[research on morphological genetic marker of honeybee (apis melli fera ligustica) in royal jelly production performance].the lengths of hypopharyngeal glands (hg) from the left and right side were determined in 19 workers of honeybee(apis mellifera ligustica). there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in length between the left and the right in one worker's hypopharyngeal gland. three hundred and thirty workers were collected from eleven colonies of "znd no.1" italian honeybee(apis mellifera ligustica) respectively. head weight, body weight, ratio between head weight and body weight,bursa number and length of ...200315639958
semiparametric approach to characterize unique gene expression trajectories across time.a semiparametric approach was used to identify groups of cdnas and genes with distinct expression profiles across time and overcome the limitations of clustering to identify groups. the semiparametric approach allows the generalization of mixtures of distributions while making no specific parametric assumptions about the distribution of the hidden heterogeneity of the cdnas. the semiparametric approach was applied to study gene expression in the brains of apis mellifera ligustica honey bees rais ...200616970825
east learns from west: asiatic honeybees can understand dance language of european honeybees.the honeybee waggle dance, through which foragers advertise the existence and location of a food source to their hive mates, is acknowledged as the only known form of symbolic communication in an invertebrate. however, the suggestion, that different species of honeybee might possess distinct 'dialects' of the waggle dance, remains controversial. furthermore, it remains unclear whether different species of honeybee can learn from and communicate with each other. this study reports experiments usi ...200818523550
identification of dna-pk in the arthropods. evidence for the ancient ancestry of vertebrate non-homologous end-joining.cellular life depends upon the preservation and transmission of genetic material. double stranded dna breaks (dsbs) cause catastrophic gene loss in cell division and must be promptly and accurately repaired. in eukaryotes dsbs may be repaired by either non-homologous end-joining (nhej), single strand annealing or homologous recombination (hr). vertebrate nhej has been shown to depend upon the dna-dependent protein kinase (dna-pk) consisting of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (pi 3)-kinase like (pikk) ...200414697757
[effect of habitat and interspecific competition on apis cerana cerana colony distribution].habitat change and interspecific competition were the main factors affecting, apis cerana cerana colony distribution among wannan and wanxi dabie mountainous areas, jianghuai area and huaibei plain. wannan and wanxi dabie mountainous areas were the ideal places for apis cerana cerana' habitation and propogation, in which, there were integrated natural vegetation, fine ecological condition, abundant nectariferous plants, and apis cerana cerana had large colony size, wide distribution, high densit ...200312920900
methyl parathion modifies foraging behaviour in honeybees (apis mellifera).we examined the effects of sublethal doses of an organophosphorus insecticide, methyl parathion (mep), on the foraging behaviour of honeybees (apis mellifera ligustica) in a flight cage. the results revealed that mep modified the frequency of visits to a feeding station to which the bees had previously been trained. a dose of 50 ng per animal elicited an increase in the frequency of visits to the feeder, compared to control animals. a dose of 10 ng, on the other hand, led initially to a decrease ...200516385737
an autopsy approach to bee sting-related deaths.although severe reactions to the sting of the common honey bee (apis mellifera) are a common problem in australia, reported deaths are uncommon, with the estimated mortality varying from one to four persons each year. the following study presents the postmortem findings in three cases of bee sting fatality, including one in which no observable sting was found. an autopsy approach to such cases is detailed. overreporting of bee sting-related deaths may occur due to the inclusion of deaths unrelat ...200212109787
hybrid origins of honeybees from italy (apis mellifera ligustica) and sicily (a. m. sicula).the genetic variability of honeybee populations apis mellifera ligustica, in continental italy, and of a. m. sicula, in sicily, was investigated using nuclear (microsatellite) and mitochondrial markers. six populations (236 individual bees) and 17 populations (664 colonies) were, respectively, analysed using eight microsatellite loci and drai restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of the cytochrome oxidase i (coi)-cytochrome oxidase ii (coii) region. microsatellite loci globally confirm ...200010886654
oxygen consumption in the foraging honeybee depends on the reward rate at the food source.oxygen consumption of the honeybee apis mellifera ligustica was measured as a function of the flow rate supply of sucrose solution at an automatic feeder located inside a respirometric chamber. trained bees freely entered the respirometric chamber and collected the sucrose solution supplied. the mean value of the o2 consumption rate per visit increased with the sucrose flow rate, and for a given flow rate, with increasing locomotor activity. however, when no locomotor activity was displayed, o2 ...19979051905
new allozyme variability in italian honey workers of the honey bee, apis mellifera ligustica, from italy were assayed for enzyme polymorphism using a variety of electrophoretic conditions. three polymorphic enzyme systems are described, two of which, malic enzyme and an esterase, were previously unknown in indigenous a. m. ligustica. in addition, a new allozyme for the mdh locus is reported.19853980973
the co-i and co-ii region of honeybee mitochondrial dna: evidence for variation in insect mitochondrial evolutionary rates.the sequence of a region of honeybee (apis mellifera ligustica) mitochondrial dna, which contains the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunits i and ii (co-i and co-ii) and inferred genes for trna(asp), trna(leu)uur, trna(lys), and trna(trp), is presented. the region includes the segment previously identified as incurring a length increase in some other bee strains, including africanized bees. the sequence information of this study and of that by vlasak et al. shows that several shifts of trna ge ...19892559293
genetic study of the aggressiveness of two subspecies of apis mellifera in brazil. iv. number of stings in the gloves of the are analyzed on an aspect of aggressiveness in workers from colonies of africanized bees (apis mellifera adansonii), italian bees (apis mellifera ligustica), their f1 hybrids, and backcrosses of the f1 to the parental stocks (rothenbuhler method). the segregation values (3:1) in the backcrosses to the africanized stock and nonsegregation in the backcrosses to the italian stock suggest the existence of two pairs of genes (f1/f1; f2/f2 in the italian bees and f1/f1; f2/f2 in the africanized b ...19751169057
alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in apis mellifera.a polymorphic system of adh isozymes is described in the honeybee apis mellifera. three and six different electrophoretic patterns were found, respectively, in drone and worker pupae analysis. the data indicate that the adh isozymes are controlled by three alleles, adh-1(1), adh-1(2), and adh-1(3). the frequency of the adh-1 alleles is different in two analyzed subspecies, apis mellifera adansonii (african bees) and apis mellifera ligustica (italian bees). in the african bees, the frequencies ar ...1977869899
microsatellite analysis of royal jelly producing traits of italian honeybee (apis mellifera liguatica).genetic variations at 10 microsatellite loci were surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular characteristics of three different honeybee (apis mellifera l.) populations from italy and china, i. e., native italian (ee), chinese-italian (eb) and selected high royal jelly producing bees (ea). a total of 96 alleles,an average of 9.6 alleles per locus,were scored in ee,eb and ea bees at 10 loci. out of which 48 (5%) were different. this indicated a high degree of polymorphism ...200516252698
the flight physiology of reproductives of africanized, european, and hybrid honeybees (apis mellifera).neotropical african honeybees (apis mellifera scutellata), in the process of spreading throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the americas, hybridize with and mostly replace european honeybees (primarily apis mellifera mellifera and apis mellifera ligustica). to help understand this process, we studied the effect of lineage (african, european, or hybrid) on the flight physiology of honeybee reproductives. flight metabolic rates were higher in queens and drones of african lineage than in ...200515778935
cloning and characterization analysis of the genes encoding precursor of mast cell degranulating peptide from 2 honeybee and 3 wasp species.the precursors of mast cell degranulating peptide (mcdp) genes were amplified by rt-pcr from the total rna of venom gland of two honeybee species, apis mellifera ligustica, apis cerana cerana, and three wasp species, vespa magnifica, vespa velutina nigrothorax and polistes hebraeus, respectively. their pcr products were ligated into pgem t-easy vector and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed. the length of five fragments was the same, it was 341 bp containing an orf of 153 bp coding the precur ...200314577379
order parameters from image analysis: a honeycomb example.honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (pdf) and radial distribution function (rdf), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the debye-waller factor (dwf) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by apis mellifera ligustica. the pdfs and rdfs are fit with a series of gaussian curves. we characterize the order in the h ...200818633584
[spring propagation and size dynamics characteristics of two kinds of bee populations in anhui province].systematical observations and researches were conducted on the population size dynamics of apis mellifera ligustica spi. and apis cerana cerana feb. in wanzhong, wanxi and wannan mountainous area in anhui province in 1997-1999. the results showed that the bee population size was influenced by climate and flower fertility, which was higher in spring and autumn, and lower in summer and winter. the propagation and renewal of a. mellifera in autumn were quicker than those of a. cerana cerana, while ...200212561176
hypertrehalosaemic peptides in the honeybee (apis mellifera): purification, identification and function.the corpora cardiaca (cc) of the italian race (including also the africanised variety) of the honeybee (apis mellifera ligustica) contain approximately 3 pmol of a hypertrehalosaemic peptide. this peptide is identical in structure to the adipokinetic hormone (akh) found in manduca sexta, mas-akh. the cc of the dark european race of the honeybee (apis mellifera carnica) contain no detectable mas-akh or any other adipokinetic/hypertrehalosaemic peptide. this is the first report of the occurrence o ...199912770350
population genetics of commercial and feral honey bees in western australia.due to the introduction of exotic honey bee (apis mellifera l.) diseases in the eastern states, the borders of the state of western australia were closed to the import of bees for breeding and other purposes > 25 yr ago. to provide genetically improved stock for the industry, a closed population breeding program was established that now provides stock for the majority of western australian beekeepers. given concerns that inbreeding may have resulted from the closed population breeding structure, ...200818459388
honeybee (apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. this study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. more than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2d electrophoresis gels. sixty-two proteins were significantly ch ...201021172355
[relationships of bee population fluctuation and distribution with natural environment in anhui province].in 2002 to approximately 2004, an investigation was made on the bee population dynamics and its relationships with the ecological environment in four ecological regions of anhui province. the results indicated that in the mountainous areas of south and west anhui, there were 46 and 37 species of nectariferous plants, and the distribution density of apis cerena cerena population was 2.01 and 1.95 colony x km(-2), respectively. in jianghuai area and huaibei plain, there were 17 and 12 species of n ...200617066704
effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee apis mellifera ligustica.bifenthrin and deltamethrin have been widely used as pesticides in agriculture and forestry and are becoming an increasing risk to honeybees. the honeybee, apis mellifera ligustica, is widely recognized as a beneficial insect of agronomic, ecological, and scientific importance. it is important to understand what effects these chemicals have on bees. effects of two pesticides at sublethal concentrations on fecundity, growth, and development of honeybees were examined with the feeding method for a ...201020821489
wasp hawking induces endothermic heat production in guard bees.when vespine wasps, vespa velutina lepeletier (hymenoptera: vespidae), hawk (capture) bees at their nest entrances alerted and poised guards of apis cerana cerana f. and apis mellifera ligustica spinola (hymenoptera: apidae) have average thoracic temperatures slightly above 24° c. many additional worker bees of a. cerana, but not a. mellifera, are recruited to augment the guard bee cohort and begin wing-shimmering and body-rocking, and the average thoracic temperature rises to 29.8 ± 1.6° c. if ...201021073346
temporal analysis of the honey bee microbiome reveals four novel viruses and seasonal prevalence of known viruses, nosema, and crithidia.honey bees (apis mellifera) play a critical role in global food production as pollinators of numerous crops. recently, honey bee populations in the united states, canada, and europe have suffered an unexplained increase in annual losses due to a phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder (ccd). epidemiological analysis of ccd is confounded by a relative dearth of bee pathogen field studies. to identify what constitutes an abnormal pathophysiological condition in a honey bee colony, it is criti ...201121687739
negative correlation between nosema ceranae spore loads and deformed wing virus infection levels in adult honey bee workers.interactions between pathogens might contribute to honey bee colony losses. here we investigated if there is an association between the microsporidian nosema ceranae and the deformed wing virus (dwv) in different body sections of individual honey bee workers (apis mellifera ligustica) under exclusion of the vector varroa destructor. our data provide correlational evidence for antagonistic interactions between the two pathogens in the midgut of the bees.201121939664
royal jelly proteome comparison between a. mellifera ligustica and a. cerana this study, we compared royal jelly (rj) produced by apis mellifera ligustica and apis cerana cerana in production, protein profiles, and abundances using proteomic approaches. the rj proteome was displayed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2dge), and proteins were identified using maldi-tof ms and lc-chip/esi-qtof ms. differences in the rj proteome between the two bee species were validated using western-blot analysis. rj production by a. cerana cerana (3.21 +/- 0.43 g) is significa ...201020307072
changes in the metabolic rate of the foraging honeybee: effect of the carried weight or of the reward rate?the metabolic rate of free flying honeybees (apis mellifera ligustica) foraging on a multiple automatic feeder was measured in complete absence of perturbation. each time the sucrose flow rate was doubled, the metabolic rate increased by 18.2 +/- 2.0% (14.7 microl co2 min(-1) and final crop load by 25.1 +/- 2.4% (7.04 microl). the possibility that the heavier load carried by the bees caused the increase in the metabolic rate was analyzed in detail. it was found that, for the same weight in the c ...200010757245
metabolic rate during foraging in the honeybee.the metabolic rate of free-flying honeybees, apis mellifera ligustica, was determined by means of a novel respirometric device that allowed measurement of co2 produced by bees foraging under controlled reward at an artificial food source. metabolic rate increased with reward (sugar flow rate) at the food source. in addition, there was no clear-cut dependence of metabolic rate on load carried during the visit, neither as crop load nor as supplementary weights attached to the thorax. the hypothesi ...19921401337
varying degrees of apis mellifera ligustica introgression in protected populations of the black honeybee, apis mellifera mellifera, in northwest europe.the natural distribution of honeybee subspecies in europe has been significantly affected by human activities during the last century. non-native subspecies of honeybees have been introduced and propagated, so that native black honeybee (apis mellifera mellifera) populations lost their identity by gene-flow or went extinct. after previous studies investigated the remaining gene-pools of native honeybees in france and spain, we here assess the genetic composition of eight northwest european popul ...200515643954
biochemical polymorphisms in bees (apis mellifera ligustica). 19695791728
population structure and mdh-1 locus variation in apis mellifera a wide area of the piedmont of italy the apiaries of apis mellifera ligustica spin., (the italian bee) show homogeneous allelic frequency distributions at the mdh-1 locus, the only one known to be polymorphic in worker bees. this can be explained by considering that an apiary is not a closed genetic system and that among apiaries gene flow is sufficient to overcome the different forces of inbreeding and random genetic drift. nevertheless there is some evidence for partial subdivision because ...19836643985
africanized honeybees are slower learners than their european counterparts.does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of africanized honeybees (apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and european honeybees (apis mellifera ligustica). the range of the africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the european honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as r ...201019904521
task-related chemical analysis of labial gland volatile secretion in worker honeybees (apis mellifera ligustica).chemical analyses revealed that the labial gland complex of worker honeybees possesses a series of hydrocarbons dominated by odd-numbered carbon chain alkanes along with minor amounts of alkenes and branched alkanes. foragers contained significantly more secretion than nurse bees. experiments with bees from colonies induced to have a division of labor independent of age revealed that the differences in the amount of secretion were task, but not age dependent.200111471944
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