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h(+)-glycyl-l-proline cotransport in brush-border membrane vesicles of eel (anguilla anguilla) intestine.a plasma membrane h(+)-glycyl-l-proline (gly-l-pro) cotransport mechanism has been identified in isolated eel intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (bbmv) by both measuring radiolabeled gly-l-pro uptake and monitoring gly-l-pro-dependent h+ influx with the ph-sensitive dye acridine orange. the application of an inside negative membrane potential resulted in increasing gly-l-pro uptake, as well as the application of inwardly directed h+ gradient (although only when an inside negative membrane ...19979039012
induction of erod activity and genotoxic effects by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and resin acids on the juvenile eel (anguilla anguilla l.).the purpose of this research is the study of total ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (na) induction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and resin acids (ras) on the juvenile eel anguilla anguilla l. juvenile eels were exposed, during 3 days, to the same molar concentration range (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, and 2.7 microm) of beta-naphthoflavone (bnf) and benzo[a]pyrene (bp)--pahs--and abietic acid (aa) and dehydroabietic acid (dhaa)--ras--and one a ...19979469877
response and recovery of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in the european eel, anguilla anguilla, exposed to fenitrothion.european eel (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. brain acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity was evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h pesticide exposure. results indicated that ache activity in eel brains decreased as the concentration of fenitrothion increased. the pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ache activity of a. anguilla, ranging from > 40% inhibition at a sublethal ...19979469870
inhibition of gill na+,k+-atpase activity in the eel, anguilla anguilla, by fenitrothion.european eels (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations (0.02 and 0.04 mg/liter) in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. gill mg2+- and na+,k+-atpase activities were evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h of pesticide exposure. results indicated that atpase activity in gill tissue decreased as concentration of fenitrothion increased. pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the na+, k+-atpase activity of a. anguilla, ranging from ...19979417854
effects of vagal stimulation on swimbladder blood flow in the european eel anguilla anguilla.the influence of the vagus nerve on swimbladder blood flow in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) was characterized by recording the changes in blood flow rate and blood pressure following stimulation of the vagus nerve. after electrical stimulation, blood flow in the swimbladder artery increased from 0.9 ml min-1 to 2.1 ml min-1. video recordings of small vessels on the caudal side of the rete mirabile revealed an increase in erythrocyte velocity combined with a small vasodilation. this effect ...19979364021
ph-dependent proton secretion in cultured swim bladder gas gland cells.the ph dependence of acid production and of acid release has been analyzed in cultured gas gland cells of the european eel using a cytosensor microphysiometer. total acid release of gas gland cells showed an optimum at ph 7.4-7.6, with only a minor reduction at acidic (ph 7.0) as well as at alkaline ph (ph 8.0). the acid production was largely dependent on the availability of extracellular glucose and was almost completely abolished if glucose was replaced by succinate, alanine, or even pyruvate ...19979374815
response and recovery of acethylcholinesterase activity in the european eel anguilla anguilla exposed to fenitrothion.european eel (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. muscle acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity was evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 and 96 hours pesticide exposure. results showed that ache activity in eel muscle tissue decreased as concentration of fenitrothion increased. pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ache activity of a. anguilla ranging from > 35% inhibition at sublethal co ...19979350079
liver energy metabolism of anguilla anguilla after exposure to fenitrothion.this paper deals with the effect of fenitrothion (0.04 mg/liter) on the energy metabolism of the european eel, anguilla anguilla, and its recovery from intoxication. various parameters such as glycogen, lactate, proteins, total lipids, and glucose in eel liver and blood were analyzed after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, and 96 h of fenitrothion exposure. subsequently, the fish were allowed recovery periods of 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, and 192 h in clean water, and the same parameters were evalu ...19989756704
distribution, characterization, and growth hormone-releasing activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the european eel, anguilla anguilla* * this work was supported by grants from inserm u-413, the conseil supérieur de la pêche, and the conseil régional de haute-normandie. 199828200229
heterogeneity of eel thyrotropin beta mrnas is due to a minisatellite in the 3' untranslated region of the gene.the aim of this study was to determine the causes of the high heterogeneity, in the number and the length, of the thyrotropin (tsh) beta mrna in the european eel. northern blot analysis showed that removal of the poly(a) tail did not affect this heterogeneity. pcr amplification on reverse-transcribed pituitary rnas (rt) showed the main source of heterogeneity to be a highly variable region in the 3' untranslated region (utr). pcr amplification of the 3' utr from rts and genomic dnas demonstrated ...19989714823
hydrogen ion titrations of the anodic and cathodic haemoglobin components of the european eel anguilla anguilla.h+ titrations were conducted on the separated haemoglobin components of eel anguilla anguilla in both the oxygenated and deoxygenated states. in anodic haemoglobin, the addition of gtp, and to a lesser extent c1-, increased the magnitude of the haldane effect and shifted its maximum value into the in vivo ph range. of the 22 histidine residues in the anodic component, only approximately seven were titratable, presumably the beta-chain residues at positions 41, 97, 109 and 146 (helical positions ...19989698585
tyrosine hydroxylase in the european eel (anguilla anguilla): cdna cloning, brain distribution, and phylogenetic analysis.we report the isolation of a full-length eel tyrosine hydroxylase (th) cdna that is characterized by a long 3' untranslated region and by a diversity restricted to the 3' end owing to the differential use of three polyadenylation signals. the longest eel th mrna was distinctive in the presence of four pentameric elements (auuua) in the au-rich 3' noncoding region. such a diversity could provide the basis of posttranscriptional or translational regulation of eel th gene expression. comparison of ...19989681435
long-term inhibitory effects of somatostatin and insulin-like growth factor 1 on growth hormone release by serum-free primary culture of pituitary cells from european eel (anguilla anguilla).to investigate the ability of hypothalamic and peripheral factors to directly regulate growth hormone (gh) release in a primitive teleost, the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.), we used primary cultures of dispersed pituitary cells. when cultured for 12 days in a serum-free medium, pituitary cells continuously released large amounts of gh, which exceeded the initial cellular content. somatotropin-release inhibiting hormone (srih-14) dose-dependently inhibited gh release (ec50 0.75 nm) up to a ...19989641611
switch in rod opsin gene expression in the european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.).the rod photoreceptors of the european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.), alter their wavelength of maximum sensitivity (lambda max) from c.a. 523 nm to c.a. 482 nm at maturation, a switch involving the synthesis of a new visual pigment protein (opsin) that is inserted into the outer segments of existing rods. we artificially induced the switch in rod opsin production by the administration of hormones, and monitored the switch at the level of mrna accumulation using radiolabelled oligonuleotides that ...19989633112
in vivo inhibition of ache activity in the european eel anguilla anguilla exposed to technical grade fenitrothion.european eel (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations in a continuous flow-through system for 4 days. plasma acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity was evaluated after 2, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 and 96 h pesticide exposure. ache activity in the plasma of the eel decreased as concentration of fenitrothion increased. pesticide induced significant inhibitory effects on the ache activity of a. anguilla ranging from 51% inhibition at sublethal concentration of 0.02 pp ...19989827055
cu uptake, metabolism and elimination in fed and starved european eels (anguilla anguilla) during adaptation to water-borne cu exposure.64cu accumulation and total cu concentrations were measured in gill filaments, plasma, liver and bile of fed and starved european eels (anguilla anguilla) during 28 days of exposure to 12 and 94 micrograms cu l-1. branchial cu uptake was found to be 0.03 and 0.13 microgram cu g gill filament-1 h-1 at 12 and 94 micrograms cu l-1, respectively, throughout 28 days of cu exposure. at least during exposure to 94 micrograms cu l-1, the basolateral membrane seemed to be the rate limiting step for branc ...19989827044
dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in vertebrate (carp and eel) retinae: cloning, sequencing and comparison of five d1-like and three d2-like receptors.eight dopamine receptor-like cdna clones were isolated from the carp (cyprinus carpio) retina and four dopamine receptor-like cdna clones were isolated from the european eel (anguilla anguilla) retina. these cdna clones show high sequence and structural homology to the known dopamine receptor subtypes. the sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis revealed that five subtypes (d1a3, d1a4, d1b, d1c and d1x) in the carp retina and four subtypes (d1a1, d1a2, d1b and d1c) in the eel retina are d1 ...19989826915
pesticide toxicokinetics in fish: accumulation and elimination.bioaccumulation of fenitrothion in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) was studied using two sublethal concentrations of this pesticide in a flow-through test system. the pesticide concentrations used were one-tenth (0.002 ppm) and one-fifth (0.04 ppm) the 96-h lc50 of fenitrothion in this species. steady state was reached early (2 h) when the animals were exposed to 0.02 ppm of toxicant, and after 48 h when the animals were exposed to 0.04 ppm. toxicokinetic parameters for fenitrothion in eel ...19989799575
insulin-like growth factor-i stimulates gonadotrophin production from eel pituitary cells: a possible metabolic signal for induction of puberty.insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i has been suggested as a potential signal linking growth and puberty in mammals. using the juvenile european eel as a model, we employed a long-term, serum-free primary culture of pituitary cells to study the direct effect of igf-i on gonadotrophin (gth-ii=lh) production. igf-i increased both cell content and release of gth-ii in a time- and dose-dependent manner. igf-i and igf-ii had similar potencies but insulin was 100-fold less effective, suggesting the impl ...19989795340
adenylyl cyclase activity and glucose release from the liver of the european eel, anguilla anguilla.the properties of adenylyl cyclase (ac) in liver membranes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the involvement of camp in glucose release from isolated hepatocytes in response to catecholamines were studied. basal enzyme activity seemed essentially unaffected by gtp, while a biphasic response to increasing nucleotide concentrations was obtained in the presence of epinephrine. eel liver ac was dose-dependently stimulated by guanosine 5'-o-(3-thiotriphosphate) and inhibited by guanosine 5' ...19989791074
localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the central nervous system of the european eel anguilla anguilla: stimulatory effect of pacap on gh secretion. 19989928053
genetic variation of the european eel (anguilla anguilla)the genetic population structure of the european eel anguilla anguilla l. was investigated by sequencing the mitochondrial d-loop region of 55 eels caught at different european locations. in total, 51 haplotypes were identified. pairwise genetic distances ranged from 0% to 6.33% with an average value +/- sd of 3.01% +/- 1.18%, indicating little dna differentiation among the european eel population. none of the node bifurcations of the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was strongly supported, su ...19989892716
sublethal bioconcentration of fenitrothion in the blood and brain of the european eel. 19989595200
studies on the eel sperm flagellum. 2. the kinematics of normal motility.the sperm flagellum of anguilla anguilla lacks outer dynein arms, radial spokes and central structures. its characteristic motion has been obtained by studying cells swimming perpendicularly against, but not adhering to, the coverslip. the flagellum generates a sinistrally helical wave of rising, then falling, amplitude. the frequency of the wave, which can exceed 70 hz, is inversely related to its maximum amplitude. as a reaction to the torque, the entire cell rolls (spins) in the opposite dire ...19989519904
uptake and elimination kinetics of a pesticide in the liver of the european eel.this study was undertaken to determine the bioconcentration-elimination process of fenitrothion in the liver of the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the animals were exposed to two sublethal fenitrothion concentrations corresponding to 1/5 and 1/10 of lc50 96-h in a flow-through test system. uptake kinetics were determined from liver burdens measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, 56, 72 and 96 hours exposure. after pesticide exposure, animals were transferred to clean water for 72 hours. fenitrothion elimin ...19989491569
distribution and prevalence of anguillicola crassus (nematoda) in eels anguilla anguilla of the rivers rhine and naab, germany.over a period of 2 yr eels were collected at several sites along the river rhine as well as from adjacent waters and examined for anguillicola crassus in the swimbladder. additionally eels were collected once from a site on the river naab (danube system). all eels were searched for both juvenile and adult stages of a. crassus, revealing prevalences of 80% in eels from the river rhine and 39% in eels from the river naab. the mean intensities were 5.6 and 7.7, respectively. with respect to the pre ...19989676253
impact of low water temperature on the development of anguillicola crassus in the final host anguilla anguilla.the effect of low water temperatures on the development and viability of larval and adult anguillicola crassus (nematoda) in the final host anguilla anguilla was studied. european eels were experimentally infected with a. crassus and then maintained for 4 mo at 4, 9, 10, and 19 degrees c. larval development showed a temperature-dependent pattern and was significantly retarded at low temperatures. third-stage larvae survived a 4 mo period at 4 degrees c without being affected, although they were ...19989722403
distribution, characterization, and growth hormone-releasing activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the european eel, anguilla anguilla.the complementary dna encoding pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (pacap) has been cloned from two species of teleost fishes, the sockeye salmon and the thai catfish, and the amino acid sequence of pacap has been determined in another teleost, the stargazer. however, to date, the detailed distribution of pacap immunoreactivity has never been investigated in the fish brain. in the present study, we have determined the localization of pacap-immunoreactive neurons in the central ner ...19989751513
redescription of rhabdochona anguillae (nematoda: rhabdochonidae), a parasite of eel, anguilla anguilla, in europe.the nematode rhabdochona anguillae spaul, 1927, a specific intestinal parasite of the european eel, anguilla anguilla (l.), is redescribed and illustrated from specimens collected from eels of the sousa river, northern portugal (prevalence 20%, intensity 2-13). the species is characterized by the presence of 14 anterior teeth in the prostom, small non-bifurcate deirids, absence of lateral preanal papillae, by the length (0.460-0.660 and 0.130-0.150 mm) and the shape of spicules, fairly large (0. ...19989805785
different putative neuromodulators are present in the nerves which distribute to the teleost skeletal muscle.the presence of putative neuromodulators in the nerve fibres was investigated in white skeletal muscle of two teleost fish not taxonomically correlated and showing different patterns of innervation (multiple versus focal innervation). cryostat sections of epaxial, hypaxial and adductor mandibulae (am) muscles of sparus aurata and anguilla anguilla were stained histochemically for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph)-diaphorase. other sections were used for indirect immunoh ...19989810486
radiodiagnostic method for studying swimbladder inflammation caused by anguillicola crassus (nematoda: dracunculoidea).the nematode anguillicola crassus appeared in europe about 15 yr ago, and has subsequently become recognised as a cause of major pathological lesions in the swimbladder of the european eel anguilla anguilla. the radiographic method reported in this paper showed be a useful complement to diagnostic methods that have so far been based exclusively on fish dissection. using this method, the infection of the swimbladder and the severity of its pathological changes can be assessed in a reliable manner ...19989828409
heterogeneity among isolates of vibrio vulnificus recovered from eels (anguilla anguilla) in denmark.the findings of this study demonstrate that vibrio vulnificus isolates recovered from diseased eels in denmark are heterogeneous as shown by o serovars, capsule types, ribotyping, phage typing, and plasmid profiling. the study includes 85 v. vulnificus isolates isolated from the gills, intestinal contents, mucus, spleen, and kidneys of eels during five disease outbreaks on two danish eel farms from 1995 to 1997, along with a collection of 12 v. vulnificus reference strains. the results showed th ...19989835548
composition and diversity of helminth communities in eels anguilla anguilla in the river tiber: long-term changes and comparison with insular europemost studies of helminth communities in the european eel anguilla anguilla have been undertaken in the british isles, and there are very few analyses of community composition and structure from continental europe. to fill this gap and test the hypothesis that helminth communities in freshwater eels in the british isles are not typical of those of continental europe, helminth communities of eels in the river tiber below rome were analysed by season using data collected in 1980 and new data from 1 ...19989858625
metabolic studies on eel (anguilla anguilla l.) hepatocytes in primary culture: effect of 17 beta-estradiol and growth hormone.previous studies demonstrated that native and recombinant growth hormone from mammalian and fish species potentiate the estrogenic induction of vitellogenin synthesis by cultured eel hepatocytes. in the present study, the metabolic competence (respiratory activity and estradiol catabolism) of cultured hepatocytes and their functional capacity to synthesize a specific protein, vitellogenin, in the presence of estradiol and/or bovine growth hormone was investigated. in addition, we examined the po ...19989883567
amphibians and larvae of aquatic insects as new paratenic hosts of anguillicola crassus (nematoda: dracunculoidea), a swimbladder parasite of eels.amphibians (tadpoles of the frog bombina bombina [l.] and the newt triturus vulgaris [l.]) and aquatic insects (larvae of the alderfly sialis lutaria [l.] [megaloptera], dragonflies sympetrum sanguineum [miller] and coenagrion puella [l.] [odonata], and the caddisfly oligotrichia striati [l.] [trichoptera]) were found to serve as paratenic hosts for the third-stage larvae (l3) of the nematode anguillicola crassus kuwahara, niimi et itagaki, 1974, a pathogenic swimbladder parasite of the eel angu ...19989925427
lectin histochemistry reveals the appearance of m-cells in peyer's patches of scid mice after syngeneic normal bone marrow transplantation.peyer's patches in the intestinal mucosa are characterized by the presence of several lymphatic follicles and interfollicular t-cell regions. luminal antigens are transported across the intestinal epithelium to stimulate the peyer's patch pre-b-cells in the follicles that proliferate and migrate to distant sites. evidence suggests that antigen priming of b-lymphocytes is responsible for the number and location of peyer's patches during postnatal life, but little is known about the histogenesis o ...19989446820
[electron microscopical and ultrahistochemical investigations of erythrocytes from eel (anguilla angiulla) and rainbow-trout (salmo giardneri) under the specific consideration of the segregation apparatus and the marginal band (author's transl)].comparative studies were carried out on the fine structure of the erythrocytes of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) using electron microscopy and ultrahistochemistry. the cell organelles, the marginal band and the segregation apparatus were investigated. the 2 organelles revealed specific differences. an alkaline phosphatase activity was revealed by ultrahistochemistry at the cell surface only, while alternating activities between the nuclear membranes, ...1998104531
tgf-beta3 exists in bony fish.a partial nucleotide sequence of transforming growth factor-beta3 (tgf-beta3) has been isolated from the siberian sturgeon (acipenser baeri), rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and european eel (anguilla anguilla), confirming a ubiquitous presence in the ray-finned (actinopterygian) bony fish. the bony fish tgf-beta3 is highly conserved, with some 83-84% nucleotide identity (coding region) and 90-95% predicted amino acid identity to known homeotherm tgf-beta3's. far lower homologies are apparen ...199910614492
biochemical and genotoxic responses of adult eel (anguilla anguilla l.) to resin acids and pulp mill effluent: laboratory and field experiments.the potential of a secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (bkpme) and resin acids (ras) to induce liver ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (enas) in adult anguilla anguilla l. was investigated in laboratory and field experiments. hepatic health was assessed by measurement of liver alanine transaminase (alt). one single intraperitoneal injection of abietic acid (aa) or dehydroabietic acid (dhaa), at the same molar dose (14.7 micromol/k ...19999931243
cortisol selectively stimulates pituitary gonadotropin beta-subunit in a primitive teleost, anguilla anguilla.it has been suggested that in mammals, glucocorticoids, beside their stress-related inhibitory effects on reproductive function, may also play a stimulatory role at the onset of puberty. using the juvenile female eel as a model, we investigated the potential stimulatory role of cortisol (f) on pituitary gonadotropin (gth-ii). gth-ii levels were measured by ria, and messenger rna (mrna) levels for alpha- and gth-ii beta-subunits were determined by dot blot using homologous probes. f treatment inc ...199910067848
isolation and characterization of vibrio parahaemolyticus causing infection in iberian toothcarp aphanius iberus.high mortality among laboratory cultured iberian toothcarp aphanius iberus occurred in february 1997 in valencia (spain). the main signs of the disease were external haemorrhage and tail rot. bacteria isolated from internal organs of infected fish were biochemically homogeneous and identified as vibrio parahaemolyticus. the bacteria were haemolytic against erythrocytes from eel anguilla anguilla, amberjack seriola dumerili, toothcarp a. iberus and humans, and were kanagawa-phenomenon-negative. i ...199910073316
density-dependent effects on anguillicola crassus (nematoda) within its european eel definitive host.density-dependent effects on adult and larval stages of the introduced nematode parasite anguillicola crassus in the european eel definitive host were examined in the laboratory in naturally infected fish, and in field samples. the effect of adult nematode subpopulations on larval development over time and the effect of increasing adult intensity on the gravid female subpopulations were investigated. at high adult subpopulations the movement of larvae from the swimbladder wall into the swimbladd ...199910205805
characterization by enzyme electrophoresis of specimens of the genus helicometra (trematoda, opecoelidae) from fish caught off the coast of northwest spain.species within the genus helicometra are difficult to distinguish on morphological grounds alone, and are best discriminated with the aid of biochemical techniques. in the work reported here, the electrophoretic mobility of malate dehydrogenase isoenzyme of the mdh-1 locus was used to characterize 375 individuals of helicometra obtained from various teleost species (anguilla anguilla, conger conger, gobius niger or ciliata mustela) caught off the coast of northwest spain. the results suggest tha ...199910229945
evidence that corticotropin-releasing hormone acts as a growth hormone-releasing factor in a primitive teleost, the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the inhibitory control of growth hormone (gh) release by somatostatin (srih) has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. in contrast, the neuropeptides involved in the stimulatory control of gh vary according to species and/or physiological situations. we investigated the direct pituitary regulation of gh release in a primitive teleost, the european eel (anguilla anguilla l.) at the juvenile stage. short-term serum-free primary cultures of dispersed pituitary cells were used, and gh rele ...199910320566
differentiation of helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay.plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 irish clinical isolates of helicobacter pylori and the type strain nctc 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: anguilla anguilla (aaa), lotus tetragonolobus (lotus a), and ulex europaeus i (uea i), specific for alpha-l-fucose; solanum tuberosum (sta) and triticum vulgaris (wga), specific for beta-n-acetylglucosamine; glycine max ...199910325361
experimental studies on lead accumulation in the eel-specific endoparasites anguillicola crassus (nematoda) and paratenuisentis ambiguus (acanthocephala) as compared with their host, anguilla anguilla.the effect of salinity and the mode of application (oral versus aqueous) on the lead accumulation in different tissues of the fish host eel (anguilla anguilla) and its parasites anguillicola crassus (nematoda) and paratenuisentis ambiguus (acanthocephala) was investigated. waterborne as well as dietary lead exposure caused an increase in the metal levels of different eel tissues and the parasites. the mode of lead application had a significant influence on the distribution of lead in the fish ti ...199910398769
osmotic equilibrium and elastic properties of eel intestinal vesicles.changes in volume of intestinal brush border membrane vesicles of the european eel anguilla anguilla were measured as vesicles were exposed to media with different osmotic pressures. preparing the vesicles in media of low osmotic pressure allowed the effects of a small hydrostatic pressure to become a significant factor in the osmotic equilibration. by applying laplace's law to relate pressure and volume and assuming a linear relation between membrane tension and area expansion, we estimate an i ...199910489428
contents of several inorganic substances in european eel infected and uninfected by anguillicola crassus (nematoda).the content of 5 macroelements and 5 microelements were analyzed using the atomic absorption method in muscle samples of european eels infected and uninfected by anguillicola crasus. the mean contents of these substances in infected eels were statistically highly significantly lower in ca, p, fe, mn, but only statistically significantly lower in na, mg, zn and cu as compared to uninfected fishes. these differences are discussed in relation to hematophagus feeding and pathogenity of the parasite.199910494503
richness and diversity of parasite communities in european eels anguilla anguilla of the river rhine, germany, with special reference to helminth parasites.a total of 121 european eels (anguilla anguilla) from 2 sampling sites on the river rhine were investigated in respect of their parasite communities. special attention was given to the swim bladders, intestines, gills and fins of the fish. twelve different parasite species were found to live in and on the eels. data from each sampling site were kept separate. parasites found in descending order of prevalence were: anguillicola crassus, trypanosoma granulosum, myxobolus sp., paratenuisentis ambig ...199910503258
levels of synthetic musks; bromocyclene and pcbs in eel (anguilla anguilla) and pcbs in sediment samples from some waters of berlin/germany.the purpose of this study was to identify firstly the extent of contamination both of the aquatic biota and of sediments and secondly any regional differences in the concentrations of these compounds. in 1996, polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs, including their coplanar congeners) were measured in 58 eel and 50 sediment samples. furthermore, the veterinary pharmacetical bromocyclene and the nitro musks were determined in 84 (1995) and 122 (1996) eel samples. polycyclic musk fragrances were addition ...199910520489
an enhanced humoral immune response against the swimbladder nematode, anguillicola crassus, in the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, compared with the european eel, a. anguilla.the humoral immune response in the two eel species, anguilla japonica and anguilla anguilla against two fractions of antigens in anguillicola crassus were studied. within species, both eel species showed significantly elevated titres compared with controls when immunized with antigens from anguillicola crassus. in interspecific comparison, anguilla japonica showed significantly elevated titres in comparison with anguilla anguilla. immunization of anguilla anguilla caused a significantly decrease ...199910526415
fucose in alpha(1-6)-linkage regulates proliferation and histogenesis in reaggregated retinal spheroids of the chick embryo.we have used the lectin from aleuria aurantia (aal) which is highly specific for alpha(1-6)-linked fucose, to examine its effect on chicken retinogenesis in a reaggregation culture system. when dispersed cells of the embryonic chick retina are reaggregated to form histotypic retinospheroids, aal elicits strong inhibition of spheroid growth. the action of aal is specific, since its effect is dose-dependent, saturable, and inhibited by an excess of fucose. fucosidase treatment entirely abolishes r ...199910536033
metallothionein and heavy metals in brown trout (salmo trutta) and european eel (anguilla anguilla): a comparative study.the levels and the cellular distribution of heavy metals, and the extent by which the metals binds to metallothionein (mt) in brown trout (salmo trutta) and european eel (anguilla anguilla), were analyzed in order to assess the natural conditions of mt and heavy metals in these two fish species. there were no differences in heavy metals and mt concentrations between males and females of brown trout in a nonreproductive status and between adult brown trout individuals. brown trout presented highe ...199910571463
the contribution of a pyrethroid insecticide to the massive eel (anguilla anguilla) devastation, in lake balaton, in 1995.in the summer of 1995, 30 tonnes of eel (anguilla anguilla) died in lake balaton, hungary. an investigation was carried out to find the causes of this ecocatastrophe. during this investigation, certain biochemical parameters, i.e. the blood sugar level, the acetylcholinesterase (ache, ec 3.1.1.7), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh, ec 1.1.2.3), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (got, ec 2.6.1.1), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (gpt, ec 2.6.1.2) activities in the blood serum of the collected survivin ...199910574437
pcdds/pcdfs and coplanar pcbs in eels (anguilla anguilla) from different areas of the rivers havel and oder in the state of brandenburg (germany).in 1996 forty-nine eels were caught from different locations along the rivers oder (hohenwutzen and schwedt) and from 11 locations along the havel river. they were analysed for pcdds/pcdfs and the coplanar pcbs (pcb 77, pcb 126, pcb 169). their contribution to 2,3,7,8-tcdd equivalents were estimated. in case of pcdds/pcdfs these amounted between 1.8 and 15.2 pg/g fat (mean 6.1 pg/g; median 5.2 pg/g), in case of coplanar pcbs between 2.4 and 170.5 pg/g fat (mean 47.7 pg/g; median 36.1 pg/g). lake ...199910901658
development of anguillicola crassus (dracunculoidea, anguillicolidae) in experimentally infected balearic congers ariosoma balearicum (anguilloidea, congridae).the development of anguillicola crassus in experimentally infected ariosoma balearicum (anguilloidea, congridae) kept in seawater was studied in the laboratory. in parallel trials the effect of water salinity on the development of larval a. crassus in european eels anguilla anguilla was also investigated using eels kept in seawater of a salinity of 34 per thousand. both eel species were orally inoculated with l3 larvae of a. crassus and then maintained for up to 3 mo at 18 degrees c in seawater. ...199911407407
chloride channels in the eel intestinepatches of freshly isolated epithelial cells from eel anguilla anguilla intestine bathed by the same solution on both sides in the cell-attached configuration had conductances of 57.0+/-1.8 ps (for positive voltages) and 13.3+/-0.7 ps (for negative voltages) (means +/- s.e.m., n=25). electrical activity was spontaneous in the cell-attached configuration, but was frequently lost after excision. in inside-out patches, channel activity was restored by strong hyperpolarization (-150 mv for 5 s) or d ...19999841893
exo-rhodopsin: a novel rhodopsin expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland.the zebrafish, a useful animal model for genetic studies, has a photosensitive pineal gland, which has an endogenous circadian pacemaker entrained to environmental light-dark cycles [g.m. cahill, brain res. 708 (1996) 177-181]. although pinopsin has been found in the pineal glands of birds and reptiles, the molecular identity responsible for fish pineal photosensitivity remains unclear. this study reports identification of a novel opsin gene expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland. the deduced a ...199910581404
effects of acetylcholine, serotonin and noradrenalin on ion transport in the middle and posterior part of anguilla anguilla intestine.the effects of acetylcholine analogues, serotonin and catecholamines on ion transport were studied in both the middle and the posterior intestine of anguilla anguilla, mounted in an ussing chamber, with the aim of understanding whether these regulators affect different mechanisms in the different tracts. in the middle intestine, acetylcholine analogues and serotonin decreased the serosa negative transepithelial potential and short-circuit current without altering the transepithelial resistance; ...199910549139
random amplified polymorphic dna analysis of eel genome.eel family is a huge one, in which many kinds of eels especially some migratory eels, bear strong resemblance to each other, and are therefore difficult to be identified. in this study 29 random primers were used to make rapd analysis for japanese eel (anguilla japonica), european eel (anguilla anguilla) and pike eel (muraenesox cinereus). and totally 299 fragments were counted. shared or specific fragments were counted and genetic similarity or genetic distance were calculated. the genetic simi ...199910520604
effects of sea water and stanniectomy on branchial ca(2+) handling and drinking rate in eel (anguilla anguilla l.).we examined the effects of seawater adaptation and extirpation of the stannius corpuscles on branchial ca(2+) flows, gill plasma membrane ca(2+) transporters and drinking rate of european eels, anguilla anguilla. transepithelial ca(2+) inflow in the gills increased 2 weeks after transfer of the eels from fresh water to sea water and after stanniectomy. neither of these treatments changed the membrane density or the affinity of the ca(2+)-extrusion mechanisms (ca(2+)-atpase and na(+)/ca(2+)-excha ...199910460737
pharmacokinetic and depletion studies of sarafloxacin after oral administration to eel (anguilla anguilla).the pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin applied by oral gavage at a dose of 15 mg/kg b.w. was studied in eel (anguilla anguilla) at water temperature of 24 degrees c. sarafloxacin levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with a quantitation limit of 0.07 microg/ml or gram. the time to peak plasma concentration, tmax, was 12 hr and peak concentration, cmax, was 2.64 microg/ml. the absorption rate constant (k(a)) was 0.23 hr(-1) (r=0.996). the drug disposition curve after t ...199910379934
a kinematic comparison of forward and backward swimming in the eel anguilla anguillain addition to forward undulatory swimming, eels (and some other elongated swimmers) can swim backwards in a similar way. we compared the kinematics (wave speed, cycle frequency, amplitude, local bending and estimated muscle strain) of forward and backward swimming in the european eel anguilla anguilla. both swimming modes are characterised by a wave of undulation that travels over the body in the direction opposite to that of swimming. we observe two major kinematic differences. first, the slop ...199910229697
localization of carbonic anhydrase in swimbladder of european eel (anguilla anguilla) and perch (perca fluviatilis).the distribution of carbonic anhydrase in swimbladder tissue and especially in gas gland cells of the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the perch (perca fluviatilis) was analysed using histochemical staining according to hansson (1967), with modifications proposed by riddersträle (1991). while in the european eel, gas gland cells are distributed as a single layered epithelium over the whole secretory part of the swimbladder, the gas gland of the perch consists of a compact, richly vascularize ...199910090334
vasodilation of swimbladder vessels in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide, adenosine and protonsthe effects of &bgr;-adrenergic stimulation, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip), adenosine, the nitric oxide (no)-releasing agent sodium nitroprusside and of metabolic end-products of gas gland cell metabolism on swimbladder blood flow were investigated using saline- or blood-perfused swimbladder preparations of the freshwater european eel anguilla anguilla. while &bgr;-adrenergic vasodilation was not detectable, a bolus injection of adenosine (100 microl, 10(-)7 mol l-1) and application of ...199910085273
cortisol selectively stimulates pituitary gonadotropin β-subunit in a primitive teleost, anguilla anguilla. 199928200866
thiobencarb toxicity and plasma ache inhibition in the european eel.the acute toxicity of the herbicide thiobencarb (s-4-chlorobenzyl diethylthiocarbamate) was determined for the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours median lethal concentrations (lc50) were 25.7, 21.7, 17.0 and 13.2 mg/l, respectively. fish were also exposed to a sublethal thiobencarb concentration (1/60 lc50-96 hr = 0.22 mg/l) during 96 hours in a flow-through system and then an elimination period of 192 hours in clean water was allowed. eels were removed and blood sampl ...199910048205
swimbladder gas gland cells of the european eel cultured in a superfusion system.swimbladder gas gland cells are polar epithelial cells which release acidic metabolites through the membranes of an extensive basolateral labyrinth, and secret surfactant via exocytosis at apical membranes. we have developed a method to establish primary cell cultures of gas gland cells in order to establish a model system for physiological analysis of gas gland cell function in vitro. isolated gas gland cells attach to collagen s coated surfaces. cells cultured in collagen s coated petri dishes ...200011264950
catalytic properties of cyp1a isoforms in the liver of an agnathan (lampetra fluviatilis) and two species of teleost (pleuronectes flesus, anguilla anguilla).the catalytic activity of cyp1a isoforms and the effect of mammalian cyp1a-specific inhibitors in liver s9 fractions were studied in an agnathan (river lamprey, lampetra fluviatilis, 30-33 cm) and in two species of teleost fish (european flounder, pleuronectes flesus, 11-18 cm and common eel, anguilla anguilla, 31-48 cm). ethoxyresorufin o-deethylation (erod), caffeine n-demethylation/c-oxidation and phenacetin o-deethylation (pod) activity increased 3-4-fold in flounders and 17-46-fold in eels, ...200011790342
a nose-to-nose comparison of the physiological effects of exposure to ionic silver versus silver chloride in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) and the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).physiological mechanisms of silver toxicity (as silver nitrate) to the sensitive rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) (96 h lc50: 10.2 µg silver l(-1), in soft, low chloride water) and the more tolerant european eel (anguilla anguilla)(96 h lc50: 34.4 µg silver l(-1), in the same water) were investigated during acute exposure to silver, using concentrations varying from 3 to 22 µg silver l(-1). silver was present either predominantly in the form of ionic silver, or in the form of silver chloride ...200010686336
single-dose pharmacokinetics of flumequine in the eel (anguilla anguilla) after intravascular, oral and bath administration.knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs to combat bacterial infections in the european eel (anguilla anguilla) is limited. one antimicrobial agent likely to be effective is flumequine. the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of flumequine in european eels in fresh water. flumequine was administered to eels (anguilla anguilla) intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, and as a bath treatment at a dose of 10 mg/l water fo ...200011110105
in vitro reactivity of ventral aorta to acetylcholine and noradrenaline in yellow freshwater eel (anguilla anguilla l.) acclimatized to 10.1 mpa hydrostatic pressure.we examined in vitro vascular reactivity of eels previously acclimatized to 10.1 mpa hydrostatic pressure (hp) for 21 days. the isometric tension developed by ventral aortic rings was measured at atmospheric pressure. dose-response curves for either acetylcholine (ach) or noradrenaline (na), as well as contractions evoked by 80 mm k+, were compared with time-matched experiments conducted on rings obtained from control eels. results showed that neither the optimal tension nor the maximal force of ...200011100938
neurotransmitters and putative neuromodulators in the gut of anguilla anguilla (l.). localizations in the enteric nervous and endocrine systems.the gut of silver eels (anguilla anguilla l.) was investigated in order to describe both the cholinergic and adrenergic intramural innervations, and the localization of possible accessory neuromediators. histochemical reactions for the demonstration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form-(nadph-)diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase (achease) were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical testing of tyrosine hydroxylase, met-enkephalin, substance p, calcitonin gene-relate ...200011095101
protective effects of prostaglandins in the isolated gastric mucosa of the eel, anguilla anguilla.the protective effect of endogenous prostaglandins on the fish gastric mucosa was evaluated by studying the effect of indomethacin and aspirin, known cyclooxigenase inhibitors, on the mucosal ulceration in the isolated gastric sacs of anguilla anguilla. gastric sacs devoid of muscle layers were incubated in the presence of indomethacin (10(-4) mol x l(-1)) or aspirin (10(-4) mol x l(-1)) in different experimental conditions. both the antiinflammatory drugs produced ulcers, but the effects were m ...200011083517
carotenoid content in anguilla anguilla (l.) individuals undertaking spawning migration.the authors investigated the carotenoid content in different parts of anguilla anguilla (l.) undertaking spawning migration, in spring, summer and autumn. by means of column and thin-layer chromatography, the following carotenoids were found to be present: beta-carotene, epsilon-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, neothxanthin, lutein, tunaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide, 3'-hydroxyechincnone, canthaxanthin, idoxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, alpha-doradexanthin, beta-doradexanthin and astaxanthin. in t ...200011080910
isolation and characterization of novel glycoproteins from fish epidermal mucus: correlation between their pore-forming properties and their antibacterial activities.in fish, a layer of mucus covers the external body surface contributing therefore, among other important biological functions, to the defense system of fish. the prevention of colonization by aquatic parasites, bacteria and fungi is mediated both by immune system compounds (igm, lysozyme, etc.) and by antibacterial peptides and polypeptides. we have recently shown that only the hydrophobic components of crude epidermal mucus of fresh water and sea water fish exhibit strong pore-forming propertie ...200011030587
the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier: unexpected increased activity in starved silver eels.the tricarboxylate carrier was purified to homogeneity from liver mitochondria of european eel at the silver and the yellow stage and functionally reconstituted into liposomes. unexpectedly, the molecular activity of the tricarboxylate carrier obtained from silver eel was about twofold higher than that of the same protein from yellow eel, although eels at the silver stage stop feeding. parallel changes were found in the activities of the lipogenic enzymes in silver eels. this suggests a function ...200011027565
improvement in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in the freshwater eel acclimated to 10.1 mpa hydrostatic pressure.previous studies have suggested that the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in the freshwater eel (anguilla anguilla) is increased after acclimation to high hydrostatic pressure. analysis at atmospheric pressure of the respiratory chain complexes showed that, after 21 days at 10.1 mpa, the activity of complex ii was decreased to approximately 50 % (p<0.01) of the control value and that cytochrome c oxidase (complex iv) activity was significantly increased to 149 % of the control value (p<0. ...200010976038
light and electron microscopy of the bulbus arteriosus of the european eel (anguilla anguilla).the bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish acts as an elastic reservoir that dilates during ventricular systole to store a large part of the cardiac stroke volume. despite its functional importance, the knowledge of the structure of the bulbus wall is still fragmentary. we have undertaken a series of studies in order to establish a general morphological plan of the teleost bulbus. the bulbus arteriosus of the european eel is studied here by means of conventional light, and transmission and scanning e ...200010971042
expression of a duplicate na,k-atpase beta(1)-isoform in the european eel (anguilla anguilla).recent studies on teleost fish have suggested that their genomes have undergone ancient polyploidization events resulting in the duplication of the genome. a duplicate copy of the na,k-atpase beta(1)-isoform (called beta(233)) has been identified in the european eel (anguilla anguilla). the beta(233)-isoform shares high levels of nucleotide (74.8%) and amino acid (69.9%) homology with the eel beta(1)-subunit as well as other vertebrate beta(1)-sequences. compared with the widely expressed beta(1 ...200010896885
effect of the pesticide deltamethrin on the mauthner cells of lake balaton fish.deltamethrin, a synthetic pesticide [(s)alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1r)-cis-3-(2.2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dim ethylcyclopropane-carboxylate] used for extermination of mosquitoes on the shores of lake balaton, has been found to induce severe impairments of the nervous system of several lake balaton fish, such as carp (cyprinus carpio), goldfish (carassius auratus gibelis bloch), eel (anguilla anguilla) and wels (silurus glanis). it has been shown that deltamethrin, in a concentration of 1 microgram/l ...200010894124
glucocorticoid receptors in the euryhaline teleost anguilla anguilla.to determine the importance of glucocorticoids in the salt water adaptation of european yellow eel we have evaluated the concentration, affinity and physical properties of glucocorticoid receptors (gr) in gill from both sea water- (sw) and freshwater-adapted (fw) animals. using ligand binding techniques we demonstrated that high affinity gr were present in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions obtained from whole gill. isoelectric focusing (ief) of branchial gr indicated the presence of two disti ...200010854712
slow muscle function of pacific bonito (sarda chiliensis) during steady swimming.the pacific bonito, sarda chiliensis, is anatomically intermediate between mackerel and tuna. the specialisations exhibited by tuna are present in the bonito, but to a lesser degree. slow-twitch muscle strain and activity patterns were determined during steady swimming (tailbeat frequency 1.2-3.2 hz) at four locations on the body of sarda chiliensis using sonomicrometry and electromyography. both strain and the phase of electromygraphic activity were independent of tailbeat frequency. the strain ...200010851117
allozyme analysis of two polymorphic enzymes in a natural population of lecithochirium musculus.genetic variability among 112 individuals of lecithochirium musculus from anguilla anguilla from northwestern spain was examined using allozyme analysis. starch-gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the genetic variation in two polymorphic enzymes, glucose phosphate isomerase (gpi) and phosphoglucomutase (pgm). the banding patterns obtained for gpi were consistent with a dimeric structure for this enzyme and with single-locus control. the inferred genotype frequencies did not significantly ...200010836516
cholinesterase activity and hematological parameters as biomarkers of sublethal molinate exposure in anguilla anguilla.cholinesterase (che) activity was measured in plasma, whole blood [using 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and 2-pds as chromophores], brain, and whole eyes of anguilla anguilla exposed to a sublethal concentration of 11.15 mg/l (one-third of the 96-h lc(50)) of the carbamate herbicide molinate. che activity was evaluated after 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of pesticide exposure. results indicated that che activity in eel tissues decreased as time of exposure increased, especially in eel blood. eels ...200010805997
alterations on ache activity of the fish anguilla anguilla as response to herbicide-contaminated water.the inhibition of both total and specific acetylcholinesterase activities was measured in the whole eyes of the yellow eel anguilla anguilla after exposure to the carbamate thiobencarb. in vivo assays were conducted under a constant flow-through system of thiobencarb-contaminated water (1/60 lc(50) 96 h=0.22 ppm for 96 h) followed by a recovery period in clean water (192 h more). the results indicated a measurable level of ache activity on eyes of control eels, which resulted in a sensitive indi ...200010805994
role of glutathione in thiobencarb resistance in the european eel anguilla anguilla.glutathione-dependent defense against xenobiotic toxicity is a multifaceted phenomenon that has been well characterized in mammals. in the present study, eels of species anguilla anguilla were exposed to 15 ppm of the herbicide thiobencarb (s-4-chlorobenzyl diethylthiocarbamate) for 96 h. eels exposed to the pesticide were grouped in 24-h intervals according to their time of death, while surviving intoxicated eels constituted another group (live animals). glutathione content (gsx, gsh, gssg) was ...200010805993
inhibition of eel enzymatic activities by cadmium.the aim of the present work was to study the in vitro effect of cadmium on enzymes, such as intestinal and branchial carbonic anhydrase (ca) and na(+)-k(+)-atpase which play a key role in salt- and osmoregulation and acid-base balance in the teleost fish, anguilla anguilla. carbonic anhydrase activities in gill and intestinal homogenates were significantly inhibited by cdcl(2), the gill ca being more sensitive to the heavy metal (ic(50) for the branchial ca=9.97+/-1.03x10(-6) m, ic(50) for the i ...200010794837
organochlorine residues in european eel (anguilla anguilla), crucian carp (carassius carassius) and catfish (ictalurus nebulosus) from vaccarès lagoon (french national nature reserve of camargue) - effects on some physiological parameters.european eels (anguilla anguilla), crucian carps (carassius carassius) and catfish (ictalurus nebulosus) were collected in three coastal locations of the vaccarès lagoon (french national nature reserve of camargue). the purpose of this paper is to report results of the first biomonitoring investigation in fish living in this protected coastal wetland. residues of organochlorine (oc) contaminants (i.e. sigmapcbs, gammahch, hcb, dieldrin, pp'-dde) were determined in hepatic and muscular tissues, i ...200010794830
distribution of the mrna encoding the four dopamine d(1) receptor subtypes in the brain of the european eel (anguilla anguilla): comparative approach to the function of d(1) receptors in vertebrates.four subtypes of d(1) dopamine receptors are expressed in the brain of the european eel (anguilla anguilla), an elopomorph teleost. to correlate this molecular multiplicity with specific localisation and functions, the distribution of the d(1) receptor transcripts was analysed by in situ hybridisation. the four d(1) receptor transcripts exhibit largely overlapping expression territories. in telencephalon, they are found in the olfactory bulb and the dorsal telencephalon (except its lateral part) ...200010723008
characterisation of the h(+)/peptide cotransporter of eel intestinal brush-border membranes.h(+)/peptide cotransport in brush-border membrane vesicles (bbmvs) from eel (anguilla anguilla) intestine was studied by measuring d-[(3)h]-phenylalanyl-l-alanine uptake and by monitoring peptide-dependent intravesicular acidification using the ph-sensitive dye acridine orange. d-[(3)h]-phenylalanyl-l-alanine influx was greatly stimulated by an inside-negative membrane potential and enhanced by an inwardly directed h(+) gradient. in parallel, vesicular h(+) influx was significantly increased in ...200010976035
humoral immune response of european eel anguilla anguilla experimentally infected with anguillicola crassus.a humoral immune response of the european eel anguilla anguilla elicited by an experimental infection was demonstrated for the first time against the swimbladder nematode anguillicola crassus. eels were experimentally infected once or repeatedly and the antibody response was observed over a period of 325 d. specific antibodies against a. crassus in the peripheral blood of the eels were measured using an elisa and the immunoblot technique. anti-a. crassus antibodies were first observed 8 wk post ...200010986646
trichodina sp. (ciliophora: peritrichida) in eel anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in denmark: host-parasite relations.farmed eel cultured in recirculation systems in denmark were found infected by trichodina jadranica raabe, 1958. associations between parasite abundance and fish size was examined in 2 different production systems. in one system, stocked with relatively well-nourished eels (3 to 31 g), most of the parasites (66%) were found on the dorsal part on the skin and relatively few were found on the gills (approx. 8%). the infection level was significantly positively correlated both with fish weight and ...200011023254
environmental contaminants and biochemical response in eel exposed to po river water.groups of eels (anguilla anguilla) were exposed to po river water under control conditions at "la casella" fluvial hydrobiology station for 30-day periods between november and may. at the end of the exposure period, fish were sacrificed and cytochrome p4501a was evaluated in liver microsomes using both catalytic (erod) and semiquantitative immunodetection (elisa) assays. at the same time, water samples were taken for chemical analyses of pcbs, pahs and pesticides. eel was chosen as bio-indicator ...200011057681
swim bladder gas gland cells produce surfactant: in vivo and in culture.electron microscopical examination of gas gland cells of the physostome european eel (anguilla anguilla) and of the physoclist perch (perca fluviatilis) revealed the presence of significant numbers of lamellar bodies, which are known to be involved in surfactant secretion. in the perch, in which the gas gland is a compact structure and gas gland cells are connected to the swim bladder lumen via small canals, lamellar bodies were also found in flattened cells forming the swim bladder epithelium. ...200011080102
richness and diversity of intestinal metazoan communities in brown trout salmo trutta compared to those of eels anguilla anguilla in their european heartlands.the hypothesis that intestinal helminth communities in freshwater brown trout are dissimilar in composition and structure to those in the european eel was tested by an analysis of component communities from 72 localities and of infracommunities from 34 localities in the british isles and norway. derived indices were then compared with published data from eels. composition of helminth communities differed considerably between the two hosts as a group of 4 species occurred commonly in trout and so ...200011085225
evaluation of an elisa and immunoblotting for studying the humoral immune response in anguillicola crassus infected european eel anguilla anguilla.the applicability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of anguillicolosis in feral eels was examined using a crude antigen preparation from the body wall of adult anguillicola crassus. the screening consisted of samples from 100 feral european eels anguilla anguilla. as a reference the actual status of infection was determined by dissection of the eels' swim-bladders. the elisa results were compared with a background value calculated from the results obtained from 43 ...200011129379
effectiveness of different vaccine formulations against vibriosis caused by vibrio vulnificus serovar e (biotype 2) in european eels anguilla anguilla.vibriosis due to vibrio vulnificus serovar e (biotype 2) is one of the main causes of mortality in european eels cultured in europe. the main objective of this study was to develop a vaccine and a vaccination procedure against this pathogen. with this aim, we tested several vaccine formulations (inactivated whole-cells with and without toxoids--inactivated extracellular products--from capsulated and uncapsulated strains, attenuated live vaccines and purified lipopolysaccharide [lps]) on eels mai ...200011145457
development of hepatic cyp1a and blood vitellogenin in eel (anguilla anguilla) for use as biomarkers in the thames estuary, uk.the potential of eel (anguilla anguilla) as a monitoring species for the thames estuary, uk, was examined. hepatic cytochrome p4501a [7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity] and blood vitellogenin (western analysis) were investigated as biomarkers of exposure to, respectively, organic contaminants and to contaminants showing estrogenic activity. hepatic microsomal erod activities in a. anguilla from seven sites in the thames estuary in may 1998 varied three-fold (111 +/- 24 to 355 +/- 42 ...200011460720
experimental infections of farmed eels with different trypanosoma granulosum life-cycle stages and investigation of pleomorphism.trypanosoma granulosum, a flagellate protozoon commonly found in the blood of the european eel anguilla anguilla, was injected experimentally into uninfected eels purchased from a local farm. in order to investigate the infectivity of different stages in the life cycle, trypanosomes from various sources were used for inoculation. infectivity was greatly reduced in in vitro culture stages inoculated at 20 c. isolated bloodstream stages injected into groups of animals held at 12 and 20 c could be ...200010701564
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