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molecular characterization and expression of cyp19a gene in carassius auratus.a cyp19a gene that contains nine exons and eight introns was identified from carassius auratus and was mainly expressed in the ovary. the cyp19a mrna level after hatching was initially low, but began to increase from 25 days after hatching. a number of cis-acting elements, such as the oestrogen receptor, steroidogenic factor 1 and sox-5 recognition sites, were found in the promoter of the cyp19 gene, which possesses a promoter function confirmed by a recombination green fluorescent protein check ...201424865234
a novel quinoline molecular probe and the derived functionalized gold nanoparticles: sensing properties and cytotoxicity studies in mcf-7 human breast cancer cells.a highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor l was designed, prepared and used to monitor zinc ions in goldfish (carassius auratus) as model of vertebrate organism. modified gold nanoparticles having functional quinoline molecules (gnps@l) were also synthesized and their sensing properties towards different metal ions were also explored in solution, showing high selectively towards the toxic and heavy metal ion mercury. cell proliferation kit xtt that employs 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro- ...201424861645
accumulation and toxicity of cuo and zno nanoparticles through waterborne and dietary exposure of goldfish (carassius auratus).dietary and waterborne exposure to copper oxide (cuo) and zinc oxide (zno) nanoparticles (nps) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (artemia salina) and goldfish (carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects, and particle transport through trophic levels. artemia contaminated with nps were used as food in dietary exposure. fish were exposed to suspensions of the nps in waterborne exposure. icp-ms analysis showed that accumula ...201524860999
evolutionary history of two divergent dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. in this study, we used the conserved dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. we identified two divergent dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. subsequently, the corresponding full-length cdnas ...201424859683
metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.the effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish carassius auratus as the test organism. the fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/l cd, 0.5 mg/l oh-mwcnts, or 0.1 mg/l cd+0.5 mg/l oh-mwcnts for 3 and 12 days. then, the cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glut ...201424857893
role of oleoylethanolamide as a feeding regulator in goldfish.oleoylethanolamide (oea) is a bioactive lipid mediator, produced in the intestine and other tissues, which is involved in energy balance regulation in mammals, modulating feeding and lipid metabolism. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and possible role of oea in feeding regulation in goldfish (carassius auratus). we assessed whether goldfish peripheral tissues and brain contain oea and their regulation by nutritional status. oea was detected in all studied tissues ...201424855680
inhibitory effects of β-endorphin on cortisol release from goldfish (carassius auratus) head kidney: an in vitro study.β-endorphin (β-end) is an endogenous opioid peptide derived from the common precursor proopiomelanocortin, together with adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (msh). although the roles of acth and msh in fish are well known, the roles of circulating β-end have not been elucidated. in the present study, we evaluated the biological roles of β-end in the goldfish. first, we cloned the cdnas of the delta opioid receptor (dor), kappa opioid receptor (kor), and mu opioi ...201424837496
partial cloning, tissue distribution and effects of epigallocatechin gallate on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase mrna transcripts in goldfish (carassius auratus).epigallocatechin gallate (egcg), the major active component of the green tea, has recently been found to inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase (hmgcoar) activity in vitro and to modulate lipogenesis in vivo. in this study we have evaluated the effects of short-term in vivo exposure to egcg (6 μg g(-1) bw or 9 μg g(-1) bw) on hepatic hmgcoar gene expression of goldfish (carassius auratus). we initially characterized a partial sequence of goldfish hmgcoar suggesting that the obtained fr ...201424835314
sequence analysis and subcellular localization of crucian carp carassius auratus viperin.human viperin is known as an interferon (ifn)-inducible antiviral protein and localizes to endoplasmic reticulum (er) via its n-terminal amphipathic α-helix. little is known about subcellular localization of fish viperin. herein, we characterized subcellular localization of a fish viperin from crucian carp carassius auratus. crucian carp viperin is nearly identical to the other viperin proteins in sequence, with the exception of the first n-terminal 70 amino acids that are defined as n-terminal ...201424825429
the antidepressant tranylcypromine alters cellular proliferation and migration in the adult goldfish brain.the goldfish (carassius auratus) is a widely studied vertebrate model organism for studying cell proliferation in the adult brain, and provide the experimental advantage of growing their body and brain throughout their ∼30-year life time. cell proliferation occurs in the teleost brain in widespread proliferation zones. increased cell proliferation in the brain has been linked to the actions of certain antidepressants, including tranylcypromine (tcp), which is used in the treatment of depression. ...201424816924
protective role of oligomeric proanthocyanidin complex against hazardous nodularin-induced oxidative toxicity in carassius auratus lymphocytes.nodularin (nod) is a hazardous material widely detected in water blooms. fish immune cells are extremely vulnerable to nod-induced oxidative stress. oligomeric proanthocyanidin complex (opc), extracted from grapeseed, was used as an antioxidant to eliminate reactive oxygen species and prevent apoptotic effects. carassius auratus lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations (0, 10, 100, and 1,000 μg/l) of opc and a constant dose (100 μg/l) of nod for 12h in vitro. opc inhibited mitosis ...201424794815
bioaccumulation of microcystins (mcs) in four fish species from lake taihu, china: assessment of risks to humans.microcystins (mcs) are the toxic products of harmful algal blooms and they accumulate in fish. the accumulation of mcs in fish living in different trophic levels from different parts of lake taihu was determined. this information was then used to evaluate the risks posed by the mcs in fish to human health. the concentrations of three mcs, mc-lr, mc-yr and mc-rr, were quantified in the following four fish species: silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (aristichthys nobilis), cru ...201424784747
heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) mediated respiratory responses to hypoxia in the goldfish, carassius auratus.in this study we investigated the role of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) in modulating the hypoxic and hyperoxic ventilatory responses of goldfish (carassius auratus) acclimated to 7 and 25°c. ho-1 was present in the neuroepithelial cells (necs; putative branchial o2 chemoreceptors) of fish acclimated to 7°c only. hypoxia exposure increased gill ho-1 activity in 7°c fish (14.0±1.4 to 42.5±3.2pmolbilirubinmin(-1)mgprotein(-1)). inhibition of ho-1 activity with zinc protophorphyrin ix (znppix) increased ...201424780551
control of breathing in in vitro brain stem preparation from goldfish (carassius auratus; linnaeus).in vitro brain stem preparations from goldfish (carassius auratus) were used to first determine whether this species possesses central chemoreceptors able to modulate respiratory activity. preparations were superfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (acsf); fictive breathing was recorded extracellularly by placing a suction electrode on cranial nerve vii. reducing the level of o2 in the gas mixture used to bubble the acsf from a hyperoxic level (80% or 98.7% o2) to a relative hypoxic leve ...201424769710
developmental toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in artificially fertilized crucian carp (carassius auratus) embryo.2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) is a persistent bioaccumulative environmental contaminant that is an endocrine disruptor. embryos of various fish species are responsive to tcdd and have been used as an alternative method to the acute toxicity test with juvenile and adult fish. the tcdd test has similar endpoints of developmental toxicity. however, their sensitivity and signs of tcdd-induced toxicity are different depending on fish species and its habit. crucian carp (carassius auratus ...201424751158
an integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in qingdao.various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. in this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index) to ...201424743634
anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (hea) were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. the highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed to 1 mm ammonia (as nh4hco3) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, ...201424740135
the complete mitogenome of natural triploid carassius auratus in qihe river.qihe carassius auratus is the territorial carassius auratus, which is known as for its limited distribute in qihe river (mainly distributed in henan province, china), this species is natural triploid in china. in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of carassius auratus in qihe river has been obtained with pcr. the gene composition and arrangement of mitochondrial genome sequence of this species are similar to most of other vertebrates', which contains 22 trna genes, 13 protein ...201624730610
seasonal changes and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg) effects on innate immune genes expression in goldfish (carassius auratus).we profiled the expression of a group of proinflammatory immune genes, comprising tnfα-1, tnfα-2, ifn-γ, il1β-1, il1β-2, ccl-1, and cxcl-8 in liver, head kidney, gills, and spleen of goldfish, during the reproductive cycle and in response to injection of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg). most genes showed higher expression during the breeding season in both sexes. however, activation of immune responses was much stronger in female goldfish. injection with hcg, an analog of luteini ...201424709628
extracts deriving from olive mill waste water and their effects on the liver of the goldfish carassius auratus fed with hypercholesterolemic diet.the present research aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of polyphenols derived from waste water from a olive mill, obtained by non-plastic molecular imprinting device, in a hypercholesterolemic diet on carassius auratus, commonly known as goldfish that was selected as experimental model. the study was conducted with morphological and histochemical analyses and also the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis. results show the beneficial activity of polyphenols with a reduction o ...201424708587
goldfish brain and heart are well protected from ni²⁺-induced oxidative stress.after 96 h goldfish exposure to 10, 25 or 50 mg/l of ni(2+) no ni accumulation was found in the brain, but lipid peroxide concentration was by 44% elevated in the brain, whereas carbonyl protein content was by 45-45% decreased in the heart. high molecular mass thiol concentration was enhanced by 30% in the heart, while in the brain low molecular mass thiol concentration increased by 28-88%. superoxide dismutase activity was by 27% and 35% increased in the brain and heart, respectively. glutathio ...201424704544
distribution and quantitative detection of gabaa receptor in carassius auratus gibelio.gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain, is synthesized from glutamate and metabolized to succinic semialdehyde by glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) and gaba transaminase (gaba-t), respectively. the fast inhibitory effect of gaba is mediated by gaba type a (gabaa) receptors that are associated with several neurological disorders, and gabaa receptors are targets of several therapeutic agents. to date, information on the distribution and quantity of gabaa recep ...201424687758
distinct z-dna binding mode of a pkr-like protein kinase containing a z-dna binding domain (pkz).double-stranded ribonucleic acid-activated protein kinase (pkr) downregulates translation as a defense mechanism against viral infection. in fish species, pkz, a pkr-like protein kinase containing left-handed deoxyribonucleic acid (z-dna) binding domains, performs a similar role in the antiviral response. to understand the role of pkz in z-dna recognition and innate immune response, we performed structural and functional studies of the z-dna binding domain (zα) of pkz from carassius auratus (caz ...201424682817
crosstalking between the "gut-brain" hormone ghrelin and the circadian system in the goldfish. effects on clock gene expression and food anticipatory activity.ghrelin is a potent orexigenic signal mainly synthesized in the stomach and foregut of vertebrates. recent studies in rodents point out that ghrelin could also act as an input for the circadian system and/or as an output of peripheral food-entrainable oscillators, being involved in the food anticipatory activity (faa). in this study we pursue the possible interaction of ghrelin with the circadian system in a teleost, the goldfish (carassius auratus). first, we analyzed if ghrelin is able to modu ...201424681192
tissue-specific induction of oxidative stress in goldfish by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: mild in brain and moderate in liver and kidney.this study investigated the effects of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) on free radical-related processes in tissues of goldfish given 96 h exposures to 1, 10 or 100 mg/l of 2,4-d as well as 96 h recovery from the 100 mg/l treatment. in liver, 2,4-d exposure increased levels of protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides by 36-53% and 24-43%, respectively, but both parameters reverted during recovery, whereas in brain glutathione status improved in response to 2,4-d. lipid peroxide ...201424657358
molecular and functional characterization of erythropoietin receptor of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).erythropoietin receptor (epor) is a member of the class i cytokine receptor superfamily and signaling through this receptor is important for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of erythrocyte progenitor cells. this study reports on the molecular and functional characterization of goldfish epor. the identified goldfish epor sequence possesses the conserved epor ligand binding domain, the fibronectin domain, the class i cytokine receptor superfamily motif (wsxws) as well as several int ...201424657210
comparative study of infection with tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species.tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (poecilia reticulata). the aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two different super orders. the species examined were platy (xiphophorus), molly (poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (pterophyllum scalare) of the acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfi ...201424650892
identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (cyprinus carpio l.).c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. the allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. it is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. in this study, 2 jnk1 cdnas (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetr ...201424634111
metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different ph values.in this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and ph on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in carassius auratus. fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg zn/l at three ph values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. after each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (zn, fe and cu) were determined in liver. generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic zn and cu deposition, but decreased fe content. increasi ...201424632310
evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp.distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. in this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (eg) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (carassius auratus) × common carp (cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis.201424628745
a comparative study on antioxidant status combined with integrated biomarker response in carassius auratus fish exposed to nine phthalates.laboratory experiments were performed to determine the antioxidant responses to nine phthalates (paes) in the liver of the goldfish carassius auratus. the fish were injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of each pae for 1 day and 4, 8, and 15 days. the potential biotoxicity of the paes were examined using the antioxidase and lipid peroxide indices. we determined that the superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), and malondialdehyde (mda) levels displayed different tre ...201524616073
regulatory effect of quercetin on hazardous microcystin-lr-induced apoptosis of carassius auratus lymphocytes in vitro.microcystins (mcs) are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria. oxidative stress is considered the major cytotoxic mechanism of microcystin-lr (mclr). quercetin (qe) is a flavonoid that can eliminate reactive oxygen species (ros) and elicit anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. this study determined the regulatory effect of qe on the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress of carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by 1 μg/l mclr in vitro after 24 h. mclr-mediated cytotoxicity and ros fo ...201424594009
effect of cadmium on the extracellular na⁺, k⁺, and ca²⁺ in the gill and small intestine of goldfish carassius auratus.in this study, the toxic effect of cadmium on extracellular na(+), k(+), and ca(2+) in the gill and small intestine of goldfish carassius auratus was determined with the technique of ion chromatograph. two-way anova indicated that the two factors (cd(2+) treatment and time) and the interaction factor had significant effect on the level of na(+), k(+), and ca(2+) in the small intestine and gill. 1.0 mg/l cd(2+) significantly increased ca(2+) level in the small intestine, but ca(2+) level in the g ...201424583410
a multi-biomarker assessment of single and combined effects of norfloxacin and sulfamethoxazole on male goldfish (carassius auratus).in the present study, the sublethal effects of norfloxacin alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole in goldfish (carassius auratus) were investigated, the biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase (ache) in brain, 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod), glutathione s-transferase (gst), and superoxides dismutase (sod) activities in liver, vitellogenin (vtg) in serum and dna damage in gonad were determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 days of exposure. brain ache activity was significantly inhibited b ...201424580816
antioxidant responses in carassius auratus and lolium perenne exposed to the laboratory pollution.experiments conducted in the laboratories can produce numerous wastes, which could potentially affect the health of the researchers. in this study, the antioxidant responses in liver of carassiua auratus and leaf of lolium perenne were investigated after chronic exposure to the air pollution in four different laboratories. the obtained data showed that oxidative stress was induced in some laboratories, as indicated by some significantly altered biochemical parameters. additionally, the toxicity ...201424561535
cardiac repair and regenerative potential in the goldfish (carassius auratus) heart.the remarkable ability of the heart to regenerate has been demonstrated in the zebrafish and giant danio, two fish members of the cyprinid family. here we use light and electron microscopy to examine the repair response in the heart of another cyprinid, the goldfish (carassius auratus), following cautery injury to a small portion of its ventricular myocardium. we observed a robust inflammatory response in the first two weeks consisting primarily of infiltrating macrophages, heterophils, and mela ...201424548889
ocular glioneuroma with medulloepitheliomatous differentiation in a goldfish (carassius auratus).an intraocular mass in the left eye causing chronic severe exophthalmia in an adult female goldfish (carassius auratus) is described. the fish shared an aquarium with another goldfish found dead with gross and microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis. histological examination of the left eye, histochemical (periodic acid-schiff [pas], alcian blue, ziehl-neelsen) and immunohistochemical tests (glial fibrillary acidic protein, human neuronal protein, vimentin, and cytokeratin ae1/ae3) w ...201424532696
comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to eight imidazolium bromide ionic liquids: a combined experimental and theoretical study.imidazolium bromide ionic liquids such as 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides ([amim]br) and 1-alkyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromides ([ammim]br) are common-use organic salts. however, data on comparative toxicological effects of these ils are lacking for fish. in this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was applied to compare and analyze the effects of these ils on biochemical biomarkers in liver of carassius auratus treated with different concentrations (2 and 20mg/l) for ...201424530736
perfluorinated alkyl substances in water, sediment, plankton and fish from korean rivers and lakes: a nationwide survey.water, sediment, plankton, and blood and liver tissues of crucian carp (carassius auratus) and mandarin fish (siniperca scherzeri) were collected from six major rivers and lakes in south korea (including namhan river, bukhan river, nakdong river, nam river, yeongsan river and sangsa lake) and analyzed for perfluorinated alkyl substances (pfass). perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) was consistently detected at the greatest concentrations in all media surveyed with the maximum concentration in water ...201424529450
the stimulatory effect of led light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (carassius auratus).this study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (leds): red, green, and purple. we investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (opn4m), rhodopsin (rh), melanin-concentrating hormone (mch), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (mch-r), and proopiomelanocortin (pomc) in goldfish exposed to different led light spectra. opn4m, rh, mch, and mch-r mrna levels were significantly higher i ...201424522793
ecotoxicological effects of waterborne pfos exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus).the potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) are of increasing ecological concern. swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish. however, the impacts of pfos on swimming performance remain largely unknown. we investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to pfos on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (carassius auratus). the fish were exposed to a range of pfos concentrations (0, 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 mg/l) for 48 hr. the s ...201324520707
antidiabetic effects of carassius auratus complex formula in high fat diet combined streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.carassius auratus complex formula, including carassius auratus, rhizoma dioscoreae, lycium chinense, and rehmannia glutinosa libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient china. in this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (stz-) induced type 2 diabetes. carassius auratus complex formula aqueous ...201424511320
variations of physiological and innate immunological responses in goldfish (carassius auratus) subjected to recurrent acute stress.this study was undertaken to investigate the influence of repeated acute stress on the physiological status and non-specific immune response of goldfish, carassius auratus. the acute stress was a succession of a 3 min-chasing period followed by a 2 min-air exposure. the goldfish in triplicate tanks were subjected 3 times daily to this stress for one (s3) or three (s9) days. a separate group of unstressed fish was used as control for each sampling time. blood samples were collected 12, 48 and 120 ...201424486633
a species comparison of 17-α-ethynylestradiol uptake and tissue-specific distribution in six teleost fish.differences exist among fish species in their sensitivity to endocrine disruptors such as 17-α-ethynylestradiol (ee2). we examined whether there were corresponding differences in ee2 uptake rates and short-term internal distribution patterns. six freshwater species: japanese ricefish (medaka, oryzias latipes), goldfish (carassius auratus), zebrafish (danio rerio), fathead minnow (pimephales promelas), atlantic killifish (fundulus heteroclitus) and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed ...201424473066
supplemental description of thelohanellus wuhanensis xiao & chen, 1993 (myxozoa: myxosporea) infecting the skin of carassius auratus gibelio (bloch): ultrastructural and histological data.thelohanellus wuhanensis xiao & chen, 1993 infects allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) forming numerous plasmodia in the skin, resulting in high mortality of juvenile host fish. within this paper we supplement the identification of this pathogenic species with information on its ultrastructural and histological characteristics. measurements of the spores corresponded to the original description, but asymmetry in the spore shape was recorded. scanning electron microscopy ...201424468917
a hindbrain segmental scaffold specifying neuronal location in the adult goldfish, carassius auratus.the vertebrate hindbrain develops as a series of well-defined neuroepithelial segments or rhombomeres. while rhombomeres are visible in all vertebrate embryos, generally there is not any visible segmental anatomy in the brains of adults. teleost fish are exceptional in retaining a rhombomeric pattern of reticulospinal neurons through embryonic, larval, and adult periods. we use this feature to map more precisely the segmental imprint in the reticular and motor basal hindbrain of adult goldfish. ...201424452830
molecular cloning of pcc-dmrt1s and their specific expression patterns in pengze crucian carp (carassius auratus var. pengze) affected by 17α-methyltestosterone.dmrt1, an important transcription factor associated with testicular differentiation, is conserved among teleost, which could also be detected in ovaries. in the present study, three isoforms of pcc-dmrt1s (pcc-dmrt1a, pcc-dmrt1b and pcc-dmrt1c) resulting from alternative splicing of the dmrt1 gene were cloned and characterized in the triploid gynogenetic fish, the pengze crucian carp. their mrna expression profiling was investigated in juvenile developmental stages, tissues of the adult fish, an ...201424445816
effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (carassius auratus) soup.cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. the effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °c) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (carassius auratus) soup. the results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °c had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by sds-page result. the contents ...201324425950
tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the carassius auratus species complex (cypriniformes, cyprinidae).polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. goldfish of the carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. we explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in chinese and japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtd ...201424398883
nickel-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in carassius auratus liver by jnk pathway.nickel (ni) is ubiquitous in the biosphere and is a common component of natural fresh waters. when present in high concentrations, it becomes toxic to aquatic organisms. it is known that ni toxicity may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis. however, the precise mechanism and the pathways that are activated in fish are still unclear. thus, this study aimed to assess which apoptotic pathways are triggered by ni in carassius auratus liver, the main target of waterborne pollutants. fish were expose ...201424394944
c1q-like factor, a target of mir-430, regulates primordial germ cell development in early embryos of carassius auratus.c1q-like is a significant maternal factor of tnf/c1q super-family, and the abundant protein has been observed in both mature eggs of carassius auratus and carassius auratus gibelio, but its biological function in early embryo development has remained unclear. in this study, we firstly revealed a high level of maternal c1q-like transcript existence only in mature eggs of carassius auratus, whereas no any maternal c1q-like transcript was observed in that of carassius auratus gibelio. during embryo ...201324391447
intraspecific scaling of the resting and maximum metabolic rates of the crucian carp (carassius auratus).the question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (m) is achieved in animals is unresolved. here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (rmr), maximum metabolic rate (mmr), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (carassius auratus). the m of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. the rmr an ...201324376588
peculiar monomeric interferon gammas, ifnγrel 1 and ifnγrel 2, in ginbuna crucian carp.the existence of fish-specific isoforms of interferon (ifn)γ, known as ifnγ-related (ifnγrel), has been reported in several fish species. however, comparisons with deduced amino acid sequences of known ifnγrels among several fish species have indicated significant differences at the c-terminus basic amino acid continuous sequences, which indicate the existence of multiple ifnγrel isoforms. two distinct cdnas, encoding two ifnγrels, ifngrel 1 and ifngrel 2, were cloned from ginbuna crucian carp ( ...201424373358
the carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.it is widely accepted that mitochondria and its dna (mtdna) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. in fish, nuclear transfer (nt) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (nchs) even between different genera and subfamilies. one of the best studied fish nchs is cyca produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (cyprin ...201424365595
helper function of cd4⁺ lymphocytes in antiviral immunity in ginbuna crucian carp, carassius auratus langsdorfii.although many recent studies have suggested that cd4(+) helper t cell (th-cell) functions are well conserved among teleost fishes and mammals, there is little evidence that cd4(+) th-cells in fish are actually involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity during a secondary immune response. in the present study, adoptive transfer using clonal ginbuna crucian carp and crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (chnv) was used to investigate the functions of cd4(+) cells during humoral and ce ...201424342571
effects of cold acclimation and storage temperature on crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) in a waterless preservation.the research aims to explore the impact of cold acclimation and storage temperature on crucian carp in a waterless preservation. it is conducted by studying the influence of cold acclimation on crucian carp in temperatures of 5 and 1 °c h(-1), followed by having them preserved under waterless conditions at 4 and 0 °c for 24 h to analyze their aerobic and anaerobic capacities. the research findings revealed that the temperature drop at 1 °c h(-1) is conducive to preserving the activity of lactate ...201424338155
the goldfish hat-family transposon tgf2 is capable of autonomous excision in zebrafish embryos.the goldfish (carassius auratus) tgf2 transposon is a vertebrate dna transposon that belongs to the hat transposon family. in this study, we constructed plasmids containing either the full-length tgf2 transposon (ptgf2 plasmid) or a partially-deleted tgf2 transposon (δptgf2 plasmid), and microinjected these plasmids into fertilized zebrafish (danio rerio) eggs at the one- to two-cell stage. dna extracted from the embryos was analyzed by pcr to assess transient excision, if any, of the exogenous ...201424321692
responses of hepatic metallothioneins and apoptotic activity in carassius auratus gibelio witness a release of cobalt and zinc from waterborne nanoscale composites.the main goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of fish carassius auratus tissues to release cobalt (co) and zinc (zn) cations present in the applied co- and zn-containing nanoscale composites (ncs). male fish was subjected to 14day long action of co- and zn-ncs, as well as of co(2+) and zn(2+) or polymeric substance (ps) used for the nc preparation and derived from the vinylpyrrolidone. 50μg∙l(-1) of co and 100μg∙l(-1) of zn were applied either as a salt or a nanocomposite. both co and ...201424316149
2,4-dichlorophenol induces global dna hypermethylation through the increase of s-adenosylmethionine and the upregulation of dnmts mrna in the liver of goldfish carassius auratus.altered dna methylation is associated with changes in gene expression, signal transduction and stress response after exposure to a wide range of exogenous compounds, and abnormal methylation is a major toxic effect induced by chemicals such as benzene and phenols. 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp), a derivative of phenol, has been classified as a priority pollutant by the us epa due to its toxic effects on aquatic organisms. however, the effect of 2,4-dcp on dna methylation and its potential mechanis ...201424316013
effects of polymer-coated metal oxide nanoparticles on goldfish (carassius auratus l.) neutrophil viability and function.exposure effects from polyacrylic acid (paa) metal-oxide nanoparticles (tio2, ceo2, fe2o3, zno) on fish neutrophil viability and effector functions (degranulation, respiratory burst, inflammatory gene expression) were investigated using primary kidney goldfish (carassius auratus l.) neutrophils as a model. several studies have reported cytotoxic effects of nps but there are limited reports on their potential to perturb the innate immune system of aquatic organisms. paa-tio2 significantly decreas ...201524313973
introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.the introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. the introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. one way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. however, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is kn ...201324312432
expression pattern of the zona pellucida 3 (zp3) gene during ovarian development and the location of zp3 protein in oocytes in a natural, wild triploid crucian carp mutant, carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis.carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis (designated cap), distributed in the pingxiang region of jiangxi province, china, is a natural, wild triploid crucian carp mutant that has two reproductive development modes: gynogenesis and bisexual reproduction. little information is available about the expression pattern of the zona pellucida 3 (zp3) gene during ovarian development and the location of the zp3 protein in oocytes of this fish. in this study, we obtained the full-length cdna of zp3 (cap_zp3 ...201324301933
isolation of active compounds from methanol extracts of toddalia asiatica against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (carassius auratus).the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the active components from toddalia asiatica against i. multifiliis. bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of compounds with antiparasitic activity were performed on the methanol extract of t. asiatica yielding two bioactive compounds: chelerythrine and chloroxylonine identified by c ...201424295957
nmr-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (carassius auratus).in this study, a (1)h nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (lct) in goldfish (carassius auratus). lct showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. nmr profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (opls-da) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2d-stocsy) was developed to discern metabol ...201424291083
pathology survey on a captive-bred colony of the mexican goodeid, nearly extinct in the wild, zoogoneticus tequila (webb & miller 1998).the mexican goodeid, zoogoneticus tequila, is considered nearly extinct in the wild and it is maintained in captivity by the nonprofit international "goodeid working group." the unique italian colony has produced about 180 fish so far. the observable diseases were registered and some fish were submitted, immediately after spontaneous death, to necroscopic and histopathologic exams. encountered diseases included the following: 7 cases of scoliosis (2 males and 5 females); 2 fish with a similar co ...201324288481
immune gene discovery in the crucian carp carassius auratus.the crucian carp carassius auratus (cyprinidae) is one of the important fish species in aquaculture. although the crucian carp has several economic benefits, their immune system and gene information have not been investigated in depth as yet. here, we performed the transcriptome analysis of c. auratus using the pyrosequencing method and selected several immune-related genes. of unigenes obtained in this species, we identified a number of immune system-related genes (e.g. adhesive protein, antimi ...201424287371
the environmental regulation of maturation in goldfish, carassius auratus: effects of various led light spectra.while there have been a number of studies on the effects of photoperiod and duration of light and dark exposure, much less information is available on the importance of light intensity. this study investigated the effects of exposure of goldfish, carassius auratus exposed to white fluorescent bulbs, and red (peak at 630nm), and green (530nm) light emitting diodes (leds) at approximately 0.9w/m(2) (12-h light:12-h dark) for four months on a number of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad ( ...201424239668
zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.zinc oxide nanoparticles (zno nps) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. in this study, zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (carassius auratus) after exposure to zno nps were studied in comparison with bulk zno and zn(2+). and the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of zno nps. the results showed that at sublethal zn concent ...201324223767
distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (ocps) in food web of nansi lake, china.the concentration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (ocps) were measured in water, sediment, aquatic plant, and animal (shrimp and fish) of nansi lake by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. the total ocps concentrations were 65.31-100.31 ng l(-1) in water, 2.9-6.91 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 1.29-6.42 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants and 7.57-17.22 ng g(-1) dw in animals. the ocps composition profiles showed that heptachlor compounds was also the predominant ocp ...201424213638
bioconcentration, metabolism, and biomarker responses in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to roxithromycin.to investigate the distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, and biomarker responses of macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (rox) in fish, crucian carp (carassius auratus) were exposed to various concentrations of rox (4, 20, and 100μgl(-1)) for 20d. the rox content in different tissues was quantified using uplc/ms/ms. the liver exhibited the highest rox concentration followed by the bile, gills, and muscle tissues. after 15d of exposure to different concentrations of rox, the bioconcentration ...201424210552
effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, carassius auratus gibelio.nano-selenium (se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. however, the effect of nano-se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate deh ...201324204137
effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of cyp3a cdna, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (carassius auratus).chlorpyrifos (cpf) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. it has been found that cpf is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. in this study, acute toxicity of cpf on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome p450 (cyp) 3a was evaluated after 96 h of cpf exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (lc50 )] or 51 μg l(-1) (1/3 lc50 ) of cpf. meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcho ...201524190793
pyrene-stimulated reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative damage in carassius auratus.laboratory experiments were carried out to understand the toxicology of pyrene in the goldfish carassius auratus and investigate the potential oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ros) in vivo in a time-dependent manner. pyrene bioaccumulation, induction of reactive oxygen species and the consequent biochemical responses in the liver of the fish were examined. fish were exposed to 0.05 mg/l pyrene for different periods. the pyrene concentration in fish liver was analyzed by high ...201424171415
enhanced bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in carp in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.the impact of suspended particles on the bioavailability of pollutants has long been a controversial topic. in this study, adsorption of pentachlorophenol (pcp) onto a natural suspended particulate matter (spm) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts) was studied. facilitated transports of pcp into carp by spm and mwcnts were evaluated by bioaccumulation tests exposing carp (carassius auratus red var.) to pcp-contaminated water in the presence of spm and mwcnts, respectively. desorption of pcp ...201424151027
pb and cd bioaccumulations in the habitat and preys of red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china.pb and cd concentrations in the habitat and preys of the red-crowned crane (i.e., reed rhizomes and three typical aquatic animal families (perccottus glehni dybowski, carassius auratus linnaeus, and viviparidae)) were analyzed to examine the impact of these hazards on red-crowned cranes in northeastern china. results indicated that pb and cd concentrations in the preys of the red-crowned cranes were elevated via food chain. most of the detected pb and cd contents in the sediments were above the ...201324132464
oxidative stress as a mechanism for toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d): studies with goldfish gills.the effects of exposure to the widely used herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), at environmentally permitted (1 mg l(-1)), slightly toxic (10 mg l(-1)), and highly toxic (100 mg l(-1)) concentrations were analyzed in gills of goldfish, carassius auratus, a popular fish model for ecotoxicological research. fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-d concentration and then allowed to recover for further 96 h. ...201324126883
histopathological findings on carassius auratus hepatopancreas upon exposure to acrylamide: correlation with genotoxicity and metabolic alterations.acrylamide is an amide used in several industrial applications making it easily discharged to aquatic ecosystems. the toxicity of acrylamide to aquatic organisms is scarcely known, although previous studies with murine models provided evidence for deleterious effects. to assess the effects of acrylamide to freshwater fish, goldfish (carassius auratus l.) were exposed to several concentrations of waterborne acrylamide and analysed for genotoxic damage, alterations to detoxifying enzymes and histo ...201424122845
pcb-153 and temperature cause restructuring of goldfish membranes: homeoviscous response to a chemical fluidiser.ortho-substituted pcbs intercalate between membrane phospholipids similarly to cholesterol and increase fluidity. ectothermic animals have a well-developed homeoviscous response to counter the fluidising effect of temperature and avoid the disruption of membrane proteins. however, it remains unknown whether chemical fluidisation can also activate a homeoviscous response or interfere with normal acclimation to temperature. the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of membranes from gill, ...201324121159
effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on multiple biomarkers in carassius auratus.to study the biological effects of nanoscale copper oxide (ncuo), zinc oxide (nzno), cerium dioxide (nceo2) and their mixtures on carassius auratus.201324099608
a simple and affordable calorespirometer for assessing the metabolic rates of fishes.calorimetry is the measurement of the heat liberated during energy transformations in chemical reactions. when applied to living organisms, it measures the heat released due to the energy transformations associated with metabolism under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. this is in contrast to the often-used respirometric techniques for assessing energy turnover, which can only be used under fully aerobic conditions. accordingly, calorimetry is considered the 'gold standard' for quantifying ...201324072793
[influence of 175-m-impoundment in three gorges reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang river].the impoundment in the three gorges reservoir area (tgra) was first reached 175 m in 2010. to approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of trga, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, silurus asotus, culter mongolicus mongolicus, mystus macropterus, pelteobagrus vachelli, and pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of xiaojiang river by using s ...201324066562
multibiomarker responses upon exposure to tetrabromobisphenol a in the freshwater fish carassius auratus.tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbpa) is a widely used brominated flame retardant. it has been released into aquatic environments, where it is toxic to aquatic organisms. in the present study, five enzymes, glutathione-s-transferase (gst), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), alanine aminotransferase (alt), udp-glucuronosyltransferase (udpgt), and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (gr) in serum and liver of crucian carp (carassius auratus) were selected for screening. these enzymes may be suitab ...201324055989
a specific genomic organization and a novel promoter sequence for both zp2 and zp3 gene expressions in the pingxiang red transparent crucian carp, carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis.we cloned the full-length cdna of zp2 from carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis (cap_zp2) and identified a cluster of three zp genes through its dna walker. these three genes, cap_zp3.1, cap_zp2 and cap_zp3.2 were located within a 10,855bp region and each comprised of eight exons spanning 1348bp, 1638bp and 1348bp, respectively. protein bands of egg membrane between 40 and 70kda were in concordance with the deduced amino acid of these three cap_zp genes cdna and with their molecular mass. this ...201324029638
biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).in north-east estonia, considerable amounts of toxicants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), phenols, heavy metals) leach into water bodies through discharges from the oil-shale industry. in addition, natural and anthropogenic hypoxic events in water bodies affect the health of aquatic organisms. here we report a study on the combined effects of contaminated sediment and hypoxia on the physiology of gibel carp (carssius auratus gibelio). we conducted a laboratory exposure study that i ...201324018143
serotonin directly stimulates cortisol secretion from the interrenals in goldfish.while serotonin (5-ht) can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal stress axis in fish, the specific site(s) of 5-ht action are poorly understood. in this study, goldfish (carassius auratus) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or the 5-ht1a/7 receptor agonist 8-oh-dpat at a dose of 100 or 400 μg/kg body weight and sampled 1.5 and 8 h post-injection. relative to unhandled controls, the saline and 100 μg/kg 8-oh-dpat treatments elicited similar transient 5- to 7-fold increas ...201324013027
the cytogenetic effects of acrylamide on carassius auratus periperial blood cells.the cytogenetic effects of acrylamide on golden fish carassius auratus peripheral blood cells were investigated in vivo. the fish were exposed to 5, 10, and 20 mg/l acrylamide in water for 96 h. following exposure, peripheral blood samples were obtained to assay for nuclear anomalies and dna damage. acrylamide induced micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies including binuclei, nucleoplasm-bridged nuclei, and nuclear buds. the frequencies of these nuclear anomalies were significantly higher after ...201324007743
histochemical detection of steroid synthesizing cells in the testes of goldfish, carassius auratus, during the annual reproductive cycle.we investigated the sites of δ(5)-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 β-hsd) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g-6-pd) synthesis in the testes of goldfish, carassius auratus, during the annual reproductive cycle. the histochemistry of fish gonads has been investigated previously in many species other than goldfish. the reproductive cycle of goldfish, is divided into five stages and the steroid synthesizing cells of the testes were studied during these stages, using histochemical techniques. ...201423957701
remarks on the validity of myxobolus ampullicapsulatus and myxobolus honghuensis (myxozoa: myxosporea) based on ssu rdna sequences.in the present study, we isolated three populations of myxobolus ampullicapsulatus from the gills of crucian carp, carassius auratus auratus, two from yongchuan, chongqing area and one from poyang lake, jiangxi area, china, sequenced their complete small subunit ribosome rna gene, analyzed their genetic distance and gene similarity, and explored their relationship based on bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of their small subunit ribosomal dna. the results combined with their mor ...201323955564
molecular characterization and expression analysis of three membrane-bound complement regulatory protein isoforms in the ginbuna crucian carp carassius auratus langsdorfii.regulators of complement activation (rca) play a role in protecting cells from excessive complement activation in humans. cdna corresponding to three isoforms of teleost membrane-bound rca protein (gtecrem) have been identified in the ginbuna crucian carp. gtecrem-1 consists of seven short consensus repeats (scrs), whereas gtecrem-2 and gtecrem-3 have four scrs. while gtecrem-1 possesses a tyrosine phosphorylation site in its cytoplasmic region, gtecrem-2 and gtecrem-3 lack the site. tissue dist ...201323954695
thelohanellus testudineus n. sp. (myxosporea: bivalvulida) infecting the skin of allogynogenetic gibel carp carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in china.a thelohanellus species was encountered during a survey on thelohanellus diversity of carassius auratus gibelio (bloch) in china. the infection is characterized by the presence of large cysts of 1.4-3.2 cm in diameter in the skin of host. mature spores were ampullaceous in frontal view and testudinate in lateral view, measuring 19.7 ± 0.7 (18.6-20.8) μm long, 7.6 ± 0.4 (6.6-8.4) μm wide and 7.3 ± 0.5 (6.6-8.8) μm thick. the single polar capsule was elongated pyriform, with 11.1 ± 0.5 (10.0-11.9) ...201423952737
exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (carassius auratus).the thyroid hormones (ths) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (t3) and l-thyroxine (t4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. to elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (mcp), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total t3 (tt3), total t4 (tt4), free t3 (ft3) and free t4 levels, and the mrna expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (hpt axis) were exa ...201323948368
comparative antioxidant responses in liver of carassius auratus exposed to phthalates: an integrated biomarker approach.phthalates (paes) are chemical agents typically used as plasticizers in numerous industrial products. they have become ubiquitous contaminants due to their tendency to release into the environment. the present study was conducted to investigate the comparative antioxidant responses in liver of freshwater goldfish carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with 17 different paes at a concentration of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. the results indicated that these paes can adversely affect the antioxidan ...201323938764
[functions of metallothioneins and a system of antioxidant defense under the effect of co- and zn-containing nanocomposites on crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio)].the effect of metal-nanocomposites (me-nc) of cobalt and zinc (co- and zn-nc, correspondingly) synthecized on the basis of vinylpyrrolidone (ps) on the metal-accumulative proteins with antioxidant potential metallothioneins (mt) in crucian carp (carassius auratus gibelio) was studied. fish was subjected to the effect of co-nc, zn-nc, co2+, zn2+ or polymer carrier (pc) in the concentrations correspondent to 50 microg x co/l or 100 microg x zn/l during 14 days. it was shown that the mts response i ...201523937048
liver alterations in two freshwater fish species (carassius auratus and danio rerio) following exposure to different tio₂ nanoparticle concentrations.the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tio₂ nps) and oxidative stress effects were studied in two freshwater fish species (carassius auratus and danio rerio) exposed for 21 days to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100/mgl) of tio₂ nps and to a control (tap water). additional fish were transferred to clean water for 14 days to assess the ability to recover from exposure to tio₂ nps. activities of the enzyme glutathione-s-transferase (gst) and lipid peroxidation (lpo) (malondia ...201323931156
expression regulation of zebrafish interferon regulatory factor 9 by promoter analysis.we previously showed that a fish interferon (ifn) regulatory factor 9 (irf9) homologue, crucian carp carassius auratus irf9, displays constitutively nuclear localization and involvement in fish ifn-dependent jak-stat signaling; however, little is known about the expression regulation of fish irf9. here, we characterized the expression of zebrafish irf9 by promoter analysis. zebrafish irf9 gene promoter contained several putative transcription factor binding sites, including one isre (ifn-stimula ...201323916490
comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: a combined experimental and theoretical study.decabromodiphenyl ether (bde-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) brominated flame retardants (bfrs), such as tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbpa), hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd), decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe), hexabromobenzene (hbb) and pentabromotoluene (pbt), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. however, data on comparative toxicological effects of these bfrs are lacking for fish. in this study, a combined experimental and theoretic ...201323880106
assessment of in vivo estrogenic response and identification of environmental estrogens in influent and effluent from a sewage treatment plant.the in vivo estrogenic response and estrogenic contents of the influent and effluent collected from a sewage treatment plant located in jiaozuo were assessed. the bioassay showed significant serum vitellogenin (vtg) induction in all the treated male goldfish (carassius auratus) and significant gonad atrophies were only observed in the fish induced the most vtg expressions. six target estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol and bisphenol a) were d ...201323877625
regional innervation of the heart in the goldfish, carassius auratus: a confocal microscopy study.the intracardiac nervous system represents the final common pathway for autonomic control of the vertebrate heart in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. in teleost fishes, details of the organization of this system are not well understood. here we investigated innervation patterns in the heart of the goldfish, a species representative of a large group of cyprinids. we used antibodies against the neuronal markers zn-12, acetylated tubulin, and human neuronal protein c/d, as well as choline ac ...201423853005
oxidative stress biomarkers in freshwater fish carassius auratus exposed to decabromodiphenyl ether and ethane, or their mixture.decabromodiphenyl ether (bde-209) and its commercial alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) are two structurally similar brominated flame retardants, with evidence of their ubiquitous existence in aquatic ecosystems. the present study was conducted to investigate the hepatic oxidative stress inducing potential of bde-209, dbdpe, and their mixture in carassius auratus after exposure to different doses (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. results showed that oxidative stress was evo ...201323839511
effects of hypoxia-induced gill remodelling on the innervation and distribution of ionocytes in the gill of goldfish, carassius auratus.the presence of an interlamellar cell mass (ilcm) on the gills of goldfish acclimated to 7°c leads to preferential distribution of branchial ionocytes to the distal edges of the ilcm, where they are likely to remain in contact with the water and hence remain functional. upon exposure to hypoxia, the ilcm retracts, and the ionocytes become localized to the lamellar surfaces and on the filament epithelium, owing to their migration and the differentiation of new ionocytes from progenitor cells. her ...201423818320
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