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a model for the upstream motion of elvers in the adour river.the aim of this paper is contributing to the study of the exploitation of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) in the basin of the french river 'adour'. this exploitation constitutes the basis of the economy of local professional fishermen, who have recently noticed a diminution of the hunting of elvers. in order to design a sustainable exploitation strategy, we must know as much as possible about eel life cycle. for that purpose, we build a model to describe a phase of eels evolution, their mig ...200515861824
cloning and expression of three aquaporin homologues from the european eel (anguilla anguilla): effects of seawater acclimation and cortisol treatment on renal expression.the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is able to osmoregulate over a wide range of environmental salinities from fw (freshwater) to hyperconcentrated sw (seawater). successful acclimation is associated with strict regulation of ion and water transport pathways within key osmoregulatory epithelia to enable animals to survive the dehydrating or oedematous conditions. these observations suggested that homologues of the aqp (aquaporin) water channel family were expressed in the eel and that these pro ...200515850452
in vitro effect of hydrostatic pressure exposure on hydroxyl radical production in fish red muscle.the effects of hydrostatic pressure on reactive oxygen species (ros) production have been studied in vitro on fish red muscle fibres. in the eel, anguilla anguilla, previous studies have shown that hydrostatic pressure acclimatization improves oxidative phosphorylation efficiency together with a supposed concomitant decrease in electron leak and ros production. in order to test the hypothesis of an electron leak decrease under pressure, hydroxyl radical (ho*) production and oxygen consumption we ...200515829108
cryopreservation of european eel (anguilla anguilla) sperm using different extenders and cryoprotectants. short communication.experiments were carried out on the sperm cryopreservation of artificially induced eels. the effects of several extenders and two cryoprotectants on the motility of spermatozoa were investigated. the highest post-thaw motility was observed with the combination of tanaka's extender and dmso as cryoprotectant. further dilution after thawing resulted in complete loss of motility in samples frozen in presence of dmso while sperm frozen with methanol as cryoprotectant retained its motility after furt ...200515813226
the testis histology of artificially maturated european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) at the end of sexual maturation, and spermatozoa ultrastructure in freshwater rearing. short communication.the artificial induction of sexual maturation of european eel males was carried out by using weekly hcg administrations. histological pictures showed that the testis tissues developed and regressed naturally and no pathological changes took place under the conditions of artificial rearing in freshwater. according to light and electron microscopic investigations the morphology and motility of the spermatozoa of males kept in freshwater proved to be similar to those in seawater. the authors suppos ...200515813225
hematology patterns of migrating european eels and the role of evex virus.we show that european eels infected with the rhabdovirus evex (eel virus european x) virus, developed hemorrhage and anemia during simulated migration in large swim tunnels, and died after 1000-1500 km. in contrast, virus-negative animals swam 5500 km, the estimated distance to the spawning ground of the european eel in the sargasso sea. virus-positive eels showed a decline in hematocrit, which was related to the swim distance. virus-negative eels showed a slightly increased hematocrit. observed ...200515792628
growth rate correlates to individual heterozygosity in the european eel, anguilla anguilla l.heterozygosity-fitness correlations (hfcs) have been reported in populations of many species. we provide evidence for a positive correlation between genetic variability and growth rate at 12 allozyme loci in a catadromous marine fish species, the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.). more heterozygous individuals show a significantly higher length and weight increase and an above average condition index in comparison with more homozygous individuals. to a lesser extent, six microsatellite loci sh ...200515792238
eel migration to the sargasso: remarkably high swimming efficiency and low energy costs.one of the mysteries of the animal kingdom is the long-distance migration (5000-6000 km) of the european eel anguilla anguilla l. from the coasts of europe to its spawning grounds in the sargasso sea. the only evidence for the location of the spawning site of the european eel in the sargasso sea is the discovery by johannes schmidt at the beginning of the previous century of the smallest eel larvae (leptocephali) near the sargasso sea. for years it has been questioned whether the fasting eels ha ...200515781893
histochemical analysis of glycoconjugate secretion in the alimentary canal of anguilla anguilla l.conventional histochemical methods as well as lectin-binding techniques were used to study glycoconjugates that are present in the alimentary canal of the european eel (anguilla anguilla). specimens from pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestine were collected from adult ("silver eel" stage) females. alcian blue ph 2.5/pas and high iron diamine/alcian blue ph 2.5 reactions were performed to stain neutral and acidic glycoconjugates. in addition, lectin histochemistry was applied to identify acid ...200515707657
hypotonicity induced k+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium.control of cell volume is a fundamental and highly conserved physiological mechanism, essential for survival under varying environmental and metabolic conditions. epithelia (such as intestine, renal tubule, gallbladder and gills) are tissues physiologically exposed to osmotic stress. therefore, the activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. the aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt- ...200515695766
cell volume regulation following hypotonic stress in the intestine of the eel, anguilla anguilla, is ca2+-dependent.the involvement of ca2+ in the regulatory volume decrease (rvd) mechanism was studied in both isolated enterocytes and intestine of the eel, anguilla anguilla. videometric methods and electrophysiological techniques were respectively employed. the isolated enterocytes rapidly swelled following a change from isotonic (315 mosm/kg) to hypotonic (180 mosm/kg) saline solutions. afterwards, they tended to recover their original size. this homeostatic response was inhibited both in the absence of extr ...200515694583
distribution and fate of hbcd and tbbpa brominated flame retardants in north sea estuaries and aquatic food webs.tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbpa) and hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (alpha-, beta/-, and gamma-hbcd) were investigated in effluents from sewage treatment works, landfill leachates, sediments, and food web organisms of the north sea basin. residues were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. both flame retardants were enriched in sewage sludges, where a maximum total (sigma) hbcd concentration of 9.1 mg/kg (dry weight; d.w.) was found; tbbpa was at levels of 102 microg/kg. l ...200415575264
ph regulation and swimbladder function in fish.gas gland cells of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) are specialized for the production and secretion of acidic metabolites. although typically exposed to high oxygen partial pressures, they convert glucose mainly into lactate, but also produce co2 in the pentose phosphate shunt. only a very small fraction of glucose is oxidized via aerobic metabolism. although the buffer capacity of gas gland cells appears to be high, even at low extracellular ph values intracellular ph is always kept about ...200415556101
structure and glycosylation of the term yolk sac placenta and uterine attachment site in the viviparous shark mustelus canis.the viviparous shark mustelus canis nurtures its young within the uterus by means of a modified yolk sac which functions as a placenta. two term specimens have been examined with a panel of 21 biotinylated lectins to assess whether glycans form a prominent interface between fetal and maternal tissues as in their therian counterparts. the yolk sac placenta was lined by a thin egg envelope which apposed though did not make contact with the uterine epithelium, and expressed fucosyl, n-acetyl glucos ...200415451197
functional recovery and axonal growth following spinal cord transection is accelerated by sustained l-dopa administration.the eel, anguilla anguilla, as with other fish species, recovers well from spinal cord injury. we assessed the quality of locomotion of spinally transected eels from measurements made from video recordings of individuals swimming at different speeds in a water tunnel. following transection of the spinal cord just caudal to the anus, the animals displayed higher tail beat frequencies and lower tail beat amplitudes than before surgery, owing to the loss of power in this region. swimming performanc ...200415450079
temporal and spatial patterns of nestedness in eel macroparasite communities.a nested (non-random) species composition was observed among the intestinal macroparasite communities of european eels, anguilla anguilla. nestedness was observed in 8 out of 10 component community samples from the rivers thames and test between april 2000 and october 2001. parasite component communities consisted of mainly generalist and specialist, but also accidental species, and included acanthocephalans, cestodes, nematodes and digeneans. nestedness was observed when component population si ...200415376779
applying dna techniques to the identification of the species of dressed toasted eel products.to differentiate the species of processed eel products, the gene identification of four fresh eel species was first established and the species of eel products collected from markets were investigated. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequence analysis were used to determine the genetic variation in a 362-nucleotide region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in four fresh eels including anguilla japonica, anguilla anguilla, anguilla rostrata, and muraenesox cinereus. it was found that each ...200415366851
cloning and developmental expression of the cytochrome p450 aromatase gene (cyp19) in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).to characterize the involvement of the aromatase gene during the process of sex determination in the european eel (anguilla anguilla), the expression of its gonadal form was determined during various developmental stages. the cloned cdna from the european eel gonad (eecyp19) contains an open reading frame of 1539 bp, encoding a deduced protein of 513 residues. the predicted amino acid sequence shows 97% identity with that of the japanese eel, and 59-69% of identity with those of the cyp19 gonada ...200415364210
magnetic sense in the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, as determined by conditioning and electrocardiography.magnetosensitivity of the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, was examined by conditioning and electrocardiography. marine eels, river eels and farmed eels were conditioned to an imposed magnetic field ranging from 12,663 nt to 192,473 nt parallel to the fish body, which was placed along the earth's west-east axis. electrocardiograms were recorded with electrodes placed close to the fish body inside a pvc pipe shelter. after 10-40 conditioning runs, all the eels exhibited a significant conditioned ...200415277551
cardiac morphodynamic remodelling in the growing eel (anguilla anguilla l.).the morphodynamic changes occurring during growth were evaluated in the eel (anguilla anguilla l.) heart. using an in vitro working heart preparation, cardiac performance of small (body mass 96.76 +/- 27.49 g; mean +/- s.d.) and large (body mass 656 +/- 12 g; mean +/- s.d.) eels was compared under basal conditions and under loading (i.e. preload and afterload) challenges. a parallel morphometric evaluation of the ventricle was made using light and transmission electron microscope images. the sma ...200415235015
dopamine inhibits luteinizing hormone synthesis and release in the juvenile european eel: a neuroendocrine lock for the onset of puberty.in various adult teleost fishes, lh ovulatory peak is under a dual neurohormonal control that is stimulatory by gnrh and inhibitory by dopamine (da). we investigated whether da could also be involved in the inhibitory control of lh at earlier steps of gametogenesis by studying the model of the european eel, anguilla anguilla, which remains at a prepubertal stage until the oceanic reproductive migration. according to a protocol previously developed in the striped bass, eels received sustained tre ...200415229141
[avoidance of injuries to migrating fish by hydropower and water intake plants].every year numerous downstream migrating fish are lethally injured by hydro power plants and inlet works. especially the katadromous eel (anguilla anguilla) and anadromous species like atlantic salmon (salmo salar), which have to migrate downstream into the ocean for closing their life cycle, are highly endangered. due to their specific migratory behavioral pattern, size and morphology conventional protection techniques, like screens do not properly keep them out from getting into the power plan ...200415195958
anguilla anguilla l. genotoxic and liver biotransformation responses to abietic acid exposure.adult eels (anguilla anguilla l.) were exposed for 8, 16, 24, and 72 h to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, and 2.7 microm abietic acid (aa). genotoxicity was measured as erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ena), as well as dna strand breaks in blood and liver. liver cytochrome p450 (p450) content, liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod), and glutathione s-transferase (gst) activities were determined as biotransformation biomarkers. liver alanine transaminase (alt) activity was also measured as an indication ...200415157574
patterns of infracommunity species richness in eels, anguilla anguilla.between october 1999 and october 2001, a total of 510 european eels anguilla anguilla were captured in 13 different samples from the rivers thames (five locations) and test (one location) in southern england. the relationship between parasite component community species richness (ccr) and maximum infracommunity species richness (icrmax) compared with that previously observed in bird and mammal hosts. specifically, the maximum number of parasite species occurring in infracommunities equalled or e ...200415153286
[an antagonist to gnrh in the control of reproduction in teleost fish: dopaminergic inhibition. ancestral origin and differential conservation within vertebrates?].in mammals, the neurohormonal control of the pituitary gonadotropes is provided by the gonadoliberin gnrh. several studies on teleost fish indicate that a single positive control by gnrh is not a general rule among vertebrates. peter and colleagues presented the first evidence of an inhibitory neurohormonal factor, "grif" (gonadotropin-release inhibiting factor). they induced a preovulatory lh surge by injuring particular brain areas in the goldfish. subsequent in vivo and in vitro studies ident ...200415146957
enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants as an adaptation to phagocyte-induced damage in anguilla anguilla l. following in situ harbor water exposure.anguilla anguilla l. were caged for 8 and 48 h in harbor water of aveiro lagoon, portugal. respiratory burst activity (rba) of peritoneal, head kidney, and gill phagocytes was measured. lipid peroxidation (lpo) was estimated in gill, kidney, and liver. liver ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, cytochrome p450 (cyt p450) content, and bile metabolites were assayed. various antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione s-transferase and nonenzymatic antioxid ...200415041252
water transport and aquaporins in the european eel (anguilla anguilla). 200214992144
anguilla anguilla l. antioxidants responses to in situ bleached kraft pulp mill effluent outlet exposure.this study assesses the antioxidant enzymes activities viz., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferase and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecule such as glutathione in anguilla anguilla l. gill, kidney and liver in response to 8- and 48-h exposure to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (bkpme). a. anguilla were caged and plunged at three different sites-50 (site 1), 100 (site 2) and 2000 m (site 3) away from the closed bkpme outlet. a significant gill (8 and 48 h) and kidney (48 h) c ...200414987859
cloning of the cdna for thyroid stimulating hormone beta subunit and changes in activity of the pituitary-thyroid axis during silvering of the japanese eel, anguilla japonica.the purposes of this study were: (1) to clone the cdna encoding pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (tsh beta) of the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, together with its genomic dna sequence, for phylogenetic analysis, and to study the regulation of the tsh beta gene expression in cultured pituitaries; and (2) to investigate the transcript levels of pituitary tsh beta mrna and the serum thyroxine profiles at different stages of ovarian development before and during silvering in the ...200414766001
parasite infracommunity diversity in eels: a reflection of local component community diversity.the intestinal macroparasite communities of freshwater eels (anguilla anguilla) captured in the south of england from windsor (river thames) during august 2001, and leckford (river test) during late june/july 2000, are reported for the first time. parasite component communities were among the most species rich and diverse recorded from european eels. a total of 13 intestinal macroparasite species were encountered during the study, 8 from each eel host population with 3 being common to both. acan ...200314653536
safety of azamethiphos in eel, seabass and trout.the safety of azamethiphos (aza), an organophosphorous insecticide and the active ingredient of salmosan, was evaluated in the european eel, seabass and rainbow trout. fish were bathed in 0.1 ppm aza for a period of 60, 120 or 240 min. after termination of each treatment fish were transferred to clean aquaria and randomly sampled over 21 days. compared to controls, brain acetylcholinesterase (ache) was inhibited up to 44, 56 and 62% in eels, seabass and trout, respectively, with the inhibition b ...200414643697
cl- absorption in european eel intestine and its regulation.the intestinal epithelium of the euryhaline teleost fish, anguilla anguilla, absorbs cl(-) transepithelially. this gives rise to a negative transepithelial potential at the basolateral side of the epithelium and to a measured short circuit current. cl(-) absorption occurs via bumetanide-sensitive na(+)-k(+)-2cl(-) cotransport, localized on the luminal membrane. the cotransport operates in parallel with a luminal k(+) conductance that recycles the ion into the lumen. cl(-) leaves the cell across ...200314598387
anguilla anguilla l. plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose responses to abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and retene.anguilla anguilla l. were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 microm abietic (aa), dehydroabietic (dhaa) acids and retene (re) during 8, 16, 24 and 72 h. the eels plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate were measured. a significant decrease in plasma cortisol was observed at 72 h exposure to 0.9 and 2.7 microm re. dhaa (0.1 microm) significantly decreased plasma cortisol in eels after 8 and 24 h exposure. however, a significant plasma cortisol increase was found after 16 h, 2.7 microm aa exposure a ...200414592577
genotoxic and biochemical responses in caged eel (anguilla anguilla l.) after short-term exposure to harbour waters.european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) were caged and exposed in situ for 8 and 48 h to the aveiro offward fishing harbour water (hw) and to clean seawater under laboratory conditions (control). eel liver biotransformation (phase i) was measured as ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, cytochrome p450 (p450) and glutathione s-transferase (gst) activity (phase ii). genotoxic responses were determined as blood, liver and kidney dna strand breaks as well as erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities ( ...200414592569
eel atpase activity as biomarker of thiobencarb exposure.european eels (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to a sublethal thiobencarb concentration of 0.22 mg/l in a flow-through system for 96 h. mg(2+) and na(+)-k(+) adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) activities were evaluated in gill and muscle tissues at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of thiobencarb exposure. gill atpase activities were rapidly inhibited from 2h of contact onward. highest inhibition was registered for na(+), k(+)-atpase (85%) from 2 to 12h. both mg(2+) and total atpase were inhibited (>73 ...200314575684
accumulation and distribution of platinum and rhodium in the european eel anguilla anguilla following aqueous exposure to metal salts.the platinum group metals (pgm) pt and rh are emitted into the environment mainly by catalytic exhaust gas converters of cars and by effluents of hospitals, which use pt based anti-cancer drugs. however, there is still a lack of information on the availability of these precious metals to the biosphere. as pgm accumulate in sediments of aquatic ecosystems we focused our study on the uptake of the noble metals by european eels, anguilla anguilla. therefore, eels were exposed in tap water and humic ...200414568719
fish tolerance to organophosphate-induced oxidative stress is dependent on the glutathione metabolism and enhanced by n-acetylcysteine.dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, ddvp) is an organophosphorus (op) insecticide and acaricide extensively used to treat external parasitic infections of farmed fish. in previous studies we have demonstrated the importance of the glutathione (gsh) metabolism in the resistance of the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) to thiocarbamate herbicides. the present work studied the effects of the antioxidant and glutathione pro-drug n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac) on the survival of a natural ...200314568351
cloning of european eel (anguilla anguilla) fsh-beta subunit, and expression of fsh-beta and lh-beta in males and females after sex determination.the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is a catadromic teleost species with a complex life cycle, both in sea and freshwater environments. the sex determination phase of gonadal development occurs in a freshwater environment. polymorphism occurs in increasing rates with respect to gender. while males stop growing at approximately 150 g, females continue to grow to being much larger. in this study, we cloned the cdna fsh-beta subunit of the european eel (a. anguilla), and measured the mrna levels o ...200314529754
increased recovery of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in dichlorvos-intoxicated european eels anguilla anguilla by bath treatment with n-acetylcysteine.organophosphate (op) pesticides are widely used as antiparasitic chemicals in finfish aquaculture. however, current antidotes cannot be applied to treat intoxicated fish. we showed in previous studies the importance of glutathione (gsh) metabolism in pesticide resistance of the european eel anguilla anguilla l. the present work studied the effects of the antioxidant and glutathione pro-drug n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac) on the recovery of european eels exposed for 96 h to a sublethal concentration ( ...200313677510
growth differences and growth hormone expression in male and female european eels [anguilla anguilla (l.)].in this study, we examined the growth differences of males and females following a sex reversion, and the growth hormone (gh) expression variation between sexes of european eels [anguilla anguilla (l.)]. a high percentage of females (88%) was found in the group fed with estradiol 17beta compared to the control group (comprised of only 6% female eels), which was defined as the male population. significant differences between growth rate and size were found following 480 days of growth, whereby th ...200313129507
integrating enzymatic responses to organic chemical exposure with total oxyradical absorbing capacity and dna damage in the european eel anguilla anguilla.in this work, susceptibility to oxidative stress was analyzed under laboratory conditions in the european eel anguilla anguilla. eels were treated with increasing concentrations of benchmark environmental pollutants, namely, benzo[a]pyrene ([bap], at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg), beta-naphthoflavone ([bnf], at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg), arochlor 1254 (at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin ([tcdd], at 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 2 microg/kg). the integral relationsh ...200312959540
study on pcbs, pcdd/fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the river turia (spain).in this study samples of common trout, european eel and barbel have been analysed for the levels of heavy metals such as lead (pb), cadmium (cd), zinc (zn), copper (cu), and the metalloid arsenic (as). polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), including three non-ortho substituted pcbs, 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs) and ddt and its two main metabolites were also analysed in some selected samples, in order to evaluate the extent of co ...200312892679
multi-element speciation of metalloproteins in fish tissue using size-exclusion chromatography coupled "on-line" with icp-isotope dilution-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.an on-line isotope dilution (id) method in combination with the coupling of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (se-hplc) to an axial inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer (icp-tofms) was applied to the quantitative speciation of cu, zn and cd in carp and eel cytosols. quantitative information on the distribution of essential and toxic metals between the different molecular weight fractions in kidney cytosols of control and cd exposed carp was obtained wit ...200312866883
angiotensin ii-induced inotropism requires an endocardial endothelium-nitric oxide mechanism in the in-vitro heart of anguilla anguilla.using an isolated working heart preparation we show that angiotensin ii (ang ii), at concentrations of 10(-10)-10(-7) mol l(-1), elicits negative chronotropism and inotropism in the freshwater eel anguilla anguilla. the negative inotropism was insensitive to losartan and cgp42112 (at(1) and at(2) ang ii receptor antagonists, respectively), and was abrogated by the at(1) receptor antagonist cv11974, the g protein blocker pertussis toxin (ptx) and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. in contrast, i ...200312819273
expression of two isoforms of the vacuolar-type atpase subunit b in the zebrafish danio rerio.in the present study we tested the hypothesis that two isoforms of the regulatory subunit b of vacuolar-type atpase (v-atpase) are expressed in the zebrafish danio rerio. the complete coding sequences for both isoforms, vatb1 and vatb2, were cloned and sequenced. blastx analysis revealed the greatest similarity to amino acid sequences of b subunits from the european eel anguilla anguilla and rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss. the isoforms were expressed in a bacterial system and the recombinant ...200312728012
decline of north atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. we recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. in this study, we extended the analysis to the american eel (a. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. results obtained for the american eel were in sharp contr ...200312713741
genotoxic and hepatic biotransformation responses induced by the overflow of pulp mill and secondary-treated effluents on anguilla anguilla l.pulp and paper mill effluent compounds pollute the aquatic environment and are responsible for increased biochemical alterations and genotoxicity in aquatic organisms such as fish. adult eels (anguilla anguilla l) were exposed during 8, 16, 24, and 72 h to the following conditions: (1) aerated, filtered, and dechlorinated tap water (c); (2) 2.5% (v/v) sewage water previously treated with activated sludge (t); (3) bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluent collected at the river vouga, close to ...200312706401
anguilla anguilla l. liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylation, glutathione s-transferase, erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities, and endocrine responses to naphthalene and beta-naphthoflavone.the effects of naphthalene (nap) and beta-naphthoflavone (bnf) on phase i biotransformation and genotoxicity in anguilla anguilla l. were evaluated. phase ii biotransformation and cortisol levels were also assessed in nap-treated fish. two groups of eels were exposed to either a nap or a bnf concentration range (0.1-2.7 microm) for different exposure periods (2-72 h). an early significant ethoxyresorufin o-deethylation (erod) activity inhibition was observed, especially for the highest nap conce ...200312706398
induction of erod activity in european eel (anguilla anguilla) experimentally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone.the induction of liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity was investigated in the european eel, anguilla anguilla, collected from a mediterranean brackish environment and experimentally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (b[a]p) and beta-naphthoflavone (bnf). eels were injected intraperitoneally at increasing doses (0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg wet body weight) using corn oil as a carrier and sacrificed after 7 days. the main objectives of the present study are: (1). to assess of the sensitivity of ...200312705944
tolerance of chronic hypercapnia by the european eel anguilla anguilla.european eels were exposed for 6 weeks to water co(2) partial pressures (p(co)(2)) from ambient (approx. 0.8 mmhg), through 15+/-1 mmhg and 30+/-1 mmhg to 45+/-1 mmhg in water with a total hardness of 240 mg l(-1) as caco(3), ph 8.2, at 23+/-1 degrees c. arterial plasma p(co)(2) equilibrated at approximately 2 mmhg above water p(co)(2) in all groups, and plasma bicarbonate accumulated up to 72 mmol l(-1) in the group at a water p(co)(2) of 45 mmhg. this was associated with an equimolar loss of p ...200312682103
internal redistribution of radiolabelled silver among tissues of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and european eel (anguilla anguilla): the influence of silver speciation.influence of water ag(i) speciation on pharmacokinetics of ag(i) during a post-exposure period was investigated in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and european eel (anguilla anguilla). the rainbow trout is sensitive to waterborne ionic ag(+) whereas the eel is tolerant. the fish were acclimated to either of two chloride concentrations, 10 or 1200 microm, in synthetic soft water and then exposed to a sublethal 24-h pulse of 1.3 microgl(-1) of 110mag(i) added as 110magno(3) in these waters. th ...200312657489
immunocytochemical studies on the pituitary gland of anguilla anguilla l., in relation to early growth stages and diet-induced sex differentiation.mammalian and teleost antisera against pituitary hormones were used to identify and localize pituitary cell types in the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.). the investigation was conducted on unpigmented glass eels of 5.6-6.2 of total body length (l(t)) caught in river mouths, then on yellow eels reared from the pigmented glass eel (or elver) stage up to 12-14 cm of l(t), in an eel farm in warm freshwater. treated elvers were fed with commercial paste food supplemented with mature carp ovaries, ...200312620249
g proteins immunodetection and adrenergic transduction pathways in the liver of anguilla anguilla.g proteins are members of a highly conserved superfamily of gtpases, which includes heterotrimeric (alpha, beta, gamma) proteins acting as critical control points for transmembrane signaling. in ectothermal vertebrates, knowledge about these proteins is scarce, and our work provides the first demonstration that g(s), g(q), and g(i) proteins are all present in the liver of a fish. g(q)alpha subunits of about 42 kda have been identified in european eel (anguilla anguilla) liver membranes, supporti ...201312601617
naphthalene-induced differential tissue damage association with circulating fish phagocyte induction.the effect of naphthalene on phagocytes and associated abnormal cellular activities was studied in anguilla anguilla l. fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 2.7 microm) of naphthalene for 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h. gill, head kidney, and peritoneum phagocyte respiratory burst activity (rba) was measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assay, whereas lipid peroxidation in fish gill, kidney, and liver was measured by thiobarbituric acid reaction substance. a significant i ...200312547629
the acanthocephalan paratenuisentis ambiguus as a sensitive indicator of the precious metals pt and rh from automobile catalytic converters.recent studies revealed that intestinal acanthocephalans of fish can accumulate heavy metals to concentrations orders of magnitude higher than those in the host tissues or the aquatic environment. this significant heavy metal accumulation by acanthocephalans, even surpassing that of established free living accumulation bioindicators, encouraged us to study the bioavailability of the platinum-group-metals (pgm) pt and rh for parasites. these precious metals are used in catalytic converters of car ...200312547529
biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopathological effects of environmental contaminants in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.).a prolonged toxicity study was carried out in young european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants, namely, two individual standard compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (bap) and dehydroabietic acid (dhaa), and a complex mixture, bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (bkpme). fish were exposed to bap (0.22, 0.45, and 0.9 microm) and bkpme (3.12%, 6.25%, and 12.5% (v/v)) for 3, 7, and 30 days and to dhaa (0.07, 0.15, and 0.30 microm) for 3, 7, 30, 90, and 180 days. the ...200212485576
anguilla anguilla l. biochemical and genotoxic responses to benzo[a]pyrene.eels (anguilla anguilla l.) were exposed for 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, 144, and 216 h to 0 (control), 0.3, 0.9, and 2.7 microm benzo[a]pyrene (bap). the biotransformation induced by bap was measured as liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity and cytochrome p450 content, and compared with the genotoxic effects, such as erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ena), and blood and liver dna strand breaks. the liver exhibited a highly significant erod activity increase from 2 up to 216 h exp ...200212481863
electrophoretic and morphological differentiation of three sympatric species of the genus lecithochirium (trematoda: hemiuridae), parasites of marine fishes.three sympatric species of the genus lecithochirium, lecithochirium fusiforme, lecithochirium rufoviride and lecithochirium musculus, parasites of conger conger and anguilla anguilla, were compared morphologically and electrophoretically. the three species can be discriminated by enzyme analysis, and differentiation can also be made by the analysis of several morphometric features, in particular body size and sucker ratio. fourteen enzyme systems representing 15 loci were examined by starch gel ...200212444455
two isoforms of the na+/k+/2cl- cotransporter are expressed in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).two cdna isoforms of the nkcc1 secretory cotransporter have been isolated from the european eel. the nkcc1a isoform exhibited mrna expression in a wide range of tissues in a similar fashion to mammals, whereas nkcc1b was expressed primarily in the brain. the effect of freshwater (fw) to seawater (sw) transfer on nkcc1a expression was dependent on the developmental stage. in non-migratory yellow eels, nkcc1a mrna expression in the gill was transiently up-regulated 4.3-fold after 2 days but also s ...200212421541
cd2+ and hg2+ affect glucose release and camp-dependent transduction pathway in isolated eel hepatocytes.isolated hepatocytes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) have been used as experimental model to characterize the effects of cd(2+) and hg(2+) on either basal or epinephrine-stimulated glucose release. cd(2+) strongly reduced glucose output from cells perifused in biogel p4 columns and challenged with epinephrine, with a maximum inhibition of 95% reached at 10 microm (ic(50) 0.04 microm). the epinephrine-stimulated glucose output was also reduced by hg(2+), although a significant inhibition ...200312413794
preliminary investigations on vitellogenin m-rna induction in some bioindicator mediterranean fish species.this paper describes the development of a rt-pcr method for assaying vtg gene expression in different marine fish as a potentially valuable and sensitive biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. the levels of vtg mrna have been analyzed using primers specifically designed for the various species and the procedures have been standardized relative to actine mrna expression levels. different species were analyzed including organisms with a great potential as bioindicators in the mediterranean ...201512408634
induction of dna strand breakage and apoptosis in the eel anguilla anguilla.the ability of benzo[a]pyrene, aroclor 1254, 2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and beta-naphthoflavone to induce dna strand breaks (sb) and apoptosis in erythrocytes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) was investigated following by in vivo exposure. dna damage was evaluated by the comet assay, while the diffusion assay was used to investigate the induction of apoptosis 7 days after a single intraperitoneal administration. 2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induced the highest genotoxic ef ...201612408611
induction of cytosolic glutathione s-transferases from atlantic eel (anguilla anguilla) after intraperitoneal treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls.glutathione s-transferases (gst) are phase ii biotransformation enzymes influenced by exposure to foreign compounds and are proposed as biomarkers of environmental pollution. the hepatic and renal cytosolic gst isoenzymes from juvenile atlantic eels were isolated and partially characterized. in both organs, three different gst isoenzymes were purified using hplc and the final subcellular purified fraction resulted in enzymatic subunits of approximately 24,500 da. total gst activity was significa ...200212389786
naphthalene and beta-naphthoflavone effects on anguilla anguilla l. hepatic metabolism and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities.the effects of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) such as naphthalene (nap)--an environmental contaminant--and beta-naphthoflavone (bnf)--a model substance (pah-like compound)--were investigated in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) over 3-, 6-, and 9-day exposure (0.1-2.7 microm). both xenobiotics revealed to be strong biotransformation (phase i) inducers. after 3-day exposure, liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity was significantly increased by all nap and bnf tested concent ...200212220115
allozyme markers for the identification of lecithochirium rufoviride and lecithochirium furcolabiatum (trematoda: hemiuridae), parasites of conger conger and anguilla anguilla from atlantic spanish waters.the allozyme variation between 2 sympatric populations of lecithochirium furcolabiatum and l. rufoviride was examined with the aim to investigate if the 2, morphologically similar, helminths are reproductively distinct. three enzyme loci, gpd, pgm-1, and idh were found to be diagnostic for the 2 species. these results support the conclusion that the worms are different biological species. only the gpi and gdh loci showed no differences. marked genetic subdivision was detected at the idh locus in ...200212197146
development of spinitectus inermis (nematoda: cystidicolidae), a parasite of eel, anguilla anguilla, in europe.the development of the nematode spinitectus inermis (zeder, 1800), a parasite of the stomach of eels, anguilla anguilla (l.) in europe, was experimentally studied. mayfly nymphs caenis macrura, ecdyonurus dispar, heptagenia sulphurea, potamanthus luteus and seratella ignita from portugal and the czech republic were found to serve as experimental intermediate hosts. after ingestion of the nematode eggs by the mayfly nymphs, the toothed first-stage larvae were released and penetrated into the body ...200212194484
immunolocalisation of aquaporin 3 in the gill and the gastrointestinal tract of the european eel anguilla anguilla (l.).the expression of a putative water channel protein, aquaporin 3 (aqp-3), has been localised within branchial and intestinal tissues from the 'silver' life stage of the european eel anguilla anguilla, using a specific polyclonal antibody directed against the c-terminal of the amino acid sequence. western blots using the aqp-3 antiserum identified the presence of a major immunoreactive protein of 24 kda in extracts of gills from both freshwater (fw) and 3 week seawater (sw)-acclimated eels. sw acc ...200212151371
branchial expression of an aquaporin 3 (aqp-3) homologue is downregulated in the european eel anguilla anguilla following seawater acclimation.a cdna encoding the homologue of mammalian aquaporin 3 (aqp-3) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the gill of the european eel. the derived amino acid sequence shares 67-70% homology with other vertebrate aqp-3 homologues. northern blot analysis revealed two aqp-3-specific mrna species of 2.4 kb and 7 kb. aqp-3 mrna is expressed predominantly in the eye, oesophagus, intestine (as found in mammals) and the gill; no expression could be demonstrated in the stomach ...200212151370
a novel fucose recognition fold involved in innate immunity.anguilla anguilla agglutinin (aaa), a fucolectin found in the serum of european eel, participates in the recognition of bacterial liposaccharides by the animal innate immunity system. because aaa specifically recognizes fucosylated terminals of h and lewis (a) blood groups, it has been used extensively as a reagent in blood typing and histochemistry. aaa contains a newly discovered carbohydrate recognition domain present in proteins of organisms ranging from bacteria to vertebrates. the crystal ...200212091873
tolerance of acute hypercapnic acidosis by the european eel ( anguilla anguilla).european eels ( anguilla anguilla) were exposed sequentially to partial pressures of co(2) in the water ( pwco(2)) of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 then 80 mm hg (equivalent to 0.66-10.5 kpa), for 30 min at each level. this caused a profound drop in arterial plasma ph, from 7.9 to below 7.2, an increase in arterial pco(2) from 3.0 mm hg to 44 mm hg, and a progressive decline in arterial blood o(2) content (cao(2)) from 10.0% to 1.97% volume. gill ventilation rate increased significantly at water pwco(2)s of ...200212037596
nitric oxide-cgmp-mediated vasoconstriction and effects of acetylcholine in the branchial circulation of the eel.information about the presence and effects of nitric oxide (no) in fish vasculature is scant and contradictory. we have studied the no/cgmp system in the branchial circulation of the teleost anguilla anguilla using a branchial basket preparation under basal conditions and cholinergic stimulation. the effects of endogenous and exogenous no were tested with l-arginine, the nitric oxide synthase (nos) substrate, and the no donors 3-morpholinosydnonimine (sin-1) and sodium nitroprusside (snp), respe ...200212020661
precautions in the use of 110mag as a tracer of silver metabolism in ecotoxicology: preferential bioconcentration of 109cd by trout gills after 110mag exposure.an often overlooked problem in the use of radiotracers is the possibility of isotopic contamination. commercially available silver 110mag was used to study silver uptake and depuration in rainbow trout and european eel. quality control by means of comparative gamma and beta counting brought our attention to a contamination of the 110mag stock with 109cd, which could be seen only because the 109cd was markedly bioconcentrated by trout gills. the contamination could not be detected in eel gills or ...200212013121
efficacy and safety of azamethiphos for the treatment of pseudodactylogyrosis in the european eel. 200212000536
metallothionein in liver of eels anguilla anguilla from the thames estuary: an indicator of environmental quality?the purpose of this study was to examine the role of the cysteine-rich protein metallothionein (mt) in the detoxification and metabolism of metals in livers of eels anguilla anguilla from the thames estuary, and to assess the value of mt measurements in environmental monitoring. hepatic mt levels and associated metal concentrations were determined in a. anguilla collected on three occasions during 1998 at sites along the tidal thames (from freshwater to the sea) and also from a reference site (t ...200211939293
determinants of intracellular ph in gas gland cells of the swimbladder of the european eel anguilla anguilla.gas gland cells of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) were cultured on collagen-coated coverslips, and intracellular ph was measured using the ph-sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxypropyl)-5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein (bcpcf). the contributions of various proton-translocating mechanisms to homeostasis of intracellular ph (phi) were assessed by adding specific inhibitors of the various proton-translocating mechanisms at a constant extracellular ph (phe) of 7.4 and after artificial acid ...200211919266
carbohydrate expression profile of colorectal cancer cells is relevant to metastatic pattern and prognosis.carbohydrate expression of cancer cells is closely related to the metastatic nature of colorectal cancer. in the present study we investigated the relevance of carbohydrate expression profiles of colorectal cancer cells in the primary lesion to metastatic distribution patterns as well as prognosis in 134 cases. carbohydrate expression was estimated by histochemistry with 17 kinds of lectins and 3 kinds of lewis-related monoclonal antibodies (mabs), and correlations between the staining and clini ...200211918084
bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three species of fish from the severn estuary.six metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were identified and quantified from the bile of 31 common eels (anguilla anguilla), 29 european flounders (pleuronectes flesus), and 15 conger eels (conger conger) collected from the severn estuary and bristol channel during 1997. the bile metabolites were deconjugated by enzymatic hydrolysis and separated by reverse-phase hplc with fluorescence detection. the major metabolite present in all fish was 1-hydroxy pyrene (75-94% of all metab ...200211886183
development of the swimbladder in the european eel ( anguilla anguilla).the swimbladder of the adult eel, anguilla anguilla, with its bipolar countercurrent system, the rete mirabile, is a widely used model for swimbladder function, but very little is known about the development of this swimbladder. our histological studies on the developing swimbladder revealed that during metamorphosis the swimbladder becomes present as a dorsal outgrowth of the esophagus. it is filled with surfactant, and gas was not detected in the swimbladder. in the young glass-eel, the epithe ...200211845322
swimbladder gas gland cells cultured on permeable supports regain their characteristic polarity.a cell culture system has been developed in which swimbladder gas gland cells from the european eel (anguilla anguilla) were cultured on a permeable support. cells seeded on anodisc 13 (whatman) or costar transwell 13 mm membranes form a confluent cell layer within the first 2 or 3 days of culture but, on the basis of measurements of transepithelial resistance, it is a "leaky" cell layer. in a superfusion system, the apical and basal sides of the cells were superfused asymmetrically, with saline ...200111809777
kinetics of radiolabelled silver uptake and depuration in the gills of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and european eel (anguilla anguilla): the influence of silver speciation.we examined the influence of speciation on the kinetics of silver uptake and depuration in the gills of two freshwater fish, the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) which has high branchial na(+) and cl(-) uptake rates and is relatively sensitive to silver, and the european eel (anguilla anguilla, yellow stage) which has low ion uptake rates and is relatively resistant to silver. fish previously acclimated to the appropriate chloride level were exposed to 110magno(3) (1.3 microg l(-1), sublethal ...200211792436
catalytic properties of cyp1a isoforms in the liver of an agnathan (lampetra fluviatilis) and two species of teleost (pleuronectes flesus, anguilla anguilla).the catalytic activity of cyp1a isoforms and the effect of mammalian cyp1a-specific inhibitors in liver s9 fractions were studied in an agnathan (river lamprey, lampetra fluviatilis, 30-33 cm) and in two species of teleost fish (european flounder, pleuronectes flesus, 11-18 cm and common eel, anguilla anguilla, 31-48 cm). ethoxyresorufin o-deethylation (erod), caffeine n-demethylation/c-oxidation and phenacetin o-deethylation (pod) activity increased 3-4-fold in flounders and 17-46-fold in eels, ...200011790342
recovery of locomotion correlated with axonal regeneration after a complete spinal transection in the eel.this research has examined the relationship between axonal regeneration and the return of normal movement following complete transection of the spinal cord. we made measurements of tail beat frequency and amplitude of the caudal body wave from video recordings of eels (anguilla anguilla) swimming in a water tunnel at several speeds. each eel was then anaesthetised and the spinal cord cut caudal to the anus; in some animals the resulting gap was filled with a rubber block. all animals were kept a ...200111744256
seasonal variation and estradiol-dependent elevation of thames estuary eel anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin levels and comparisons with other united kingdom estuaries.eel anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin was investigated as a biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds with estrogenic activity, along the tidal course of the thames estuary, uk. a. anguilla was chosen as a sentinel species because of their wide distribution, robustness in field and laboratory studies and also because they have a characterised normal intersex' condition where the gonad contains both developing male and female gonadal cells termed a syrski organ. following laboratory ex ...200111712591
how the body contributes to the wake in undulatory fish swimming: flow fields of a swimming eel (anguilla anguilla).undulatory swimmers generate thrust by passing a transverse wave down their body. thrust is generated not just at the tail, but also to a varying degree by the body, depending on the fish's morphology and swimming movements. to examine the mechanisms by which the body in particular contributes to thrust production, we chose eels, which have no pronounced tail fin and hence are thought to generate all their thrust with their body. we investigated the interaction between body movements and the flo ...200111683431
glutathione-dependent resistance of the european eel anguilla anguilla to the herbicide molinate.eels of species anguilla anguilla were exposed to 5/4 lc50 (41.8 mg/l) of the herbicide molinate for 96 h in a time to death (ttd) test. glutathione content (gsx, gsh, gssg), glutathione reductase (gr) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-gt) activities were determined in the liver and muscle tissues of dead and surviving (intoxicated) animals and compared to control values (non-exposed eels). ttd was positively correlated to hepatic gsh, gsh:gssg ratio, hepatic and muscular gr, but negative ...200111680763
fast muscle function in the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion.eels are capable of locomotion both in water and on land using undulations of the body axis. axial undulations are powered by the lateral musculature. differences in kinematics and the underlying patterns of fast muscle activation are apparent between locomotion in these two environments. the change in isometric fast muscle properties with axial location was less marked than in most other species. time from stimulus to peak force (t(a)) did not change significantly with axial position and was 82 ...200111507107
mechanical properties of red and white swimming muscles as a function of the position along the body of the eel anguilla anguilla.the way in which muscles power steady swimming depends on a number of factors, including fibre type and recruitment, muscle strain, stimulation pattern and intensity, and the intrinsic mechanical properties of the muscle fibres. for a number of undulatory swimming fish species, in vivo studies have shown that muscles at different positions along the body are stimulated during different phases of the strain cycle. moreover, some intrinsic contractile properties of the muscles have been found to v ...200111507106
the relationships of brain stem systems to their targets in the spinal cord of the eel, anguilla anguilla.we have investigated the detail with which supraspinal neurons innervate different regions in the spinal cord. horseradish peroxidase was applied at different levels of the cord: (1) to the cut surface; (2) injected iontophoretically into one side; or (3) into one of the motoneuron pools innervating different muscle compartments. in all cases, labeled neurons were found throughout the brain distributed over nuclear groups identified in previous fish studies. some cells from all but one of the nu ...200111435671
first report on the uptake of automobile catalyst emitted palladium by european eels (anguilla anguilla) following experimental exposure to road dust.following the introduction of automobile catalysts in the middle of the 1980s in germany there is an increasing emission of the platinum-group-metals platinum, palladium (pd) and rhodium. still, it remains unclear if these metals are bioavailable for aquatic animals and to which extent they become accumulated by the aquatic biosphere. because of analytical problems in detecting pd in small biological samples the present investigation concentrates on the bioavailability of this metal. to answer t ...200111428142
cloning and expression of two isoforms of guanylate cyclase c (gc-c) from the european eel (anguilla anguilla).complementary dna fragments for two isoforms of particulate guanylate cyclase c (gc-c) were cloned from the intestine of the european eel (anguilla anguilla). both isoforms exhibited higher nucleotide and amino acid sequence homologies to members of the gc-c family from other species than the related guanylate cyclase a or b (gc-a or gc-b) isoforms from the eel. northern blots indicated that probes for both isoforms, termed gc-c1 and gc-c2, selectively hybridised to 4.8-kb transcripts in the int ...200111399493
biotransformation, endocrine, and genetic responses of anguilla anguilla l. to petroleum distillate products and environmentally contaminated waters.the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) was exposed to diesel oil water-soluble fraction (dwsf) and gasoline water-soluble fraction (gwsf). the potential of these fractions to induce endocrine disruption, carbohydrate, and xenobiotic metabolism effects, as well as genotoxic responses, was investigated in a time-course laboratory study (3 h to 6 days). both water-soluble fractions induced a time-related increase in liver ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, as well as the appearance of e ...200111386717
[determination of the state of emaciation of eel (anguilla anguilla) in migration in coastal and estuary zones].the objective of this work is to characterise the variations of the quality of the glass eels recruitment during a season of migration, from november till march and before and after the transition from marine to continental environment. the emaciation state measured from the ratio dna/dry weight and percentage of body water is analysed from a sampling of glass-eels collected at sea and in estuary, in the south of the bay of biscay during the migration period 1999/2000. the length and the mass ar ...200111386082
tissue distribution and temperature-dependence of anguilla anguilla l. erod activity following exposure to model inducers and relationship with plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose levels.anguilla anguilla l. ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) elevation by 2.7 microm beta-naphthoflavone (bnf) 3 days water exposure, or 4 mg/kg ip exposure, was studied in four different organs--liver, kidney, gills, and intestine. the results demonstrated a significant increase in liver erod activity for the two previous conditions, whereas kidney erod activity only increased during the intraperitoneal exposure. a. anguilla was also exposed during 8, 16, and 24 h to water contaminated with 2.7 mic ...200111341699
nitric oxide modulates cardiac performance in the heart of anguilla anguilla.nothing is known about the effects of nitric oxide (no) on cardiac performance in fish. using an in vitro working heart preparation that generates physiological values of output pressure, cardiac output and ventricular work and power, we assessed the effects of no on the cardiac performance of the eel anguilla anguilla. we examined basal cardiac performance (at constant preload, afterload and heart rate), the effects of cholinergic stimulation and the frank-starling response (preload-induced inc ...200111316492
ca++ regulation of paracellular permeability in the middle intestine of the eel, anguilla anguilla.the role of ca++ on the regulation of the paracellular pathway permeability of the middle intestine of anguilla anguilla was studied by measuring the transepithelial resistance and the dilution potential, generated when one half of nacl in the mucosal solution was substituted iso-osmotically with mannitol, in various experimental conditions altering extracellular and/or intracellular calcium levels. we found that removal of ca++ in the presence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) (egta ...200111302535
hypertonicity stimulates cl(-) transport in the intestine of fresh water acclimated eel, anguilla anguilla.eel intestinal epithelium when bathed symmetrically with normal ringer solution develops a net cl(-) current (short circuit current, isc) giving rise to a negative transepithelial potential (vt) at the basolateral side of the epithelium, lower in fresh-water (fw)-acclimated animals with respect to sea-water (sw). the aim of the present work was to study the cell response to hypertonic stress of fw eel intestinal epithelium in relation to cl(-) absorption. the hypertonicity of the external bathin ...200111275682
swimbladder gas gland cells of the european eel cultured in a superfusion system.swimbladder gas gland cells are polar epithelial cells which release acidic metabolites through the membranes of an extensive basolateral labyrinth, and secret surfactant via exocytosis at apical membranes. we have developed a method to establish primary cell cultures of gas gland cells in order to establish a model system for physiological analysis of gas gland cell function in vitro. isolated gas gland cells attach to collagen s coated surfaces. cells cultured in collagen s coated petri dishes ...200011264950
characterization of [3h]cgp 12177 binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in intact eel hepatocytes.the aim of this study was to characterize [3h]cgp 12177 (cgp) binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in isolated hepatocytes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla), in which the involvement of camp in epinephrine-induced glucose release has been previously observed. specific binding of cgp was saturable, reversible, and linear as a function of cell number. analysis of binding data suggested a single class of binding sites, with a kd of 1.31 nm and a number of approximately 7000 beta-adrenergic re ...200111254364
slow muscle power output of yellow- and silver-phase european eels (anguilla anguilla l.): changes in muscle performance prior to migration.eels swim in the anguilliform mode in which the majority of the body axis undulates to generate thrust. for this reason, muscle function has been hypothesised to be relatively uniform along the body axis relative to some other teleosts in which the caudal fin is the main site of thrust production. the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) has a complex life cycle involving a lengthy spawning migration. prior to migration, there is a metamorphosis from a yellow (non-migratory) to a silver (migrator ...200111249845
meeting energy budgets by modulation of behaviour and physiology in the eel (anguilla anguilla l.).availability of energy for feeding, and the scope to accommodate the associated increase in oxygen demand (sda: specific dynamic action) can, to a large degree, regulate the future feeding and energy availability of an animal. there is a fundamental conflict between locomotion and sda within the physiological capacity of a mobile organism to respire sufficiently in order to simultaneously meet both requirements. this paper is a first attempt to integrate the costs of behaviour and physiology and ...200111246050
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