a risk identification (screening) tool for freshwater fishes consisting of two subject areas: biogeography/history and biology/ecology. according to the outcomes, species can be classified under particular risk categories. the aim of this study was to apply fisk to the iberian peninsula, a mediterranean climate region highly important for freshwater fish cons ...201323614530
reproductive impairment and endocrine disruption in goldfish by feeding diets containing soybean meal.a long-term feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets for goldfish (carassius auratus) on fish reproduction. in the present study, 20 weeks after hatching, goldfish with an initial average weight of 2±0.03g (mean±sd) were divided into 12 groups (three tanks per dietary treatment) and fed 400gkg(-1) crude protein diets. the four experimental diets were as follows: diet 1, fish meal (fm); diet 2, 35% soybean meal (sbm35%); diet 3, 65% soybean meal (sbm6 ...201323611471
renal accumulation and effects of intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins in omnivorous crucian carp (carassius auratus).an acute toxicological experiment was designed to characterize the sequence of renal ultrastructural changes with accumulated mcs in crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins (mainly mc-rr and -lr) at two doses, 50 and 200 μg mc-lreq. kg⁻¹ body weight. quantitative and qualitative determinations of mcs in the kidney were conducted by hplc and lc-ms, respectively. mc-rr content in kidney of crucian carp showed a time dose-dependent increase within 48 h post-inject ...201323608020
comparative analysis of intermuscular bones in fish of different ploidies.we documented the number, morphology, and distribution of intermuscular bones in five fishes of different ploidy: carassius auratus (abbr.wcc, 2n=100), carassius auratus variety pengze (abbr.pzcc, 3n=150), improved triploid crucian carp (abbr.itcc, 3n=150), improved red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var., abbr.ircc, ♀, 2n=100), and improved allotetraploids (abbr.g×at, ♂, 4n=200). the number of intermuscular bones in wcc, pzcc, and g×at ranged from 78 to 83 ([formula: see text]=81), 80 to 8 ...201323564186
study of environmental risks incurred by leakage of lithium cells to the food chain in a freshwater ecosystem.water flea (daphnia magna) and fish (carassius auratus) at trophic level were used for comprehensive evaluation of environmental risks incurred by manufactured nanomaterial (nni(oh)2) as leaked from lithium cells to the food chain in freshwater ecosystem. the 48, 72 and 96 h acute toxicities of water suspensions of nni(oh)2 to the flea and the fish were tested, using the immobilization and the mortality as toxicological endpoints. the results showed that the water flea was more highly sensitive ...201323552250
use of propofol as an anesthetic and its efficacy on some hematological values of ornamental fish carassius auratus.the aim of this study was to determine the level of anesthesia attained in carassius auratus using a propofol bath administration and using values of haematological profile of blood and examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. acute toxicity values of propofol for gold fish were found 96 h lc50 6.353 mg/l, 96 h lc1 2.966 mg/l and 96 h lc99 13.609 mg/l. time to induce anesthesia in propofol experiment was significantly higher than clove oil (p < 0.05), but the ...201323539492
origin of chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.goldfish, carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native carassius. to locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (cr) and the entire cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial dna genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish ...201323527220
intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.the intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. in this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. the results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. the gibel c ...201323515964
the long-term effect of serotonin on the thermoregulatory behavior in juvenile cyprinidae (cyprinus carpio and carassius auratus).the effect of serotonin after intracerebroventricular (icv) injections in dosage of 0.3 and 0.15 μg/g of the body weight on the thermoregulatory behavior in juvenile carp cyprinus carpio l. and goldfish carassius auratus (l.) has been studied in two experiments of 10- to 11-day duration. it has been found that icv injection of serotonin in dosage of 0.3 μg/g caused the initial decrease in preferred temperatures (pt) (2-3 days) followed by their further increase (4-8 days after the administration ...201323515758
health risk assessment for consumption of fish originating from ponds near dabaoshan mine, south china.mining effluents are a potential source of toxic metals in the surrounding aquatic ecosystem and pose a potential health risk to humans from fish consumption. the objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the long-term dabaoshan mining operation on heavy metal accumulation in different fish species. heavy metal accumulation (lead (pb), cadmium (cd), zinc (zn), and copper (cu)) in four tissues (liver, muscle, intestine, and gills) of five carp species (hypophthalmichthys molitrix, ctenop ...201323508535
dynamics of uptake and elimination of 17α-ethinylestradiol in male goldfish (carassius auratus).we used male goldfish (carassius auratus) as a model species to determine the uptake, elimination, and bioaccumulation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (ee2). goldfish were exposed to ee2 via two different routes: water (135ng/l±12.8 standard deviation) for 72h, and food (231ng/g±42 sd) for 120h. we observed a rapid uptake of ee2 in goldfish, reaching 8.4ng/g±1.2 dry weight (dw) after the first hour of exposure with an uptake rate coefficient (k1) of 45h(-1). the elimination rate coefficient (k2) was det ...201323500082
fish micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic potential of arsenic at its guideline exposure in aquatic environment.the exposure to arsenic, a potential genotoxic carcinogen in humans, via drinking water is a serious worldwide health hazard. the arsenic content of 10 μg l(-1) in drinking water, however, has been established as its guideline standard (maximum contaminant limit) that has been estimated to pose minimum risk to cancer. since micronucleus induction in the erythrocytes of fish is a sensitive indicator of genotoxic agents in water, the piscine micronucleus assay was used in the present experiment to ...201323494554
molecular and functional characterization of erythropoietin of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).erythropoietin is the principal regulator of erythropoiesis and promotes the survival, proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells in mammals. in this study we report on the molecular and functional characterization of erythropoietin from the goldfish. quantitative expression analysis of goldfish epo revealed the highest mrna levels in heart, followed by brain, liver, spleen and kidney tissues. there was no marked change of epo expression in goldfish primary kidney macrophage ...201323474427
validation of edna surveillance sensitivity for detection of asian carps in controlled and field many north american rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (carassius auratus). all six of these species are found in the mississippi river basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. knowle ...201323472178
sexual dimorphism of steroidogenesis regulated by gnih in the goldfish, carassius auratus.gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih) has been shown to inhibit reproduction in several species. gnih suppresses gonadotropin synthesis/release at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels; however, increasing evidence suggests that gnih has a putative function in the gonad. in this study, we demonstrated that gnih receptors localize to the ovary and testis in goldfish. in situ hybridization illustrated that goldfish gnihrs were localized exclusively to the oocytes before the cortical alveolus stag ...201323467740
molecular cloning and characterization of cat, gpx1 and cu/zn-sod genes in pengze crucian carp (carassius auratus var. pengze) and antioxidant enzyme modulation induced by hexavalent chromium in juveniles.hexavalent chromium (cr(6+)) is a common pollutant transient metal with high toxicity in the environment. the toxicological effects partly result from oxidative damage due to the production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ros) in the reductive process of cr(6+). to explore the influence of ros induced directly by cr(6+) on the oxidative stress generation and antioxidant system, the full length cdnas of antioxidant-related genes cat, gpx1 and cu/zn-sod were successfully acquired from pengze ...201323462276
dna methylation analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (cyprinus carpio l.).hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. however, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. in the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically ...201323457564
optimal foraging of little egrets and their prey in a foraging game in a patchy environment.we explored the behavioral game between a predator, the little egret (egretta garzetta), and a prey, the common goldfish (carassius auratus), in a laboratory theater containing three fish pools. we tested the hypotheses that the egrets maximize their total capture success by responding to the fish's antipredatory behavior and that the behaviors of both players respond adaptively to the density distribution of fish among the pools. one experiment presented egrets with 15 fish per pool. the second ...201323448887
the mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish brain, liver, and belongs to the group of carbamate fungicides and contains mancozeb (ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate) as its main constituent. the toxicity of mancozeb to living organisms, particularly fish, is not resolved. this work investigated the effects of 96 h of exposure to 3, 5, or 10 mg l(-1) of tattoo (corresponding to 0.9, 1.5, or 3 mg l(-1) of mancozeb) on the levels of oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzyme system of brain, liver, and kidney of goldfish, carassius auratus). in live ...201423436297
interaction of 17β-estradiol and ketoconazole on endocrine function in goldfish (carassius auratus).an understanding of the effects of toxic mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) on aquatic organisms is challenging as these organisms are exposed to multiple classes of contaminants in their natural habitat. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions of two classes of edcs, 17β-estradiol (e2) and ketoconazole (ktc), on endocrine function in male goldfish (carassius auratus), including vitellogenesis, metabolic capability and serum steroid synthesis. changes in vite ...201323434491
single and combined effects of estrone and 17β-estradiol on male assess the single and combined effects of estrone (e1) and 17β-estradiol (e2) on goldfish (carassius auratus).201323425800
effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of carassius auratus.this study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. for this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/l of cadmium and 0 mg/l of taurine (group i), 0.3 mg/l of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (group ii), 0.3 mg/l of cadmium and 40 mg/l of taurine (group iii), and 0.3 mg/l of cadmium and 80 mg/l of taurine (group iv). the results were as follows: the cadmium concentr ...201323423777
feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, carassius auratus and common carp, cyprinus carpio.feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. as expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill na(+)/k(+) atpase (nka) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. in contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased nka activity, especially in carp. fasting fish wer ...201323422918
regulation of nodularin-induced apoptosis by epigallocatechin-3-gallate on fish lymphocytes in vitro.nodularin is one of the most conspicuous and widespread pollutants that elicit water ecological hazards to fish, causing serious damage on the immune system and physiological functions. nodularin can cause oxidative stress-induced apoptosis on fish lymphocytes. the regulatory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (egcg) at 10, 100, and 1000 μg/l levels on the antioxidant defense system and apoptosis of carassius auratus lymphocytes exposed to a high dose of nodularin (100 μg/l) were quantified i ...201323403155
regulation of amino acid metabolism as a defensive strategy in the brain of three freshwater teleosts in response to high environmental ammonia exposure.many teleosts have evolved mechanisms to cope with ammonia toxicity in the brain when confronted with high environmental ammonia (hea). in the present study, the possible role of conversion of accumulated ammonia to glutamine and other free amino acids in the brain of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia was investigated. the detoxification mode of ammonia in brain is suggested to be through amination of glutamate to glutamine by the coupled activities of glutama ...201323384996
ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (ocrh) exerts an anxiogenic-like action in the goldfish, carassius auratus.corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) is a member of the hypothalamic neuropeptide family that includes urocortins, urotensin i and sauvagine in vertebrates. crh and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in rodents. in a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ovine crh (ocrh) affects not only food intake, but also locomotor activity. however, there is no information regarding the psychophysiological roles of crh in goldfish. therefore, we investiga ...201323321398
secretory expression and characterization of the recombinant myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (carassius auratus) in pichia pastoris.the myofibril-bound serine proteinase (mbsp) is effective in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins, including myosin heavy chain (mhc), α-actinin, actin, and tropomyosin and was thus regarded as an important proteinase responsible for the metabolism of fish muscle in vivo. in order to better understand the characteristic differences between native mbsp and recombinant mbsp (rmbsp) and to obtain large quantity of mbsp for its application in protein science study, the crucian carp mbsp gene was ...201323313743
the expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and chondroitin sulfate during pectoral fin regeneration in carassius auratus gibelio: a combined histochemical and immunohistochemical study.dermal bone is an important component of the teleost fins, and its ability to regenerate after fin amputation appears to be unlimited. the organic bone matrix contain type i collagen fibers, proteoglycans enriched in chondroitin sulfate, and noncollagenous matrix protein such as osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin. these molecules are synthesized by fin osteoblasts. inorganic components chiefly consist of calcium and phosphate that form crystals of hydroxyapatite. fin rays are described as ...201323302437
dna barcoding common non-native freshwater fish species in turkey: low genetic diversity but high population structuring.negative impacts of introduced non-native freshwater species on native species have been increasingly recognized in the world as well as in turkey. however, there has been relatively little attention on genetic characterization of alien freshwater fishes in their non-native distribution range and virtually no study has been conducted in turkey despite its crucial importance in invasion biology. the purpose of this study was to elucidate genetic diversity of common non-native freshwater fish spec ...201323298166
goldfish can recover after short-term exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate: use of blood parameters as vital biomarkers.this study investigated the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), a widely used herbicide, on the metabolism of goldfish, carassius auratus, using only vital (non-lethal) approaches. after 96 h exposure to 1, 10 or 100 mg/l of 2,4-d selected hematological (total hemoglobin and hematocrit) and biochemical (glucose content, aspartate transaminase and acetylcholinesterase activities) parameters were unchanged in blood of exposed fish. at 100 mg/l of 2,4-d lymphocyte numbers decreased b ...201323291397
cardiac k(atp) channel alterations associated with acclimation to hypoxia in goldfish (carassius auratus l.).goldfish (carassius auratus l.) are highly tolerant of environmental hypoxia, and with appropriate acclimation may survive and remain active for several days in the complete absence of oxygen. previous work suggests that the hypoxia-induced activation of cardiac atp-sensitive potassium (katp) channels serves to increase tolerance of low oxygen in many species. for goldfish, we have previously characterized a nitric oxide (no)- and cgmp-dependent pathway by which this channel activation occurs in ...201323291308
bioaccumulation, sub-acute toxicity, and tissue distribution of engineered titanium dioxide (tio2) nanoparticles in goldfish (carassius auratus).the increased use of nano-sized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. it is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. in this study, the sub-lethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tio2 nps) on goldfish (carassius auratus) were investigated. tissues, including intestine, gills, muscle, and brain were analyzed for ti content by icp-ms. accumulation of tio2 nps increased ...201325383077
the effects of caudal fin amputation on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species with different metabolic modes.metabolic competitive modes between digestion and locomotion are classified into three categories, termed the additive, digestion- and locomotion-priority modes. in nature, the caudal fin is frequently observed to sustain damage as a result of social rank, predation or disease. to test whether the metabolic mode changed differently for fish with different metabolic mode after caudal fin amputation as a consequence of intensified energy competition, we investigated the swimming performance of fas ...201323269108
the contribution of the lateral line to 'hearing' in the underwater environment, sound propagates both as a pressure wave and as particle displacement, with particle displacement dominating close to the source (the nearfield). at the receptor level, both the fish ear and the neuromast hair cells act as displacement detectors and both are potentially stimulated by the particle motion component of sound sources, especially in the nearfield. a now common way to test 'hearing' in fish involves auditory evoked potentials (aeps), with recordings made ...201323264489
the physiology of fish behaviour: a selective review of developments over the past 40 years(§).during the past 40 years many new techniques have emerged that have been pivotal in furthering understanding of the physiology of fish behaviour. behavioural studies have been enhanced by video recording systems and software for computerized event recording analysis, fine scale anatomical studies by fluorescence confocal microscopy, neurophysiological studies by visualisation and neuroendocrinology with techniques for identifying, localizing and quantifying many neurochemicals within the central ...201223252730
the effects of amphetamine injections on feeding behavior and the brain expression of orexin, cart, tyrosine hydroxylase (th) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (trh) in goldfish (carassius auratus).in this study, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of d-amphetamine on feeding behavior were assessed in goldfish. compared with the saline-injected group, amphetamine injections decreased food intake at doses ranging from 1 to 75 μg/g, but not 0.5 μg/g, but increased locomotor behavior, as indicated by the increased number of total feeding and non-feeding acts, at doses ranging from 2.5 to 25 μg/g. amphetamine at high doses inhibited both food intake (at 25, 50 and 75 μg/g) a ...201323229307
[toxicity and tissue accumulation of nonylphenol in carassius auratus red variety, grass carp and sliver carp].to understand the toxicity of nonylphenol on different fish species.201223213694
formation of biogenic amines in crucian carp (carassius auratus) during storage in ice and at 4°c.the formation of eight biogenic amines (bas), total volatile base nitrogen (tvb-n), aerobic plate counts (apc), and sensory evaluation in crucian carp (carassius auratus) during storage in ice and at 4°c were investigated. the sum of contents of all eight biogenic amines (sba) in crucian carp increased from 49.82 to 197.09 mg/kg on day 36 when stored in ice and from 49.82 to 219.35 mg/kg on day 24 when stored at 4°c. tvb-n content increased with storage time; good relationships between tvb-n con ...201223212022
evidences for the regulation of gnrh and gth expression by gnih in the goldfish, carassius auratus.gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (gnih) plays an important role in regulating of reproduction in teleosts. to clarify the mode of action of gnih on the synthesis of gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh) and gonadotrophin (gth), three gnihr cdnas were cloned from the goldfish brain. in situ hybridization results showed that gnihrs were localized to the hypothalamus and pituitary. in the hypothalamus, gnihrs were found in the npp, npo and nlt, whereas sgnrh neurons were reported to be located, and ...201323201092
bilateral efferents from nucleus isthmi to the optic tectum in goldfish (carassius auratus) are spatially restricted.the projection from nucleus isthmi (ni) to the optic tectum (ot) was investigated in the goldfish, carassius auratus, by retrograde transport of biocytin applied at various sites in a tectal lobe. in previous studies, this projection is described as predominantly from the ipsilateral ni and maps topographically along the approximate rostrocaudal axis of both brain areas. however, the rostromedial tectal lobe, the tectal region representing the binocular visual field, receives afferents from both ...201323178473
identification of anti-viral cytotoxic effector cells in the ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.previous studies have suggested that anti-viral cytotoxic effector cells induced by infection with a sublethal dose of crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (chnv) correspond to mammalian cytotoxic t-lymphocytes (ctls), because the mrna expression patterns of the effector cells are similar to those of mammalian ctls. to further characterize the effector population in cell-mediated cytotoxic (cmc) activity, we isolated the effector cells using an anti-cd8α monoclonal antibody, a density gradi ...201323178409
differential responses in ammonia excretion, sodium fluxes and gill permeability explain different sensitivities to acute high environmental ammonia in three freshwater teleosts.we examined the acute physiological responses to high environmental ammonia (hea), particularly the linkages between branchial ammonia fluxes and unidirectional na(+) fluxes, as well as urea excretion, cortisol, and indicators of gill permeability in three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia; the highly sensitive salmonid oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less sensitive cyprinid cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly resistant cyprinid carassius auratus ( ...201323143040
high male incidence and evolutionary implications of triploid form in northeast asia carassius auratus complex.carassius auratus complex is believed to originate from east eurasia and consist of diploid and triploid forms. diploid form reproduces sexually, whereas triploid form possesses mixture modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, which makes it a unique case to study evolutionary issues among vertebrates. in this study, we identified 337 triploid individuals from 386 specimens of carassius auratus complex sampled from 4 different sites of xingkai lake and suifen river on the northeas ...201323099150
effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of argulus-infested goldfish carassius auratus (linn. 1758).argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against argulus sp. the present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of argulus-infested goldfish carassius auratus. ninety argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin soluti ...201323090629
effect of cyanobacteria on immune function of crucian carp (carassius auratus) via chronic exposure in diet.cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. microcystins (mcs) released during cyanobacterial blooms exert toxicity on fish. up to now, immunotoxicity of mcs on fish has been rarely reported. the present study investigated immune response of crucian carp (carassius auratus) to cyanobacteria via chronic exposure in diet. fish were fed with diets containing 20% (low dose group) and 40% (high dose group) of cyanobacteria lyophilized powder. after exposure o ...201323063483
toxicity assessment on three direct dyes (d-bll, d-gln, d-3rnl) using oxidative stress bioassay and quantum parameter calculation.textile dyes and dye industrial effluents are widely known for esthetic and toxicity problems. the toxicity of three direct dyes, direct blending rebine (d-bll), direct blending scarlet (d-gln), and direct blending yellow (d-3rnl), were examined by the antioxidase and lipid peroxide index. fish (carassius auratus) were exposed to 100mg/l test compounds or injected with 200μg/kg corresponding dyes, and then samples of liver were collected at different times (0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 17 and 22d ) ...201223062468
contamination by metals and pharmaceuticals in northern taihu lake (china) and its relation to integrated biomarker response in fish.taihu lake is the largest shallow freshwater lake in eastern china and is suffering not only from an increasingly serious threat of eutrophication but also potential ecological risk due to the input of emerging contaminants. active biomonitoring was conducted in taihu lake using transplanted goldfish (carassius auratus) to determine the contamination by pharmaceuticals and metals and to assess the potential ecological risk. a suite of biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase, ethoxyresorufin o- ...201323053787
application of fisk, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, in the murray-darling basin (southeastern australia).the fish invasiveness scoring kit (fisk) is currently one of the most popular pre-screening tools for freshwater fishes. a recent upgrade has ensured its wider climatic relevance to countries with subtropical regions. this enhancement is of particular importance to australia, which encompasses tropical, arid, and temperate zones, and where the introduction of non-native fish species poses a significant risk to biodiversity. in this study, 55 fish species previously evaluated in a u.k.-based cali ...201323051595
metal accumulation in fish from different zones of a large, shallow freshwater lake.metal (cd, pb, cr, ni, mn, cu, and zn) concentrations in different fish species sampled from two distinct (phytoplankton- and macrophyte-dominated) lake zones of a large, shallow freshwater lake, taihu lake, were investigated. concentrations of most metals in muscle of the small-sized fish (protosalanx hyalocranius, pseudorasbora parva, and rhodeus ocellatus) were always significantly higher than those of the large-sized (carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, and aristichthys nobilis) and carnivor ...201223009814
sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (salmo trutta l.) produce more larvae.male goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to female hormonal pheromones express increased milt volumes and their sperm fertilize more eggs than sperm from unprimed males. ovulated salmonid females also release odours that increase volumes of strippable milt in males. it is, however, not known if the priming pheromones affect the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in salmonids. in this study, we compare the proportion of larvae produced from in vitro fertilization tests between primed brown trout ...201322976196
sexual bipotentiality of behavior in male and female is known that in goldfish carassius auratus, a non-sex changing fish, prostaglandin (pg) treatment can induce female-typical sex behavior in males, and androgen treatment can induce male-typical sex behavior in females. these facts suggest that goldfish have a sexually bipotential brain even after attaining sexual maturity unlike mammals which have sexually differentiated brain. in the present study, in order to further characterize the brain function of goldfish, whether hormonal treatments ...201322974510
oxidative stress responses in blood and gills of carassius auratus exposed to the mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo.intensive use of pesticides, particularly dithiocarbamates, in agriculture often leads to contamination of freshwater ecosystems. to our knowledge, the mechanisms of toxicity to fish by the carbamate fungicide tattoo that contains mancozeb [ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)] have not been studied. the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of tattoo on goldfish gills and blood, tissues that would have close early contact with the pollutant. exposure of goldfish carassius auratus to 3, 5 or 10mgl ...201222963715
apoptotic responses of carassius auratus lymphocytes to nodularin exposure in vitro.nodularin, a metabolite of nodularin spumigena, is widely detected in water blooms worldwide and causes serious negative effects on fish. the apoptosis-related cytotoxic effects and mechanisms of nodularin on carassius auratus lymphocytes were investigated. transmission electron microscopy results showed that nodularin-treated lymphocytes display a series of morphological changes, including condensed cytoplasm, nuclear chromatin agglutination and marginalization. dna fragmentation was verified b ...201222951228
structural and oxidative changes in the kidney of crucian carp induced by silicon-based quantum dots.silicon-based quantum dots were intraperitoneally injected in carassius auratus gibelio specimens and, over one week, the effects on renal tissue were investigated by following their distribution and histological effects, as well as antioxidative system modifications. after three and seven days, detached epithelial cells from the basal lamina, dilated tubules and debris in the lumen of tubules were observed. at day 7, nephrogenesis was noticed. the reduced glutathione (gsh) concentration decreas ...201222949855
shotgun lipidomics strategy for fast analysis of phospholipids in fisheries waste and its potential in species efficient shotgun lipidomics strategy was established and optimized for fast phospholipid profiling of viscera from three fish species: lateolabrax japonicas, ctenopharyngodon idellus, and carassius auratus. this strategy relies on direct infusion of total lipid extracts into a tandem mass spectrometer without additional separation of the individual molecular species. four classes of phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine (pc), phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), phosphatidylinositol (pi), a ...201222946708
upregulation of the β-form of 14-3-3 protein in telencephalon of goldfish (carassius auratus): its possible role in spatial the present study, we observed variations in the expression pattern of proteins isolated from the telencephalon of goldfish (carassius auratus). the expression of a 28 kda protein was elevated in the individuals trained in a spatial task when compared with the untrained individuals. the ∼28 kda protein was analyzed using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry; further, the data were analyzed using the mascot search engine. the analysis showed that the ∼28 kda protein is a β form of 14-3- ...201222922599
'who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (bivalvulida: myxozoa) from common carp, prussian carp and goldfish--molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of sphaerospora sensu stricto.myxozoans are a group of diverse, spore-forming metazoan microparasites bound to aquatic environments. sphaerospora dykovae (previously s. renicola) causes renal sphaerosporosis and acute swim bladder inflammation (sbi) in juvenile cyprinus carpio carpio, in central europe. a morphologically similar species with comparably low pathogenicity, s. angulata has been described from c. c. carpio, carassius auratus auratus and carassius gibelio. to clarify uncertainties and ambiguities in taxon identif ...201322917178
an integrated assessment of estrogenic contamination and feminization risk in fish in taihu lake, integrated approach, combining biological and chemical methods, was used to assess potential exposure to exogenous estrogens and their possible interference with the endocrine system of male goldfish (carassius auratus) in taihu lake. a suite of biomarkers in caged fish after in situ exposure for 28 days, coupled with six selected exogenous estrogens in water, were determined at eight biomonitoring stations. the compounds estrone, 17β-estradiol (e2), estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol (ee2), bisph ...201222906715
assessment of antibacterial properties and the active ingredient of plant extracts and its effect on the performance of crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio var. e'erqisi, bloch).in this study, the antibacterial properties and active ingredient of plant extracts and its effect on the performance of crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio var. e'erqisi, bloch) were assessed.201322903651
effect of trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp carassius auratus gibelio.this study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp carassius auratus gibelio. seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/l of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. at the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. triglyceride contents were significantly (p < 0.05) increased i ...201222897202
fasting goldfish, carassius auratus, and common carp, cyprinus carpio, use different metabolic strategies when need to balance their energy use between digestion and other activities, and different metabolic compromises can be pursued. we examined the effects of fasting (7 days) on metabolic strategies in goldfish and common carp at different swimming levels. fasting had no significant effect on swimming performance (u(crit)) of either species. feeding and swimming profoundly elevated total ammonia (t(amm)) excretion in both species. in fed goldfish, this resulted in increased ammonia quotients (aq) ...201222884681
antiparasitic efficacy of piperine against argulus spp. on carassius auratus (linn. 1758): in vitro and in vivo study.argulus are common aquatic ectoparasites that create one of the major threats to aquaculture due to absence of suitable therapy. piperine, a bioactive component of piper longum, has medicinal properties and acts as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal, considering eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. the present study aimed to evaluate antiparasitic effect of piperine against an ectoparasite argulus spp. on carassius auratus. artificial argulus infection was carried out by cohabi ...201222864920
antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (carassius auratus).ichthyophthiriasis is a widespread disease in aquaculture and causes mass mortalities of fish. the development of new antiprotozoal agents for the treatment of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections is of increasing interest. the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of 30 medicinal plants against i. multifiliis. the results showed that the methanol extracts of magnolia officinalis and sophora alopecuroides displayed the highest antiprotozoal activity against theronts, with 4 ...201222864919
carbon nanotube enhanced label-free immunosensor for amperometric determination of oocyte maturation-inducing hormone in fish.maintaining high-quality fish eggs stably and efficiently is important for aquaculture. we developed a label-free immunosensor system for measuring 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (dhp). dhp is suddenly secreted before ovulation as a maturation-inducing hormone in fish, and therefore, dhp levels are an indicator for predicting ovulation. the method is based on immunologic reactions and amperometric measurement using cyclic voltammetry (cv). for biomolecular immobilization on the surface of sens ...201322864705
otolith end organ projections to auditory neurons in the descending octaval nucleus of the goldfish, carassius auratus: a confocal analysis.the distribution of axons from the saccule, lagena, and utricle to descending octaval nucleus neurons that project to the auditory midbrain in the goldfish is reported. we have divided these auditory projection neurons, located in the dorsal portion of the descending octaval nucleus (ddo), into two groups, medial and lateral, each of which contains several neuronal populations based on morphology and location. at most levels of the ddo, there are three medial and three lateral populations; the r ...201222846681
gibel carp carassius auratus gut microbiota after oral administration of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole.trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is widely used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. however, the practice of antibiotic administration can promote the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria and result in a wane in efficacy over time. the objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole on the gastrointestinal (gi) microbiota of healthy gibel carp and those affected with bacterial enteritis. by ...201222832719
anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in mammals, vinclozolin (vz) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (ar) antagonism. in aquatic animals, the vz effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. to understand vz adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal vz concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/l) and alternations in gonadosomatic (gsi) and hepatosomatic indices (hsi), 17β-estradiol (e( ...201222819807
additional novel cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. this study investigated the prevalence of cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around perth, western australia. all samples were screened by nested pcr targeting the 18s rrna locus. a total of 6 positives were identified by pcr at the 18s locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; g ...201222819587
α gaba(a) subunit-orexin receptor interactions activate learning/motivational pathways in the goldfish.orexins (orxs) cross-talking with γ-aminobutyric acid(a) receptor (gaba(a)r) is beginning to constitute a key neuronal signaling feature responsible for the successful promotion of sleep-wake cycle, feeding and motor behaviors plus reward/motivational activities. in this work, orx-a and the two α gaba(a)r agonists (zolpidem, zol; diazepam, dzp) accounted for very great (p<0.001) increases of feeding while only dzp elicited great (p<0.01) levels of food intake in the goldfish (carassius auratus). ...201222814116
polycystic liver in a goldfish, carassius auratus (l.). 201222804783
gap junction contributions to the goldfish electroretinogram at the photopic illumination level.understanding how the b-wave of the electroretinogram (erg) is generated by full-field light stimulation is still a challenge in visual neuroscience. to understand more about the origin of the b-wave, we studied the contributions of gap junctions to the erg b-wave. many types of retinal neurons are connected to similar and different neighboring neurons through gap junctions. the photopic (cone-dominated) erg, stimulated by a small light beam, was recorded from goldfish (carassius auratus) using ...201222802705
development of a minimum-anesthetic-concentration depression model to study the effects of various analgesics in goldfish (carassius auratus).teleost fish demonstrate the neurophysiologic capacity to experience pain and analgesia. a common model for assessing analgesic effect is the reduction of minimum anesthetic concentration (mac). the present study adapted the model of mac depression to evaluate the analgesic effects of morphine, butorphanol, medetomidine, and ketoprofen in goldfish (carassius auratus). mac was determined by an up-down method of sequential population sampling, anesthetizing fish with tricaine methanesulfonate (ms- ...201222779222
effects of diets containing genistein and diadzein in a long-term study on sex steroid dynamics of goldfish (carassius auratus).the effect of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary genistein and diadzein on the concentrations of plasma sex steroids (testosterone (t), 17β-estradiol (e2)) and the gonadosomatic index (gsi) was assessed. the study was conducted on four groups for a period of 2 years, from the age of 20 weeks to first spawning. four doses of genistein and diadzein were applied in the feed: genistein: 0 µg/g, diadzein: 0 µg/g (control group); genistein: 24.26 µg/g, diadzein: 21.7 µg/g (diet 1); genistein: 5 ...201422778114
a grouped retina provides high temporal resolution in the weakly electric fish gnathonemus petersii.weakly electric fish orient, hunt and communicate by emitting electrical pulses, enabling them to discriminate objects, conspecifics and prey. in addition to the electrosensory modality - although dominating in importance in these fishes - other modalities, like vision, play important roles for survival. the visual system of gnathonemus petersii, a member of the family mormyridae living in west african blackwater streams shows remarkable specializations: cone photoreceptors are grouped in bundle ...201422771549
distribution of acetylcholine and catecholamines in fish gills and their potential roles in the hypoxic ventilatory response.carotid body glomus cells in mammals contain a plethora of different neurochemicals. several hypotheses exist to explain their roles in oxygen-chemosensing. in the present study we assessed the distribution of serotonin, acetylcholine and catecholamines in the gills of trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and goldfish (carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry, and an activity-dependent dye, texas red hydrazide (txr). in fish the putative oxygen sensing cells are neuroepithelial cells (necs) and the ...201322765871
molecular characterization of cholecystokinin in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus): cloning, localization, developmental profile, and effect of fasting and refeeding on expression in the brain and intestine.cholecystokinin (cck) is a multi-functional brain-gut peptide in fish and mammals. to investigate the role of cck in appetite regulation in fish, a 770-bp full-length cdna sequence of cck gene was obtained by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends methods in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus. homology analysis showed that the cck cdna sequence of grass carp had the highest similarity (90 %) to that of goldfish carassius auratus and a higher similarity (>70 %) to those of other teleosts th ...201222752267
uranium activity ratio in water and fish from pit lakes in kurday, kazakhstan and taboshar, tajikistan.kurday in kazhakstan and taboshar in tajikistan were u mining sites operated during the 1950s and 1960s as part of the ussr nuclear weapon program. today, they represent sources of potential u contamination of the environment. within both mining sites, open pits from which u ore was extracted have been filled with water due to ground water inflow and precipitation. these artificial pit lakes contain fish consumed occasionally by the local people, and wild and domestic animals are using the water ...201322739115
light-dark cycle and feeding time differentially entrains the gut molecular clock of the goldfish (carassius auratus).the aim of the present study was to investigate how photocycle and feeding-time cues regulate the daily expression of per1a, per2a, per3, and cry3 in the goldfish hindgut. for this purpose, we studied the daily rhythmicity of these genes in fish maintained under different lighting conditions and under different feeding regimes (scheduled or not). we also studied whether the timing of just one meal is able to reset the hindgut molecular clock. in a first experiment, randomly fed fish were divided ...201222734567
organization and variation analysis of 5s rdna in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var., rcc♀, cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (erythroculter ilishaeformis bleeker, tc♂, cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from rcc and one set from tc; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from rcc and one set from tc; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from rcc and two sets fr ...201222720007
Displaying items 1001 - 1100 of 2431