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pah metabolites in bile of european eel (anguilla anguilla) from morocco.environmental pollution of fish with organic contaminants is a topic of rising attention in morocco. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pah) are prominent organic contaminants which are rapidly metabolized in fish. their metabolites are accumulated in the bile fluid and can be used to assess pah exposure. the two pah metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were quantified in european eels (anguilla anguilla) from two moroccan river systems by high-performance liquid chromatography w ...201526109310
organophosphorus flame retardants in the european eel in flanders, belgium: occurrence, fate and human health risk.the present study investigated the levels, profiles and human health risk of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (pfrs) in wild european eels (anguilla anguilla) from freshwater bodies in the highly populated and industrial flanders region (belgium). yellow eels (n=170) were collected at 26 locations between 2000 and 2009 and for each site, muscle samples of 3-10 eels were pooled and analyzed (n=26). muscle lipid percentages varied widely between 2.4% and 21%, with a median value ...201526056994
transcript levels of the soluble sperm factor protein phospholipase c zeta 1 (plcζ1) increase through induced spermatogenesis in european eel.activation at fertilization of the vertebrate egg is triggered by ca(2+) waves. recent studies suggest the phospholipase c zeta (plcζ), a sperm-specific protein, triggers egg activation by an ip3-mediated ca(2+) release and allow ca(2+) waves at fertilization. in the present study we cloned, characterized, and phylogenetically positioned the european eel plcζ (plcζ1). it is 1521 bp long, with 10 exons encoding an open reading frame of 506 amino acids. the amino acid sequence contains an ef-hand ...201526051612
maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in european eels.the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is regarded as a critically endangered species. scientists are in agreement that the "quality of spawners" is a vital factor for the survival of the species. this quality can be impaired by parasites, disease and pollution. especially endocrine disrupting organic chemicals pose a potential threat to reproduction and development of offspring. to our knowledge, the findings in this publication for the first time describe maternal transfer of contaminants in eel ...201526042896
local scale, coastal currents influence recruitment to freshwater populations in the european eel anguilla anguilla: a case study from the isle of man.this study examines juvenile anguilla anguilla (<30 cm) abundance in five study catchments on the isle of man. preliminary results suggest that juvenile abundance is negatively correlated with increasing coastal current speed at river mouth entry (p < 0·05). these findings indicate that at least under some circumstances, tidally driven coastal currents may influence recruitment to freshwater habitats; therefore, it is presumed that high coastal current speed at the entry to river mouths may redu ...201526033294
trends of persistent organic pollutants in american eel (anguilla rostrata) from eastern lake ontario, canada, and their potential effects on recruitment.this study reports the history of contamination of american eels (anguilla rostrata) from eastern lake ontario (lo) by persistent organic pollutants (pops). three groups of 10 large female eels captured in eastern lo in each of 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, several organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. mean concentrations were up to 3-fold lower in 2008 compared to previous years. when comb ...201526022407
a global viability assessment of the european eel.the global european eel (anguilla anguilla) stock is critically endangered according to the iucn, and the european commission has urged the development of conservation plans aimed to ensure its viability. however, the complex life cycle of this panmictic species, which reproduces in the open ocean but spends most of its prereproductive life in continental waters (thus embracing a huge geographic range and a variety of habitat types), makes it difficult to assess the long-term effectiveness of co ...201525965113
differences in brain gene transcription profiles advocate for an important role of cognitive function in upstream migration and water obstacles crossing in european eel.european eel is a panmictic species, whose decline has been recorded since the last 20 years. among human-induced environmental factors of decline, the impact of water dams during species migration is questioned. the main issue of this study was to pinpoint phenotypic traits that predisposed glass eels to successful passage by water barriers. the approach of the study was individual-centred and without any a priori hypothesis on traits involved in the putative obstacles selective pressure. we an ...201525962588
energy reserves mobilization in the yellow eel as herbicide exposure effect.thiobencarb and propanil are two of the most extensive used herbicides worldwide in rice cultivation. especially scanty is the available information regarding the effect of herbicides on fish energy resources. in the present study, the effect of sublethal exposure to these herbicides on the energy reserves of juvenile eel anguilla anguilla was compared. eels were exposed to 72 h to the herbicide thiobencarb (0.22 mg l(-1)) or propanil (0.63 mg l(-1)), and allowed to recover in clean water (144 h ...201525917606
histological and hormonal changes in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) after exposure to environmental cocaine concentration.the aim of this study was the assessment of histological and hormonal changes induced in the european eel from environmental concentrations of cocaine. silver eels were exposed to 20 ng l(-1) of cocaine during 50 days; at the same time, control, vehicle control and two post-exposure recovery groups (3 and 10 days) were made. the general morphology of the skin and the intestine, and the plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol and dopamine were evaluated. in the skin, cocaine decreased the number and ...201625865023
biochemical effects of the pharmaceutical drug paracetamol on anguilla anguilla.the ever-increasing presence of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment is a motif of concern, and human-use drugs are of particular importance. this is the case of paracetamol, a widely employed drug in human therapeutics, as analgesic and antipyretic, whose toxicity on aquatic organisms is still not fully characterized. the present study aimed to assess the toxic deleterious effects of paracetamol on european eel, anguila anguilla, by using a comprehensive battery of antioxidant biomarkers (ac ...201525827650
methylmercury effects on migratory behaviour in glass eels (anguilla anguilla): an experimental study using isotopic tracers.the effect of methylmercury (mehg) on glass eels' propensity to migrate, mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems was investigated. marine glass eels were first sorted in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24 h catching period w ...201525797033
effects of acute cooling on fish electroretinogram: a comparative study.temperature dependence of electroretinogram (erg) was investigated in 3 fish species occupying different habitats--dogfish shark (scyliorhinus canicula), prussian carp (carassius gibelio) and european eel (anguilla anguilla). acute cooling of the shark isolated eyecup from 23°c down to 6°c induced suppression of the electroretinographic b-wave--a complete degradation of this component was observed at 6°c. on the other hand, photoreceptor component of the erg, the negative late receptor potential ...201525759261
spatial and seasonal variations of methylmercury in european glass eels (anguilla anguilla) in the adour estuary (france) and relation to their migratory behaviour.overall recruitment of european glass eels (anguilla anguilla) has decreased significantly since the early 1980s. due to their long life cycle, benthic/demersal habits and high lipid content, eels might accumulate high concentrations of contaminants, but data concerning glass eels are still scarce. this study provides original data on methylmercury (mehg) concentrations in glass eels at spatial (marine and estuarine), annual and seasonal scales. the relationship between mehg concentrations in gl ...201525752638
the european eel may tolerate multiple infections at a low biological cost.most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among them may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. however, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. to understand the costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among 189 european eel (anguilla anguilla) from mar men ...201525711727
effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of european eel, anguilla anguilla.improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of european eel, anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. we investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns and egg buoyancy. egg diameter after activation, using natural seawater adjusted to different salinities, varied among female eels, but no consistent pattern emerged. activation salinities between 30-40 p ...201625707438
replicating phages in the epidermal mucosa of the eel (anguilla anguilla).in this work, we used the eel (anguilla anguilla) as an animal model to test the hypothesis of barr et al. (2013a,b) about the putative role of the epidermal mucosa as a phage enrichment layer. to this end, we analyzed the microbial content of the skin mucus of wild and farmed eels by using a metagenomic approach. we found a great abundance of replicating phage genomes (concatemers) in all the samples. they were assembled in four complete genomes of three myovirus and one podovirus. we also foun ...201525688234
lipid increases in european eel (anguilla anguilla) in scotland 1986-2008: an assessment of physical parameters and the influence of organic pollutants.recruitment of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) has fallen steadily in recent decades, with current levels understood to be at around 5% of those in the 1970s, and the species is now widely recognised as being endangered. changes in ocean currents, climate shifts, habitat loss, overfishing, barriers to migration, increased predation, plastic litter and exposure to chemicals have all been postulated as potential causative factors. several studies have shown a general decline in eel quality (l ...201525651809
impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in european eel.in order for european eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. here, our aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. to accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one ...201525638567
subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (ag, as, cd, ni, pb, and tl) in livers of american (anguilla rostrata) and european (anguilla anguilla) yellow eels.we determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals ag, as, cd, ni, pb, and tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the saint lawrence river system in canada (anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the gironde estuary in france (anguilla anguilla). differential centrifugation, naoh digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative "sensitive" fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes+lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractio ...201525635611
lipid peroxidation and its control in anguilla anguilla hepatocytes under silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (with or without mercury) exposure.having multidisciplinary applications, iron oxide nanoparticles can inevitably enter aquatic system and impact inhabitants such as fish. however, the studies in this context have ignored the significance of obvious interaction of iron oxide nanoparticles with other persistent co-contaminants such as mercury (hg) in the modulation of the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of iron oxide nanoparticles and hg alone, and concomitant exposures. this study aimed to evaluate lipid peroxidation (lpo) and ...201525613805
development and validation of a real-time pcr assay for the detection of anguillid herpesvirus 1.anguillid herpesvirus 1 (anghv1) causes a haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality in wild and farmed european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.) and japanese eel anguilla japonica, temminck & schlegel). detection of anghv1 is currently based on virus isolation in cell culture, antibody-based typing assays or conventional pcr. we developed, optimized and concisely validated a diagnostic taqman probe based real-time pcr assay for the detection of anghv1. the primers and probe target anghv1 open rea ...201625588414
deep sequencing of the olfactory epithelium reveals specific chemosensory receptors are expressed at sexual maturity in the european eel anguilla anguilla.vertebrate genomes encode a diversity of g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) that belong to large gene families and are used by olfactory systems to detect chemical cues found in the environment. it is not clear however, if individual receptors from these large gene families have evolved roles that are specific to certain life stages. here, we used deep sequencing to identify differentially expressed receptor transcripts in the olfactory epithelia (oe) of freshwater, seawater and sexually mature m ...201525580852
relationship between sperm quality parameters and the fatty acid composition of the muscle, liver and testis of european eel.this study looks at the correlations that fatty acids have with different tissues in the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) during hormonally-induced sexual maturation, with different sperm quality parameters. in order to evaluate the different dynamics of the use of fatty acids, a categorization of the results from each sperm quality parameter (volume, concentration, motility and velocity) was performed. low and moderate correlations were observed between muscle tissue and some sperm quality p ...201525483240
occurrence of pops and other persistent organic contaminants in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) from the loire estuary, france.the chemical contamination of the loire estuary by three classes of persistent organic pollutants (pops): the polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and the perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (pfas), and three families of organic contaminants, the alkylphenols (aps), the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (oh-pahs) and the bisphenol a (bpa) were investigated in the muscles and bile of european eel (anguilla anguilla). yellow eels (n ...201525461022
effect of photoperiod on endocrine profiles and vitellogenin expression in european eels anguilla anguilla during artificially induced ovarian development.the aim of this work was to determine the effects of dark and light conditions on the e2, testosterone and thyroid hormones levels and on the gene expression levels (vitellogenin 1, vitellogenin 2, and estradiol receptor one) in european eels (anguilla anguilla) during ovarian development induced by increasing doses of carp pituitary extracts (cpes). the subjects were divided into 2 groups: 14-hour light:10-hour dark (light group) and 24-hour darkness (dark group). all the eels received intramus ...201525459031
the potential reproductive contribution of mediterranean migrating eels to the anguilla anguilla stock.the european eel is a highly migratory fish. after the reproduction in the sargasso sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards european and mediterranean continental waters. after several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. the trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the mediterranean. recently, 8 silver ...201425424371
the effect of drag and attachment site of external tags on swimming eels: experimental quantification and evaluation tool.telemetry studies on aquatic animals often use external tags to monitor migration patterns and help to inform conservation effort. however, external tags are known to impair swimming energetics dramatically in a variety of species, including the endangered european eel. due to their high swimming efficiency, anguilliform swimmers are very susceptibility for added drag. using an integration of swimming physiology, behaviour and kinematics, we investigated the effect of additional drag and site of ...201425409179
subpopulation pattern of eel spermatozoa is affected by post-activation time, hormonal treatment and the thermal regimen.there has been a marked reduction in natural stocks of eels (genus anguilla) over the past 60 years, and the culture of eels is still based on the capture of very large quantities of juveniles. it is necessary to close the life cycle in captivity in order to ease the pressure on wild populations. the aims of the present study were to evaluate sperm subpopulations (through cluster analysis of computer-aided sperm analysis data) in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and to assess the effects of ...201525402273
multiple thyrotropin β-subunit and thyrotropin receptor-related genes arose during vertebrate evolution.thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. the three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1r and 2r) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2r. this gene, named tshβ2, present in cartilaginous ...201425386660
low larval abundance in the sargasso sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the atlantic eels.the european eel anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. to determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl samplin ...201425307845
a century of research on the larval distributions of the atlantic eels: a re-examination of the data.the spawning areas of the atlantic freshwater eels were discovered about a century ago by the danish scientist johannes schmidt who after years of searching found newly hatched larvae of the european eel, anguilla anguilla, and the american eel, anguilla rostrata, in the southern sargasso sea. the discovery showed that anguillid eels migrate thousands of kilometers to offshore spawning areas for reproduction, and that their larvae, called leptocephali, are transported equally long distances by o ...201525291986
do we protect freshwater eels or do we drive them to extinction?freshwater eels are important animals because they have a unique catadromous life history and are used as food resources. european, american and japanese eel populations now are considered to be outside the safe biological limits and are seriously threatened with extinction. therefore, the european eel was recently categorised as critically endangered by the european union and the united nations. one of the reasons for the drastic decline in eel populations is overfishing, which has caused a hig ...201425279325
ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in digeneans of the genus lecithochirium lühe, 1901 (digenea, hemiuridae), parasites of fishes: comparative study of l. microstomum and l. musculus.this study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus lecithochirium. the spermatozoa of l. microstomum (from trichiurus lepturus in senegal) and l. musculus (from anguilla anguilla in corsica) exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + "1" pattern typical of the trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. spermatozoa of l. ...201425275216
the glycoprofile patterns of endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia.the pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists.201425270010
spontaneous multicentric myxoma of the dermal nerve sheaths in farmed european eels anguilla anguilla.this report describes a peripheral nerve sheath tumour in 8 european eels anguilla anguilla l. from a fish farm located in croatia. the newborn tissue appeared as smooth and soft skin nodules without pronounced colour change. nodules were dome-shaped with a pale crater and were present on different body areas. in general, nodules were located as series of differently sized protrusions extending along the lateral line on both sides of the fish, as well as sensory canals on the head. cut sections ...201425266905
interference of the co-exposure of mercury with silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles can modulate genotoxicity induced by their individual exposures--a paradox depicted in fish under in vitro conditions.the study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (ionp, 100 nm) in vitro exposure alone or its interference with mercury (hg) co-exposure in the blood of european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) by evaluating 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-ohdg), lipid peroxidation (lpo), and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ena). four groups were made: (i) 2 × 10(6) erythrocytes + roswell park memorial institute-1640 (rpmi-1640) ...201525256583
changes in the gene expression profiles of the brains of male european eels (anguilla anguilla) during sexual maturation.the vertebrate brain plays a critical role in the regulation of sexual maturation and reproduction by integrating environmental information with developmental and endocrine status. the european eel anguilla anguilla is an important species in which to better understand the neuroendocrine factors that control reproduction because it is an endangered species, has a complex life cycle that includes two extreme long distance migrations with both freshwater and seawater stages and because it occupies ...201425230743
abnormal ovarian dna methylation programming during gonad maturation in wild contaminated fish.there is increasing evidence that pollutants may cause diseases via epigenetic modifications. epigenetic mechanisms such as dna methylation participate in the regulation of gene transcription. surprisingly, epigenetics research is still limited in ecotoxicology. in this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to contaminants experienced by wild female fish (anguilla anguilla) throughout their juvenile phase can affect the dna methylation status of their oocytes during gonad maturation. t ...201425203663
genomic footprints of speciation in atlantic eels (anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata).the importance of speciation-with-geneflow scenarios is increasingly appreciated. however, the specific processes and the resulting genomic footprints of selection are subject to much discussion. we studied the genomics of speciation between the two panmictic, sympatrically spawning sister species; european (anguilla anguilla) and american eel (a. rostrata). divergence is assumed to have initiated more than 3 ma, and although low gene flow still occurs, strong postzygotic barriers are present. r ...201425155907
complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent.after mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (sag/gp-340/dmbt1). this protein is encoded by the gene deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (dmbt1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi, and activates the lectin pathway of the complement system. in the lectin pathway, carbohydrate structures on pathogens or altered self cells are recognized. sag is highly glycosylated, partly on the b ...201525153235
a simplified method to estimate body growth parameters of the european eel anguilla anguilla.a simple approach is proposed to fit a body growth model for the european eel anguilla anguilla to data-poor case studies. the model is a modified von bertalanffy curve allowing for delayed sex determination and sexual dimorphism. the proposed procedure provides preliminary estimates of model parameters on the basis of average age and body length of silver eels.201425130672
the occurrence of organic contaminants in european eel (anguilla anguilla) in poland: an environmental quality assessment.the objective of the present study was to provide information on the levels of pollutants in the tissues of eels caught in polish waters. the contaminants included in the study are those which have not yet been widely studied in eel stocks, but which arouse concern in relation to the environment. an overview of the pollutant levels in eels caught in other european waters was also conducted. the results are evaluated in terms of environmental quality and consumer health. the mean concentrations o ...201425113214
progression of dna damage induced by a glyphosate-based herbicide in fish (anguilla anguilla) upon exposure and post-exposure periods--insights into the mechanisms of genotoxicity and dna repair.roundup® is a glyphosate-based herbicide widely used with both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes, which has been demonstrated to represent a risk to non-target aquatic organisms, namely fish. among the described effects to fish, genotoxicity has been pointed out as one of the most hazardous. however, the genotoxic mechanisms of roundup® as well as the involvement of the oxidative dna damage repair system are not entirely understood. hence, this work aimed to improve the knowledge on the ...201425110831
mercury toxicity and the protective role of selenium in eel, anguilla anguilla.the aim of the study was to determine the impact trace metals, mainly toxic ones, on the condition of eel (anguilla anguilla) inhabiting four regions of poland. metal concentrations in eel muscle tissues were studied as functions of size, region, and season 2011-2012. the levels of metals were also used for risk assessment on consumer health. copper and zinc occurred at concentrations that could only have positive impacts on eel condition. low levels of cadmium and lead did not impair the condit ...201525099659
anthropogenic noise compromises antipredator behaviour in european eels.increases in noise-generating human activities since the industrial revolution have changed the acoustic landscape of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major pollutant of international concern, and recent studies have demonstrated impacts on, for instance, hearing thresholds, communication, movement and foraging in a range of species. however, consequences for survival and reproductive success are difficult to ascertain. using a series of laborat ...201525098970
occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid and histopathology in eels from north italian waters.a perfluorinated alkylated substances (pfas) biomonitoring study was conducted in european eel (anguilla anguilla) in italy for the first time. perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos) and perfluorooctanoic acid (pfoa) concentrations were assessed in the organs of 35 wild eels from two locations, the highly impacted po river and the comacchio lagoon along the north-western adriatic coast. pfas were extracted by ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and measured using high performance liquid chromatogra ...201525083944
pcb and organochlorine pesticide burden in eels in the lower thames river (uk).thirty-five european eels (anguilla anguilla), caught in 2007 in the river thames upstream and downstream of both london and the tidal limit, were analysed for pcbs and organochlorine pesticides. most chemicals were detectable in every fish, although they have been banned or severely restricted for many years. in general, the tidal eels were more contaminated than upstream ones, which was related to their higher lipid contents. the ices7 indicator pcb concentrations ranged overall from 4.2 to 12 ...201525078785
pah metabolites in european eels (anguilla anguilla) as indicators of pah exposure: different methodological approaches.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic environments derived from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. in fish, as in other vertebrates, pahs are rapidly metabolized. however, the metabolites have been proven to induce multiple deleterious effects in fish. the concentrations of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in eels (anguilla anguilla) caught in polish waters were measured. the main objectives of the study were to provide information on th ...201425064716
are dna-damaging effects induced by herbicide formulations (roundup® and garlon®) in fish transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure?owing to the seasonality of crop cultivation and subsequent periodic/seasonal application of herbicides, their input to the aquatic systems is typically intermittent. consequently, exposure of fish to this type of contaminants can be short and followed by a period of permanence in non-contaminated areas. thus, the assessment of genotoxic endpoints in fish after removal of the contamination source appears as a crucial step to improve the knowledge on the dynamics of herbicide genotoxicity, as wel ...201425058560
assessment of chromosomal damage induced by a deltamethrin-based insecticide in fish (anguilla anguilla l.) - a follow-up study upon exposure and post-exposure periods.the pyrethroid insecticide decis®, containing deltamethrin as active ingredient, is among the most popular broad-spectrum biocides, with wide application in agriculture and home pest control. the occurrence of deltamethrin in the aquatic environment is well-established, but the possible genotoxic effects of decis® in non-target organisms, namely fish, remain unknown. hence, this work aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic damaging potential of decis® in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.), adopting t ...201425052525
cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (nematoda, cucullanidae) infecting the european eel anguilla anguilla in egypt. morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.a total of 80 specimens of the european eel anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from february 2013 to march 2014 at the coast of the gulf of suez (red sea, egypt). a new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as cucullanus egyptae. it was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. the morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. the adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral apert ...201425030116
sperm motility parameters and spermatozoa morphometric characterization in marine species: a study of swimmer and sessile species.the biodiversity of marine ecosystems is diverse and a high number of species coexist side by side. however, despite the fact that most of these species share a common fertilization strategy, a high variability in terms of the size, shape, and motion of spermatozoa can be found. in this study, we have analyzed both the sperm motion parameters and the spermatozoa morphometric features of two swimmer (pufferfish and european eel) and two sessile (sea urchin and ascidian) marine species. the most i ...201425016411
identification of molecular markers in pectoral fin to predict artificial maturation of female european eels (anguilla anguilla).the european eel is a critically endangered species that cannot be reproduced in captivity yet. artificial maturation of female european eels can be achieved via a laborious and expensive procedure, including weekly injections with pituitary extracts for up to 6 months. the success rate is highly variable and a minimally invasive method for early selection of responsive eels would prevent the unnecessary and lengthy treatment of non-responding individuals. since sexual maturation of european eel ...201424992558
full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult european eel anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.an adult european eel anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by pcr for the detection of several viruses. positive results were obtained with a nested pcr targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, b ...201424991738
do north atlantic eels show parallel patterns of spatially varying selection?the two north atlantic eel species, the european and the american eel, represent an ideal system in which to study parallel selection patterns due to their sister species status and the presence of ongoing gene flow. a panel of 80 coding-gene snps previously analyzed in american eel was used to genotype european eel individuals (glass eels) from 8 sampling locations across the species distribution. we tested for single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection in european eel by searc ...201424947556
fish-based remedies in spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical perspective.fish-based therapeutics is fundamentally based on a dietary use, but these vertebrates have also been employed in the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and to deal with diseases of the different systems.201424885245
speciation and demographic history of atlantic eels (anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata) revealed by mitogenome sequencing.processes leading to speciation in oceanic environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. european and american eel (anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata) spawn in partial sympatry in the sargasso sea. larvae are advected by the gulf stream and other currents towards the european/north african and north american coasts, respectively. we analyzed 104 mitogenomes from the two species along with mitogenomes of other anguilla and outgroup species. we estimated divergence time betwe ...201424865601
presence of viruses in wild eels anguilla anguilla l, from the albufera lake (spain).a virological analysis was conducted on wild eels from the albufera lake (spain). a total of 179 individuals at different growth stages were collected in two different surveys (2004 and 2008). presence of anguillid herpesvirus (anghv-1), aquabirnavirus and betanodavirus was confirmed by pcr procedures in both surveys, although the number of detections was clearly higher in 2008 (83% of the eels analysed resulted positive for virus presence). anghv-1 was the viral agent most frequently detected, ...201424846700
the regulation of aromatase and androgen receptor expression during gonad development in male and female european eel.this research investigated the regulation of aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression in the brain-pituitary-gonad (bpg) axis of male and female european eels (anguilla anguilla) during induced sexual maturation. complete a. anguilla aromatase (aa-cyp19a1) and partial androgen receptor α and β (aa-ara and aa-arb) sequences were isolated, and qpcr assays were validated and used for quantification of transcript levels for these three genes. expression levels of the genes varied with sex, ti ...201424750538
genome-wide single-generation signatures of local selection in the panmictic european eel.next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide data allow identifying adaptive variation and footprints of directional selection. using a large snp data set from 259 rad-sequenced european eel individuals (glass eels) from eight locations between 34 and 64(o) n, we examined the patterns of genome-wide genetic diversity across locations. we tested for local selection by searching for increased population differentiation using f(st) -based outlier tests and by testing for significant ...201424750353
dna and chromosomal damage induced in fish (anguilla anguilla l.) by aminomethylphosphonic acid (ampa)--the major environmental breakdown product of glyphosate.the assessment of the direct impact of breakdown products of pesticide components on aquatic wildlife is ecotoxicologically relevant, but frequently disregarded. in this context, the evaluation of the genotoxic hazard posed by aminomethylphosphonic acid (ampa--the major natural degradation product of glyphosate) to fish emerges as a critical but unexplored issue. hence, the main goal of the present research was to assess the ampa genotoxic potential to fish following short-term exposures (1 and ...201424696215
introgressive hybridization and latitudinal admixture clines in north atlantic eels.hybridization, the interbreeding of diagnosably divergent species, is a major focus in evolutionary studies. eels, both from north america and europe migrate through the atlantic to mate in a vast, overlapping area in the sargasso sea. due to the lack of direct observation, it is unknown how these species remain reproductively isolated. the detection of inter-species hybrids in iceland suggests on-going gene flow, but few studies to date have addressed the influence of introgression on genetic d ...201424674242
identification of the nrf2-keap1 pathway in the european eel anguilla anguilla: role for a transcriptional regulation of antioxidant genes in aquatic organisms.antioxidant defences play a central role in cell protection against a wide variety of environmental stressors, their variations being thus frequently studied to reveal oxidative stress conditions in fish. the nrf2-keap1 pathway is among the main mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in mammalians, but its involvement in modulation of antioxidant system of aquatic organisms is still largely unexplored. the present study focused on the identification of nrf2 and keap1 in the european eel anguil ...201424667234
assessment of persistent brominated and chlorinated organic contaminants in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) in flanders, belgium: levels, profiles and health risk.pooled yellow european eel (anguilla anguilla (l.)) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, collected between 2000 and 2009 from 60 locations in flanders (belgium) were investigated for persistent contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ddts). the current study expands the knowledge regarding these contaminant concentrations, their patterns and distribution p ...201424657367
brain glutathione redox system significance for the control of silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles with or without mercury co-exposures mediated oxidative stress in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.).this in vitro study investigates the impact of silica-coated magnetite particles (fe3o4@sio2/sidtc, hereafter called ionp; 2.5 mg l(-1)) and its interference with co-exposure to persistent contaminant (mercury, hg; 50 μg l(-1)) during 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h on european eel (anguilla anguilla) brain and evaluates the significance of the glutathione (gsh) redox system in this context. the extent of damage (membrane lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, ...201424627197
genotoxicity evaluation of the herbicide garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr) in fish (anguilla anguilla l.) using the comet assay.triclopyr-based herbicides are broadly used worldwide for site preparation and forest vegetation management. thus, following application, these agrochemicals can inadvertently reach the aquatic ecosystems. garlon(®) is one of the most popular commercial denominations of this group of herbicides, considered as highly toxic to fish, even by its manufacturer. although dna is frequently regarded as a target of pesticide toxicity, the genotoxic potential of garlon(®) to fish remains completely unknow ...201524623388
modulation of glutathione and its dependent enzymes in gill cells of anguilla anguilla exposed to silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles with or without mercury co-exposure under in vitro condition.the current study aimed to investigate the modulation of glutathione (gsh) and its dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase, gr; glutathione peroxidase, gpx; glutathione sulfotransferase, gst) from 0 to 72 h in the gill cells of anguilla anguilla under in vitro condition exposed to silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with dithiocarbamate (fe₃o₄@sio₂/sidtc, hereafter called 'ionps'; 100 nm; 2.5 mgl(-1)) with or without mercury (hg) coexposure. significantly decreased tgsh conten ...201424607655
multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. in this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichlor ...201424583201
variation in cyanobacterial hepatotoxin (microcystin) content of water samples and two species of fishes collected from a shallow lake in algeria.microcystins (mcs) produced from cyanobacteria can accumulate in freshwater fish tissues. in this study, variations in these toxins content were examined monthly in water samples and two species of fish in lake oubeira, algeria, from april 2010 to march 2011. during the study period, mcs were analyzed using protein phosphatase type 2a (pp2a) inhibition assay. in lake water, total (dissolved and intracellular toxins) mc concentrations by pp2a ranged from 0.028 to 13.4 μg equivalent mc-lr/l, with ...201424445842
enteric neuroplasticity in seawater-adapted european eel (anguilla anguilla).european eels live most of their lives in freshwater until spawning migration to the sargasso sea. during seawater adaptation, eels modify their physiology, and their digestive system adapts to the new environment, drinking salt water to compensate for the continuous water loss. in that period, eels stop feeding until spawning. thus, the eel represents a unique model to understand the adaptive changes of the enteric nervous system (ens) to modified salinity and starvation. to this purpose, we as ...201424433383
effects of chronic exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium on biomarkers of the european eel, anguilla anguilla.exposure to specific metallic compounds can cause severe deleterious modifications in organisms. fishes are particularly prone to toxic effects from exposure to metallic compounds via their environment. species that inhabit estuaries or freshwater environments can be chronically affected by persistent exposure to a large number of metallic compounds, particularly those released by industrial activities. in this study, we exposed yellow eels (european eel, anguilla anguilla) for 28 days to enviro ...201424430501
assessing patterns of hybridization between north atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms.the two north atlantic eel species, the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the american eel (anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the sargasso sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. in this study, we used a rad (restriction site associated dna) sequencing approach to identify species-specific diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and design a low-density array that combined with screening of a diagnostic mitochondrial dna marker. eels from iceland (n=159) and f ...201424424165
are persistent organic pollutants and metals in eel muscle predictive for the ecological water quality?relationships between the presence of pcbs, ocps and metals in aquatic ecosystems and the ecological water quality were investigated by combining datasets of long-term monitoring of chemicals in european eel (anguilla anguilla, n = 1156) in flanders (belgium) and the ecological quality ratio (eqr), based on the assessment of fish assemblages at 185 locations. for most pollutants, eqr scores were lower when pollutant levels were higher. threshold concentrations for a good quality could be formula ...201424378813
recruitment collapse and population structure of the european eel shaped by local ocean current dynamics.worldwide, exploited marine fish stocks are under threat of collapse [1]. although the drivers behind such collapses are diverse, it is becoming evident that failure to consider evolutionary processes in fisheries management can have drastic consequences on a species' long-term viability [2]. the european eel (anguilla anguilla; linnaeus, 1758) is no exception: not only does the steep decline in recruitment observed in the 1980s [3, 4] remain largely unexplained, the punctual detection of geneti ...201424374306
effect of low-dose cadmium exposure on dna methylation in the endangered european eel.there is increasing evidence that epigenetics can play a key role in the etiology of diseases engendered by chronic pollutant exposure. although epigenetics has received significant attention in the field of biomedicine during the last years, epigenetics research is surprisingly very limited in ecotoxicology. the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of low-dose cadmium exposure on the dna methylation profile in a critically endangered fish species, the european eel. e ...201424328039
dioxin-like, non-dioxin like pcb and pcdd/f contamination in european eel (anguilla anguilla) from the loire estuarine continuum: spatial and biological variabilities.to characterize the eel contamination by dioxin-like (dl) and non dioxin-like (ndl) polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (pcdd/fs), sixty-two eels from the loire estuary (france) were analyzed. pcb contamination significantly increased from glass eel stage (3.71 ± 1.85 and 15.2 ± 4.2 ng g(-1) dw) to other life stages (for yellow eels: 62.8 ± 34.4 and 382 ± 182 ng g(-1) dw; for silver eels: 93.7 ± 56.3 and 463 ± 245 ng g(-1) dw respectively for dl and ...201424317164
patterns of presence and concentration of pesticides in fish and waters of the júcar river (eastern spain).the júcar river, in a typical mediterranean basin, is expected to suffer a decline in water quality and quantity as a consequence of the climate change. this study is focused on the presence and distribution of pesticides in water and fish, using the first extensive optimization and application of the quechers method to determine pesticides in freshwater fish. majority pesticides in water - in terms of presence and concentration - were dichlofenthion, chlorfenvinphos, imazalil, pyriproxyfen and ...201424315814
brominated flame retardants and dechloranes in european and american eels from glass to silver life stages.the populations of american (anguilla rostrata) and european eels (anguilla anguilla) have been declining rapidly in the last decades. organic contaminants are suspected to be one of the possible causes for the decline; however, so far there have been few investigations of the uptake of specific compounds by different life cycle stages (e.g. freshwater or marine stage) and how the contamination patterns develop throughout the eel's life cycle. in the present study we measured concentrations of p ...201424290300
pcb contamination in fish community from the gironde estuary (france): blast from the past.the contamination of the gironde estuary, southwest of france, by polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) was assessed using six fish of high ecological and economic importance as bioindicator species. the concentrations of 21 pcb congeners and total fat contents were determined in the muscle and liver of eels (anguilla anguilla), seabass (dicentrarchus labrax), flounders (platichthys flesus), meagres (argyrosomus regius), mullets (liza ramada), and soles (solea vulgaris). in addition, information rega ...201424238912
the pituitary gland of the european eel reveals massive expression of genes involved in the melanocortin system.hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. in the european eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad ax ...201324130881
application of congener based multi-matrix profiling techniques to identify potential pcdd/f sources in environmental samples from the burrishoole catchment in the west of ireland.homologue and congener profiles of pcdd/fs in eels, passive sampler and sediment extracts from the burrishoole, a rural upland catchment on the western irish seaboard were compared with potential pcdd sources. σpcdd/f levels in eels ranged from 2.9 to 25.9 pg g(-1) wet weight, which are elevated compared to other irish locations. the ocdd congener dominated the pattern of σpcdd/fs in all matrices from burrishoole. passive samplers were successfully deployed to identify for the first time the pre ...201424121420
looking for protein expression signatures in european eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vivo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate and a real world field study.the decline of european eel population can be attributed to many factors such as pollution by xenobiotics present in domestic and industrial effluents. perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) is a ubiquitous compound of a particular concern in europe. pfos can reach high concentrations in tissues of organisms and many toxic effects have been reported in fish. this study aimed at evaluating the toxicological effects of pfos in european eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) at the protein expres ...201424095681
anguillids: conserving a global fishery.concern has increased in recent years over the sustainability of anguillid populations worldwide in the face of sustained consumer demand. this is as true of the more numerous tropical species as it is for the better known temperate species. there are, however, critical gaps in knowledge of anguillid biology and ecology, and these hold back measures designed to conserve and enhance anguillid populations, including aquaculture. developing a more integrated understanding of anguillid biology, and ...201324090547
pah metabolites, gst and erod in european eel (anguilla anguilla) as possible indicators for eel habitat quality in german rivers.the stock of the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) continues to decline and has reached a new minimum in 2011. poor health status of the spawners due to organic contaminants is one of the possible causes for this dramatic situation. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are ubiquitous contaminants, which are rapidly metabolized in vertebrates. erod (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase) and gst (glutathione-s-transferase) are two enzymes involved in pah detoxification in fish. in this study, pah met ...201424085514
humoral control of cardiac remodeling in fish: role of angiotensin ii.angiotensin ii (angii), the principal effector of the renin-angiotensin-system (ras), is a multipotent hormone whose biological actions include short-term modulation as well as long-term adjustments. in the eel heart, angii elicits short-term inotropic and chronotropic effects. however, information regarding the influence of angii on cardiac remodeling, expressed as morphological and hemodynamic changes, is lacking. to clarify the putative actions of angii on eel cardiac remodeling, we used fres ...201324080085
vg mrna induction in an endangered fish species (anguilla anguilla) from the loire estuary (france).estuarine zones are extremely fragile due to increasing stress from anthropogenic activities. among those, the loire estuary (france) is potentially exposed to various contaminants including endocrine disruptors compounds (edcs) able to impact the reproduction physiology of fish. the european eel (anguilla anguilla), endangered fish species, is apparently not relevant, in its yellow stage, to monitor the effects of endocrine disruption. despite this weakly responsiveness, this study aimed to inv ...201323993220
male european eels are highly efficient long distance swimmers: effects of endurance swimming on maturation.european eels (anguilla anguilla) migrate ~6000km towards their spawning area in the sargasso sea. based on the recent discovery that males swim even more efficiently than females, it was predicted that males also would be able to swim ~6000km within six months. additionally, eels do not mature naturally in captivity due to strong neural inhibition. earlier, it was hypothesized that swimming exercise is a natural trigger to induce sexual maturation and may even result in full maturation. in the ...201323962432
characterization of a novel picornavirus isolate from a diseased european eel (anguilla anguilla).a novel picornavirus was isolated from specimens of a diseased european eel (anguilla anguilla). this virus induced a cytopathic effect in eel embryonic kidney cells and high mortality in a controlled transmission study using elvers. eel picornavirus has a genome of 7,496 nucleotides that encodes a polyprotein of 2,259 amino acids. it has a typical picornavirus genome layout, but its low similarity to known viral proteins suggests a novel species in the family picornaviridae.201323885066
biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the baltic sea.the main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at forsmark nuclear power plant in sweden, located on the coast of the baltic sea. of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered european eel (anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. cross-systems studi ...201323880915
characterization of four mx isoforms in the european eel, anguilla anguilla.mx protein is known to play an important role in vertebrate immune response to viral infection. in this study, cdna sequences of four mx isoforms, designated as mxa, b, c and d were characterized in the european eel, anguilla anguilla. these sequences contained an open reading frame of 1899, 1896, 1866, 1779 bp, flanked by 95, 53, 138, 69 bp of 5' untranslated region and 389, 241, 136, 124 bp of 3' untranslated region, respectively. a phylogenetic tree constructed with mx peptide sequences from ...201323872472
gemfibrozil modulates cytochrome p450 and peroxisome proliferation-inducible enzymes in the liver of the yellow european eel (anguilla anguilla).the human lipid regulator gemfibrozil (gem) has been shown to induce peroxisome proliferation in rodents leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. since gem is found at biological active concentrations in the aquatic environment, the present study investigates the effects of this drug on the yellow european eel (anguilla anguilla). eels were injected with different concentrations of gem (0.1 to 200 μg/g) and sampled 24- and 96-h post-injection. gem was shown to inhibit cyp1a, cyp3a and cyp2k-like catalyt ...201423828728
morphological and molecular characterization of lecithochirium grandiporum (digenea: hemiuridae) infecting the european eel anguilla anguilla as a new host record in egypt.in the present study, the morphological and molecular characterization of lecithochirium grandiporum, a digenetic trematode infecting the european eel anguilla anguilla (family (f): anguillidae), were described for the first time from burullus lake, kafr el-sheikh governorate, egypt. twenty-five out of 60 specimens (infection rate of 41.66%) were found to be naturally infected. infection was recorded as small worms attached to the inner wall of the intestine of host fish. adult worms measured 1. ...201323820602
evaluation of methods to determine sperm density for the european eel, anguilla anguilla.european eel, anguilla anguilla, is a target species for future captive breeding, yet best methodology to estimate sperm density for application in in vitro fertilization is not established. thus, our objectives were to evaluate methods to estimate european eel sperm density including spermatocrit, computer-assisted sperm analysis (casa) and flow cytometry (fcm), using neubauer improved haemocytometer as benchmark. initially, relationships between spermatocrit, haemocytometer counts and sperm mo ...201323772654
seawater acclimation and inositol monophosphatase isoform expression in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and nile tilapia (orechromis niloticus).inositol monophosphatase (impa) is responsible for the synthesis of inositol, a polyol that can function as an intracellular osmolyte helping re-establish cell volume when exposed to hypertonic environments. some epithelial tissues in euryhaline teleosts such as the eel and tilapia encounter considerable hyperosmotic challenge when fish move from freshwater (fw) to seawater (sw) environments; however, the roles played by organic osmolytes, such as inositol, have yet to be determined. syntenic an ...201323739342
a resource of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms generated by rad tag sequencing in the critically endangered european eel.reduced representation genome sequencing such as restriction-site-associated dna (rad) sequencing is finding increased use to identify and genotype large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in model and nonmodel species. we generated a unique resource of novel snp markers for the european eel using the rad sequencing approach that was simultaneously identified and scored in a genome-wide scan of 30 individuals. whereas genomic resources are increasingly becoming available for this ...201323656721
conclusive evidence for panmixia in the american eel.eels are unique species in the biological world. the two north atlantic eel species, the american eel (anguilla rostrata) and the european eel (a. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the caribbean to greenland in the western atlantic and from morocco to iceland in the eastern atlantic, respectively. north atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the sargasso sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. despite ...201323620904
magnetic compass orientation in the european eel.european eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout europe to their spawning grounds in the sargasso sea. however, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. we tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic north was set at geogr ...201323554997
detecting genome-wide gene transcription profiles associated with high pollution burden in the critically endangered european eel.the european eel illustrates an example of a critically endangered fish species strongly affected by human stressors throughout its life cycle, in which pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for the decline of the stock. the objective of our study was to better understand the transcriptional response of european eels chronically exposed to pollutants in their natural environment. a total of 42 pre-migrating (silver) female eels from lowly, highly and extremely polluted env ...201323518471
mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western france.mercury (hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (mehg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. in various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (south western france) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. this w ...201323466146
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