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histopathological changes in the swimbladder wall of the european eel anguilla anguilla due to infections with anguillicola crassus.the histopathological changes in swimbladders of european eels naturally and experimentally infected with anguillicola crassus were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. during the course of probably several infections swimbladders undergo characteristic changes. in addition to the thickening of the entire swimbladder wall, and to the folded internal surface of this organ, inflammation, migration of white blood cells, fibrosis and changes in the epithelial cells are freque ...200010715817
effects of lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities on hepatoma, choriocarcinoma, melanoma and osteosarcoma cell lines.the effects of lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities on human hepatoma (h3b), human choriocarcinoma (jar), mouse melanoma (b16) and rat osteosarcoma (ros) cell lines were investigated. cell viability was estimated by uptake of crystal violet. wheat germ lectin was the lectin with the most deleterious effect on the viability of h3b, jar and ros cell lines. the cytotoxicity of lectins with similar sugar-binding specificity to wheat germ lectin, including maackia amurensis lecti ...200010716633
physiological status of wild european eels (anguilla anguilla) infected with the parasitic nematode, anguillicola crassus.the effect of the parasitic swimbladder nematode, anguillicola crassus, on the physiological status of wild european eels (anguilla anguilla) was investigated during an 18 month survey (february 1995 until september 1996), and compared with that of wild uninfected eels collected over the same time-period. despite the occurrence of up to 15 blood-feeding adults in the swimbladder lumen of the infected eels and as many as 25 additional larvae in the swimbladder wall, there were no major difference ...200010726280
expression of two vacuolar-type atpase b subunit isoforms in swimbladder gas gland cells of the european eel: nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences.the poly(a)(+) rna of swimbladder gas gland cells of the european eel anguilla anguilla was isolated and used for cdna synthesis. using a pair of degenerate pcr primers directed towards the evolutionary highly conserved central part of the b subunit of vacuolar type h(+)-atpase (v-atpase) a fragment of 388 bp was amplified. by sequencing the cloned pcr products two different amplicons with a sequence identity of about 86% were obtained. blastn searches revealed a high degree of similarity of bot ...200010760576
persistence of herpesvirus of eel herpesvirus anguillae in farmed european eel anguilla anguilla.herpesvirus of eel herpesvirus anguillae (hva) was isolated repeatedly from farmed eel of an outwardly healthy stock, but virus isolation was much greater in an experimental group of fish that were injected with dexamethasone. the results suggest that hva can establish a latent infection in eel. previous exposure of these eels to hva virus was shown by detection of hva-specific antibodies. these eels did not show clinical signs after a secondary infection with hva. tracing of seropositive eel st ...200111463096
induction of stress by the swimbladder nematode anguillicola crassus in european eels, anguilla anguilla, after repeated experimental infection.the purpose of this study was to determine under laboratory conditions over a period of 311 days if infection with the nematode anguillicola crassus induces stress in european eels (anguilla anguilla), and stimulates the endocrine stress axis as measured by serum cortisol levels. eels were experimentally infected with 3rd-stage larvae (l3) in different doses to simulate natural conditions with varying infection pressures. blood samples were drawn from the caudal vein every 2 weeks and serum cort ...200111510683
eel parasite diversity and intermediate host abundance in the river rhine, germany.european eels (anguilla anguilla) from 2 sampling sites on the rhine river (near karlsruhe and near worms) were investigated with respect to their parasite communities. nine different metazoan species were found to live in and on the eels. the highest number of species was recorded from the intestine, which contained up to 6 different helminths. among these, acanthocephalans were the most prevalent worms with the eel-specific parasite paratenuisentis ambiguus as the dominant species of the intes ...200111510684
[larval history of glass eels, anguilla anguilla (linné, 1758) in migration in coastal and estuary areas (adour, gulf of gascogne) as revealed by otolith test].the embryonic past of glass eels was studied from the interpretation of microstructures registered on otoliths. the aim of this work is to put in evidence possible seasonal modifications of the growth of otoliths so that differences between otoliths of glass eels caught off marine and estuarine environment. so during the season 1999-2000, from november till march, otolith sampling was realised in the southwestern part of france, in an estuarine and coastal zone. we observed a spatial and tempora ...200111725699
disposition of 14c-flumequine in eel anguilla anguilla, turbot scophthalmus maximus and halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus after oral and intravenous administration.the absorption, distribution and elimination of 14c-labelled flumequine were studied using whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. flumequine was administered to eel anguilla anguilla, turbot scophthalmus maximus and halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus intravenously and orally as a single dose of 5 mg kg(-1), corresponding to 0.1 mci kg(-1). the turbot and halibut studies were performed in salt water (salinity of 32%) at temperatures of 16 +/- 1 degrees c (turbot) and 9.5 +/- ...200111804417
carbonic anhydrase activity in tissues of the icefish chionodraco hamatus and of the red-blooded teleosts trematomus bernacchii and anguilla anguilla.carbonic anhydrase (ca) activity was measured in blood, intestine, kidney and gill of two antarctic teleosts, the haemoglobinless chionodraco hamatus and the red-blooded trematomus bernacchii, and of the temperate teleost anguilla anguilla. in all species, the highest ca activity was in the gills, with the greatest activity in c. hamatus. ca activity in the blood was highest in a. anguilla, but none was detected in the blood of c. hamatus despite the presence of plasma ca inhibitors. the enzyme ...200111807116
hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase activity in eel (anguilla anguilla) from the thames estuary and comparisons with other united kingdom estuaries.hepatic microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activities (indicative of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and polychlorobiphenyls (pcbs)) were measured in eel anguilla anguilla from the thames estuary. fish were collected from up to 13 sites during november 1997, may and august 1998 and october 1999. throughout this period no clear seasonal variation could be identified at every site along the thames. however, during the summer months, fish sampled from sites in the ...200111827118
fatty acid chain elongation synthesis in eel (anguilla anguilla) liver mitochondria.the properties of fatty acid chain elongation synthesis have been investigated in liver mitochondria of the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the incorporation of [1-(14)c]acetyl-coa into fatty acids shows a specific activity of 0.43+/-0.05 nmol/min x mg protein (n=6), which is more than twice higher than that previously reported in rat liver mitochondria. label incorporation into fatty acids was, in mitochondria disrupted by freezing and thawing, much higher than in intact organelles thus sugge ...200111163299
cloning and expression of guanylin from the european eel (anguilla anguilla).extracts of intestinal epithelia from the european eel (anguilla anguilla) stimulated cgmp production in the t84 human colon carcinoma cell line which suggested the presence of a guanylin-like peptide in this teleost fish. degenerate oligonucleotide primers were subsequently used in rt-pcr resulting in the amplification, cloning, and sequencing of two cdnas which represent possible 5' spliceoforms of an eel homologue of the mammalian peptide, guanylin. northern blotting indicated that the main s ...200111243845
helminth communities in eels anguilla anguilla from adriatic coastal lagoons in italy.the composition and diversity of the total and intestinal component and infra-communities were determined in eels anguilla anguilla from three shallow lagoons on the adriatic coast of italy to determine whether the helminth communities would differ in composition and structure from those in eels from lagoons on the tyrrhenian coast. the lagoons differed in respect of their management regimes and the extent of freshwater influx. both freshwater and marine species of helminths were found in the ee ...200111316467
metallothionein as bioindicator of freshwater metal pollution: european eel and brown trout.the aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (mt) as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout and european eel in the field situation. river ferrerias (north spain) provided a good gradient of metal contamination: concentrations of heavy metals were elevated both in water and in sediments at the downstream (polluted) site and were low at the upstream (unpolluted) site. mt levels of brown trout exhibited statistically significant differences between sites. a ...200111386716
induction of micronuclei in eel (anguilla anguilla l.) by heavy metals.micronucleus test was performed in situ on eels (anguilla anguilla) from river sites with different levels of heavy metal pollution (cadmium and mercury). cadmium content in eel liver but not micronuclei averages in kidney were associated with cadmium content in sediments. mercury content in liver was not significantly associated with mercury content in sediments. both cadmium and mercury induced micronuclei expression in eels when injected, the concentration tested being 1.7 mg metal/kg body we ...200111386727
metapopulation and community dynamics of helminth parasites of eels anguilla anguilla in the river exe system.the possibility that much of the spatial and temporal variation in helminth communities in freshwater fish can be explained in terms of metapopulation theory was tested by examining helminth component communities of eels sampled from 3 localities in the river exe and 5 of its tributaries on 2 occasions at an interval of 3 years. four specific predictions of metapopulation theory in relation to community dynamics were tested. the prediction that parasite species could be recognized as common and ...200111444622
recovery of locomotion correlated with axonal regeneration after a complete spinal transection in the eel.this research has examined the relationship between axonal regeneration and the return of normal movement following complete transection of the spinal cord. we made measurements of tail beat frequency and amplitude of the caudal body wave from video recordings of eels (anguilla anguilla) swimming in a water tunnel at several speeds. each eel was then anaesthetised and the spinal cord cut caudal to the anus; in some animals the resulting gap was filled with a rubber block. all animals were kept a ...200111744256
seasonal variation and estradiol-dependent elevation of thames estuary eel anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin levels and comparisons with other united kingdom estuaries.eel anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin was investigated as a biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds with estrogenic activity, along the tidal course of the thames estuary, uk. a. anguilla was chosen as a sentinel species because of their wide distribution, robustness in field and laboratory studies and also because they have a characterised normal intersex' condition where the gonad contains both developing male and female gonadal cells termed a syrski organ. following laboratory ex ...200111712591
how the body contributes to the wake in undulatory fish swimming: flow fields of a swimming eel (anguilla anguilla).undulatory swimmers generate thrust by passing a transverse wave down their body. thrust is generated not just at the tail, but also to a varying degree by the body, depending on the fish's morphology and swimming movements. to examine the mechanisms by which the body in particular contributes to thrust production, we chose eels, which have no pronounced tail fin and hence are thought to generate all their thrust with their body. we investigated the interaction between body movements and the flo ...200111683431
glutathione-dependent resistance of the european eel anguilla anguilla to the herbicide molinate.eels of species anguilla anguilla were exposed to 5/4 lc50 (41.8 mg/l) of the herbicide molinate for 96 h in a time to death (ttd) test. glutathione content (gsx, gsh, gssg), glutathione reductase (gr) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-gt) activities were determined in the liver and muscle tissues of dead and surviving (intoxicated) animals and compared to control values (non-exposed eels). ttd was positively correlated to hepatic gsh, gsh:gssg ratio, hepatic and muscular gr, but negative ...200111680763
fast muscle function in the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion.eels are capable of locomotion both in water and on land using undulations of the body axis. axial undulations are powered by the lateral musculature. differences in kinematics and the underlying patterns of fast muscle activation are apparent between locomotion in these two environments. the change in isometric fast muscle properties with axial location was less marked than in most other species. time from stimulus to peak force (t(a)) did not change significantly with axial position and was 82 ...200111507107
mechanical properties of red and white swimming muscles as a function of the position along the body of the eel anguilla anguilla.the way in which muscles power steady swimming depends on a number of factors, including fibre type and recruitment, muscle strain, stimulation pattern and intensity, and the intrinsic mechanical properties of the muscle fibres. for a number of undulatory swimming fish species, in vivo studies have shown that muscles at different positions along the body are stimulated during different phases of the strain cycle. moreover, some intrinsic contractile properties of the muscles have been found to v ...200111507106
the relationships of brain stem systems to their targets in the spinal cord of the eel, anguilla anguilla.we have investigated the detail with which supraspinal neurons innervate different regions in the spinal cord. horseradish peroxidase was applied at different levels of the cord: (1) to the cut surface; (2) injected iontophoretically into one side; or (3) into one of the motoneuron pools innervating different muscle compartments. in all cases, labeled neurons were found throughout the brain distributed over nuclear groups identified in previous fish studies. some cells from all but one of the nu ...200111435671
first report on the uptake of automobile catalyst emitted palladium by european eels (anguilla anguilla) following experimental exposure to road dust.following the introduction of automobile catalysts in the middle of the 1980s in germany there is an increasing emission of the platinum-group-metals platinum, palladium (pd) and rhodium. still, it remains unclear if these metals are bioavailable for aquatic animals and to which extent they become accumulated by the aquatic biosphere. because of analytical problems in detecting pd in small biological samples the present investigation concentrates on the bioavailability of this metal. to answer t ...200111428142
cloning and expression of two isoforms of guanylate cyclase c (gc-c) from the european eel (anguilla anguilla).complementary dna fragments for two isoforms of particulate guanylate cyclase c (gc-c) were cloned from the intestine of the european eel (anguilla anguilla). both isoforms exhibited higher nucleotide and amino acid sequence homologies to members of the gc-c family from other species than the related guanylate cyclase a or b (gc-a or gc-b) isoforms from the eel. northern blots indicated that probes for both isoforms, termed gc-c1 and gc-c2, selectively hybridised to 4.8-kb transcripts in the int ...200111399493
biotransformation, endocrine, and genetic responses of anguilla anguilla l. to petroleum distillate products and environmentally contaminated waters.the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) was exposed to diesel oil water-soluble fraction (dwsf) and gasoline water-soluble fraction (gwsf). the potential of these fractions to induce endocrine disruption, carbohydrate, and xenobiotic metabolism effects, as well as genotoxic responses, was investigated in a time-course laboratory study (3 h to 6 days). both water-soluble fractions induced a time-related increase in liver ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, as well as the appearance of e ...200111386717
[determination of the state of emaciation of eel (anguilla anguilla) in migration in coastal and estuary zones].the objective of this work is to characterise the variations of the quality of the glass eels recruitment during a season of migration, from november till march and before and after the transition from marine to continental environment. the emaciation state measured from the ratio dna/dry weight and percentage of body water is analysed from a sampling of glass-eels collected at sea and in estuary, in the south of the bay of biscay during the migration period 1999/2000. the length and the mass ar ...200111386082
tissue distribution and temperature-dependence of anguilla anguilla l. erod activity following exposure to model inducers and relationship with plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose levels.anguilla anguilla l. ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) elevation by 2.7 microm beta-naphthoflavone (bnf) 3 days water exposure, or 4 mg/kg ip exposure, was studied in four different organs--liver, kidney, gills, and intestine. the results demonstrated a significant increase in liver erod activity for the two previous conditions, whereas kidney erod activity only increased during the intraperitoneal exposure. a. anguilla was also exposed during 8, 16, and 24 h to water contaminated with 2.7 mic ...200111341699
nitric oxide modulates cardiac performance in the heart of anguilla anguilla.nothing is known about the effects of nitric oxide (no) on cardiac performance in fish. using an in vitro working heart preparation that generates physiological values of output pressure, cardiac output and ventricular work and power, we assessed the effects of no on the cardiac performance of the eel anguilla anguilla. we examined basal cardiac performance (at constant preload, afterload and heart rate), the effects of cholinergic stimulation and the frank-starling response (preload-induced inc ...200111316492
ca++ regulation of paracellular permeability in the middle intestine of the eel, anguilla anguilla.the role of ca++ on the regulation of the paracellular pathway permeability of the middle intestine of anguilla anguilla was studied by measuring the transepithelial resistance and the dilution potential, generated when one half of nacl in the mucosal solution was substituted iso-osmotically with mannitol, in various experimental conditions altering extracellular and/or intracellular calcium levels. we found that removal of ca++ in the presence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) (egta ...200111302535
hypertonicity stimulates cl(-) transport in the intestine of fresh water acclimated eel, anguilla anguilla.eel intestinal epithelium when bathed symmetrically with normal ringer solution develops a net cl(-) current (short circuit current, isc) giving rise to a negative transepithelial potential (vt) at the basolateral side of the epithelium, lower in fresh-water (fw)-acclimated animals with respect to sea-water (sw). the aim of the present work was to study the cell response to hypertonic stress of fw eel intestinal epithelium in relation to cl(-) absorption. the hypertonicity of the external bathin ...200111275682
characterization of [3h]cgp 12177 binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in intact eel hepatocytes.the aim of this study was to characterize [3h]cgp 12177 (cgp) binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in isolated hepatocytes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla), in which the involvement of camp in epinephrine-induced glucose release has been previously observed. specific binding of cgp was saturable, reversible, and linear as a function of cell number. analysis of binding data suggested a single class of binding sites, with a kd of 1.31 nm and a number of approximately 7000 beta-adrenergic re ...200111254364
slow muscle power output of yellow- and silver-phase european eels (anguilla anguilla l.): changes in muscle performance prior to migration.eels swim in the anguilliform mode in which the majority of the body axis undulates to generate thrust. for this reason, muscle function has been hypothesised to be relatively uniform along the body axis relative to some other teleosts in which the caudal fin is the main site of thrust production. the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) has a complex life cycle involving a lengthy spawning migration. prior to migration, there is a metamorphosis from a yellow (non-migratory) to a silver (migrator ...200111249845
meeting energy budgets by modulation of behaviour and physiology in the eel (anguilla anguilla l.).availability of energy for feeding, and the scope to accommodate the associated increase in oxygen demand (sda: specific dynamic action) can, to a large degree, regulate the future feeding and energy availability of an animal. there is a fundamental conflict between locomotion and sda within the physiological capacity of a mobile organism to respire sufficiently in order to simultaneously meet both requirements. this paper is a first attempt to integrate the costs of behaviour and physiology and ...200111246050
genetic evidence against panmixia in the european eel.the panmixia hypothesis--that all european eel (anguilla anguilla) migrate to the sargasso sea for reproduction and comprise a single, randomly mating population--is widely accepted. if true, then this peculiar life history strategy would directly impact the population genetics of this species, and eels from european and north african rivers should belong to the same breeding population through the random dispersal of larvae. to date, the panmixia hypothesis has remained unchallenged: genetic st ...200111234011
swimbladder gas gland cells cultured on permeable supports regain their characteristic polarity.a cell culture system has been developed in which swimbladder gas gland cells from the european eel (anguilla anguilla) were cultured on a permeable support. cells seeded on anodisc 13 (whatman) or costar transwell 13 mm membranes form a confluent cell layer within the first 2 or 3 days of culture but, on the basis of measurements of transepithelial resistance, it is a "leaky" cell layer. in a superfusion system, the apical and basal sides of the cells were superfused asymmetrically, with saline ...200111809777
why can the eel, unlike the trout, migrate under pressure.in order to elucidate the difference between pressure resistance in trout (onchorhyncus mykiss) and eel (anguilla anguilla), oxygen consumption of red muscle permeabilised cells and mitochondria were measured at 101 ata hydrostatic pressure per se. such an experiment involved the setting up of a special system allowing measurements under high pressure. the results show that hydrostatic pressure strongly alters the oxidative phosphorylation in trout but not in eel, which exhibits mitochondrial pr ...200116120271
kinetics of radiolabelled silver uptake and depuration in the gills of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and european eel (anguilla anguilla): the influence of silver speciation.we examined the influence of speciation on the kinetics of silver uptake and depuration in the gills of two freshwater fish, the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) which has high branchial na(+) and cl(-) uptake rates and is relatively sensitive to silver, and the european eel (anguilla anguilla, yellow stage) which has low ion uptake rates and is relatively resistant to silver. fish previously acclimated to the appropriate chloride level were exposed to 110magno(3) (1.3 microg l(-1), sublethal ...200211792436
water transport and aquaporins in the european eel (anguilla anguilla). 200214992144
biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopathological effects of environmental contaminants in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.).a prolonged toxicity study was carried out in young european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants, namely, two individual standard compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (bap) and dehydroabietic acid (dhaa), and a complex mixture, bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (bkpme). fish were exposed to bap (0.22, 0.45, and 0.9 microm) and bkpme (3.12%, 6.25%, and 12.5% (v/v)) for 3, 7, and 30 days and to dhaa (0.07, 0.15, and 0.30 microm) for 3, 7, 30, 90, and 180 days. the ...200212485576
anguilla anguilla l. biochemical and genotoxic responses to benzo[a]pyrene.eels (anguilla anguilla l.) were exposed for 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, 144, and 216 h to 0 (control), 0.3, 0.9, and 2.7 microm benzo[a]pyrene (bap). the biotransformation induced by bap was measured as liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity and cytochrome p450 content, and compared with the genotoxic effects, such as erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ena), and blood and liver dna strand breaks. the liver exhibited a highly significant erod activity increase from 2 up to 216 h exp ...200212481863
electrophoretic and morphological differentiation of three sympatric species of the genus lecithochirium (trematoda: hemiuridae), parasites of marine fishes.three sympatric species of the genus lecithochirium, lecithochirium fusiforme, lecithochirium rufoviride and lecithochirium musculus, parasites of conger conger and anguilla anguilla, were compared morphologically and electrophoretically. the three species can be discriminated by enzyme analysis, and differentiation can also be made by the analysis of several morphometric features, in particular body size and sucker ratio. fourteen enzyme systems representing 15 loci were examined by starch gel ...200212444455
two isoforms of the na+/k+/2cl- cotransporter are expressed in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).two cdna isoforms of the nkcc1 secretory cotransporter have been isolated from the european eel. the nkcc1a isoform exhibited mrna expression in a wide range of tissues in a similar fashion to mammals, whereas nkcc1b was expressed primarily in the brain. the effect of freshwater (fw) to seawater (sw) transfer on nkcc1a expression was dependent on the developmental stage. in non-migratory yellow eels, nkcc1a mrna expression in the gill was transiently up-regulated 4.3-fold after 2 days but also s ...200212421541
induction of cytosolic glutathione s-transferases from atlantic eel (anguilla anguilla) after intraperitoneal treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls.glutathione s-transferases (gst) are phase ii biotransformation enzymes influenced by exposure to foreign compounds and are proposed as biomarkers of environmental pollution. the hepatic and renal cytosolic gst isoenzymes from juvenile atlantic eels were isolated and partially characterized. in both organs, three different gst isoenzymes were purified using hplc and the final subcellular purified fraction resulted in enzymatic subunits of approximately 24,500 da. total gst activity was significa ...200212389786
naphthalene and beta-naphthoflavone effects on anguilla anguilla l. hepatic metabolism and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities.the effects of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) such as naphthalene (nap)--an environmental contaminant--and beta-naphthoflavone (bnf)--a model substance (pah-like compound)--were investigated in european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) over 3-, 6-, and 9-day exposure (0.1-2.7 microm). both xenobiotics revealed to be strong biotransformation (phase i) inducers. after 3-day exposure, liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity was significantly increased by all nap and bnf tested concent ...200212220115
allozyme markers for the identification of lecithochirium rufoviride and lecithochirium furcolabiatum (trematoda: hemiuridae), parasites of conger conger and anguilla anguilla from atlantic spanish waters.the allozyme variation between 2 sympatric populations of lecithochirium furcolabiatum and l. rufoviride was examined with the aim to investigate if the 2, morphologically similar, helminths are reproductively distinct. three enzyme loci, gpd, pgm-1, and idh were found to be diagnostic for the 2 species. these results support the conclusion that the worms are different biological species. only the gpi and gdh loci showed no differences. marked genetic subdivision was detected at the idh locus in ...200212197146
development of spinitectus inermis (nematoda: cystidicolidae), a parasite of eel, anguilla anguilla, in europe.the development of the nematode spinitectus inermis (zeder, 1800), a parasite of the stomach of eels, anguilla anguilla (l.) in europe, was experimentally studied. mayfly nymphs caenis macrura, ecdyonurus dispar, heptagenia sulphurea, potamanthus luteus and seratella ignita from portugal and the czech republic were found to serve as experimental intermediate hosts. after ingestion of the nematode eggs by the mayfly nymphs, the toothed first-stage larvae were released and penetrated into the body ...200212194484
immunolocalisation of aquaporin 3 in the gill and the gastrointestinal tract of the european eel anguilla anguilla (l.).the expression of a putative water channel protein, aquaporin 3 (aqp-3), has been localised within branchial and intestinal tissues from the 'silver' life stage of the european eel anguilla anguilla, using a specific polyclonal antibody directed against the c-terminal of the amino acid sequence. western blots using the aqp-3 antiserum identified the presence of a major immunoreactive protein of 24 kda in extracts of gills from both freshwater (fw) and 3 week seawater (sw)-acclimated eels. sw acc ...200212151371
branchial expression of an aquaporin 3 (aqp-3) homologue is downregulated in the european eel anguilla anguilla following seawater acclimation.a cdna encoding the homologue of mammalian aquaporin 3 (aqp-3) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the gill of the european eel. the derived amino acid sequence shares 67-70% homology with other vertebrate aqp-3 homologues. northern blot analysis revealed two aqp-3-specific mrna species of 2.4 kb and 7 kb. aqp-3 mrna is expressed predominantly in the eye, oesophagus, intestine (as found in mammals) and the gill; no expression could be demonstrated in the stomach ...200212151370
a novel fucose recognition fold involved in innate immunity.anguilla anguilla agglutinin (aaa), a fucolectin found in the serum of european eel, participates in the recognition of bacterial liposaccharides by the animal innate immunity system. because aaa specifically recognizes fucosylated terminals of h and lewis (a) blood groups, it has been used extensively as a reagent in blood typing and histochemistry. aaa contains a newly discovered carbohydrate recognition domain present in proteins of organisms ranging from bacteria to vertebrates. the crystal ...200212091873
tolerance of acute hypercapnic acidosis by the european eel ( anguilla anguilla).european eels ( anguilla anguilla) were exposed sequentially to partial pressures of co(2) in the water ( pwco(2)) of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 then 80 mm hg (equivalent to 0.66-10.5 kpa), for 30 min at each level. this caused a profound drop in arterial plasma ph, from 7.9 to below 7.2, an increase in arterial pco(2) from 3.0 mm hg to 44 mm hg, and a progressive decline in arterial blood o(2) content (cao(2)) from 10.0% to 1.97% volume. gill ventilation rate increased significantly at water pwco(2)s of ...200212037596
nitric oxide-cgmp-mediated vasoconstriction and effects of acetylcholine in the branchial circulation of the eel.information about the presence and effects of nitric oxide (no) in fish vasculature is scant and contradictory. we have studied the no/cgmp system in the branchial circulation of the teleost anguilla anguilla using a branchial basket preparation under basal conditions and cholinergic stimulation. the effects of endogenous and exogenous no were tested with l-arginine, the nitric oxide synthase (nos) substrate, and the no donors 3-morpholinosydnonimine (sin-1) and sodium nitroprusside (snp), respe ...200212020661
precautions in the use of 110mag as a tracer of silver metabolism in ecotoxicology: preferential bioconcentration of 109cd by trout gills after 110mag exposure.an often overlooked problem in the use of radiotracers is the possibility of isotopic contamination. commercially available silver 110mag was used to study silver uptake and depuration in rainbow trout and european eel. quality control by means of comparative gamma and beta counting brought our attention to a contamination of the 110mag stock with 109cd, which could be seen only because the 109cd was markedly bioconcentrated by trout gills. the contamination could not be detected in eel gills or ...200212013121
efficacy and safety of azamethiphos for the treatment of pseudodactylogyrosis in the european eel. 200212000536
metallothionein in liver of eels anguilla anguilla from the thames estuary: an indicator of environmental quality?the purpose of this study was to examine the role of the cysteine-rich protein metallothionein (mt) in the detoxification and metabolism of metals in livers of eels anguilla anguilla from the thames estuary, and to assess the value of mt measurements in environmental monitoring. hepatic mt levels and associated metal concentrations were determined in a. anguilla collected on three occasions during 1998 at sites along the tidal thames (from freshwater to the sea) and also from a reference site (t ...200211939293
determinants of intracellular ph in gas gland cells of the swimbladder of the european eel anguilla anguilla.gas gland cells of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) were cultured on collagen-coated coverslips, and intracellular ph was measured using the ph-sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxypropyl)-5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein (bcpcf). the contributions of various proton-translocating mechanisms to homeostasis of intracellular ph (phi) were assessed by adding specific inhibitors of the various proton-translocating mechanisms at a constant extracellular ph (phe) of 7.4 and after artificial acid ...200211919266
carbohydrate expression profile of colorectal cancer cells is relevant to metastatic pattern and prognosis.carbohydrate expression of cancer cells is closely related to the metastatic nature of colorectal cancer. in the present study we investigated the relevance of carbohydrate expression profiles of colorectal cancer cells in the primary lesion to metastatic distribution patterns as well as prognosis in 134 cases. carbohydrate expression was estimated by histochemistry with 17 kinds of lectins and 3 kinds of lewis-related monoclonal antibodies (mabs), and correlations between the staining and clini ...200211918084
bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three species of fish from the severn estuary.six metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were identified and quantified from the bile of 31 common eels (anguilla anguilla), 29 european flounders (pleuronectes flesus), and 15 conger eels (conger conger) collected from the severn estuary and bristol channel during 1997. the bile metabolites were deconjugated by enzymatic hydrolysis and separated by reverse-phase hplc with fluorescence detection. the major metabolite present in all fish was 1-hydroxy pyrene (75-94% of all metab ...200211886183
development of the swimbladder in the european eel ( anguilla anguilla).the swimbladder of the adult eel, anguilla anguilla, with its bipolar countercurrent system, the rete mirabile, is a widely used model for swimbladder function, but very little is known about the development of this swimbladder. our histological studies on the developing swimbladder revealed that during metamorphosis the swimbladder becomes present as a dorsal outgrowth of the esophagus. it is filled with surfactant, and gas was not detected in the swimbladder. in the young glass-eel, the epithe ...200211845322
long-term stability in the richness and structure of helminth communities in eels, anguilla anguilla, in lough derg, river shannon, ireland.a data set on intestinal helminth parasites was collected in the course of an 18 year investigation into the biology of eels in meelick bay, lough derg, river shannon. this was used to test two hypotheses relating to the composition and structure of intestinal helminth communities, namely that eels in large rivers do not harbour richer and more diverse communities than those in small rivers but that community composition and structure are more stable over time than in small rivers. the helminth ...200212498636
cycle évolutif de bucephalus anguillae spakulová, macko, berrilli & dezfuli, 2002 (digenea, bucephalidae) parasite de anguilla anguilla (l.).the species of bucephalus from the eel anguilla anguilla of the north-eastern tunisian lagoons was identified as b. anguillae which was recently described by spakulová et al. (2002) from the adriatic coast of italy. in order to confirm that this eel digenean is distinct from b. polymorphus von baer, 1827 present in other freshwater fishes, we investigated the life-cycle of this species. surveys in the wild and experimental studies have shown that the life-cycle of b. anguillae is completed in br ...200212510166
parasite fauna of selected fish species of lake miedwie.a total of 136 fishes, representing 9 species (perch, perca fluviatilis l.; pike, esox lucius l.; european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.); common bream, abramis brama (l.); roach, rutilus rutilus (l.); tench tinca tinca (l.); european whitefish, coregonus lavaretus (l.); vendace, coregonus albula (l.); and zander, sander lucioperca (l.)), from lake miedwie were studied within 1997-1999. the necropsies yielded 41 parasite species (taxa). the most diversified were parasite faunas of pike (19 parasite ...200216888943
the osmotic relationship of the swimbladder nematode anguillicola crassus with seawater eels.the study was designed to test the hypothesis that the majority of individuals in a population of anguillicola crassus can tolerate seawater by osmoconformation with the blood plasma of the eel host. the osmolality of the pseudocoelomic fluid of pre-adult and adult a. crassus was compared to the osmolality of eel plasma after eels were maintained in laboratory freshwater for 2 weeks (short-term transfer) or 3 months (long-term transfer) or in natural seawater for 2 h (acute transfer), 2 weeks or ...200211922435
description of bucephalus anguillae n. sp. (trematoda: bucephalidae), a parasite of the eel anguilla anguilla (anguillidae) from a brackish water lagoon of the adriatic sea.the digenetic trematode bucephalus anguillae n. sp. is described from the intestine of eel, anguilla anguilla l., originating from a brackish water fish farm on the italian coast of the adriatic sea. the new taxon is 1 of 12 bucephalus species characterized by an anterior rhynchus surrounded by 7 tentacular appendages, each when fully protruded with 2 prongs. scanning electron microscopy reveals, for the first time in a bucephalus species, the crescent-shaped, unspined field located between the ...200212054016
accumulation of lipophilic microcontaminants and biochemical responses in eels from the camargue biosphere reserve.we assessed the impacts of persistent organic micropollutants on aquatic trophic webs in brackish and freshwater communities in the camargue national nature reserve (nnr). we found that organochlorine compounds affect fish communities, particularly those of the common eel (anguilla anguilla). the aims of this study were (1) to determine the amount of lipophilic xenobiotics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), which are probably of atmospheric origin, and two organochlorines (oc), lin ...200212092750
isolation and molecular characterization of herpesvirus from cultured european eels anguilla anguilla in taiwan.a herpesvirus has been isolated for the first time from a population of european eels anguilla anguilla cultured in a recirculated system in taiwan. syncytia formation was detected in ep-1 (eel epidermis) cell cultures inoculated with cell-free homogenates prepared from both integument and visceral organs of moribund fish. inoculation of homogenates onto ek (eel kidney) cell cultures induced giant cell formation. subsequent passages produced a consistent and progressive cytopathic effect (cpe) i ...200212180701
spatial and temporal variation in anguillicola crassus counts: results of a 4 year survey of eels in mediterranean lagoons.we present the results of a survey of anguillicolosis in the rh6ne river delta. from january 1997 to december 2000, a total of 13,319 eels (anguilla anguilla from elver to silver phase) were examined, in which we found 22,227 swimbladder nematodes (anguillicola crassus adults and pre-adults). a generalised linear model (glm) framework was used to explore the relative contribution of various factors to the occurrence, intensity and abundance of the parasite. we reveal a major influence of the mon ...200212219974
relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the french national nature reserve of camargue.the reserve of biosphere of camargue [french national nature reserve of camargue (nnrc)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. to evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (ocs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. in addition, ...200212379424
citrate carrier activity and cardiolipin level in eel (anguilla anguilla) liver mitochondria.the activity of the tricarboxylate (citrate) carrier has been assayed in intact liver mitochondria from yellow eel (anguilla anguilla) and compared to that from rat. the eel-citrate carrier specific activity was approximately 1.7-fold higher than that assayed in rat-liver mitochondria. the content of the main mitochondrial phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, did not show a significant difference between the two species, while in eel a higher cardiolipin level was obs ...200212381385
antigenicity of pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and p. bini (monogenea) in the european eel (anguilla anguilla, l.) under different oxygenation conditions.the antibody response of european eels (anguilla anguilla, l.) to the branchial parasites pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and p. bini under hyperoxygenation conditions was studied. the antigenic fractions of parasites were detected by means of electrophoretic techniques (sds-page) and by western blot analysis. the results obtained demonstrate that under hyperoxygenation conditions, the eels responded to a greater number of proteins, and this was correlated with a decrease in the level of infestatio ...200212400862
benzo[a]pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone mutagenic activation by european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) s9 liver fraction.is anguilla anguilla l. (eel) liver ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) induction absolutely necessary in order to convert promutagens as benzo[a]pyrene (bap) into a mutagenic compound? eels were exposed for 8 h to clean (control) and 0.3 microm beta-naphthoflavone (bnf)-contaminated water. the 8-h exposure to 0.3 microm bnf brought about a very high erod induction (10 pmol/min/mg protein) compared to control animals (1 pmol/min/mg protein). the ames test (maron and ames, 1983) was carried out w ...200212481862
bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in european eels anguilla anguilla from united kingdom estuaries.a total of 94 european eels (anguilla anguilla) were collected from five estuaries in the uk. the deconjugated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in the bile of the eels were separated using hplc. six pah metabolites were identified: 1-hydroxy (1-oh) metabolites of phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene; and the 1-oh, 3-oh and 7,8 dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (bap). the mean concentration of the six metabolites was greatest in eels from the tyne (49 microm) followed b ...200312493190
characterisation of intestinal peptide transporter of the antarctic haemoglobinless teleost chionodraco hamatus.h(+)/peptide cotransport was studied in brush-border membrane vesicles (bbmv) from the intestine of the haemoglobinless antarctic teleost chionodraco hamatus by monitoring peptide-dependent intravesicular acidification with the ph-sensitive dye acridine orange. diethylpyrocarbonate-inhibited intravesicular acidification was specifically achieved in the presence of extravesicular glycyl-l-proline (gly-l-pro) as well as of glycyl-l-alanine (gly-l-ala) and d-phenylalanyl-l-alanine (d-phe-l-ala). h( ...200312517988
microhabitat distribution of pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and pseudodactylogyrus bini among and within gill arches of the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.).the outlying mean index (omi) method was used to test for seasonal microhabitat partitioning in pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and pseudodactylogyrus bini communities parasitising european eel ( anguilla anguilla l.) in four seasons. no differences in the occurrence of parasites were found in different seasons or on different gill arches. the omi analysis showed that hemibranch separation and gill segments were the main factors explaining the variation in parasite niche occupation for the first fa ...200312632166
structure and ligand binding of carbohydrate-binding module cscbm6-3 reveals similarities with fucose-specific lectins and "galactose-binding" domains.carbohydrate-binding polypeptides, including carbohydrate-binding modules (cbms) from polysaccharidases, and lectins, are widespread in nature. whilst cbms are classically considered distinct from lectins, in that they are found appended to polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, this distinction is blurring. the crystal structure of cscbm6-3, a "sequence-family 6" cbm in a xylanase from clostridium stercorarium, at 2.3 a reveals a similar, all beta-sheet fold to that from mvx56, a module found in a f ...200312634060
epidemiology of bacterial diseases in norwegian aquaculture--a description based on antibiotic prescription data for the ten-year period 1991 to 2000.in norway, antibacterial drugs for use in farmed fishes have to be prescribed by a veterinarian. moreover, a national surveillance programme requires that copies of all prescriptions be sent to the directorate of fisheries. the prescriptions give information regarding fish farm and locality, weight and species of fish to be medicated, diagnosis, type and amount of drug prescribed, and date. these prescription data for the 10 yr period 1991 to 2000 have been recorded and systematised. a total of ...200312650244
concentrations and hazard assessment of pcbs, organochlorine pesticides and mercury in fish species from the upper thames: river pollution and its potential effects on top predators.aquatic environmental contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and heavy metals in the upper thames catchment area, uk were assessed on the basis of fish muscle analysis in wet weight, and their effects on top predators were assessed. the contamination levels of lead, cadmium, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (ddt) and its metabolites were found to be low (undetectable) in the area. average mercury contamination level varied between 55 and 342 m ...200312656245
the kinetics of antibody production in mucus and serum of european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) after vaccination against vibrio vulnificus: development of a new method for antibody quantification in skin mucus.vibrio vulnificus serovar e, a bacterial pathogen for eels cultured in intensive systems, is transmitted through water and enters into new hosts mainly via gills. the main objective of this work was to study the kinetics of antibody production to v. vulnificus in serum and mucus and their relationship with protection after vaccination. to quantify local mucus antibodies, a new "in situ" dot blot immunoassay using image analysis has been developed. this assay was applied to measure antibody produ ...200312787687
distribution and potential role of cytosolic water-soluble phosphodiesters in fish.the distribution of water-soluble phosphodiesters (wspdes) visible by nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) in some intact tissues of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum) and in perchloric extracts after partial purification was examined by (31)p nmr spectroscopy. the compounds of interest were serine ethanolamine phosphate (sep), threonine ethanolamine phosphate (tep), glycerophosphorylcholine (gpc), and glycerophosphorylethanolamine (gpe). tep and sep were mostly accumulated in the heart and ...200313130434
localization of the vacuolar-type atpase in swimbladder gas gland cells of the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the vacuolar atpase is a multifunctional enzyme that consists of several subunits. subunit b is part of the catalytic domain of the enzyme and is present in two isoforms in fish as well as in mammals. possibly, these two isoforms - vatb1 (kidney isoform) and vatb2 (brain isoform) - serve different functions. a localization of the two isoforms was attempted in swimbladder gas gland cells of the european eel anguilla anguilla by immunohistochemistry. two antibodies were produced by immunization of ...200312502767
genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in taiwan.viral nervous necrosis (vnn) is a worldwide disease among marine fishes. in taiwan, nnn disease was first identified in 2 species of hatchery-reared grouper, epinephelus fuscogutatus and e. akaaya in 1994. since then, increasing mortalities have occurred among groupers epinephelus spp., and also among european eels anguilla anguilla l., yellow-wax pompano trachinotus falcatus, firespot snapper lutaanus erythropterus b., barramundi lates calcarifer, cobias rachycentron canadum, humpback groupers ...200313677508
micronucleus test in freshwater fish species: an evaluation of its sensitivity for application in field surveys.brown trout, salmo trutta, european eel, anguilla anguilla, and european minnow, phoxinus phoxinus, three fish species inhabiting european freshwater ecosystems, were evaluated for their use as in situ pollution biomarkers using the micronucleus test in renal erythrocytes. experimental exposure (by immersion) to different concentrations of cyclophosphamide, colchicine, and cadmium showed that brown trout are more sensitive to the three compounds than minnows and eels. in situ surveys of wild fre ...200314575685
spatio-temporal dynamics of the parasitic nematode anguillicola crassus in flanders, belgium.despite egusa's earlier warning of the damage that the parasitic nematode anguillicola crassus could inflict on the european eel anguilla anguilla, its introduction in europe was a fact in the early 1980s. based on an elaborate dataset on anguillicola crassus infection of 11 river catchments, this paper presents the results of a detailed study on the dispersal of the parasite in flanders, belgium, and the host-parasite relationship. in addition, data from 1986 and 1997 are used for comparative p ...200314667034
effects of various hormones on the sexual maturity of european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) females from farm and lakes.previously described and alternative methods of the induction of sexual maturation in the european eel were investigated. weekly administrations of a gonadoliberin agonist (nnrh-a=d-phe6-gnrh-ea) did not induce statistically significant effect on the gonads of treated eels in none of the dosages used (0.1 microg and 10 microg/fish). carp pituitary extract and carp pituitary extract together with a dopamine antagonist caused considerable external changes (increase in eye size) and significant gon ...200314711035
observations on the metazoan parasites of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar) after its reintroduction into the elbe river basin in the czech republic.in the years 1999-2002, first studies were carried out on the metazoan parasites of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) recently reintroduced into the elbe river drainage system, after more than 50 years after the complete extinction of the elbe salmon population. a total of six helminth species were recorded from salmon smolts from three streams of the elbe river basin (kamenice river, jestedský and libocanský brooks) in north bohemia, czech republic, where s. salar fingerlings have been released ...200314971599
cd2+ and hg2+ affect glucose release and camp-dependent transduction pathway in isolated eel hepatocytes.isolated hepatocytes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) have been used as experimental model to characterize the effects of cd(2+) and hg(2+) on either basal or epinephrine-stimulated glucose release. cd(2+) strongly reduced glucose output from cells perifused in biogel p4 columns and challenged with epinephrine, with a maximum inhibition of 95% reached at 10 microm (ic(50) 0.04 microm). the epinephrine-stimulated glucose output was also reduced by hg(2+), although a significant inhibition ...200312413794
cl- absorption in european eel intestine and its regulation.the intestinal epithelium of the euryhaline teleost fish, anguilla anguilla, absorbs cl(-) transepithelially. this gives rise to a negative transepithelial potential at the basolateral side of the epithelium and to a measured short circuit current. cl(-) absorption occurs via bumetanide-sensitive na(+)-k(+)-2cl(-) cotransport, localized on the luminal membrane. the cotransport operates in parallel with a luminal k(+) conductance that recycles the ion into the lumen. cl(-) leaves the cell across ...200314598387
eel atpase activity as biomarker of thiobencarb exposure.european eels (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to a sublethal thiobencarb concentration of 0.22 mg/l in a flow-through system for 96 h. mg(2+) and na(+)-k(+) adenosine triphosphatase (atpase) activities were evaluated in gill and muscle tissues at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of thiobencarb exposure. gill atpase activities were rapidly inhibited from 2h of contact onward. highest inhibition was registered for na(+), k(+)-atpase (85%) from 2 to 12h. both mg(2+) and total atpase were inhibited (>73 ...200314575684
parasite infracommunity diversity in eels: a reflection of local component community diversity.the intestinal macroparasite communities of freshwater eels (anguilla anguilla) captured in the south of england from windsor (river thames) during august 2001, and leckford (river test) during late june/july 2000, are reported for the first time. parasite component communities were among the most species rich and diverse recorded from european eels. a total of 13 intestinal macroparasite species were encountered during the study, 8 from each eel host population with 3 being common to both. acan ...200314653536
fish tolerance to organophosphate-induced oxidative stress is dependent on the glutathione metabolism and enhanced by n-acetylcysteine.dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, ddvp) is an organophosphorus (op) insecticide and acaricide extensively used to treat external parasitic infections of farmed fish. in previous studies we have demonstrated the importance of the glutathione (gsh) metabolism in the resistance of the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) to thiocarbamate herbicides. the present work studied the effects of the antioxidant and glutathione pro-drug n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac) on the survival of a natural ...200314568351
cloning of european eel (anguilla anguilla) fsh-beta subunit, and expression of fsh-beta and lh-beta in males and females after sex determination.the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is a catadromic teleost species with a complex life cycle, both in sea and freshwater environments. the sex determination phase of gonadal development occurs in a freshwater environment. polymorphism occurs in increasing rates with respect to gender. while males stop growing at approximately 150 g, females continue to grow to being much larger. in this study, we cloned the cdna fsh-beta subunit of the european eel (a. anguilla), and measured the mrna levels o ...200314529754
increased recovery of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in dichlorvos-intoxicated european eels anguilla anguilla by bath treatment with n-acetylcysteine.organophosphate (op) pesticides are widely used as antiparasitic chemicals in finfish aquaculture. however, current antidotes cannot be applied to treat intoxicated fish. we showed in previous studies the importance of glutathione (gsh) metabolism in pesticide resistance of the european eel anguilla anguilla l. the present work studied the effects of the antioxidant and glutathione pro-drug n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac) on the recovery of european eels exposed for 96 h to a sublethal concentration ( ...200313677510
growth differences and growth hormone expression in male and female european eels [anguilla anguilla (l.)].in this study, we examined the growth differences of males and females following a sex reversion, and the growth hormone (gh) expression variation between sexes of european eels [anguilla anguilla (l.)]. a high percentage of females (88%) was found in the group fed with estradiol 17beta compared to the control group (comprised of only 6% female eels), which was defined as the male population. significant differences between growth rate and size were found following 480 days of growth, whereby th ...200313129507
integrating enzymatic responses to organic chemical exposure with total oxyradical absorbing capacity and dna damage in the european eel anguilla anguilla.in this work, susceptibility to oxidative stress was analyzed under laboratory conditions in the european eel anguilla anguilla. eels were treated with increasing concentrations of benchmark environmental pollutants, namely, benzo[a]pyrene ([bap], at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg), beta-naphthoflavone ([bnf], at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg), arochlor 1254 (at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin ([tcdd], at 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 2 microg/kg). the integral relationsh ...200312959540
study on pcbs, pcdd/fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the river turia (spain).in this study samples of common trout, european eel and barbel have been analysed for the levels of heavy metals such as lead (pb), cadmium (cd), zinc (zn), copper (cu), and the metalloid arsenic (as). polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), including three non-ortho substituted pcbs, 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs) and ddt and its two main metabolites were also analysed in some selected samples, in order to evaluate the extent of co ...200312892679
multi-element speciation of metalloproteins in fish tissue using size-exclusion chromatography coupled "on-line" with icp-isotope dilution-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.an on-line isotope dilution (id) method in combination with the coupling of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (se-hplc) to an axial inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer (icp-tofms) was applied to the quantitative speciation of cu, zn and cd in carp and eel cytosols. quantitative information on the distribution of essential and toxic metals between the different molecular weight fractions in kidney cytosols of control and cd exposed carp was obtained wit ...200312866883
angiotensin ii-induced inotropism requires an endocardial endothelium-nitric oxide mechanism in the in-vitro heart of anguilla anguilla.using an isolated working heart preparation we show that angiotensin ii (ang ii), at concentrations of 10(-10)-10(-7) mol l(-1), elicits negative chronotropism and inotropism in the freshwater eel anguilla anguilla. the negative inotropism was insensitive to losartan and cgp42112 (at(1) and at(2) ang ii receptor antagonists, respectively), and was abrogated by the at(1) receptor antagonist cv11974, the g protein blocker pertussis toxin (ptx) and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. in contrast, i ...200312819273
expression of two isoforms of the vacuolar-type atpase subunit b in the zebrafish danio rerio.in the present study we tested the hypothesis that two isoforms of the regulatory subunit b of vacuolar-type atpase (v-atpase) are expressed in the zebrafish danio rerio. the complete coding sequences for both isoforms, vatb1 and vatb2, were cloned and sequenced. blastx analysis revealed the greatest similarity to amino acid sequences of b subunits from the european eel anguilla anguilla and rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss. the isoforms were expressed in a bacterial system and the recombinant ...200312728012
decline of north atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. we recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. in this study, we extended the analysis to the american eel (a. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. results obtained for the american eel were in sharp contr ...200312713741
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