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organophosphorus flame retardants in the european eel in flanders, belgium: occurrence, fate and human health risk.the present study investigated the levels, profiles and human health risk of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (pfrs) in wild european eels (anguilla anguilla) from freshwater bodies in the highly populated and industrial flanders region (belgium). yellow eels (n=170) were collected at 26 locations between 2000 and 2009 and for each site, muscle samples of 3-10 eels were pooled and analyzed (n=26). muscle lipid percentages varied widely between 2.4% and 21%, with a median value ...201526056994
transcript levels of the soluble sperm factor protein phospholipase c zeta 1 (plcζ1) increase through induced spermatogenesis in european eel.activation at fertilization of the vertebrate egg is triggered by ca(2+) waves. recent studies suggest the phospholipase c zeta (plcζ), a sperm-specific protein, triggers egg activation by an ip3-mediated ca(2+) release and allow ca(2+) waves at fertilization. in the present study we cloned, characterized, and phylogenetically positioned the european eel plcζ (plcζ1). it is 1521 bp long, with 10 exons encoding an open reading frame of 506 amino acids. the amino acid sequence contains an ef-hand ...201526051612
maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in european eels.the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is regarded as a critically endangered species. scientists are in agreement that the "quality of spawners" is a vital factor for the survival of the species. this quality can be impaired by parasites, disease and pollution. especially endocrine disrupting organic chemicals pose a potential threat to reproduction and development of offspring. to our knowledge, the findings in this publication for the first time describe maternal transfer of contaminants in eel ...201526042896
local scale, coastal currents influence recruitment to freshwater populations in the european eel anguilla anguilla: a case study from the isle of man.this study examines juvenile anguilla anguilla (<30 cm) abundance in five study catchments on the isle of man. preliminary results suggest that juvenile abundance is negatively correlated with increasing coastal current speed at river mouth entry (p < 0·05). these findings indicate that at least under some circumstances, tidally driven coastal currents may influence recruitment to freshwater habitats; therefore, it is presumed that high coastal current speed at the entry to river mouths may redu ...201526033294
trends of persistent organic pollutants in american eel (anguilla rostrata) from eastern lake ontario, canada, and their potential effects on recruitment.this study reports the history of contamination of american eels (anguilla rostrata) from eastern lake ontario (lo) by persistent organic pollutants (pops). three groups of 10 large female eels captured in eastern lo in each of 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, several organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. mean concentrations were up to 3-fold lower in 2008 compared to previous years. when comb ...201526022407
a global viability assessment of the european eel.the global european eel (anguilla anguilla) stock is critically endangered according to the iucn, and the european commission has urged the development of conservation plans aimed to ensure its viability. however, the complex life cycle of this panmictic species, which reproduces in the open ocean but spends most of its prereproductive life in continental waters (thus embracing a huge geographic range and a variety of habitat types), makes it difficult to assess the long-term effectiveness of co ...201525965113
differences in brain gene transcription profiles advocate for an important role of cognitive function in upstream migration and water obstacles crossing in european eel.european eel is a panmictic species, whose decline has been recorded since the last 20 years. among human-induced environmental factors of decline, the impact of water dams during species migration is questioned. the main issue of this study was to pinpoint phenotypic traits that predisposed glass eels to successful passage by water barriers. the approach of the study was individual-centred and without any a priori hypothesis on traits involved in the putative obstacles selective pressure. we an ...201525962588
biochemical effects of the pharmaceutical drug paracetamol on anguilla anguilla.the ever-increasing presence of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment is a motif of concern, and human-use drugs are of particular importance. this is the case of paracetamol, a widely employed drug in human therapeutics, as analgesic and antipyretic, whose toxicity on aquatic organisms is still not fully characterized. the present study aimed to assess the toxic deleterious effects of paracetamol on european eel, anguila anguilla, by using a comprehensive battery of antioxidant biomarkers (ac ...201525827650
methylmercury effects on migratory behaviour in glass eels (anguilla anguilla): an experimental study using isotopic tracers.the effect of methylmercury (mehg) on glass eels' propensity to migrate, mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems was investigated. marine glass eels were first sorted in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24 h catching period w ...201525797033
energy reserves mobilization in the yellow eel as herbicide exposure effect.thiobencarb and propanil are two of the most extensive used herbicides worldwide in rice cultivation. especially scanty is the available information regarding the effect of herbicides on fish energy resources. in the present study, the effect of sublethal exposure to these herbicides on the energy reserves of juvenile eel anguilla anguilla was compared. eels were exposed to 72 h to the herbicide thiobencarb (0.22 mg l(-1)) or propanil (0.63 mg l(-1)), and allowed to recover in clean water (144 h ...201525917606
transcriptomic profiling of male european eel (anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity.the european eel anguilla anguilla has a complex life cycle that includes freshwater, seawater and morphologically distinct stages as well as two extreme long distance migrations. eels do not feed as they migrate across the atlantic to the sargasso sea but nevertheless reach sexual maturity before spawning. it is not yet clear how existing energy stores are used to reach the appropriate developmental state for reproduction. since the liver is involved in energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis a ...201526253995
replicating phages in the epidermal mucosa of the eel (anguilla anguilla).in this work, we used the eel (anguilla anguilla) as an animal model to test the hypothesis of barr et al. (2013a,b) about the putative role of the epidermal mucosa as a phage enrichment layer. to this end, we analyzed the microbial content of the skin mucus of wild and farmed eels by using a metagenomic approach. we found a great abundance of replicating phage genomes (concatemers) in all the samples. they were assembled in four complete genomes of three myovirus and one podovirus. we also foun ...201525688234
comparison of swimming capacity and energetics of migratory european eel (anguilla anguilla) and new zealand short-finned eel (a. australis).the spawning migration of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) can cover more than 6000 km, while that of the new zealand short-finned eel (a. australis) is assumed to be approximately 3000 km. since these species are expected to show adaptive traits to such an important lifetime event, we hypothesized differences in swimming capacity and energetics as a response to this adaptation. in an experimental swimming respirometer set-up, critical swimming speed (ucrit), optimal swimming speed (uopt), m ...201526441675
rescheduling the process of nanoparticle removal used for water mercury remediation can increase the risk to aquatic organism: evidence of innate immune functions modulation in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.).this study aimed to assess the mechanisms of innate immune function responses to silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (ionp) exposure alone and its associated mercury (hg) in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) phagocytes isolated from peritoneum (p-phagocytes), gill (g-phagocytes), head kidney (hk-phagocytes) and spleen (s-phagocytes). the study evaluated viability, phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity (oba) and lipid peroxidation (lpo). four groups ...201526396010
musculoskeletal anatomy and feeding performance of pre-feeding engyodontic larvae of the european eel (anguilla anguilla).being part of the elopomorph group of fishes, anguillidae species show a leptocephalus larval stage. however, due to largely unknown spawning locations and habitats of their earliest life stages, as well as their transparency, these anguilla larvae are rarely encountered in nature. therefore, information regarding the early life history of these larvae, including their exogenous feeding strategy and feeding performance, is rather scarce. to better understand the structural basis and functional p ...201526278932
demonstration of the coexistence of duplicated lh receptors in teleosts, and their origin in ancestral actinopterygians.pituitary gonadotropins, fsh and lh, control gonad activity in vertebrates, via binding to their respective receptors, fshr and lhr, members of gpcr superfamily. until recently, it was accepted that gnathostomes possess a single fshr and a single lhr, encoded by fshr and lhcgr genes. we reinvestigated this question, focusing on vertebrate species of key-phylogenetical positions. genome analyses supported the presence of a single fshr and a single lhcgr in chondrichthyans, and in sarcopterygians ...201526271038
signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in european eel.species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. the european eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). we tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life st ...201526268725
head shape dimorphism in european glass eels (anguilla anguilla).the life cycle of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) remained a mystery until the 20th century, when schmidt discovered that the sargasso sea was its spawning area. however, many aspects of the eel's life cycle remain poorly understood. among these is the bimodal distribution in head shape, with broad- and narrowheaded phenotypes reported in the yellow eel stage. although this has been linked to dietary preferences of the yellow eels, very little is known about why, how and when this dimorphis ...201526265585
climbing experience in glass eels: a cognitive task or a matter of physical capacities?the european eel is a panmictic species, whose decline has been recorded since the last 30 years. among human-induced environmental factors of decline, the impact of water dams during species migration is questioned. indeed, water impoundments can be a severe obstacle for young eels trying to reach the upstream freshwater zones, even if they are equipped with fish-friendly passes. the passage by such devices could be an important event shaping the outcome of the future life and life history trai ...201526260433
effects of acute cooling on fish electroretinogram: a comparative study.temperature dependence of electroretinogram (erg) was investigated in 3 fish species occupying different habitats--dogfish shark (scyliorhinus canicula), prussian carp (carassius gibelio) and european eel (anguilla anguilla). acute cooling of the shark isolated eyecup from 23°c down to 6°c induced suppression of the electroretinographic b-wave--a complete degradation of this component was observed at 6°c. on the other hand, photoreceptor component of the erg, the negative late receptor potential ...201525759261
spatial and seasonal variations of methylmercury in european glass eels (anguilla anguilla) in the adour estuary (france) and relation to their migratory behaviour.overall recruitment of european glass eels (anguilla anguilla) has decreased significantly since the early 1980s. due to their long life cycle, benthic/demersal habits and high lipid content, eels might accumulate high concentrations of contaminants, but data concerning glass eels are still scarce. this study provides original data on methylmercury (mehg) concentrations in glass eels at spatial (marine and estuarine), annual and seasonal scales. the relationship between mehg concentrations in gl ...201525752638
the european eel may tolerate multiple infections at a low biological cost.most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among them may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. however, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. to understand the costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among 189 european eel (anguilla anguilla) from mar men ...201525711727
interference of the co-exposure of mercury with silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles can modulate genotoxicity induced by their individual exposures--a paradox depicted in fish under in vitro conditions.the study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (ionp, 100 nm) in vitro exposure alone or its interference with mercury (hg) co-exposure in the blood of european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) by evaluating 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-ohdg), lipid peroxidation (lpo), and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ena). four groups were made: (i) 2 × 10(6) erythrocytes + roswell park memorial institute-1640 (rpmi-1640) ...201525256583
subpopulation pattern of eel spermatozoa is affected by post-activation time, hormonal treatment and the thermal regimen.there has been a marked reduction in natural stocks of eels (genus anguilla) over the past 60 years, and the culture of eels is still based on the capture of very large quantities of juveniles. it is necessary to close the life cycle in captivity in order to ease the pressure on wild populations. the aims of the present study were to evaluate sperm subpopulations (through cluster analysis of computer-aided sperm analysis data) in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and to assess the effects of ...201525402273
complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent.after mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (sag/gp-340/dmbt1). this protein is encoded by the gene deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (dmbt1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi, and activates the lectin pathway of the complement system. in the lectin pathway, carbohydrate structures on pathogens or altered self cells are recognized. sag is highly glycosylated, partly on the b ...201525153235
genotoxicity evaluation of the herbicide garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr) in fish (anguilla anguilla l.) using the comet assay.triclopyr-based herbicides are broadly used worldwide for site preparation and forest vegetation management. thus, following application, these agrochemicals can inadvertently reach the aquatic ecosystems. garlon(®) is one of the most popular commercial denominations of this group of herbicides, considered as highly toxic to fish, even by its manufacturer. although dna is frequently regarded as a target of pesticide toxicity, the genotoxic potential of garlon(®) to fish remains completely unknow ...201524623388
anthropogenic noise compromises antipredator behaviour in european eels.increases in noise-generating human activities since the industrial revolution have changed the acoustic landscape of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major pollutant of international concern, and recent studies have demonstrated impacts on, for instance, hearing thresholds, communication, movement and foraging in a range of species. however, consequences for survival and reproductive success are difficult to ascertain. using a series of laborat ...201525098970
occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid and histopathology in eels from north italian waters.a perfluorinated alkylated substances (pfas) biomonitoring study was conducted in european eel (anguilla anguilla) in italy for the first time. perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos) and perfluorooctanoic acid (pfoa) concentrations were assessed in the organs of 35 wild eels from two locations, the highly impacted po river and the comacchio lagoon along the north-western adriatic coast. pfas were extracted by ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and measured using high performance liquid chromatogra ...201525083944
enzyme activity patterns in white and red muscle of the eel (anguilla anguilla) at different developmental stages. 20154342454
metabolic effects of technical pentachlorophenol (pcp) on the eel anguilla anguilla l. 20154653160
metabolic and hematological studies on the yellow and silver phases of the european eel, anguilla anguilla l. i. carbohydrate, lipid, protein and inorganic ion metabolism. 20154452230
effects of salinity, hypophysectomy and corticotrophin or branchial na- and k-activated atpase in the eel, anguilla anguilla l. 20154326155
competing invaders: performance of two anguillicola species in lake bracciano.anguillicola crassus is one of the most successful parasitic invasive species as it has spread from its original habitat in east asia throughout the world and has acquired five new eel host species in the course of its invasion within the last three decades. records from an italian lake indicate that this species has even displaced an established population of its close relative a. novaezelandiae originating from new zealand. in order to analyze the reasons for its high invasive potential, this ...201525830111
relationship between european eel anguilla anguilla infection with non-native parasites and swimming behaviour on encountering accelerating flow.the effect of anguillicola crassus, pseudodactylogyrus bini and pseudodactylogyrus anguillae infection on the behaviour of downstream migrating adult european eels anguilla anguilla as they encountered accelerating water velocity, common at engineered structures where flow is constricted (e.g. weirs and bypass systems), was evaluated in an experimental flume. the probability of reacting to, and rejecting, the velocity gradient was positively related to a. crassus larval, adult and total abundanc ...201525801939
influence of nematode anguillicoloides crassus infestation on the cellular and humoral innate immunity in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.).parasitic invasions are recognized as one of the primary factors responsible for decreasing populations of european eel. the aim of the present study was to determine the influence of infestation with the nematode anguillicoloides crassus on the innate immunity in european eel (anguilla anguilla). anguillicoloides crassus parasitizes the swim bladder of this fish. levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: spleen phagocyte respiratory burst activity, spleen phagocyte potenti ...201526557024
size does matter-a closer look on anguillicola morphology.the present study deals with morphological differences between two closely related parasitic nematode species (anguillicola crassus kuwahara et al., 1974 and anguillicola novaezelandiae moravec & taraschewski, 1988) in two different experimentally infected eel species (anguilla anguilla linnaeus, 1758 and anguilla japonica temminck & schlegel, 1847). furthermore, it considers the question whether size differences between those two species are ontogenetically determined or host species-dependent. ...201526096826
richness and diversity of helminth species in eels from a hypersaline coastal lagoon, mar menor, south-east spain.the composition and diversity of parasite communities and intestinal components, as well as infra-community structure, were assessed in eels anguilla anguilla, from mar menor, a permanent mediterranean hypersaline coastal lagoon. data were used to determine whether this helminth community differs in composition and structure from that of eels in lagoons with lower salinity regimes and higher freshwater inputs. a total prevalence of 93% was detected. specifically, parasites were identified as der ...201524685015
influence of adult anguillicoloides crassus load in european eels swimbladder on macrophage response.anguillicoloides crassus has become one of the most important threats to the european eel (anguilla anguilla). adult parasites colonize the swimbladder leading to an impaired functioning of this organ. the infection is also responsible for an increased in the stress level of infected eels, that could produce an altered immune response as well. differences in parasite loads and effects in the european and japanese eel (anguilla japonica) have been described. we have studied the influence of the n ...201525463301
metabolic and hematological studies on the yellow and silver phases of the european eel, anguilla anguilla l. iii. hematology. 20154452232
duplicated leptin receptors in two species of eel bring new insights into the evolution of the leptin system in vertebrates.since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3r). leptin acts through a specific receptor (lepr). in the european and japanese eels, we identified two leptin genes, and for the first time in vertebrates, two lepr genes. synteny analyses ...201525946034
from eels to the importance of cancer biobanks. 201528031917
an enriched european eel transcriptome sheds light upon host-pathogen interactions with vibrio vulnificus.infectious diseases are one of the principal bottlenecks for the european eel recovery. the aim of this study was to develop a new molecular tool to be used in host-pathogen interaction experiments in the eel. to this end, we first stimulated adult eels with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps), extracted rna from the immune-related tissues and sequenced the transcriptome. we obtained more than 2 x 10(6) reads that were assembled and annotated into 45,067 new descriptions wit ...201526207370
early steps in the european eel (anguilla anguilla)-vibrio vulnificus interaction in the gills: role of the rtxa13 toxin.vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic gram-negative bacterium that causes a systemic disease in eels called warm-water vibriosis. natural disease occurs via water born infection; bacteria attach to the gills (the main portal of entry) and spread to the internal organs through the bloodstream, provoking host death by haemorrhagic septicaemia. v. vulnificus produces a toxin called rtxa13 that hypothetically interferes with the eel immune system facilitating bacterial invasion and subsequent death by sep ...201525613341
effect of the probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus on the expression of genes involved in european eel spermatogenesis.positive effects of probiotics on fish reproduction have been reported in several species. in the present study, 40 male european eels were weekly treated with recombinant hcg for 9 weeks and with three different concentrations (10(3), 10(5), and 10(6) cfu/ml) of probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus imc 501 (sinbyotec, italy). the probiotics were daily added to the water from the sixth week of the hcg treatment. males from the treated and control groups were sacrificed after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of pr ...201526271165
selection of best-performing reference gene products for investigating transcriptional regulation across silvering in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the focus of the present study was to set a methodological approach for evaluating molecular mechanisms underlying silvering transformation in the european eel, anguilla anguilla. silvering is a tightly controlled process during which eels undergo significant morphological, physiological and behavioral changes, pre-adapting for the oceanic spawning migration. female eels showing different silver indexes were caught in different seasons in the comacchio lagoon (north adriatic sea, italy). isolate ...201526593703
chemical elements in the muscle tissues of european eel (anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in latvia.fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of latvia. the concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for pb, 0.019-0.047; cd, 0.0051-0.011; hg, 0.13-0.36; cu, 0.76-0.92; zn, 28-42; and as, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. a positive correlation was revealed b ...201526334326
toxic textile dyes accumulate in wild european eel anguilla anguilla.dyes are used to stain inks, paints, textile, paper, leather and household products. they are omnipresent, some are toxic and may threaten our environment, especially aquatic ecosystems. the presence of residues of sixteen dyes (triarylmethanes, xanthenes, phenothiazines and phenoxazines) and their metabolites was analyzed in muscle tissue samples of individual yellow-phased european eels (anguilla anguilla) from 91 locations in belgian rivers, canals and lakes sampled between 2000 and 2009 usin ...201526291760
temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in european eels anguilla anguilla in an adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in italy.the composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in italy: an adriatic coastal lagoon, comacchio and two freshwater localities, the river po and the lake piediluco. data from comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. the community was species rich (nine species, all marine except proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was ...201424135871
cloning and expression analyses of interferon regulatory factor (irf) 3 and 7 genes in european eel, anguilla anguilla with the identification of genes involved in ifn production.interferon regulatory factor (irf) 3 and irf7 have been identified as regulators of type i interferon (ifn) gene expression in mammals. in the present study, the two genes were cloned and characterized in the european eel, anguilla anguilla. the full-length cdna sequence of irf3 and irf7 in the european eel, named as aairf3 and aairf7 consists of 2879 and 2419 bp respectively. multiple alignments showed that the two irfs have a highly conserved dna binding domain (dbd) in the n terminus, with th ...201424565894
[plasma levels, metabolic clearance rates, and rates of secretion of testosterone and estradiol-l7 beta in the silver eel (anguilla anguilla l.)].testosterone (t) and 17 beta-estradiol (e2) plasma levels and metabolic clearance rates (mcr) were measured to investigate their ovarian production in immature silver eel. the dynamics of t and e2 metabolism were studied in catheterized eels using single injections of 0.2 to 0.5 microci 3h-labeled steroid. the distribution volumes, biological half-life and mcr of nonconjugated tracers were calculated on the basis of a two-compartment model. at the end of the experiments, radioactivity was measur ...20144043727
the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus dna.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus dna. two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the dna polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. the reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°c and 60min, respectively. lamp amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. the method developed was specific for the detection of abalon ...201424291740
the aetiology, histopathology, and ultrastructural features of perianal erythema (red anus syndrome) in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is a critically endangered species. red anus syndrome (ras) is known to be associated with parasitic infections of the eel, particularly with anguillicola crassus, but the full range of causative pathogenic organisms has not been systematically investigated. here we examined the infective organisms and histopathological and ultrastructural features of seventy eels with ras. in total, nine different pathogens were detected in association with ras: pseudomonas ...201424608418
introduced parasite anguillicola crassus infection significantly impedes swim bladder function in the european eel anguilla anguilla (l.). 201424422641
introduced american eels anguilla rostrata in european waters: life-history traits in a non-native environment.this study investigated growth, condition and development of american eels anguilla rostrata that were introduced into a european river to estimate their competitive potential in a non-native habitat. results demonstrate that a. rostrata develops normally in european waters and successfully competes with the native european eel anguilla anguilla. in addition, a. rostrata appears to be more susceptible to the asian swimbladder nematode anguillicola crassus than a. anguilla and could support the f ...201424787669
comparison of infection success, development and swim bladder pathogenicity of two congeneric anguillicola species in experimentally infected anguilla anguilla and a. japonica.two closely related parasites, anguillicola crassus and anguillicola novaezelandiae, originally parasitizing swim bladders of the japanese eel (anguilla japonica and the short-finned eel (anguilla australis), respectively, were used for analyzing the infection success of each parasite species on either long-known, recently acquired or new definitive host species and the associated effects on the eels' swim bladders. on that account, european eels (anguilla anguilla) and japanese eels were experi ...201425070578
distribution, prevalence and intensity of anguillicola crassus (nematoda) infection in anguilla anguilla in the republic of ireland.this study is the first comprehensive documentation of the geographical range of anguillicola crassus in its host, the european eel anguilla anguilla, in the republic of ireland. the prevalence and intensity of infections across 234 sites and 93 river basins in ireland comprising rivers, lakes and transitional waters (estuaries) were analysed. while only 32% of the river basins were affected by this nematode, they correspond to 74% of the total wetted area. significant differences in infection l ...201424627948
nematode eel parasite found inside acanthocephalan cysts--a "trojan horse" strategy?the invasive eel parasite anguillicoloides crassus (syn. anguillicola crassus) is considered one of the major causes for the decline of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) panmictic population. it impairs the swim bladder function and reduces swimming performance of its host. the life cycle of this parasite involves different intermediate and paratenic hosts. despite an efficient immune system of the paratenic fish hosts acting against infections with a. crassus, levels of parasitized eels rema ...201425403767
effects of anguillicola novaezelandiae on the levels of cortisol and hsp70 in the european eel.the nematodes anguillicola novaezelandiae and anguillicola crassus are both alien parasites of the european eel with severe adverse effects on their new host. both species differ in terms of their invasiveness and their severity of harmful effects on the european eel. the purpose of this study was to determine under laboratory conditions whether stages of a. novaezelandiae induce stress in european eels (anguilla anguilla) and if these levels differ from stress levels induced by a. crassus. we a ...201425096532
transcriptome analyses of anguillicola crassus from native and novel hosts.anguillicola crassus is a swim bladder nematode of eels. the parasite is native to the asian eel anguilla japonica, but was introduced to europe and the european eel anguilla anguilla in the early 1980s. a taiwanese source has been proposed for this introduction. in the new host in the recipient area, the parasite appears to be more pathogenic. as a reason for these differences, genetically fixed differences in infectivity and development between taiwanese and european a.crassus have been descri ...201425469324
[neuro-intermediate lobe and osmoregulation: comparison of the european eel and the cultured japanese eel during a transfer from fresh water to sea water]. 20144187662
swimbladder function and the spawning migration of the european eel anguilla anguilla.the spawning migration of the european eel is an extensive journey over 5000 to 7000 km from the european coast to the sargasso sea. eels do not feed during this journey and on-board fuels must be sufficient to support the journey of 3.5 to 6 month, as well as sexual maturation and the spawning activity. swimming of eels appears to be quite energy efficient compared to other fish species, and elevated hydrostatic pressure has been shown to even reduce the costs of transport. recent studies revea ...201425646080
the shifting of the aortic origin of the brachial arteries in the metamorphosing eel anguilla anguilla (l.), with remarks on the shifting mechanisms in arterial junctions in general.in silver eels the arteries supplying the pectoral girdles and fins, arise from a common trunk which branches off from the dorsal aspect of the dorsal aorta, while the origin of this trunk is found at the ventral aspect of the aorta in the leptocephalus larva. the rearrangement of the origin of this trunk is mainly accomplished during metamorphosis, and is related to the rearrangement of the junction of the epibranchial arteries and the aorta. the processes of remodelling the wall of the vessels ...20144013636
enteric neuroplasticity in seawater-adapted european eel (anguilla anguilla).european eels live most of their lives in freshwater until spawning migration to the sargasso sea. during seawater adaptation, eels modify their physiology, and their digestive system adapts to the new environment, drinking salt water to compensate for the continuous water loss. in that period, eels stop feeding until spawning. thus, the eel represents a unique model to understand the adaptive changes of the enteric nervous system (ens) to modified salinity and starvation. to this purpose, we as ...201424433383
application of congener based multi-matrix profiling techniques to identify potential pcdd/f sources in environmental samples from the burrishoole catchment in the west of ireland.homologue and congener profiles of pcdd/fs in eels, passive sampler and sediment extracts from the burrishoole, a rural upland catchment on the western irish seaboard were compared with potential pcdd sources. σpcdd/f levels in eels ranged from 2.9 to 25.9 pg g(-1) wet weight, which are elevated compared to other irish locations. the ocdd congener dominated the pattern of σpcdd/fs in all matrices from burrishoole. passive samplers were successfully deployed to identify for the first time the pre ...201424121420
looking for protein expression signatures in european eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vivo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate and a real world field study.the decline of european eel population can be attributed to many factors such as pollution by xenobiotics present in domestic and industrial effluents. perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) is a ubiquitous compound of a particular concern in europe. pfos can reach high concentrations in tissues of organisms and many toxic effects have been reported in fish. this study aimed at evaluating the toxicological effects of pfos in european eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) at the protein expres ...201424095681
pah metabolites, gst and erod in european eel (anguilla anguilla) as possible indicators for eel habitat quality in german rivers.the stock of the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) continues to decline and has reached a new minimum in 2011. poor health status of the spawners due to organic contaminants is one of the possible causes for this dramatic situation. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are ubiquitous contaminants, which are rapidly metabolized in vertebrates. erod (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase) and gst (glutathione-s-transferase) are two enzymes involved in pah detoxification in fish. in this study, pah met ...201424085514
are persistent organic pollutants and metals in eel muscle predictive for the ecological water quality?relationships between the presence of pcbs, ocps and metals in aquatic ecosystems and the ecological water quality were investigated by combining datasets of long-term monitoring of chemicals in european eel (anguilla anguilla, n = 1156) in flanders (belgium) and the ecological quality ratio (eqr), based on the assessment of fish assemblages at 185 locations. for most pollutants, eqr scores were lower when pollutant levels were higher. threshold concentrations for a good quality could be formula ...201424378813
recruitment collapse and population structure of the european eel shaped by local ocean current dynamics.worldwide, exploited marine fish stocks are under threat of collapse [1]. although the drivers behind such collapses are diverse, it is becoming evident that failure to consider evolutionary processes in fisheries management can have drastic consequences on a species' long-term viability [2]. the european eel (anguilla anguilla; linnaeus, 1758) is no exception: not only does the steep decline in recruitment observed in the 1980s [3, 4] remain largely unexplained, the punctual detection of geneti ...201424374306
effect of low-dose cadmium exposure on dna methylation in the endangered european eel.there is increasing evidence that epigenetics can play a key role in the etiology of diseases engendered by chronic pollutant exposure. although epigenetics has received significant attention in the field of biomedicine during the last years, epigenetics research is surprisingly very limited in ecotoxicology. the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of low-dose cadmium exposure on the dna methylation profile in a critically endangered fish species, the european eel. e ...201424328039
dioxin-like, non-dioxin like pcb and pcdd/f contamination in european eel (anguilla anguilla) from the loire estuarine continuum: spatial and biological variabilities.to characterize the eel contamination by dioxin-like (dl) and non dioxin-like (ndl) polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (pcdd/fs), sixty-two eels from the loire estuary (france) were analyzed. pcb contamination significantly increased from glass eel stage (3.71 ± 1.85 and 15.2 ± 4.2 ng g(-1) dw) to other life stages (for yellow eels: 62.8 ± 34.4 and 382 ± 182 ng g(-1) dw; for silver eels: 93.7 ± 56.3 and 463 ± 245 ng g(-1) dw respectively for dl and ...201424317164
patterns of presence and concentration of pesticides in fish and waters of the júcar river (eastern spain).the júcar river, in a typical mediterranean basin, is expected to suffer a decline in water quality and quantity as a consequence of the climate change. this study is focused on the presence and distribution of pesticides in water and fish, using the first extensive optimization and application of the quechers method to determine pesticides in freshwater fish. majority pesticides in water - in terms of presence and concentration - were dichlofenthion, chlorfenvinphos, imazalil, pyriproxyfen and ...201424315814
brominated flame retardants and dechloranes in european and american eels from glass to silver life stages.the populations of american (anguilla rostrata) and european eels (anguilla anguilla) have been declining rapidly in the last decades. organic contaminants are suspected to be one of the possible causes for the decline; however, so far there have been few investigations of the uptake of specific compounds by different life cycle stages (e.g. freshwater or marine stage) and how the contamination patterns develop throughout the eel's life cycle. in the present study we measured concentrations of p ...201424290300
pcb contamination in fish community from the gironde estuary (france): blast from the past.the contamination of the gironde estuary, southwest of france, by polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) was assessed using six fish of high ecological and economic importance as bioindicator species. the concentrations of 21 pcb congeners and total fat contents were determined in the muscle and liver of eels (anguilla anguilla), seabass (dicentrarchus labrax), flounders (platichthys flesus), meagres (argyrosomus regius), mullets (liza ramada), and soles (solea vulgaris). in addition, information rega ...201424238912
modulation of glutathione and its dependent enzymes in gill cells of anguilla anguilla exposed to silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles with or without mercury co-exposure under in vitro condition.the current study aimed to investigate the modulation of glutathione (gsh) and its dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase, gr; glutathione peroxidase, gpx; glutathione sulfotransferase, gst) from 0 to 72 h in the gill cells of anguilla anguilla under in vitro condition exposed to silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with dithiocarbamate (fe₃o₄@sio₂/sidtc, hereafter called 'ionps'; 100 nm; 2.5 mgl(-1)) with or without mercury (hg) coexposure. significantly decreased tgsh conten ...201424607655
multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. in this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichlor ...201424583201
variation in cyanobacterial hepatotoxin (microcystin) content of water samples and two species of fishes collected from a shallow lake in algeria.microcystins (mcs) produced from cyanobacteria can accumulate in freshwater fish tissues. in this study, variations in these toxins content were examined monthly in water samples and two species of fish in lake oubeira, algeria, from april 2010 to march 2011. during the study period, mcs were analyzed using protein phosphatase type 2a (pp2a) inhibition assay. in lake water, total (dissolved and intracellular toxins) mc concentrations by pp2a ranged from 0.028 to 13.4 μg equivalent mc-lr/l, with ...201424445842
assessing patterns of hybridization between north atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms.the two north atlantic eel species, the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the american eel (anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the sargasso sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. in this study, we used a rad (restriction site associated dna) sequencing approach to identify species-specific diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and design a low-density array that combined with screening of a diagnostic mitochondrial dna marker. eels from iceland (n=159) and f ...201424424165
effects of chronic exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium on biomarkers of the european eel, anguilla anguilla.exposure to specific metallic compounds can cause severe deleterious modifications in organisms. fishes are particularly prone to toxic effects from exposure to metallic compounds via their environment. species that inhabit estuaries or freshwater environments can be chronically affected by persistent exposure to a large number of metallic compounds, particularly those released by industrial activities. in this study, we exposed yellow eels (european eel, anguilla anguilla) for 28 days to enviro ...201424430501
a simplified method to estimate body growth parameters of the european eel anguilla anguilla.a simple approach is proposed to fit a body growth model for the european eel anguilla anguilla to data-poor case studies. the model is a modified von bertalanffy curve allowing for delayed sex determination and sexual dimorphism. the proposed procedure provides preliminary estimates of model parameters on the basis of average age and body length of silver eels.201425130672
multiple thyrotropin β-subunit and thyrotropin receptor-related genes arose during vertebrate evolution.thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. the three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1r and 2r) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2r. this gene, named tshβ2, present in cartilaginous ...201425386660
low larval abundance in the sargasso sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the atlantic eels.the european eel anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. to determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl samplin ...201425307845
changes in the gene expression profiles of the brains of male european eels (anguilla anguilla) during sexual maturation.the vertebrate brain plays a critical role in the regulation of sexual maturation and reproduction by integrating environmental information with developmental and endocrine status. the european eel anguilla anguilla is an important species in which to better understand the neuroendocrine factors that control reproduction because it is an endangered species, has a complex life cycle that includes two extreme long distance migrations with both freshwater and seawater stages and because it occupies ...201425230743
abnormal ovarian dna methylation programming during gonad maturation in wild contaminated fish.there is increasing evidence that pollutants may cause diseases via epigenetic modifications. epigenetic mechanisms such as dna methylation participate in the regulation of gene transcription. surprisingly, epigenetics research is still limited in ecotoxicology. in this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to contaminants experienced by wild female fish (anguilla anguilla) throughout their juvenile phase can affect the dna methylation status of their oocytes during gonad maturation. t ...201425203663
genomic footprints of speciation in atlantic eels (anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata).the importance of speciation-with-geneflow scenarios is increasingly appreciated. however, the specific processes and the resulting genomic footprints of selection are subject to much discussion. we studied the genomics of speciation between the two panmictic, sympatrically spawning sister species; european (anguilla anguilla) and american eel (a. rostrata). divergence is assumed to have initiated more than 3 ma, and although low gene flow still occurs, strong postzygotic barriers are present. r ...201425155907
gemfibrozil modulates cytochrome p450 and peroxisome proliferation-inducible enzymes in the liver of the yellow european eel (anguilla anguilla).the human lipid regulator gemfibrozil (gem) has been shown to induce peroxisome proliferation in rodents leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. since gem is found at biological active concentrations in the aquatic environment, the present study investigates the effects of this drug on the yellow european eel (anguilla anguilla). eels were injected with different concentrations of gem (0.1 to 200 μg/g) and sampled 24- and 96-h post-injection. gem was shown to inhibit cyp1a, cyp3a and cyp2k-like catalyt ...201423828728
pah metabolites in european eels (anguilla anguilla) as indicators of pah exposure: different methodological approaches.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic environments derived from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. in fish, as in other vertebrates, pahs are rapidly metabolized. however, the metabolites have been proven to induce multiple deleterious effects in fish. the concentrations of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in eels (anguilla anguilla) caught in polish waters were measured. the main objectives of the study were to provide information on th ...201425064716
are dna-damaging effects induced by herbicide formulations (roundup® and garlon®) in fish transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure?owing to the seasonality of crop cultivation and subsequent periodic/seasonal application of herbicides, their input to the aquatic systems is typically intermittent. consequently, exposure of fish to this type of contaminants can be short and followed by a period of permanence in non-contaminated areas. thus, the assessment of genotoxic endpoints in fish after removal of the contamination source appears as a crucial step to improve the knowledge on the dynamics of herbicide genotoxicity, as wel ...201425058560
assessment of chromosomal damage induced by a deltamethrin-based insecticide in fish (anguilla anguilla l.) - a follow-up study upon exposure and post-exposure periods.the pyrethroid insecticide decis®, containing deltamethrin as active ingredient, is among the most popular broad-spectrum biocides, with wide application in agriculture and home pest control. the occurrence of deltamethrin in the aquatic environment is well-established, but the possible genotoxic effects of decis® in non-target organisms, namely fish, remain unknown. hence, this work aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic damaging potential of decis® in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.), adopting t ...201425052525
cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (nematoda, cucullanidae) infecting the european eel anguilla anguilla in egypt. morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.a total of 80 specimens of the european eel anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from february 2013 to march 2014 at the coast of the gulf of suez (red sea, egypt). a new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as cucullanus egyptae. it was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. the morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. the adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral apert ...201425030116
sperm motility parameters and spermatozoa morphometric characterization in marine species: a study of swimmer and sessile species.the biodiversity of marine ecosystems is diverse and a high number of species coexist side by side. however, despite the fact that most of these species share a common fertilization strategy, a high variability in terms of the size, shape, and motion of spermatozoa can be found. in this study, we have analyzed both the sperm motion parameters and the spermatozoa morphometric features of two swimmer (pufferfish and european eel) and two sessile (sea urchin and ascidian) marine species. the most i ...201425016411
identification of molecular markers in pectoral fin to predict artificial maturation of female european eels (anguilla anguilla).the european eel is a critically endangered species that cannot be reproduced in captivity yet. artificial maturation of female european eels can be achieved via a laborious and expensive procedure, including weekly injections with pituitary extracts for up to 6 months. the success rate is highly variable and a minimally invasive method for early selection of responsive eels would prevent the unnecessary and lengthy treatment of non-responding individuals. since sexual maturation of european eel ...201424992558
full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult european eel anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.an adult european eel anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by pcr for the detection of several viruses. positive results were obtained with a nested pcr targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, b ...201424991738
do north atlantic eels show parallel patterns of spatially varying selection?the two north atlantic eel species, the european and the american eel, represent an ideal system in which to study parallel selection patterns due to their sister species status and the presence of ongoing gene flow. a panel of 80 coding-gene snps previously analyzed in american eel was used to genotype european eel individuals (glass eels) from 8 sampling locations across the species distribution. we tested for single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection in european eel by searc ...201424947556
fish-based remedies in spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical perspective.fish-based therapeutics is fundamentally based on a dietary use, but these vertebrates have also been employed in the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and to deal with diseases of the different systems.201424885245
speciation and demographic history of atlantic eels (anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata) revealed by mitogenome sequencing.processes leading to speciation in oceanic environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. european and american eel (anguilla anguilla and a. rostrata) spawn in partial sympatry in the sargasso sea. larvae are advected by the gulf stream and other currents towards the european/north african and north american coasts, respectively. we analyzed 104 mitogenomes from the two species along with mitogenomes of other anguilla and outgroup species. we estimated divergence time betwe ...201424865601
presence of viruses in wild eels anguilla anguilla l, from the albufera lake (spain).a virological analysis was conducted on wild eels from the albufera lake (spain). a total of 179 individuals at different growth stages were collected in two different surveys (2004 and 2008). presence of anguillid herpesvirus (anghv-1), aquabirnavirus and betanodavirus was confirmed by pcr procedures in both surveys, although the number of detections was clearly higher in 2008 (83% of the eels analysed resulted positive for virus presence). anghv-1 was the viral agent most frequently detected, ...201424846700
the regulation of aromatase and androgen receptor expression during gonad development in male and female european eel.this research investigated the regulation of aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression in the brain-pituitary-gonad (bpg) axis of male and female european eels (anguilla anguilla) during induced sexual maturation. complete a. anguilla aromatase (aa-cyp19a1) and partial androgen receptor α and β (aa-ara and aa-arb) sequences were isolated, and qpcr assays were validated and used for quantification of transcript levels for these three genes. expression levels of the genes varied with sex, ti ...201424750538
genome-wide single-generation signatures of local selection in the panmictic european eel.next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide data allow identifying adaptive variation and footprints of directional selection. using a large snp data set from 259 rad-sequenced european eel individuals (glass eels) from eight locations between 34 and 64(o) n, we examined the patterns of genome-wide genetic diversity across locations. we tested for local selection by searching for increased population differentiation using f(st) -based outlier tests and by testing for significant ...201424750353
dna and chromosomal damage induced in fish (anguilla anguilla l.) by aminomethylphosphonic acid (ampa)--the major environmental breakdown product of glyphosate.the assessment of the direct impact of breakdown products of pesticide components on aquatic wildlife is ecotoxicologically relevant, but frequently disregarded. in this context, the evaluation of the genotoxic hazard posed by aminomethylphosphonic acid (ampa--the major natural degradation product of glyphosate) to fish emerges as a critical but unexplored issue. hence, the main goal of the present research was to assess the ampa genotoxic potential to fish following short-term exposures (1 and ...201424696215
introgressive hybridization and latitudinal admixture clines in north atlantic eels.hybridization, the interbreeding of diagnosably divergent species, is a major focus in evolutionary studies. eels, both from north america and europe migrate through the atlantic to mate in a vast, overlapping area in the sargasso sea. due to the lack of direct observation, it is unknown how these species remain reproductively isolated. the detection of inter-species hybrids in iceland suggests on-going gene flow, but few studies to date have addressed the influence of introgression on genetic d ...201424674242
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