genetic evidence against panmixia in the european eel.the panmixia hypothesis--that all european eel (anguilla anguilla) migrate to the sargasso sea for reproduction and comprise a single, randomly mating population--is widely accepted. if true, then this peculiar life history strategy would directly impact the population genetics of this species, and eels from european and north african rivers should belong to the same breeding population through the random dispersal of larvae. to date, the panmixia hypothesis has remained unchallenged: genetic st ...200111234011
a nose-to-nose comparison of the physiological effects of exposure to ionic silver versus silver chloride in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).physiological mechanisms of silver toxicity (as silver nitrate) to the sensitive rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) (96 h lc50: 10.2 µg silver l(-1), in soft, low chloride water) and the more tolerant european eel (anguilla anguilla)(96 h lc50: 34.4 µg silver l(-1), in the same water) were investigated during acute exposure to silver, using concentrations varying from 3 to 22 µg silver l(-1). silver was present either predominantly in the form of ionic silver, or in the form of silver chloride ...200010686336
single-dose pharmacokinetics of flumequine in the eel (anguilla anguilla) after intravascular, oral and bath administration.knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs to combat bacterial infections in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is limited. one antimicrobial agent likely to be effective is flumequine. the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of flumequine in european eels in fresh water. flumequine was administered to eels (anguilla anguilla) intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, and as a bath treatment at a dose of 10 mg/l water fo ...200011110105
in vitro reactivity of ventral aorta to acetylcholine and noradrenaline in yellow freshwater eel (anguilla anguilla l.) acclimatized to 10.1 mpa hydrostatic pressure.we examined in vitro vascular reactivity of eels previously acclimatized to 10.1 mpa hydrostatic pressure (hp) for 21 days. the isometric tension developed by ventral aortic rings was measured at atmospheric pressure. dose-response curves for either acetylcholine (ach) or noradrenaline (na), as well as contractions evoked by 80 mm k+, were compared with time-matched experiments conducted on rings obtained from control eels. results showed that neither the optimal tension nor the maximal force of ...200011100938
neurotransmitters and putative neuromodulators in the gut of anguilla anguilla (l.). localizations in the enteric nervous and endocrine systems.the gut of silver eels (anguilla anguilla l.) was investigated in order to describe both the cholinergic and adrenergic intramural innervations, and the localization of possible accessory neuromediators. histochemical reactions for the demonstration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form-(nadph-)diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase (achease) were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical testing of tyrosine hydroxylase, met-enkephalin, substance p, calcitonin gene-relate ...200011095101
protective effects of prostaglandins in the isolated gastric mucosa of the eel, anguilla anguilla.the protective effect of endogenous prostaglandins on the fish gastric mucosa was evaluated by studying the effect of indomethacin and aspirin, known cyclooxigenase inhibitors, on the mucosal ulceration in the isolated gastric sacs of anguilla anguilla. gastric sacs devoid of muscle layers were incubated in the presence of indomethacin (10(-4) mol x l(-1)) or aspirin (10(-4) mol x l(-1)) in different experimental conditions. both the antiinflammatory drugs produced ulcers, but the effects were m ...200011083517
carotenoid content in anguilla anguilla (l.) individuals undertaking spawning migration.the authors investigated the carotenoid content in different parts of anguilla anguilla (l.) undertaking spawning migration, in spring, summer and autumn. by means of column and thin-layer chromatography, the following carotenoids were found to be present: beta-carotene, epsilon-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, neothxanthin, lutein, tunaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide, 3'-hydroxyechincnone, canthaxanthin, idoxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, alpha-doradexanthin, beta-doradexanthin and astaxanthin. in t ...200011080910
isolation and characterization of novel glycoproteins from fish epidermal mucus: correlation between their pore-forming properties and their antibacterial fish, a layer of mucus covers the external body surface contributing therefore, among other important biological functions, to the defense system of fish. the prevention of colonization by aquatic parasites, bacteria and fungi is mediated both by immune system compounds (igm, lysozyme, etc.) and by antibacterial peptides and polypeptides. we have recently shown that only the hydrophobic components of crude epidermal mucus of fresh water and sea water fish exhibit strong pore-forming propertie ...200011030587
the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier: unexpected increased activity in starved silver eels.the tricarboxylate carrier was purified to homogeneity from liver mitochondria of european eel at the silver and the yellow stage and functionally reconstituted into liposomes. unexpectedly, the molecular activity of the tricarboxylate carrier obtained from silver eel was about twofold higher than that of the same protein from yellow eel, although eels at the silver stage stop feeding. parallel changes were found in the activities of the lipogenic enzymes in silver eels. this suggests a function ...200011027565
improvement in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in the freshwater eel acclimated to 10.1 mpa hydrostatic pressure.previous studies have suggested that the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in the freshwater eel (anguilla anguilla) is increased after acclimation to high hydrostatic pressure. analysis at atmospheric pressure of the respiratory chain complexes showed that, after 21 days at 10.1 mpa, the activity of complex ii was decreased to approximately 50 % (p<0.01) of the control value and that cytochrome c oxidase (complex iv) activity was significantly increased to 149 % of the control value (p<0. ...200010976038
light and electron microscopy of the bulbus arteriosus of the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish acts as an elastic reservoir that dilates during ventricular systole to store a large part of the cardiac stroke volume. despite its functional importance, the knowledge of the structure of the bulbus wall is still fragmentary. we have undertaken a series of studies in order to establish a general morphological plan of the teleost bulbus. the bulbus arteriosus of the european eel is studied here by means of conventional light, and transmission and scanning e ...200010971042
expression of a duplicate na,k-atpase beta(1)-isoform in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).recent studies on teleost fish have suggested that their genomes have undergone ancient polyploidization events resulting in the duplication of the genome. a duplicate copy of the na,k-atpase beta(1)-isoform (called beta(233)) has been identified in the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the beta(233)-isoform shares high levels of nucleotide (74.8%) and amino acid (69.9%) homology with the eel beta(1)-subunit as well as other vertebrate beta(1)-sequences. compared with the widely expressed beta(1 ...200010896885
effect of the pesticide deltamethrin on the mauthner cells of lake balaton fish.deltamethrin, a synthetic pesticide [(s)alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1r)-cis-3-(2.2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dim ethylcyclopropane-carboxylate] used for extermination of mosquitoes on the shores of lake balaton, has been found to induce severe impairments of the nervous system of several lake balaton fish, such as carp (cyprinus carpio), goldfish (carassius auratus gibelis bloch), eel (anguilla anguilla) and wels (silurus glanis). it has been shown that deltamethrin, in a concentration of 1 microgram/l ...200010894124
glucocorticoid receptors in the euryhaline teleost anguilla determine the importance of glucocorticoids in the salt water adaptation of european yellow eel we have evaluated the concentration, affinity and physical properties of glucocorticoid receptors (gr) in gill from both sea water- (sw) and freshwater-adapted (fw) animals. using ligand binding techniques we demonstrated that high affinity gr were present in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions obtained from whole gill. isoelectric focusing (ief) of branchial gr indicated the presence of two disti ...200010854712
slow muscle function of pacific bonito (sarda chiliensis) during steady swimming.the pacific bonito, sarda chiliensis, is anatomically intermediate between mackerel and tuna. the specialisations exhibited by tuna are present in the bonito, but to a lesser degree. slow-twitch muscle strain and activity patterns were determined during steady swimming (tailbeat frequency 1.2-3.2 hz) at four locations on the body of sarda chiliensis using sonomicrometry and electromyography. both strain and the phase of electromygraphic activity were independent of tailbeat frequency. the strain ...200010851117
allozyme analysis of two polymorphic enzymes in a natural population of lecithochirium musculus.genetic variability among 112 individuals of lecithochirium musculus from anguilla anguilla from northwestern spain was examined using allozyme analysis. starch-gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the genetic variation in two polymorphic enzymes, glucose phosphate isomerase (gpi) and phosphoglucomutase (pgm). the banding patterns obtained for gpi were consistent with a dimeric structure for this enzyme and with single-locus control. the inferred genotype frequencies did not significantly ...200010836516
cholinesterase activity and hematological parameters as biomarkers of sublethal molinate exposure in anguilla anguilla.cholinesterase (che) activity was measured in plasma, whole blood [using 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and 2-pds as chromophores], brain, and whole eyes of anguilla anguilla exposed to a sublethal concentration of 11.15 mg/l (one-third of the 96-h lc(50)) of the carbamate herbicide molinate. che activity was evaluated after 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of pesticide exposure. results indicated that che activity in eel tissues decreased as time of exposure increased, especially in eel blood. eels ...200010805997
alterations on ache activity of the fish anguilla anguilla as response to herbicide-contaminated water.the inhibition of both total and specific acetylcholinesterase activities was measured in the whole eyes of the yellow eel anguilla anguilla after exposure to the carbamate thiobencarb. in vivo assays were conducted under a constant flow-through system of thiobencarb-contaminated water (1/60 lc(50) 96 h=0.22 ppm for 96 h) followed by a recovery period in clean water (192 h more). the results indicated a measurable level of ache activity on eyes of control eels, which resulted in a sensitive indi ...200010805994
role of glutathione in thiobencarb resistance in the european eel anguilla anguilla.glutathione-dependent defense against xenobiotic toxicity is a multifaceted phenomenon that has been well characterized in mammals. in the present study, eels of species anguilla anguilla were exposed to 15 ppm of the herbicide thiobencarb (s-4-chlorobenzyl diethylthiocarbamate) for 96 h. eels exposed to the pesticide were grouped in 24-h intervals according to their time of death, while surviving intoxicated eels constituted another group (live animals). glutathione content (gsx, gsh, gssg) was ...200010805993
inhibition of eel enzymatic activities by cadmium.the aim of the present work was to study the in vitro effect of cadmium on enzymes, such as intestinal and branchial carbonic anhydrase (ca) and na(+)-k(+)-atpase which play a key role in salt- and osmoregulation and acid-base balance in the teleost fish, anguilla anguilla. carbonic anhydrase activities in gill and intestinal homogenates were significantly inhibited by cdcl(2), the gill ca being more sensitive to the heavy metal (ic(50) for the branchial ca=9.97+/-1.03x10(-6) m, ic(50) for the i ...200010794837
organochlorine residues in european eel (anguilla anguilla), crucian carp (carassius carassius) and catfish (ictalurus nebulosus) from vaccarès lagoon (french national nature reserve of camargue) - effects on some physiological parameters.european eels (anguilla anguilla), crucian carps (carassius carassius) and catfish (ictalurus nebulosus) were collected in three coastal locations of the vaccarès lagoon (french national nature reserve of camargue). the purpose of this paper is to report results of the first biomonitoring investigation in fish living in this protected coastal wetland. residues of organochlorine (oc) contaminants (i.e. sigmapcbs, gammahch, hcb, dieldrin, pp'-dde) were determined in hepatic and muscular tissues, i ...200010794830
distribution of the mrna encoding the four dopamine d(1) receptor subtypes in the brain of the european eel (anguilla anguilla): comparative approach to the function of d(1) receptors in vertebrates.four subtypes of d(1) dopamine receptors are expressed in the brain of the european eel (anguilla anguilla), an elopomorph teleost. to correlate this molecular multiplicity with specific localisation and functions, the distribution of the d(1) receptor transcripts was analysed by in situ hybridisation. the four d(1) receptor transcripts exhibit largely overlapping expression territories. in telencephalon, they are found in the olfactory bulb and the dorsal telencephalon (except its lateral part) ...200010723008
exo-rhodopsin: a novel rhodopsin expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland.the zebrafish, a useful animal model for genetic studies, has a photosensitive pineal gland, which has an endogenous circadian pacemaker entrained to environmental light-dark cycles [g.m. cahill, brain res. 708 (1996) 177-181]. although pinopsin has been found in the pineal glands of birds and reptiles, the molecular identity responsible for fish pineal photosensitivity remains unclear. this study reports identification of a novel opsin gene expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland. the deduced a ...199910581404
effects of acetylcholine, serotonin and noradrenalin on ion transport in the middle and posterior part of anguilla anguilla intestine.the effects of acetylcholine analogues, serotonin and catecholamines on ion transport were studied in both the middle and the posterior intestine of anguilla anguilla, mounted in an ussing chamber, with the aim of understanding whether these regulators affect different mechanisms in the different tracts. in the middle intestine, acetylcholine analogues and serotonin decreased the serosa negative transepithelial potential and short-circuit current without altering the transepithelial resistance; ...199910549139
random amplified polymorphic dna analysis of eel genome.eel family is a huge one, in which many kinds of eels especially some migratory eels, bear strong resemblance to each other, and are therefore difficult to be identified. in this study 29 random primers were used to make rapd analysis for japanese eel (anguilla japonica), european eel (anguilla anguilla) and pike eel (muraenesox cinereus). and totally 299 fragments were counted. shared or specific fragments were counted and genetic similarity or genetic distance were calculated. the genetic simi ...199910520604
effects of sea water and stanniectomy on branchial ca(2+) handling and drinking rate in eel (anguilla anguilla l.).we examined the effects of seawater adaptation and extirpation of the stannius corpuscles on branchial ca(2+) flows, gill plasma membrane ca(2+) transporters and drinking rate of european eels, anguilla anguilla. transepithelial ca(2+) inflow in the gills increased 2 weeks after transfer of the eels from fresh water to sea water and after stanniectomy. neither of these treatments changed the membrane density or the affinity of the ca(2+)-extrusion mechanisms (ca(2+)-atpase and na(+)/ca(2+)-excha ...199910460737
pharmacokinetic and depletion studies of sarafloxacin after oral administration to eel (anguilla anguilla).the pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin applied by oral gavage at a dose of 15 mg/kg b.w. was studied in eel (anguilla anguilla) at water temperature of 24 degrees c. sarafloxacin levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with a quantitation limit of 0.07 microg/ml or gram. the time to peak plasma concentration, tmax, was 12 hr and peak concentration, cmax, was 2.64 microg/ml. the absorption rate constant (k(a)) was 0.23 hr(-1) (r=0.996). the drug disposition curve after t ...199910379934
a kinematic comparison of forward and backward swimming in the eel anguilla anguillain addition to forward undulatory swimming, eels (and some other elongated swimmers) can swim backwards in a similar way. we compared the kinematics (wave speed, cycle frequency, amplitude, local bending and estimated muscle strain) of forward and backward swimming in the european eel anguilla anguilla. both swimming modes are characterised by a wave of undulation that travels over the body in the direction opposite to that of swimming. we observe two major kinematic differences. first, the slop ...199910229697
localization of carbonic anhydrase in swimbladder of european eel (anguilla anguilla) and perch (perca fluviatilis).the distribution of carbonic anhydrase in swimbladder tissue and especially in gas gland cells of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the perch (perca fluviatilis) was analysed using histochemical staining according to hansson (1967), with modifications proposed by riddersträle (1991). while in the european eel, gas gland cells are distributed as a single layered epithelium over the whole secretory part of the swimbladder, the gas gland of the perch consists of a compact, richly vascularize ...199910090334
vasodilation of swimbladder vessels in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide, adenosine and protonsthe effects of &bgr;-adrenergic stimulation, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip), adenosine, the nitric oxide (no)-releasing agent sodium nitroprusside and of metabolic end-products of gas gland cell metabolism on swimbladder blood flow were investigated using saline- or blood-perfused swimbladder preparations of the freshwater european eel anguilla anguilla. while &bgr;-adrenergic vasodilation was not detectable, a bolus injection of adenosine (100 microl, 10(-)7 mol l-1) and application of ...199910085273
cortisol selectively stimulates pituitary gonadotropin β-subunit in a primitive teleost, anguilla anguilla. 199928200866
thiobencarb toxicity and plasma ache inhibition in the european eel.the acute toxicity of the herbicide thiobencarb (s-4-chlorobenzyl diethylthiocarbamate) was determined for the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours median lethal concentrations (lc50) were 25.7, 21.7, 17.0 and 13.2 mg/l, respectively. fish were also exposed to a sublethal thiobencarb concentration (1/60 lc50-96 hr = 0.22 mg/l) during 96 hours in a flow-through system and then an elimination period of 192 hours in clean water was allowed. eels were removed and blood sampl ...199910048205
localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the central nervous system of the european eel anguilla anguilla: stimulatory effect of pacap on gh secretion. 19989928053
genetic variation of the european eel (anguilla anguilla)the genetic population structure of the european eel anguilla anguilla l. was investigated by sequencing the mitochondrial d-loop region of 55 eels caught at different european locations. in total, 51 haplotypes were identified. pairwise genetic distances ranged from 0% to 6.33% with an average value +/- sd of 3.01% +/- 1.18%, indicating little dna differentiation among the european eel population. none of the node bifurcations of the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was strongly supported, su ...19989892716
chloride channels in the eel intestinepatches of freshly isolated epithelial cells from eel anguilla anguilla intestine bathed by the same solution on both sides in the cell-attached configuration had conductances of 57.0+/-1.8 ps (for positive voltages) and 13.3+/-0.7 ps (for negative voltages) (means +/- s.e.m., n=25). electrical activity was spontaneous in the cell-attached configuration, but was frequently lost after excision. in inside-out patches, channel activity was restored by strong hyperpolarization (-150 mv for 5 s) or d ...19999841893
in vivo inhibition of ache activity in the european eel anguilla anguilla exposed to technical grade fenitrothion.european eel (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. plasma acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity was evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 and 96 h pesticide exposure. ache activity in the plasma of the eel decreased as concentration of fenitrothion increased. pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ache activity of a. anguilla ranging from 51% inhibition at sublethal concentration of 0.02 pp ...19989827055
cu uptake, metabolism and elimination in fed and starved european eels (anguilla anguilla) during adaptation to water-borne cu exposure.64cu accumulation and total cu concentrations were measured in gill filaments, plasma, liver and bile of fed and starved european eels (anguilla anguilla) during 28 days of exposure to 12 and 94 micrograms cu l-1. branchial cu uptake was found to be 0.03 and 0.13 microgram cu g gill filament-1 h-1 at 12 and 94 micrograms cu l-1, respectively, throughout 28 days of cu exposure. at least during exposure to 94 micrograms cu l-1, the basolateral membrane seemed to be the rate limiting step for branc ...19989827044
dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in vertebrate (carp and eel) retinae: cloning, sequencing and comparison of five d1-like and three d2-like receptors.eight dopamine receptor-like cdna clones were isolated from the carp (cyprinus carpio) retina and four dopamine receptor-like cdna clones were isolated from the european eel (anguilla anguilla) retina. these cdna clones show high sequence and structural homology to the known dopamine receptor subtypes. the sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis revealed that five subtypes (d1a3, d1a4, d1b, d1c and d1x) in the carp retina and four subtypes (d1a1, d1a2, d1b and d1c) in the eel retina are d1 ...19989826915
pesticide toxicokinetics in fish: accumulation and elimination.bioaccumulation of fenitrothion in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) was studied using two sublethal concentrations of this pesticide in a flow-through test system. the pesticide concentrations used were one-tenth (0.002 ppm) and one-fifth (0.04 ppm) the 96-h lc50 of fenitrothion in this species. steady state was reached early (2 h) when the animals were exposed to 0.02 ppm of toxicant, and after 48 h when the animals were exposed to 0.04 ppm. toxicokinetic parameters for fenitrothion in eel ...19989799575
insulin-like growth factor-i stimulates gonadotrophin production from eel pituitary cells: a possible metabolic signal for induction of puberty.insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i has been suggested as a potential signal linking growth and puberty in mammals. using the juvenile european eel as a model, we employed a long-term, serum-free primary culture of pituitary cells to study the direct effect of igf-i on gonadotrophin (gth-ii=lh) production. igf-i increased both cell content and release of gth-ii in a time- and dose-dependent manner. igf-i and igf-ii had similar potencies but insulin was 100-fold less effective, suggesting the impl ...19989795340
adenylyl cyclase activity and glucose release from the liver of the european eel, anguilla anguilla.the properties of adenylyl cyclase (ac) in liver membranes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the involvement of camp in glucose release from isolated hepatocytes in response to catecholamines were studied. basal enzyme activity seemed essentially unaffected by gtp, while a biphasic response to increasing nucleotide concentrations was obtained in the presence of epinephrine. eel liver ac was dose-dependently stimulated by guanosine 5'-o-(3-thiotriphosphate) and inhibited by guanosine 5' ...19989791074
electroretinographic evaluation of spectral sensitivity in yellow and silver eels (anguilla anguilla).although differences in visual pigments between developmental stages of the european eel are well known, the expected differences in spectral sensitivity have not been demonstrated at the electrophysiological level. in fact, one past electroretinographic study led to the conclusion that in eels there is no change in scotopic sensitivity, with increasing sexual maturity. in the present experiments, electroretinograms (ergs) were recorded from in situ eyecups of immobilized eels anguilla anguilla ...20079764534
liver energy metabolism of anguilla anguilla after exposure to fenitrothion.this paper deals with the effect of fenitrothion (0.04 mg/liter) on the energy metabolism of the european eel, anguilla anguilla, and its recovery from intoxication. various parameters such as glycogen, lactate, proteins, total lipids, and glucose in eel liver and blood were analyzed after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h of fenitrothion exposure. subsequently, the fish were allowed recovery periods of 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, and 192 h in clean water, and the same parameters were evalu ...19989756704
distribution, characterization, and growth hormone-releasing activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the european eel, anguilla anguilla* * this work was supported by grants from inserm u-413, the conseil supérieur de la pêche, and the conseil régional de haute-normandie. 199828200229
heterogeneity of eel thyrotropin beta mrnas is due to a minisatellite in the 3' untranslated region of the gene.the aim of this study was to determine the causes of the high heterogeneity, in the number and the length, of the thyrotropin (tsh) beta mrna in the european eel. northern blot analysis showed that removal of the poly(a) tail did not affect this heterogeneity. pcr amplification on reverse-transcribed pituitary rnas (rt) showed the main source of heterogeneity to be a highly variable region in the 3' untranslated region (utr). pcr amplification of the 3' utr from rts and genomic dnas demonstrated ...19989714823
hydrogen ion titrations of the anodic and cathodic haemoglobin components of the european eel anguilla anguilla.h+ titrations were conducted on the separated haemoglobin components of eel anguilla anguilla in both the oxygenated and deoxygenated states. in anodic haemoglobin, the addition of gtp, and to a lesser extent c1-, increased the magnitude of the haldane effect and shifted its maximum value into the in vivo ph range. of the 22 histidine residues in the anodic component, only approximately seven were titratable, presumably the beta-chain residues at positions 41, 97, 109 and 146 (helical positions ...19989698585
tyrosine hydroxylase in the european eel (anguilla anguilla): cdna cloning, brain distribution, and phylogenetic analysis.we report the isolation of a full-length eel tyrosine hydroxylase (th) cdna that is characterized by a long 3' untranslated region and by a diversity restricted to the 3' end owing to the differential use of three polyadenylation signals. the longest eel th mrna was distinctive in the presence of four pentameric elements (auuua) in the au-rich 3' noncoding region. such a diversity could provide the basis of posttranscriptional or translational regulation of eel th gene expression. comparison of ...19989681435
long-term inhibitory effects of somatostatin and insulin-like growth factor 1 on growth hormone release by serum-free primary culture of pituitary cells from european eel (anguilla anguilla).to investigate the ability of hypothalamic and peripheral factors to directly regulate growth hormone (gh) release in a primitive teleost, the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.), we used primary cultures of dispersed pituitary cells. when cultured for 12 days in a serum-free medium, pituitary cells continuously released large amounts of gh, which exceeded the initial cellular content. somatotropin-release inhibiting hormone (srih-14) dose-dependently inhibited gh release (ec50 0.75 nm) up to a ...19989641611
switch in rod opsin gene expression in the european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.).the rod photoreceptors of the european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.), alter their wavelength of maximum sensitivity (lambda max) from c.a. 523 nm to c.a. 482 nm at maturation, a switch involving the synthesis of a new visual pigment protein (opsin) that is inserted into the outer segments of existing rods. we artificially induced the switch in rod opsin production by the administration of hormones, and monitored the switch at the level of mrna accumulation using radiolabelled oligonuleotides that ...19989633112
laboratory and field-caging studies on hepatic enzymatic activities in european eel and rainbow trout.caging field experiments were conducted on young european eel (anguilla anguilla) and on rainbow trout (onchorynchus mykiss) for the determination of a biomonitoring protocol of freshwater streams. hepatic monooxygenase and conjugation enzyme activities were measured as biomarkers of exposure to some organic pollutants. laboratory studies were performed to compare the responsiveness of these two species concerning their enzymatic activities. the induction of monooxygenase activity, measured as t ...20159626548
induction of liver erod and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities by cyclophosphamide and pahs in anguilla anguilla l.the induction of liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (na) after treatment with two different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and cyclophosphamide (cp) was investigated in the eel anguilla anguilla l. erod activity significantly increases either 3 days after one single i.p. injection or 6 days after two i.p. injections (on days 0 and 3) of 4 mg/kg beta-naphthoflavone (bnf). erod activity was determined after different lengths of exposu ...20139626538
sublethal bioconcentration of fenitrothion in the blood and brain of the european eel. 19989595200
studies on the eel sperm flagellum. 2. the kinematics of normal motility.the sperm flagellum of anguilla anguilla lacks outer dynein arms, radial spokes and central structures. its characteristic motion has been obtained by studying cells swimming perpendicularly against, but not adhering to, the coverslip. the flagellum generates a sinistrally helical wave of rising, then falling, amplitude. the frequency of the wave, which can exceed 70 hz, is inversely related to its maximum amplitude. as a reaction to the torque, the entire cell rolls (spins) in the opposite dire ...19989519904
uptake and elimination kinetics of a pesticide in the liver of the european eel.this study was undertaken to determine the bioconcentration-elimination process of fenitrothion in the liver of the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the animals were exposed to two sublethal fenitrothion concentrations corresponding to 1/5 and 1/10 of lc50 96-h in a flow-through test system. uptake kinetics were determined from liver burdens measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, 56, 72 and 96 hours exposure. after pesticide exposure, animals were transferred to clean water for 72 hours. fenitrothion elimin ...19989491569
induction of erod activity and genotoxic effects by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and resin acids on the juvenile eel (anguilla anguilla l.).the purpose of this research is the study of total ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (na) induction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and resin acids (ras) on the juvenile eel anguilla anguilla l. juvenile eels were exposed, during 3 days, to the same molar concentration range (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, and 2.7 microm) of beta-naphthoflavone (bnf) and benzo[a]pyrene (bp)--pahs--and abietic acid (aa) and dehydroabietic acid (dhaa)--ras--and one a ...19979469877
response and recovery of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in the european eel, anguilla anguilla, exposed to fenitrothion.european eel (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. brain acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity was evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h pesticide exposure. results indicated that ache activity in eel brains decreased as the concentration of fenitrothion increased. the pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ache activity of a. anguilla, ranging from > 40% inhibition at a sublethal ...19979469870
inhibition of gill na+,k+-atpase activity in the eel, anguilla anguilla, by fenitrothion.european eels (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations (0.02 and 0.04 mg/liter) in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. gill mg2+- and na+,k+-atpase activities were evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h of pesticide exposure. results indicated that atpase activity in gill tissue decreased as concentration of fenitrothion increased. pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the na+, k+-atpase activity of a. anguilla, ranging from ...19979417854
effects of vagal stimulation on swimbladder blood flow in the european eel anguilla anguilla.the influence of the vagus nerve on swimbladder blood flow in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) was characterized by recording the changes in blood flow rate and blood pressure following stimulation of the vagus nerve. after electrical stimulation, blood flow in the swimbladder artery increased from 0.9 ml min-1 to 2.1 ml min-1. video recordings of small vessels on the caudal side of the rete mirabile revealed an increase in erythrocyte velocity combined with a small vasodilation. this effect ...19979364021
ph-dependent proton secretion in cultured swim bladder gas gland cells.the ph dependence of acid production and of acid release has been analyzed in cultured gas gland cells of the european eel using a cytosensor microphysiometer. total acid release of gas gland cells showed an optimum at ph 7.4-7.6, with only a minor reduction at acidic (ph 7.0) as well as at alkaline ph (ph 8.0). the acid production was largely dependent on the availability of extracellular glucose and was almost completely abolished if glucose was replaced by succinate, alanine, or even pyruvate ...19979374815
response and recovery of acethylcholinesterase activity in the european eel anguilla anguilla exposed to fenitrothion.european eel (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. muscle acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity was evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 and 96 hours pesticide exposure. results showed that ache activity in eel muscle tissue decreased as concentration of fenitrothion increased. pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ache activity of a. anguilla ranging from > 35% inhibition at sublethal co ...19979350079
epidermal proteinases in the european eel.a fluorescent-sensitive assay demonstrated the exhaustive detection of proteinase activities in the dorsal skin of the european eel. two distinct skin extracts were prepared from skin mucus and epidermal cell layers with no mutual contamination, so that the latter extract contained significant susceptibility of all tested substrates. optimum hydrolysis ph's for susceptible substrates were found in acidic and neutral ranges, and optimum hydrolysis temperatures for the same substrates fell mainly ...20069279923
androgens stimulate gonadotropin-ii beta-subunit in eel pituitary cells in vitro.primary cultures of juvenile eel (anguilla anguilla) pituitary cells were used to study the direct effects of sex steroids on gonadotropin (gth-ii) cell content and release (radioimmunoassay) as well as on mrnas levels for alpha and gth-ii beta-subunits (dot-blot). testosterone stimulated gth-ii production in a dose- and time-dependent manner by selectively increasing mrnas for gth-ii beta-subunit but not alpha-subunit. this positive effect was also induced by non-aromatizable androgens (androst ...19979296374
habitat use by the fish assemblages of two chalk streamspatterns of habitat use by fish assemblages in two chalk streams in southern england were examined to identify species preferences with respect to major habitat gradients. both study sites, although differing in some physical habitat characteristics, mainly channel width, water temperature and instream cover, could be arranged similarly along a continuum extending from erosional to depositional habitats. twelve fish species were collected from stream surveys conducted during july 1993. the habit ...19979236089
the anodic hemoglobin of anguilla anguilla. molecular basis for allosteric effects in a root-effect hemoglobin.the functional and structural basis for the root effect has been investigated in the anodic hemoglobin of the european eel, anguilla anguilla. this hemoglobin exhibits a large bohr effect, which is accounted for by oxygen-linked binding of seven to eight protons in the presence of gtp at ph 7.5. oxygen equilibrium curves show nonlinear lower asymptote of hill plots, indicating the occurrence of heme-heme interactions within the t state. analysis of the curves according to the co-operon model (br ...19979188451
an electroneutral anion exchange mechanism is present in brush-border membranes isolated from eel kidney.the mechanism of bicarbonate translocation across the luminal membrane of the eel (anguilla anguilla) kidney tubular cells was studied by monitoring the uptake of h14co3- into isolated brush-border membrane vesicles. results indicate that the presence of a transmembrane outwardly directed cl- gradient was able to transiently accumulate h14co3- into the vesicular space, whereas neither an inwardly directed sodium gradient nor a transmembrane electrical potential gradient (inside positive) was abl ...19979140013
cdna cloning of eel (anguilla anguilla) somatolactin.the nucleotide sequence of the cdna coding for eel somatolactin (sl), a pituitary hormone belonging to the growth hormone (gh)/prolactin (prl) family, has been determined. the full-length eel sl cdna (1213 bp) encodes a protein of 229 amino acids (aa), with a putative signal peptide of 24 aa and a mature protein of 204 aa. eel sl contains seven cys residues found to be characteristic of sls, and two potential n-glycosylation sites. significant sequence homology between eel and seven other fish s ...19979099860
residue study of mebendazole and its metabolites hydroxy-mebendazole and amino-mebendazole in eel (anguilla anguilla) after bath treatment.mebendazole (mbz) is extensively used in eel culture for treatment of pseudodactylogyrus spp. infections. this use may lead to residues of mbz in eel tissues. consequently, the residue profile of mbz in eel after treatment with the drug is of special concern. therefore, a residue study was performed in european eels (anguilla anguilla), bath-treated with mbz at a dose of 1 mg/liter for 24 hr and kept at a water temperature of 25 degrees c. liver, kidney, fat, skin, and muscle tissues samples wer ...19979172949
angiotensin ii receptors in the gill of sea water- and freshwater-adapted eel.immunocytochemistry of paraffin-embedded and cryostat sections of eel (anguilla anguilla) gill showed that angiotensin ii receptors (ang ii-r) were present in chloride cells, uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm and on surface membranes. computerised image analysis of these preparations showed that gills from sea water (sw)-adapted animals had a significantly (3-fold) higher ang ii-r concentration compared with freshwater (fw)-adapted eel gills. isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis reveale ...19979061608
sublethal effects of an organophosphate insecticide on the european eel, anguilla anguilla.the present communication deals with the effects of fenitrothion (0.02 mg/liter) on the energy metabolism of the european eel, anguilla anguilla, and its recovery from intoxication. various parameters such as glycogen, lactate, proteins, and glucose levels were measured in different eel tissues after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 hr of fenitrothion exposure. subsequently, the fish were allowed recovery periods of 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, and 192 hr in clean water, and the same paramete ...19979056401
histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, japanese coloured carp, european eel, and african catfish.histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (cyprinus carpio), the japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the asian carp, cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the european eel (anguilla anguilla), and the african catfish (clarias gariepinus). in all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. loss o ...19979270124
changes in the electrophysiological parameters of the posterior intestine of anguilla anguilla (pisces) induced by oxytocin, urotensin ii and view of the importance of the intestine in the osmoregulation of freshwater fishes, we determined the effects of oxytocin, urotensin ii (uii), and aldosterone added to the serosal side of the isolated posterior intestine of the freshwater-adapted teleost anguilla anguilla on electrophysiological parameters. oxytocin decreased the short-circuit current (scc) and transepithelial potential difference (tpd) at concentrations of 1 and 10 mu/ml (to 50% and 42% of control values, respectively), but ...19979222401
h(+)-glycyl-l-proline cotransport in brush-border membrane vesicles of eel (anguilla anguilla) intestine.a plasma membrane h(+)-glycyl-l-proline (gly-l-pro) cotransport mechanism has been identified in isolated eel intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (bbmv) by both measuring radiolabeled gly-l-pro uptake and monitoring gly-l-pro-dependent h+ influx with the ph-sensitive dye acridine orange. the application of an inside negative membrane potential resulted in increasing gly-l-pro uptake, as well as the application of inwardly directed h+ gradient (although only when an inside negative membrane ...19979039012
effects of diazinon exposure on cholinesterase activity in different tissues of european eel (anguilla anguilla).cholinesterase (che) activity was measured in brain, plasma, and whole eye of anguilla anguilla experimentally exposed to a sublethal concentration of 0.042 mg/liter (0.50 of the 96-hr lc50) of the organophosphorous pesticide diazinon. whole eye was the tissue which revealed higher values of che activity (8.17 micromol/min/g) in nonexposed animals. brain, plasma, and whole eye che activity of a. anguilla was inhibited at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr of diazinon exposure. pesticide induced significan ...19969006996
anguilla anguilla l. stress biomarkers recovery in clean water and secondary-treated pulp mill effluent.the eels' recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport is improved by the dechlorinated filtered aerated tap water temperature increase and increased water salinity. the eels' 6-hr recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport, at 25 degrees c in 50% secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, as plasma lactate and cortisol uptake, is depressed. however, either farm or wild eels' exposure to the 50% secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, after 188 hr recovery from capture, ...19968930510
bicarbonate absorption in eel intestine: evidence for the presence of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase on the brush border membranes of the enterocyte.bicarbonate absorptive fluxes through the isolated intestine of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) were evaluated by the ph-stat method under short-circuited conditions. it was found that bicarbonate absorptive flux was dependent on the luminal na+ and was inhibited by luminal 4-acetamido-4' stilbene-2-2' disulfonic acid (sits; 2.5 x 10(-4) m) and luminal acetazolamide (10(-4) m), while luminal amiloride (1 mm) was without effect. furthermore, by using brush border membrane vesicles (bbmv) iso ...19968691189
absorbance spectra and molecular structure of the blue-sensitive rod visual pigment in the conger eel (conger conger).the conger eel (conger conger) is a nocturnal fish that can be found living in shallow coastal water and deep water down to 1000 m. the conger eel has a pure rod retina with a visual pigment maximally sensitive to blue light around 487 nm. we have cloned and sequenced the opsin cdna which is presumed to code for this visual pigment and have found it to be highly homologous to the form of opsin that is expressed in mature, deep-living european eels (anguilla anguilla). the opsin sequence informat ...19968763796
changes in enzyme histochemical profiles of identified spinal motoneurons of the european eel, anguilla anguilla, following cordotomy.the enzyme histochemical profiles of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (a marker of synthetic performance), succinate dehydrogenase (an indicator of oxidative metabolism), and nadh tetrazolium reductase (a marker of overall neuronal activity) were determined for identified white muscle motoneurons in six control and six cordotomized cels. images were digitized and mean integrated absorbances obtained using appropriate hardware and software. for motoneurons caudal to the transection site there wa ...19968818680
control of acid secretion in cultured gas gland cells of the european eel anguilla anguilla.single cells and cell clusters isolated from the swimbladder epithelium of the european eel anguilla anguilla attached to collagen s-coated petri dishes and proliferated in a modified dulbecco's modified eagle's medium, supplemented with 0.5% fetal calf serum. at a temperature of 20-22 degrees c, the growing colonies reached confluence typically within 6-8 days. activities of glycolytic and pentose phosphate shunt enzymes remained stable or increased only slightly during the first 10 days of pri ...19968780223
a monoclonal antibody to mammalian angiotensin ii at1 receptor recognizes one of the angiotensin ii receptor isoforms expressed by the eel (anguilla anguilla).using labelled ligand-binding methods, previous studies have identified specific angiotensin ii receptors (ang ii-rs) in eel liver, kidney and intestine membranes. isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels also showed that there are two ang ii-r isoforms in eel liver, focusing at isoelectric points (pi) 6.5 and 6.7. these may have different functions. in contrast, eel enterocyte plasma membrane and renal brush border membranes contain only the pi 6.5 form. to characterize the eel receptors mor ...19968672232
the erythrocyte na+/h+ exchangers of eel (anguilla anguilla) and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss): a comparative studytrout and eel red blood cell na+/h+ exchangers show widely different regulatory properties. catecholamines, cyclic amp and phorbol esters, which activate the trout red cell antiporter, do not affect the eel exchanger. unlike the trout red cell exchanger, the eel red cell exchanger is strongly activated by cell shrinkage, allowing a remarkable cell volume recovery. these different regulatory properties probably indicate the existence of different isoforms of the exchangers in nucleated erythrocyt ...19969318046
mediation of serotonin-induced hyperventilation via 5-ht3-receptor in european eel anguilla anguilla.the effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) on ventilation were investigated by continuous measurements of intrabuccal pressure in unrestrained eel. intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (30 caused a large increase in ventilatory frequency (+ 100%) and amplitude (+ 140%). the 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced hyperventilation was blocked by the 5-ht3-receptor antagonists metoclopramide (1.0 or mdl72222 (1.0, and was insensitive to the 5-ht1/2-receptor ...19968882510
physiological stress responses of anguilla anguilla to fenitrothion.the present communication deals with the effect of fenitrothion (0.04 ppm) on the carbohydrate metabolism of the european eel anguilla anguilla and its recovery from intoxication. analysis of various parameters such as glycogen, lactate and glucose was made on different eel tissues after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 and 96 hr of fenitrothion exposure. subsequently, the fish were allowed recovery periods of 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144 and 192 hr in clean water, and the same parameters were evaluat ...19968847448
swelling-activated k+ transport via two functionally distinct pathways in eel erythrocytes.following osmotic swelling, erythrocytes from the european eel, anguilla anguilla, underwent a regulatory volume decrease. this was prevented by replacement of na+ with k+ in the suspending medium, consistent with a role for the (normally outward) electrochemical k+ gradient in the volume-regulatory response. the effect of cell swelling on k- transport in these cells was investigated using 86rb+ as a tracer for k+. osmotic swelling resulted in an increase in ouabain-insensitive k+ transport that ...19968769785
effects of serotonin on the cardio-circulatory system of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) in vivo.the effects of serotonin on continuously recorded cardiac parameters (heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac stroke volume), ventral and dorsal aortic blood pressures, branchial and systemic vascular resistances were investigated in the european eel in vivo. intravenous administration of serotonin (30 caused a marked bradycardia (45%) and a simultaneous decrease in cardiac output (50%), ventral (35%) and dorsal (50%) aortic blood pressures. branchial resistance was markedly increas ...19968766910
chromosomal localization of the major and 5s rrna genes in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the major (18s, 5.8s, and 28s) and 5s rrna genes have been mapped by double fluorescent in situ hybridization to european eel metaphase chromosomes. the major rrna genes were localized to a submetacentric pair of chromosomes that showed a consistent size polymorphism among the individuals studied. the 5s rrna genes were clustered in a single locus that mapped to the centromeric region of an acrocentric pair. in contrast to the major rrna genes, no detectable polymorphism, in either size or inten ...19968646885
the molecular basis for the green-blue sensitivity shift in the rod visual pigments of the european eel.when the european eel matures sexually and migrates back to deep sea breeding grounds the visual pigments in its rod photoreceptors change from being maximally sensitive to green light to being maximally sensitive to blue light. in part, this change in sensitivity is due to a change in the opsin component of the visual pigment molecule. we used hormone injection to induce these developmental changes in a group of eels and from these animals an opsin coding region was cloned and sequenced using c ...19958587887
effects of a temperature increase on oxygen consumption of yellow freshwater eels exposed to high hydrostatic pressure.oxygen consumption was measured in yellow freshwater eels, anguilla anguilla, during exposure to a hydrostatic pressure (hp) of 101 atmosphere absolute (ata) for 3 h, either with or without a 5 degrees c increase in water temperature. it was found that concomitant increases in temperature and pressure resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption that was lower than when pressure alone was increased. when eels were acclimated to hp for 21 days and then submitted to a temperature increase of 5 de ...19958962704
primary sequence, tissue specificity and mrna expression of the na(+),k (+) -atpase β1 subunit in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the entire amino acid coding sequence of the na(+),k(+)-atpase β1 isoform was cloned from the gill of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) by a pcr based method. the amino acid sequence translated from the nucleotide sequence shared 61.4 and 56.2% homology respectively with previously published na(+),k(+)-atpase β1 isoform sequences from the clawed toad (xenopus laevis) and the ray (torpedo californica) an elasmobranch fish. the size of the na(+),k(+)-atpase β1 mrna transcript in eel tissues was ...199524197533
the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the control of blood pressure and drinking in the european eel, anguilla anguilla.the role of the renin-angiotensin system (ras) in the control of blood pressure and drinking was investigated in fresh water (fw)- and seawater (sw)-adapted eels, anguilla anguilla, by comparing the effects of pharmacological manipulation through the use of papaverine (stimulator) and captopril (inhibitor) on the endogenous system. in sw eels basal blood pressure levels were lower (23.3 +/- 0.8 mm hg) with correspondingly higher basal drinking rates (0.51 +/- 0.07 ml/kg/hr) and plasma aii concen ...19958575657
mechanisms of acid release in isolated gas gland cells of the european eel anguilla anguilla.mechanisms of acid production and of acid release have been analyzed in isolated gas gland cells of the eel swimbladder using a cytosensor microphysiometer. incubation of isolated cells with oxamic acid caused a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of proton release. at the highest oxamic acid concentration used (20 mmol/l), proton release was reduced by approximately 40%; incubation with sodium fluoride (10 mmol/l) or removal of glucose from the extracellular medium caused 60 and 80% reduction, ...19957485595
influence of flumequine on in vivo mitogen responses of european eel (anguilla anguilla l., 1758) lymphoid cells.the influence of flumequine on mitogen induced lymphoid cell proliferation in european eels (anguilla anguilla l., 1758) was studied. for this purpose an in vivo test, using peroral drug administration followed by successive intraperitoneal injections with concanavalin a (cona) or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (lps) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, was applied. direct counting of proliferated cells in blood smears revealed that flumequine possesses mitogenic properties. a synergistic and an antagoni ...19958533292
pesticide effects on eel metabolism pesticide; levels did not decline at any time when animals were exposed to 4.1 mg/liter.previous works on endosulfan eel toxicology in this laboratory demonstrated that 0.041 mg/liter of endosulfan was the 50% lethal concentration of 96 hr exposure. eels of species anguilla anguilla were exposed to two sublethal endosulfan concentrations: 8.2 micrograms/liter (1/5 lc50) and 4.1 micrograms/liter (1/10 lc50), and the experiment was done at different exposure times: 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. muscle glycogen content decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr exposure ...19958521781
[effects of hydrostatic pressure on malondialdehyde (mda) determination in brain from yellow freshwater eels].malondialdehyde (mda) content in a tissue can be an indicator of lipoperoxidation and thus of membrane alteration. mda concentrations have been measured in the brain of yellow freshwater eels (anguilla anguilla) submitted to 1.51 or 101 ata of hydrostatic pressure. exposure to pressure was performed for 6 h at constant water temperature and in normoxic conditions. the results thus obtained show a significant increase (p < 0.05 or better) of mda brain concentrations at 51 ata (+ 124%) and 101 ata ...19957583764
immunohistochemical localization of bioactive peptides and amines associated with the chromaffin tissue of five species of fish.biogenic peptides and amines associated with the chromaffin tissue in atlantic cod (gadus morhua), rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), european eel (anguilla anguilla), spiny dogfish (squalus acanthias) and atlantic hagfish (myxine glutinosa) were identified utilizing immunohistochemical techniques. within the posterior cardinal vein (pcv) in cod, trout and eel, a subpopulation of chromaffin cells displayed immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (th) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (d beta h) b ...19957606765
effect of hco-3 and ph on ion transport in the posterior intestine of the freshwater-adapted teleost anguilla anguilla.the intestinal mucosa may be exposed to acidic or alcaline solutions due to liberation of digestive secretions. in several situations blood ph may also change. consequently, the effects of hco-3, co2, and ph variation of medium on the ion transport across the posterior intestine of the eel (anguilla anguilla) adapted to freshwater were studied in terms of fractional values of short-circuit current (scc), transepithelial potential difference (tpd) and conductance (g). immature eels weighing 100-2 ...19958520526
production, characterisation and applicability of monoclonal antibodies to european eel (anguilla anguilla l., 1758) immunoglobulin.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to european eel (anguilla anguilla l., 1758) immunoglobulin (ig) were produced, characterised and tested for applicability in a number of immuno(cyto)chemical assays. the selected mabs, wei 1 and wei 2, were specifically reactive with ig heavy and light chain, respectively. wei 1 appeared to react with all or nearly all ig molecules, b cells and plasma cells. wei 2 was reactive with a subpopulation of those cells, indicating that european eel possesses at least two a ...19957604532
genome size and at content in anguilliformes.the genome sizes (gs) and at contents of five species of anguilliformes (anguilla anguilla, anguilla rostrata, conger conger, gymnothorax unicolor and muraena helena) belonging to three families (anguillidae, congridae and muraenidae) were determined by flow cytometry and densitometry. differences in gs between anguillidae-congridae (about 3 pg) and muraenidae (about 5 pg) were found, which correlate with the relative amounts of at base pairs (around 42-43% for anguillidae-congridae and 51-52% f ...19958835179
characterization of plasma membrane na+/h+ exchange in eel (anguilla anguilla) intestinal epithelial cells.the ability of eel intestinal epithelial cells to recover from an acute acid load was analysed using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-carboxy-ethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (bcecf) and cell suspensions. under these experimental conditions (bicarbonate-free solutions) the resting phi in cells prepared from sea-water (7.52 +/- 0.031) and fresh-water (7.50 +/- 0.094) adapted animals proved to be similar. the recovery rate (following an acid load) increases by increasing the na ion concentration in the e ...19957852945
colocalization of (ttaggg)n telomeric sequences and ribosomal genes in atlantic eels.the distribution of (ttaggg)n telomeric repeats was studied in chromosomes of two atlantic eels, anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata. we found that these sequences hybridize to all the telomeres but also to the entire nucleolar organizer region (nor) localized in both species at the short arm of chromosome 8. this was considered to be due to the interspersion of telomeric sequences within the nor ones. whatever the significance of this interspersion may be, it seems to be limited to a. anguilla an ...19957704417
[anguilluliasis of the european eel--a continuing problem]. 19957571636
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